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UDC 101
M.M. Shubina, P.A. Ponomarev
Institute of service and entrepreneurship
(branch) Don state technical university
Shakhty, Russia
[Понимание общественного устройства посредством философскоантропологических исследований XVIII века]
The aim of the work is to see the device through the Western European public historical and philosophical
sources of the XVIII century, summarizing and updating knowledge of historical and ethnographic knowledge. Namely
the establishment of a variety of patterns of facts, explain the basis for projecting the sequence of historical events and
anticipate their consequences was a prerequisite of renewed interest in the study of human evolution, and
anthropological studies. The article discusses issues related to the philosophical and theoretical reconstruction of the
historical process in the public mind of the XVIII century. It is generalized conclusions regarding the semantic load of
"civilization" and the resolution of its problems through the writings of thinkers study period. It is affected by problems
in the theory of geographical determinism, which was dominant in the Enlightenment, clarified its main findings and
Key words: culture, anthropology, great geographical discoveries, society, philosophy, person.
For Western society XVIII century - a time of establishment of capitalist relations, the
approval of the new bourgeois order, cause and prerequisite which became the great geographical
discoveries XV-XVII centuries., Mastering Europeans almost all parts of the world, the world in
general. The philosophy of the Enlightenment not only to add, clarify certain provisions of the
philosophy of modern times, but also to develop them in accordance with the new historical
conditions. The deep crisis of feudal structures, which was the evidence of worsening sociopolitical conflicts, the desire to understand the essence of the conflict intensified in the
Enlightenment of the XVIII century. interest in the problems of human history, the study of which
was to provide answers to the primary acute contradictions of modernity. The definition of a natural
phenomenon of a set of facts that are the basis clarify the sequence of historical events and
anticipate their consequences, authorized the use of the great historical and ethnographic material
that has accumulated science, since the Age of Discovery [4, p. 78].
It is surprising that for a long time, making voyages of discovery, man has been busy looking
for precious stones and metals, timber and furs, spices and incense, but not the other person. Only
after the Age of Discovery, when the surface of the Earth was basically more or less understood,
researchers became all carefully fasten attention not only to the diversity of nature, but also the type
of culture. Comprehension device educators society is possible in that case, if you start with the
study of human evolution. Therefore, geographical discoveries directed social thought XVIII
century. to return to the question of anthropological knowledge. Europeans had to meet with "live"
material in a variety of other people who were on the unequal stages of cultural development. An
impressive array of new information about primitive culture literally collapsed on the European
scientific thought as a result of the great geographical discoveries. The problem of the existence of
races and their relationship, socio-cultural characteristics of different peoples appear in the works of
the French Enlightenment. They are trying to understand and study the relationship between the Old
and the New World in the context of culture.
You can talk about that before the Enlightenment anthropological knowledge was sketchy,
fragmentary and scattered that anthropology was not comparative. Information about the existence
of other races also have ancient authors, when voiced assumption that geo-climatic conditions of
unequal explain the existence of people with individual characteristics in terms of not only
anthropometric data, but also ethnic culture. This knowledge, of course, was not enough for the
development of comparative anthropology as a science. The Age of Enlightenment - a time of
accumulation of empirical knowledge about the peoples, new theoretical hypotheses in this period,
we almost do not observe. Research experience cultures only accumulates. Lack theory replaced the
variety of assessments. So the phenomenon of primitive savages preferably interpreted through the
prism of an estimation of their moral and religious. The Enlightenment wide ethnographic material
became so foundation for a theory of progressive development of peoples and their cultures [3, p.
Only in the XVIII century. in anthropology, ethnography, philosophy formed the idea that the
social way of life of primitive tribes, their thinking, psychology similar to social order and a sense
of ancient European people, and may be material for the study of both European and world history,
including the history of the peoples far from marching from the primitive state. Gradually matures
the idea that primitive man can not be found in the biblical myth, do not connect it to Adam, and in
the distant tropical jungles of the Americas, Asia and Africa. It is here that primitive people live genuine children of nature, precursors of European civilization.
Similar ideas were expressed by the French explorer-missionary JF Lafitte in his book "The
customs of the American savages compared with the customs of primitive tribes" (1742). Lafite
belongs profound idea that the same action should correspond to the same thinking. However, the
abstractness of this thesis, his straightforward conduct the comparative mapping of cultures has led
to over-Laffitte rapprochement. For example, some beliefs Indians he found traces of Judaism and
Christianity, in the mythology of the Indians - traces of ancient myths, and others. However, the
undoubted merit of the researchers is that he saw in the data source ethnography qualitative
improvement ideas about the nature of the material for the theoretical search common grounds of
national mythologies and religions [6, p. 132].
During the Enlightenment, public opinion was closely connected with the philosophical and
theoretical reconstruction of the historical process. Enlightenment Renaissance inherited a sense of
history and enrich his idea of rationalism and the spirit of progress. Judeo-Christian messianism and
eschatological experience of history on the one hand, and an understanding of educational progress
- on the other, were the historical and cultural contexts of the rise of the linear stage-wise (and then
formational) vision of history. Linearly stadial approach, exploring the invariant properties of stagesimilar companies (in the Enlightenment of the XVIII century. - Due to the progress of reason),
guided by the attainment of universal logic of the historical process (abstracting from the individual,
unique, local, qualitatively unique characteristics of historical communities) and the division of
history into qualitative steps of determining their boundaries [1, p. 225].
Formed in the writings of the Enlightenment linear conceptual model of the historical process
of historical and social progress as a direct reflection of the progress and continuation of the mind,
the human mind requires a term that would have combined the idea of the identity of reason, both in
the political as well as moral and spiritual spheres of society underline the superiority of peoples
have accumulated extensive experience in the political, social, moral, artistic, religious and other
forms of culture. Moreover, this term should reflect not a lot of concrete historical ethnically
diverse societies, something significantly different from each other, and a general historical cultural
boundary separating the upper stage of social development, the stage of rule of reason (as it seemed
to educators), the last stage of historical development from the previous stages of savagery and
barbarism. At this stage in the XVIII century, there is a concept of civilization [2, p. 183].
At this time, the prevailing theory was of geographical determinism, according to which a
person, peoples and cultures seen as a product of the environment. Beginning with the requirements
of F. Voltaire considered when studying "how to grow the nation", territorial and demographic data,
the news of the trade routes and shipping et al., With reflection on the influence of Montesquieu's
climate history of the people, this problem never again left the field of historiography. Commonly
known as a historical science, and among scientists developing civilizational perspective, acquired
the French school "Annals" (t. E. The historians grouped around the journal "Annals of Economic
and Social History, founded by M. Bloch and Lucien Febvre in 1929. ) This school helped to
overcome the "event" of history, tells the story of alternation of historical events, and the creation of
"synthetic" t. e. multidimensional and multifaceted history, which involves many countries and
peoples [1, p. 114].
According to French historian Lucien Febvre "reconstruct the history of the French word"
civilization "really means to reconstruct the stages deepest revolution that has made and through
which passed the French thought of the second half of the XVIII century. and our time "[8, p. 244].
Given to the term value must be countered civilization and "dark ages" of feudalism, civilization
and "unenlightened nations." Since then, one of the dictionary meanings of words retained their
value and enlightening sound, although it is necessary to carry it to the western linguistic context.
Often, in a broad sense this can be seen as another legacy of the ancient world, which was inherent
to oppose their culture, spirituality and the type of political organization over the "barbaric"
customs and the more "savages."
Only in 1819, says the Febvre, the word "civilization" was first used in the plural, which
indicates the beginning of the recognition of diversity and differences in the dispensation of the
civilization of the peoples in antiquity and in modern times [2, p. 186]. In a general sense L.Fevr
gives this definition: "Civilization - a resultant force of the material and the spiritual, intellectual
and religious, in this period of time the consciousness of the people." During the Enlightenment, in
the conditions of existence of a deep chasm between the "top" and "Nizami" feudal social class
hierarchy, the term "civilization" is used in everyday life in the sense of a general level of cultural
development of the individual, his politeness, courtesy, knowledge, norms of behavior, manners,
etiquette . This value is preserved for a long time, but along with them in French and English (the
most advanced for the time) the cultural and historical traditions have developed other meanings of
the word.
Educational way of thinking brings the essence of civilization is only natural properties of
human civilization, reflecting the social substance of value rather than cognitive forms of
consciousness. And so from the very beginning of its existence, the word "civilization characterized
by the presence of a large share of uncertainty values and a strong axiological, evaluative moment:
civilization - a property that a certain level of development or state of society, which is not only
something we clarify the structure of social life, but also allows us to live better, nobler, better and crucially - Luxury and privelegirovanneee than lived or live people of other societies, other stages
of the history (of barbarism and savagery). At the same time civilization - is both a kind of ideal
benchmark for the optimistic estimates of future social development, understanding the prospects of
the individual. But civilization - not just an ideal; she is also a certain duty to universal history.
Civilization - is both a certain mission; carriers of civilization must bear it to those ethnic groups
that are still at the "dawn of history" is not crossed the boundaries of civilization. So the concept of
civilization becomes the basis of the ideology of colonialism [4, c. 68].
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