вход по аккаунту



код для вставки
UDC 94
Z.U. Tsarakhova, M.A. Gutieva
Gorsk state agrarian university
North Osettia-Alania Republic,
[Исторический анализ семейно-брачных отношений]
A historical analysis of the problems of family and marriage is carried out. Family and marriage relations have undergone some changes throughout its history. At the present stage there is a crisis in this sphere. Crisis phenomena and
processes in the family require serious attention of the society and its institutions, changes in attitudes to marriage, fatherhood and motherhood. It is argued that it is a mistake to regard the family as a relatively closed system, having little connection with the surrounding institutions. The family acts as a cultural community of people that binds a certain unity of
life values, views, common position in its relations with society.
Key words: historical analysis, family, marriage, family values.
As a result of the socio-political changes in Russia there was a strain of many cultural and spiritual values, accumulated over the centuries. This process also affected the Russian family. Family the oldest social institution that changes with the development of society - there are new norms, values and patterns of behavior in the field of family relations. In modern conditions has been transformed family life, an increasing number of divorces, many distorted family values. Demographic
crisis in the country has become a matter of national security. That is why today the state is paying
more attention to strengthening the family. October 9, 2007 approved the Concept of demographic
development of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2025, in which a separate section is devoted to the solution of problems to strengthen the family, the revival and preservation of spiritual
and moral traditions of the family.
Family - one of the oldest social institutions that arose much earlier classes, nations, states. Beginning and a form of family life is marriage, is an integral part of human existence, the terms "marriage" and "family" as in everyday speech and in scientific publications, are usually close as reality,
designated these terms are closely related . However, marriage and family - it's not identical, but rather overlapping concepts, since the family can exist without marriage, and marriage without family.
Well-known Russian sociologist, academician VT Lisowski describes marriage as "a social institution, which is a set of social norms that sanction the relationship between men and women, as
well as the system of their mutual obligations and rights that are essential for the functioning of the
family and of life of the family group" [1, p. 62]. Some rules, obligations and rights are legal in nature and are regulated by law. Other rules of marriage are governed by morality, customs, and traditions.
The word "marriage" is derived from the verb "take". It was born in those patriarchal times
when men just "took" the bride - takes her to his house [1, p. 62]. The Laws of the Russian Empire
indicated that the wife must obey her husband, as the head of the family, remain to him in love, respect and unlimited obedience, to give him any gratification and affection "[2].
Currently, relations between spouses are regulated by the Russian legislation on which the
adoption of codes of family and marriage. The state, through law authorizes and supervises the marital relationship. Because of this, marriage is always associated with certain rights and responsibilities
to the society, the state and the family. Our family law declares monogamy (monogamy). The word
"monogamy" is derived from the Greek word "monos" - one and "GAMOS" - marriage means that
each person can only be in one marriage with one person. Monogamy also implies stability, permanence of marriage, which contributes to the creation of normal conditions for family life and upbringing of children [1, p. 67].
The following stages of marriage and family relations
in the history of mankind:
- Promiscuity (universality, heterogeneity) - chaotic, unregulated social relationship between
the sexes, which is characteristic for the earliest stage of development of human society;
- Endogamy - premarital cohabitation form between the sexes within the community, not limited to social prescriptions;
- Exogamy - regulated form of social relations between the sexes with the restriction of sexual
relations between blood relatives.
On the basis of exogamy arose first form of marriage - a group of dual-tribal marriage. As part
of the married men of the same genus have the right to marital relations with all the women of a different kind. Raising children was carried out over the race.
Pairing marriage successor group, has assumed selectivity and duration of the relationship between man and woman kind. Originally basis pairing marriage act only sexual relations and personal
attachment partners. Housekeeping and child rearing has been born, not a married couple. Relationship is determined by the mother's side due to the fact that is difficult to establish paternity. Matriarchy as a way of organizing blood and kinship relations in this case more appropriate to perform the
essential function of reproduction. The development of agriculture and the growth of the productive
forces contributed to the further formation of the family and strengthen its economic independence.
The possibility of parents to feed and educate their own children, increase the stability of sexual relations led to the monogamous family. Strengthens the role of men as breadwinners and women increased responsibility for the upbringing of children. Stability of marital relations to ensure the reliability of paternity. Patriarchy as a form of paternal kinship replaces matriarchy, marking a turn for the
establishment of relations of inequality of spouses by type of domination - subordination of the wife
and the husband headship in the family.
Within the framework of patriarchal relations, there are two types of family - monogamous and
polygamous. Polygamy (polygyny) currently exists mainly in Muslim countries. There is also a polyandrous (polyandry - polyandry) type of family in which the woman occupies a higher position than
her husband.
Thus, the appearance of the currently existing form monogamous family is primarily associated
with the assertion of private property. Monogamy is gradually emerging even when the primitive
communal system, together with the emergence of private property. Monogamous family preceded
steam family. It is one married couple, but was still very fragile, easily revocable as wife and husband. This is due to the fact that children from this marriage were still in the mother's way, steam
family did not have his farm, business unit remained genus. Further division of labor, increased
productivity has led to the fact that the steam family is gradually becoming an independent business
unit of the genus. Rod gives way to a monogamous family. It has already differs substantially from
the previous family. If the first all products obtained were divided equally, the monogamous family
wealth inequality already exists. All the property was owned by her husband - the head of the family.
Influenced the emergence of a new family and cultural development [3].
If at the time the marriage was fixed and still maintain public custom, with the advent of class
society and the state it is fixed, supported and regulated by the rules of law, the state, the church [4].
Monogamy has its own characteristics in the slave, feudal and capitalist societies. For the slave
system characterized by the fact that the monogamous family was mostly family slaveholders; most
slaves had no family, because it was not profitable to their owners. In some countries, the head of the
patriarchal family was undivided master of all its members, had concubines - slaves, that is was actually in polygamy. [3]
In feudal society, the domination of the household head was not so oppressive. Marriages were
estates, determined nobility, origin of bride and groom. The wife was in charge often feudal econo-
my. And the lord, as a rule, has been busy in the service of the King, the Duke and others. Peasant
family was characterized by a deep patriarchalism - undivided power over the head of the family
In the eighteenth century, and even in the early twentieth century. the majority of the North
Caucasian peoples was common family community or large patriarchal family, to keep from primitive society, which numbered from 40 to 100 people, and that is taking place under the influence in
the life of the socio-economic changes began to break up into small families.
Large family mountaineers usually brings together representatives of three generations of several married men living in the same yard and had common lands and cattle. Led a senior family grandfather, father or eldest son, who represented her in a kind and in a rural community, and household and education - boys 7-8 years of age, the girls before marriage - the head of the female half of
the house - the mother or wife of his elder brother [5]. Head of the family had over all members of
unlimited power, as the father of the children, the husband over his wife, brother, sister of [6].
For the first time in the history of the equality of men and women before the law proclaimed
the French Revolution in 1793, when they were introduced by mutual consent of marriage, divorce
system, abolished the distinction between legal and illegal. [7]
In the second half of December 1917 VI Lenin signed a decree "On civil marriage, children,
and on keeping books of civil status" and "divorce". They dealt with the family, children born out of
wedlock, divorce, etc. In September 1918, adopted the first Soviet Code - Code of the RSFSR of acts
of civil status, marital and family status.
The term "crisis" is not decay, and major changes. Changes in the institute of marriage and
family are due to a number of objective socio-economic factors. There is nothing new in the concept
of family crisis is not. To see this, just look at the "Bulletin of Education» (1915.№3), where the article was published by MM Rubinstein's "crisis of the family as a body of education" [8].
Pitirim Sorokin in his article "The crisis of the modern family (sotsiologicheky essay), published in 1916, noted the" weakening "of the union of husband and wife and the union of parents and
children, changing the process of primary socialization and economic characteristics of functions, etc.
However, the forecast Sorokin was optimistic: all discovered "does not lead to the death of a family
at all. The family as a union as the union of spouses and parents and children is likely to remain, but
their form will be different [9].
Between 1920 po1935 year is unique in comparison with 1913, the number of divorces has increased 68 times. The average duration of marriage at divorce was less than five years [1]. In the
1920s. enjoyed great popularity K.Kautskogo idea that with the elimination of commodity production
disappears and the family [10].
AM Kollontai believed that under communism the family will continue; household and educational functions will wither away and will be transferred to the community. According to Kollontai,
as a result of these changes, there will be a new family as a form of communication, men and women,
equal members of a communist society, involving mutual love and fellowship. There will be a belief
in the team as the highest moral legislative beginning [11].
The concept of prominent Soviet sociologist, professor of family A.G.Harcheva declared the
main form of social community in the field of life, which includes not only the financial relations, but
also moral - ethical attitudes. In addition, the thesis developed A.G.Harchev Engels about two kinds
of production and reproduction of immediate life, firmly tied to the reproduction of the human family
("procreation") for the benefit of the functioning of society. [3]
Moscow sociologists and A.I.Antonov S.A.Sorokin in the monograph "The Fate of the family
in the 20th century Russia" claim that the family is able to save and to Russia and the world. Family
influence on the formation of the person, the quality of interpersonal relationships is enormous. This
property of the family for a long time is generally accepted confirmed religion, art, science, finally,
by the history of civilization. But only if - if the family is saved as a social institution whose vocation
is exclusively in the effective discharge of functions by birth, content and socialization of the younger generations [12].
Radical changes in socio-economic conditions and socio-cultural references occurring in recent
years in our country, making certain changes in the structure of the value orientations of young people,
and in the maintenance of marriage and family systems. In the structure of the value orientations of
young people over the years is dominated by the values of a psychological nature: communication, love
and family. Recent studies show that the value of an economic nature, focus on high standards of living
and personal well-being begin a priority in the structure of value orientations, gradually displacing the
value of a psychological nature. The high importance of family life in the structure of the value orientations of youth is preserved, only 2% of survey respondents are guided by celibacy. However, the marriage of young people relates to the achievement of economic independence necessary to create a happy
family, so early marriage is oriented relatively small group of respondents (11%). This reflects the relatively new for our youth subculture focus on rationalization plans in life [1].
Modern family going through a difficult period of transition from the traditional model of family organization to a new, simplified structure of the family, changes of leadership and submission
system, reduced the significance of the traditional functions of the family - the birth and upbringing
of children, the decision purely domestic issues. The family is of particular significance as a psychological "refuge" of man, which is of particular relevance in a systemic crisis in Russia, where life is
replete with stress and excitement.
In modern conditions, where the relationship between the spouses is a crucial factor for the stability of a young family, it is necessary to form and tolerance of different types and kinds of family
among the older generation and among young people themselves. Along with the formation of a new
type of family, there is a rejection of a single model for all its populations. Combination of several
trends happening simultaneously, parallel existence and functioning of several kinds of family relationships.
In rural areas, more often families where several generations live together. This has less to do
with the difficulties in housing, as with a certain way of life. However, in the city and in the village
there are changes in family relations. One of the global trends is the residence of the couple without
registration. Civil marriage is more common among the younger generation than among older, more
likely among urban youth, at least among rural youth.
Breaking the traditional stereotypes against a background of serious socio-economic difficulties, the general destabilization of the way of life that creates a kind of conflict-prone environment of
human existence, reinforcing the instability of the modern family.
In such a situation it is necessary to do the following:
- Development and implementation of practical programs of psycho-pedagogical promote
youth, parents in the stability of family relationships at different stages of the family community;
- Development and implementation of practical programs of social assistance to the family.
- A comprehensive study of the modern family in order to validate the state family assistance
Historical survey conducted shows that it is a mistake to consider the family as a relatively
closed system, having little connection with the surrounding institutions. The family acts as a cultural
community of people who binds a certain unity of life values, views, common position in its relations
with society. Many of crisis phenomena and processes in the family require serious attention from the
society and its institutions, changes in attitudes to marriage, fatherhood and motherhood.
Lisowski V.T. Youth: Love, marriage, family. St. Petersburg, 2003.
Code of Laws of the Russian Empire. SPb., 1857. 10. T. Ch. 1.
Harchev A.G. Marriage and family in the USSR. M., 1979.
Grebennikov I.V. Fundamentals of family life. M., 1991.
Hataev E.E. Folk pedagogy of the North Caucasus. M., 1993.
Studies in the History of Adygea. Maikop. 1957. Volume 1.
Schneider L.B. Family Psychology. M., 2005.
8. Rubinstein M. The crisis of the family as an organ of education // Vestnik education. 1915. №
9. Sorokin P. The crisis of the modern family (sociological survey) // Monthly magazine. 1916.
№ 2-3.
10. Kautsky K. Reproduction and development in nature and society / edited. D.B. Ryazanov. M.,
11. Kollontai A.M. Family and communist state. Communist. 1918.
12. Antonov A., Sorokin. The fate of the family in Russia of the twentieth century. M., 2000.
13. Grekov I.M., Shumenko M.A. Value-normative basis of ethnic culture of North Caucasian
peoples and ethnic migration issue features the South of Russia // Humanities and social and
economic sciences. 2014. № 4.
14. Gutieva M.A. Formation of national labor force as a social base-with Soviet power in the
North Caucasus in 1920-1930. // Humanities and social sciences. 2010. № 6.
15. Gutieva M.A. Indigenization policy staff and especially its implementation in the North Caucasus Mr. 1920-1930-ies. // Humanities and social sciences. 2011. № 1.
16. Ageeva N.A. Social and cultural patterns as an effective means of spiritual WHO-birth family
and society // Humanities and social sciences. 2012. № 3.
Лисовский В.Т. Молодежь: Любовь, брак, семья. СПб, 2003.
Свод Законов Российской Империи. СПб., 1857. Т. 10. Гл. 1.
Харчев А.Г. Брак и семья в СССР. М., 1979.
Гребенников И.В. Основы семейной жизни. М., 1991.
Хатаев Е.Е. Народная педагогика Северного Кавказа. М., 1993.
Очерки истории Адыгеи. Майкоп. 1957. Т. 1.
Шнейдер Л.Б. Семейная психология. М., 2005.
Рубинштейн М.М. Кризис семьи как органа воспитания // Вестник воспитания. 1915. № 3.
Сорокин П. Кризис современной семьи (Социологический очерк) // Ежемесячный журнал. 1916. № 2-3.
10. Каутский К. Размножение и развитие в природе и обществе / Под ред. Д.Б. Рязанова.
М., 1923.
11. Коллонтай А.М. Семья и коммунистическое государство. Коммунист. 1918.
12. Антонов А., Сорокин. Судьба семьи в России ХХ в. М., 2000.
13. Греков И.М., Шуменко М.А. Ценностно-нормативне основы этнической культуры северокавказских народов и проблема особенностей этнической миграции на Юге России
// Гуманитарные и социально-экономические науки. 2014. № 4.
14. Гутиева М.А.Формирование национальных рабочих кадров как социальной базы советской власти на Северном Кавказе в 1920-1930-е гг. // Гуманитарные и социальные науки. 2010. № 6.
15. Гутиева М.А. Политика коренизации кадров и особенности ее реализации на Северном
Кавказе в 1920-1930-е гг. // Гуманитарные и социальные науки. 2011. № 1.
16. Агеева Н.А. Социокультурные образцы как эффективное средство духовного возрождения семьи и общества // Гуманитарные и социальные науки. 2012. № 3.
December, 15, 2014
Размер файла
196 Кб
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа