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UDC 81
A.S. Boutousova, A.N. Buraya
Southern federal university
Rostov-on-Don, Russia
[Вербальные и невербальные средства выражения
эмоциональности в немецком политическом дискурсе]
The article presents the results of the comprehensive pragmatic study of speeches of modern German politicians,
who are the members of the Cabinet of Ministers, both women and men among them. The aim of the study was to
identify typical national verbal and nonverbal means to express emotionality taking into account the gender dimension.
The analysis of emotionality was focused on such basic emotions as anger, joy and sadness. The material for the study
was taken from the press and videos. The choice of the material was determined by the necessity of the
pragmalinguistic contextual analysis of speeches on the one hand, and the video sequence on the other. Different
linguistic levels such as morphological, lexical, syntactical and stylistic were subjected to contextual analysis. The
analysis of nonverbal components of the political speech in this study included the investigation of such elements as
facial expression, gestures and intonation.
Key words: political discourse, pragmalinguistics, verbal, nonverbal, emotionality, body language.
Political rhetoric is the defining political success, helping to shape opinion. Currently, turned
the whole political struggle, carried out through public appearances, where emotionality policy
plays an important role. This fact determines the relevance of the proposed research. This article
presents the results of a study of verbal and non-verbal expressions of emotion in the German
political discourse on the example of the three basic emotions: "anger", "happiness", "sadness". We
considered emotions as a universal phenomenon, and start from the fact that emotion - "open", open
to human experience, regardless of any cultural parameters of a particular ethnic and linguistic
communities [6, c. 234]. In the study of lists of "public" or "basic" emotions, it was found that
almost all psychologists as these emotions are called "joy", "anger", "fear" and "sorrow" [8, p. 110].
It should be noted that the emotion "fear" is not inherent to politicians because it is a sign of
weakness policies [1, p. 65], which is not acceptable for political discourse, especially during the
election campaign [Ibid, p. 66]. Therefore relevant for the research has been basic emotions "anger",
"happiness", "sadness".
In the present study were used common methods of scientific knowledge, namely:
observation, comparison, analysis and synthesis - found application methods and definitional
component analysis.
The authors examined the speech and presentation of four German politicians women and
four German politikov- men, aged 50 to 60 years, members of the Cabinet of Ministers of Germany.
Material research verbal means of expression of emotional interview served as a genre in modern
German newspapers and magazines «Bild», «Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung», «der Spiegel», «die
Zeit», «Deutschland», published in the period from 2006 to 2013. The total volume of the analyzed
text corpus was 300 texts, of which 974 were allocated example, contain an emotional component.
The study of non-verbal means of expression of emotion was involved in video containing
agonal genres of political discourse, namely electoral debates, parliamentary discussion / debate,
public policy debates, TV show, aired from 2006 to 2013. All we have examined 96 videos.
The analysis revealed that in view of the mental peculiarities, namely, self-restraint, the
propensity to self-control, modern German politicians are often used to express strong emotions.
Emotional component in the German political discourse increasingly realized in agonal political
genres mentioned above.
The study of this theme involves identifying the relevant definition of the concept of
"emotional", as in linguistics to date there is no single definition of the term, because of its close
connection with concepts such as expressiveness, emotiveness, estimation. Thus, the delimitation of
the concepts of emotion, estimate and expressive, the latter was definitely as a means of linguistic
expression [4, p. 200]. Thus under the appraised understood component words or expressions,
which gives information about the positive or negative characteristics of objects [5, c. 42]. However,
consideration of expressiveness and Evaluation is not the purpose of the study, these concepts were
introduced to establish a more precise definition of the concept of emotion in order to further its use
in describing the verbal and nonverbal means of expressing emotions "anger", "happiness",
"sadness" in German political discourse. As a result, it was decided by emotion as a psychological
category, to understand the mental state of the individual, his reaction to the events of reality [Ibid,
c. 41], which in turn is relevant for identifying non-verbal means of expression of emotion, and to
consider verbal means of expression of emotion we have introduced such a thing as emotiveness.
Under emotive understand verbal expression of emotions [9, c. 61]. Thus, verbal means in German
political discourse characterized by emotive and non-verbal - emotionality.
In view of the fact that the study conducted by means of expressing emotion in the German
political discourse have been considered by the example of the German male politicians and women
politicians, we have paid attention to such factors as the gender feature of speech, as the men and
women in different ways to express their emotions [7 p. 17]. We noted that this German politicians
- women are more emotional - 65.8%, which is mainly manifested in the use of associative-emotive
lexicon - 10.1% and nominative vocabulary - 9.4%. Men - politicians try to avoid the use of
vocabulary with the semantics of perception of reality at the level of feelings, fear of public seem
sentimental [7, p. 19], the use of associative factor - emotive language in the speech of German men
- politicians is - 8.1%, nominative - 5.5%. We have also been marked by a significantly high
coefficient of emotion on the syntactic level politicians - women who are active in their use of
exclamatory sentences - 8.1%. The study found that among those used verbal means of expression
of emotions "anger", "happiness", "sadness" in the speech of German political figures isolated
morphology - 21.8%, lexical - 34.1%, syntactic - 28.9% and stylistic - 15.9% funds.
And the realization of emotion "anger", "happiness", "sadness" at the morphological level is
mainly through the affixed elements - 58.1% and modal words - 37.4%. We have found that in this
case we are talking mainly about emotions "anger" - 33.2% and "joy" - 18.17%. For example,
consider such affixed elements as diminutive suffix «- chen». As Environment Minister Thomas de
Meze expressed their dissatisfaction in relation to environmental protection mainly young citizens
of the country, said: (1) Diese Jungchen sollen fuer die Verschmutzung bezahlen. [Der Spiegel, №
55 / 20.12.2013, S. 43] From the example (1) can be seen as a neutral colored noun «der Junge» (by
which is meant to appeal to adults), thanks to the suffix -chen, which in this case bears pejorative
connotation, becomes a negative value, while expressing the emotion of "anger." Here is an
example of speech, Frank-Walter Steinmeier. Speaking in an interview for the newspaper «Bild»,
he played football as a child, Frank-Walter Steinmeier uses the noun suffix -chen: (2) So ein
Baerchen war ich in der Kindheit nicht. [Bild, № 14 / 27.03.2010, S. 23] In the example (2)
specified suffix - chen is seen as a diminutive - pet as directed on the child and does not cause
negative emotions, and, as in this example, is used to implementation of emotions "joy".
Emotion "sad" is often realized by modal words - 8.3%. For example: (3) Wir haben unser
Wahlziel leider nicht erreicht und gratulieren der CDU zum Wahlerfolg. [Deutschland 2013, № 15,
S. 46]. In the example (3) Angela Merkel expresses the emotion "sad" about the loss of the SPD
party in the elections, to express this emotion has resorted to the use of modal words «leider».
At the lexical level, these emotions are expressed associative-emotive lexicon - 59.8% (eg, die
Wut - rage) and nominative - 38.6% (eg, der Zorn - anger). With the help of lexical resources in the
speech of German politicians most often expressed emotion "joy" - 39.9%. In a political speech on
the basis of the material studied, to describe the emotions "joy" are used adjectives like gluecklich,
freudig, lustig, froh. For example, the Minister of Economy and Energy, Vice-Chancellor Sigmar
Gabriel told the magazine «Die Zeit» joyfully announces the birth of her daughter, (4) Heute frueh
ist unsere kleine Marie in Magdeburg zur Welt gekommen. Mutter und Tochter geht es bestens. Wir
sind gluecklich! [Die Zeit, № 47 / 10.11.2010, S. 35]. In the example (4), namely: «Wir sind
gluecklich!», You can see the lexical way of expressing emotions "joy" with the adjective
«gluecklich», allowing to convey the emotional state of the speaker.
In the study, it was noted that the main means of expression of these emotions on the syntactic
level are exclamatory sentences - 36.2%, serving to represent emotions "joy" - 16.5% (5) Was für
eine traurige Vision! [Der Spiegel, № 12 / 24.11.2011, S. 16] In the example (5) emotion "anger",
Vice-Chancellor Sigmar Gabriel expressed by exclamation deals and intensifier "Was fuer eine ...".
We found that on the stylistic level for the expression of emotion in the German political
discourse is most commonly used stylistic means such as metaphor - 37%, the comparison - 14.2%,
the irony - 14.8%. In turn, the metaphor is a one of the strongest tools for building discursive worlds
of any political force [2, c. 18]. Metaphors in German political discourse can be found in political
speeches aimed at discrediting the interlocutor: (6) Totengraeber der Energiewende sind Sie!
[Frankfurter allgemeine Zeitung, № 136 / 24.02.2013, S.25] In the example (6) The Minister of
Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, Germany, Barbara Hendricks expresses
outrage, is a derivative of the emotions of "anger" [8, c. 99], using the metaphor of «Totengraeber
der Energiewende», carrying a negative assessment in relation to the actions of the opponent,
chairman of the "Left" Heinz Bierbaum.
During the analysis of empirical data, it was found that German politicians have resorted to
the use of metaphors and speech on the tragic events. (7) Wir verlieren einen wichtigen und
sympathischen Menschen und Politiker und mir liegt ein Schmerz in der Seele. [Der Spiegel, № 5 /
14.08.2009, S. 14]
In the statement the emotion "sad", which is experiencing German Chancellor Angela Merkel
on the death of the chairman of the Social Democratic Party, expressed through metaphors «ein
Schmerz liegt in der Seele», is a mental pain and is characterized by emotion "sad" [Ibid, c . 100].
As mentioned above, a significant source of emotional expression in the German political
speech is a comparison. It is one of the means of expression language that helps policy to express
their views, to give descriptions of objects and events. In comparison, one phenomenon is shown
and evaluated by comparing it with other phenomena. It usually joins unions wie, als and is used to
describe a wide variety of attributes of objects, qualities, actions. (8) Und ich war an diesem Tag
blass wie Milch. [Die Zeit, № 50 / 12.12.2013, S. 23] In the example (8) Angela Merkel in an
interview with «Der Spiegel» talks about his experiences on the day of the tragedy Winnenden,
using the comparison «blass wie Milch» - pale as chalk.
Along with the metaphor, simile German politicians use in their performances ironic utterance,
whose main purpose - to criticize. (9) Niemand ist diskriminiert. Aber niemend hat Arbeit. Ausser
den Gerichten! Operation gelungen - Patient tot! Das versteht Rot- Gruen unter Buerokratieabbau!
[Bild, № 20 / 11.05.2012, S. 19] In the example (9) Interior Minister Thomas de Meze, ironically
«Operation gelungen-Patient tot!», Thus expresses the emotion of "anger" caused outrage at the
disastrous policies Ecologist Party "The Greens" and "left".
In the study of verbal means of expression of emotion in the German political discourse we
conclude that most German politicians have resorted to the use of emotive lexical means - 34.1%,
while expressing mainly emotion "joy" - 13.6% and emotion "sorrow "- 10.9%. Syntactic means is
28.9%, morphological - 21.8%, 15.9% and stilisticheskie- serve primarily for the implementation of
the most frequently expressed by German politicians emotion "anger" - 44.7%.
In addition to verbal means of expression of emotion "anger", "happiness", "sadness" in
German political discourse, demonstrate and non-verbal means of expression, namely gestures,
facial expressions, intonation.
It should be noted that the cultural and national characteristics of the German character,
namely restraint, diplomacy, is a testament to the professional competence of German politicians
and avarice of their gestures [10, c. 22]. Examples of the "emotional stinginess" [3, c. 11] in the
German political discourse, in the use of gestures, is German Chancellor Angela Merkel, which is
characterized by a natural emotional restraint and restraint, as evidenced by repeatedly used
chancellor gesture «Raute der Macht» - «Rhombus power", which is a sign of concentration and
discipline [10, c. 24].
Despite the above indicated restraint politicians, they still characterized by the presence of
the emotional component is expressed by gestures. We noted that German politicians have resorted
to the use of gestures, which are used to express emotions "anger» («mit der Hand auf den Tisch
schlagen» - «beat hand on the table», «die Faust-Wippe» - «swinging fist" , «die Haende vorhalten»
- «hands in front of him», «die Schelle» - «bracket», «der Nadelstichler» - «stinging needle") and
emotions "joy» («die Haende ueber dem Kopf erheben» - «Wag hands over the head »,« die Haende
mit dem Faust erheben »-« hands clenched into a fist »,« Beifall klatschen »-« applaud »,«
aufspringen »-« bounce. "And in the course of the study in the German political discourse was not
detected gestures peculiar to express emotions "sorrow" marked emotion is expressed through facial
expressions and intonation. We found that mimic expressions peculiar to German politicians
universal facial codes. that is, for each specific set of emotions characterized by facial expressions.
We have found that emotion "anger "mimic expression is reflected in the German politicians set of
facial codes, such as: open mouth, wide eyes shifted to the nose eyebrows, vertical creases on the
forehead and nose. In turn, for emotion "sad" is characterized by: a closed mouth, drooping corners
of the lips, shifted to the nose eyebrows. Emotion "joy" is shown in the following set of facial
expressions German politicians: the corners of the lips slightly pulled back and slightly raised,
mouth open at the same time, visible teeth, around the lower eyelid and the corners of his eyes
visible fine wrinkles.
The study also identified such intonation means serving in the German political discourse
caused us to express emotions such as: melody, tempo, timbre. We found that the combination of
the data and the degree of manifestation of intonation in speech means German politicians can
judge the presence of one of the emotions we have. We found that the intonation means of
expressing emotion "anger" in the speech of German politicians are increasing the intensity, sharp
declines or rises intonation; for emotions "joy" are high pitched, high-rise intonation on the stressed
syllable, the accelerated pace of utterance. In turn, for the expression of emotion "sad" is
characterized by: a low level tone, slow, intermittent rate of speech.
Thus, despite the fact that German politicians have expressed strong emotions implicitly, as a
manifestation of uncontrolled emotions can harm the image of politics, the German political
discourse is still characterized by the emotional component, which is implemented by politicians in
both verbal and non-verbal means.
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