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2014-06-01

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HISTORY
UDC 929
O.A. Bolievskaya
Institute of history and international
relations of Southern federal university
Rostov-on-Don, Russia.
kafedra.128@yandex.ru
P.N. WRANGEL’S EDUCATION AT PETER’S SPECIAL SCHOOL IN ROSTOV-ON-DON
[Обучение П.Н. Врангеля в «петровском» реальном училище г. Ростова-на-дону]
It is shown the period of P.N. Wrangle’s life in Rostov-on-Don at the end of the 19th century. This episode of his
biography is not explored enough in history and requires studying in details. At the given historic period P.N. Wrangle
spends his childhood in the south of the Russian Empire. He studied in "Peter’s" special school – an institute with the
varied social and religious structure. As a child, Baron Wrangel had strong will, manifested in strict compliance with
the requirements of the statute. This quality helped him later in the military service in the army of the Russian Empire,
the Armed Forces of South Russia and the Russian army
Key words: Peter Wrangle, Rostov-on-Don, "Peter’s" special school, social structure, religious structure.
Pyotr Wrangel (1878-1928) - a hereditary nobleman Petersburg province. His noble family
of Danish origin has been known since the XI century. [4, p.20]. In historical science is an important figure during the Civil War and the Russian emigration 20s. XX century. Despite the rather
wide interest historians and many studies the life and activities P.N.Vrangelya, many aspects of his
biography require detailed research. One of those little-known moments is during childhood and
adolescence spent in Rostov-on-Don, where the family moved to Wrangel 80th. and lived up to the
mid 90-ies of the XIX century. [14, p.124].
The literature on this issue suggests that the period of pro-residence in Rostov-on-Don illuminated surface. Researchers: M.Burugaev [2] BV Sokolov [16], Venkov, AV Shishoff, [3], AS
Kruchinin [1], V.Zh. Flowers [17] AB Shih rokorad [19] VG Cherkasov George's [18] E. Kroner
[13] indicate only brief CBE Denia about that P.N.Vrangel spent his childhood in Rostov-on-Don,
and was educated in the real school. On these facts the characteristic biographies exhausted. In the
stove Rho-na-Donu father P.N.Vrangelya, Zhukovsky, held a high position. In après le 1893 he became a member of the City Council as a vowel [15]. In addition, N.E.Vrangel was the head of the
insurance company "Ekvitebl" honorary magistrate, a member of the Board of the Water Rescue,
chairman of the South - Russian Society of hunting and was a board member of several coal mining
Rostov-shareholder Societies [14]. In addition to social activities, family Wrangel actively involved
in charity. [4] N.E.Vrangel recalls that his wife enthusiastically Catching-las school, which is based
on equity: it was the first Sunday demon-paid school for adults, with an enrollment of more than
1,000 people. Institution opened at Alexander female primary school [4].
Interestingly attitude N.E.Vrangelya to Rostov-on-Don. He wrote in his memoirs that "... only in one place in the south to create something whole and unique, thanks to the initiative is not foreign and Russian ... This very special, nothing resembling ordinary Russian centers, the city
emerged and grew their own, spontaneously, as the city grows in a free America, but not controlled
Russian officials ... "[4 s.236-237]. Was educated at home P.N.Vrangel with his brother Nicholas
arrived in Rostov "Peter" real school. This school opened September 8, 1873 The name "Peter" had
been approved earlier, on April 30, in honor of the Imperial Order of the 200th anniversary of the
birth of Peter I [6; L.57]. By order of the Ministry of National Education on March 2, 1873 was appointed the first director Yegor Semenovich Kamensky [5; L.39]. During training, the Baron led
P.N.Vrangelya School Master of Moscow University Nikolai Skanadinaki appointed to this post
February 14, 1885 [8; L.2].
Rostov-on-Don "Peter" real school housed in its own premises in which was built specifically for educational purposes urban general-stvom. Classrooms are well covered. For teaching drawing, physics and natural history were meant separate classes [7; L.31]. Technology, fur-nick, physical education, science has also taught in separate classrooms [8; L.5-9]. College consisted of four
lower and two parallel classes [7; L.27]. By 1892, their number was increased. There prep, sixgovernmental foundations and four parallel class, V and VI classes of commercial offices and additional-tive class [7; L.27]. General Division of the auxiliary class transformed from there-isting until this year an additional class of Mechanics and Technical Department on the basis of 4 of the
highest decree, approved September 9, 1888, on behalf of the sovereign-governmental Council on
real schools in 1892 [7; L.27]. This school taught subjects such as the law of God, Russian, German, French, arithmetic, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, geography, history, natural history, physics, accounting, commercial economy, drawing, sketching [9; L.129].
"Peter the Great" real school of the State Treasury is not funding, elk, and contained by a
local urban society, the regional on Zemsky de Lamas Management Committee and collect payment
for the right learning [7; L.29]. Based on the financial report for the 1891-1892 school year, the
maintenance of schools were released funds in the amount of:
1. 25855 rubles. allocated Rostov-on-Don city society.
2. 6000 rubles. from the regional to Zemsky Affairs Management Committee.
3. 19555 rubles. collect fees [7; L.29].
In addition, at school there were four capital: a) in 4000 rubles., Conclude schiesya-in 12%
of the tickets of the local city bank providing him royally approved Scholarship state councilor
I.O.Yanovicha b) 1500 rubles., Pro- conclude in tickets city Bank; interest on this captan, by definition, the school teachers' council, were sent to aid the poor students [7; L.29]. After analyzing these
figures, it can be concluded that the main means of maintaining the school receives from tuition
fees and allocations from the city of Rostov-tion generally. The third most important source of
funds for regional affairs Zemsky Selection Committee. In addition, part of the school's own funds
frames-lyalo to the bank, which allowed to receive interest. Thus, it can be argued that in the distribution of monetary units School was enough on their own. Decisions on these matters are taken at
the meetings of the teachers' council (eg, payment of benefits to poor students and student aid).
The pride of the institution was his pedagogical staff. The report on the activities-telnosti
school director noted that teachers belong to different prep-Educators who have pedagogical tact
and love for the cause [5; L.90]. Teach-ers were P.N.Vrangelya state councilor Buyalsky Vladimir
(Russian) [7; L.135] Emisafev (mathematics), strain (German) Shkitko (drawing), the priest
Timyusevich (Act of God), Konchalovsky (geography and history), Frossard and Kosharite (in
French language) [7; L.35]. This academic institution was a motley conglomeration of students of
different classes and religions. For example, as of January 1, 1894, there were 527 in college students [7; L.36]. Social structure was presented to a broad spectrum. Nobles and officials - including
99 people, representing 18.4% of the children of clerics - 3 students, or 0.5%, children of urban inhabitants - 325 students, or 61.6%, children of rural inhabitants - 69 people or 13% children of foreign nationals - 31 pupil or 5.9% [7; L.36]. For rural inhabitants in the report of the institution given
clarification: the children of peasants - 36 disciples of 6.8% of children of the Cossacks - 24 students, or 4.5%, child soldiers - 9 pupils or 1.7% [7; L.36]. Based on these data, the school was not
popular among the nobility, as the percentage of students was under-dimensional one-fourth of the
total. Student composition is given once or personal estates in different percentages.
Was sufficiently disparate and contingent of pupils in terms of verois-povedaniya. According
to the report, "Petrovsky" real school in general [7; L.27] by religion among students the number of
Orthodox - 393 or 74.5% of the student, Kato faces - 12 students, or 3.2%, Protestants - 14 students,
or 3.2%, Jews - 43 student, or 8.1% and other behaviors student 62 or 11.4% (among other Armenian-Gregorian religion) [7; L.36-37]. The above trend is not an exception, but more than the usual
Nye situation, as in the archive was found school a summary table of birth and composition by reli-
gion. Dating since its inception based on archive-you could not reveal. Estimated time of appearance - the last decade of the XIX century. According to the data on the number of students in Rostov-on-Don "Petrovsky" real school the total number of students was 421 people. Of these, an ethnic Russian - 298 Poles - 11 Jews - 66, other nationalities - 46. On the origin of all the nobles was
62 Th-rights, the clergy - 3, merchants and middle class - 294, the peasantry - 30, other soslo-tions 32 [7; L.12].
Thus, the vast majority, namely, about 50% of persons belonging to the merchant and stingclass burger. These data confirm once again that for the categories of the nobility and clergy this
school was not typical. In this regard, the flow of hereditary baron P.N.Vrangelya would in a real
school-lo exception rather than the rule. This points to the truth of their father N.E.Vrangelya notes
in his memoirs that the children were given the opportunity to self parking-enforcement search congenial kind of activity [4; P.269]. Can not say that ba-ron PN Wrangel was a successful student. The
basis for this conclusion are the scoring mark in the book performance. For example, in the VI class
main compartment Wrangell successfully mastered the French language, having in all quarters excellent marks [9; L.129]. Russian and German, the law of God, geography and history were assessed on a mark of "good". In other subjects, namely, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, physics of
phi, painting, drawing, performance ranged from poor to satisfy the instrumental-level [9; L.129].
Interestingly, the lowest rate of progress more characteristic of the first academic quarter [9; L.129].
We can assume that given the circumstance, due to summer holidays and entering a difficult period
in the educational activity. Furthermore, in the first quarter Wrangel classes have been omitted
hours at 40 [9; L.129]. It just might help to lag subjects. The result was the consequence of underachievement.
In terms of analysis of the overall success of P.N.Vrangelya in this class can be argued that
the most problematic subject of real school was drawing, in which in the first quarter was exhibited
mark "unsatisfactory". A similar situation could arise in the next quarter, as the scoring in the book
was originally put "2", and then corrected to "3" [9; L.129]. The remaining items in the second
quarter were learned on the positive mark. Despite this, the discipline throughout the school year
was at a high level [9; L.129]. Baron P.N.Vrangelya classmates, according to the lists were Arsen
Alexander (Orthodox tradesman) Bagrov Petr (Orthodox peasant) Biraslavsky Basil (Orthodox
tradesman) Wax-new Stepan (Armenian-Gregorian faith, a nobleman), [9; L.127] Gavrilov VyacheFame (Orthodox, the son of officials), Mikhail Grigoriev (Orthodox, tradesman) Green matte Isaac
(Jew tradesman) [9; L.189] Gurich Jacob (Hebrew, tradesman) Zheltkevich Ivan (Orthodox, the son
of officials), Kogbetliev Alexander (Orthodox, the merchant), Alexander Kozin (Orthodox, son of a
priest) [9; L.129] Kondratiev Mikhail (Orthodox nobleman), Mark Levinson (Jew tradesman),
Nikolaev (Orthodox, burghers-nin), Macedonian Narkiz (Orthodox, tradesman) [9; L.130]
Molukalo Peter (Pravoslav-tion, tradesman) Caves Nicholas (Orthodox, a nobleman), Sarkizov Basil (right-nice, tradesman), Nikolai Popov (Orthodox, tradesman) [9; L.131] Semikomnov EB-genius
(Orthodox, Cossack), Skanavi Dmitry (Orthodox, foreigner) Stesin Zino-tions (name corrected to
Zoellick - a Jew, a tradesman) Filippeo Andrew (Orthodox, burghers-nin) [9; L.132] Fatev Basil
(Orthodox, tradesman) Khodyakov Vladimir (Pravoslav-tion, the merchant), Shearman Benjamin
(Jew merchant) [9; L.133].
1894-1895 academic year was the discharge. In the list name of the main class VI
"Petrovsky Rostov-on-Don real school, graduated from wishing to undergoing test is the name of
P.N.Vrangelya [11; F. 1]. According to the list, Baron received the following marks: the Russian
language - 4, according to the law of God - 4, in German language - 4, of the French language - 5 in
mathematics - 3, physics - 3-term natural history - 4, plotting - 3 draw - 3 [11; F. 1]. Behavior, as
before, was excellent [11; F. 1].
On the basis of academic teachers' council issued a decision on the admission of Baron
P.N.Vrangelya to the finals [11; F. 1]. This checklist signed a co-mission consisting of 8 people.
Rounding out the signature of director of the school [11; F. 1]. It is important that in the statement
of admission to the final tests are only 26 people [11; F. 1]. Accordingly, 100% of the number of
classmates Wrangel got to release.
In 1895, Baron P.N.Vrangel graduated from school. About this event SVR-fies the fact that
the fund is a school certificate of completion of training and of the institution. It states that the document is given additional class 7 student "Petrovsky" Rostov (the Don) realschule Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel, right-glorious religion, born on August 15 that he learned in seven classes on June
8, 1895 [10; L.51]. With excellent behavior and additional tests had success in the law of God - 4,
Russian - 4, German - 4 stories - 3, mate-matic geography - 4, physics - 4 Natural History - 4 drawing - 4 drafting - 3, mathematics, arithmetic, namely - 5, algebra - 4, the application of algebra to
geometry - 4, geo-meters - 4, trigonometry - 4 [10; L.51]. After the list is written by hand
P.N.Vrangelya blur-Kista sloppy handwriting: Evidence for the number 2310 and the birth certificate for the number 205 has received (full entry in the certificate can not be recovered due to the
fact that part of the document is missing) [10; L.51].
Secondary school graduates, according to st.90 statute provides some benefits for admission.
School students, Progymnasiums and real schools, retiring-ing of the institutions before the end of a
full course on the basis of paragraphs 36 and 128 of the Charter of gymnasiums and
Progymnasiums, as well as paragraphs 35, 92 charter schools and the actual articles 64 and 95 of
the Charter of conscription had certain rights. Firstly, while serving military service by lot, students
who have completed a course of class III-grantor completed courses in educational institutions of
the third category. Second, students who completed the course window-IV or V classes for admission to the civil service, if had a right by birth, has not been tested for the production of the first
class of rank-tion. While serving conscription by lot, they enjoy the rights graduated from the
course in educational institutions of the second category, and for admission to military service as a
volunteer of the second category, they must submit a special, for it is the first set, certificate, certification by the teachers' council. Students graduating from the course Chiyah-VI or VII classes for
admission to the civil service, if they had to eligible origin, has not been tested for the production of
the first rank [12; L.62]
Thus, subject only P.N.Vrangel verification tests, as was witnessed by the signature of the
application of appropriate official press in Rho-the stove (the Don) June 1, 1895 [10; L.51]. Therefore, it was reasonable to continue their studies in higher education. On the other hand the certificate has already been written: "Institute of Communications". Therefore, we can assume that in the
Mining Institute Wrangel was not going to, and the choice has already been made directly shortly
before the studio seting. It was found that childhood Baron P.N.Vrangelya held in Rostov
"Petrovsky" real school - school with highly qualified teaching by a team number. During education
Baron was among children of different caste and religious composition of. The training took place
with varying degrees of success. Naib-Lee P.N.Vrangelya were difficult for science and math profile. But despite the difficulties in academic performance, discipline was at the highest level. This
fact suggests that even in childhood Baron Wrangel had an iron will, manifested in strict compliance with the requirements of the statute. This quality in the follow-tion helped him in the military
service in the army of the Russian Empire, the Armed Forces of South Russia and the Russian army.
References
1. White movement. Historical Portraits: L.G. Kornilov, A.I. Denikin, P.N. Vrangel ... / comp.
A.C. Kruchinin. M., 2006.
2. Burugaev M. Lieutenant General Baron Pyotr Wrangel Los Angeles, "Association
pervopohodnikov", 1972.
3. Venkov A.V., Shishoff A.V. White generals. Rostov-on-Don, 1998.
4. Wrangel N.E. Memories From serfdom to the Bolsheviks. M., 2003.
5. SIPA. F.186 Op.1 E.1.
6. SIPA. F.186 .Op.1.d.8.
7. SIPA. F.186 Op.1. d.19.
8. SIPA. F.186.Op.1. d.59
9. GARO. F.186 Op.2.d.37.
10. GARO. F.186. Op.2.d.38.
11. GARO. F.186. Op.2.d.39
12. GARO f.186. op.2.d.42. l.62.
13. Kroner E. White Army, Black Baron: The Life of Peter Wrangel. M., 2011.
14. Murashev A.A. A descendant of Peter the Great Moor // Questions of history. № 6. 2000.
15. Essays activities of Rostov-on-Don City Department for four years 1893-1896gg // SIPA
1897.
16. Sokolov B.V. Wrangell. Moscow, 2009.
17. Tsvetkov V.Zh. Pyotr Wrangel // Questions of history. 1997. №7.
18. Cherkassov St. George V. General Pyotr Wrangel. The Last Knight of the Russian Empire.
M., 2004.
19. Shirokorad A.B. Wrangel missed opportunity. Crimea, Bizerte, Gallipoli. Moscow, 2009.
Литература
1. Белое движение. Исторические портреты: Л.Г. Корнилов, А.И. Деникин, П.Н. Врангель... / сост. A.C. Кручинин. М., 2006.
2. Буругаев М. Генерал-Лейтенант Петр Николаевич барон Врангель Лос-Анджелес,
«Объединение первопоходников», 1972.
3. Венков А.В., Шишов А.В. Белые генералы. Ростов-на-Дону, 1998.
4. Врангель Н.Е. Воспоминания: От крепостного права до большевиков. М., 2003.
5. ГАРО. Ф.186 Оп.1 д.1.
6. ГАРО. Ф.186 .Оп.1.д.8.
7. ГАРО. Ф.186 Оп.1. д.19.
8. ГАРО. Ф.186.Оп.1. д.59..
9. ГАРО. Ф.186 Оп.2.д.37.
10. ГАРО. Ф.186. Оп.2.д.38.
11. ГАРО. Ф.186. Оп.2.д.39
12. ГАРО ф.186. оп.2.д.42. л.62.
13. Кронер Э. Белая армия, Черный барон: жизнь Петра Врангеля. М., 2011.
14. Мурашев А.А. Потомок арапа Петра Великого // Вопросы истории. № 6. 2000.
15. Очерки деятельности Ростовского на Дону Городского управления за четырехлетие
1893-1896гг // ГАРО, 1897.
16. Соколов Б.В. Врангель. М., 2009.
17. Цветков В.Ж. Петр Николаевич Врангель // Вопросы истории. 1997. №7.
18. Черкассов-Георгиевский В.Г. Генерал Петр Николаевич Врангель. Последний рыцарь
Российской империи. М., 2004.
19. Широкорад А.Б. Упущенный шанс Врангеля. Крым, Бизерта, Галлиполи. М., 2009.
December, 2, 2014
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