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2014-06-15

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LINGUISTICS
UDC 81
N.S. Gutorova
Southern federal university
Rostov-on-Don, Russia
tysik2802@yandex.ru
ENGLISH-AMERICANISMS AS CONSTITUENT OF SPEECH IMAGE OF THE AUTHOR
[Англо-американизмы как конституент речевого имиджа автора]
Loans, in particular, English-Americanisms existing in Russian from the point of view of their role in formation
of speech image of authors of works of different genres are considered. This problem is investigated on the example of
works of three modern writers – Vladimir Novikov, Zakhar Prilepin and Kushanashvili's Flock, whose creativity can be
referred to model literature. The paradigm of functions of English-Americanisms in different types of the Russian
discourse in the XXI century, first of all, their ability to serve as various stylistic means, and also the tool for the
nomination, a dokumentalization and a tropeization for the purpose of formation of an ironical modality that stimulates
enrichment of modern Russian and a discourse comes to light. Extent of functioning of these or those types Angloаmericanisms in works of the above-named authors, and also the factors causing requirement for their use is studied.
Key words: еnglish-аmericanisms, constituent, speech image, loan, nomination, dokumentalization, tropeization.
Numerous discussions about continuously appearing in the Russian language borrowing in
general and Anglo-Americanisms in particular reflect the urgency of the problem. Such discussions
are the result of the following provision: not apply a simple dichotomy with the positive and
negative poles, the relevance of foreign language element - the words, morphemes, letters, phrases depends on many factors, from the broader context of the situation. The aim of this work is to the
example of the three works of contemporary authors - Vl. Novikov, Z. Prilepina and O.
Kushanashvili - to show how foreign-language units are introduced into the fabric of artistic or
journalistic works and how they create the image of the author's voice. Analysis of borrowings from
this point of view, would facilitate a deeper study of the problem of language personality of the
author.
Ow. Novikov - author of the famous "love affair with language" and a series of essays "Fortytwo meetings with Russian speech," the author of numerous books and literary articles, the author
of the first in the domestic lexicography "Dictionary of buzz words" professor-scholar, well known
not only in our country but also abroad. Scientific authority and impeccable taste linguistic texts
make it optimal for the task. In these texts deliberately excluded neglect, failure to use foreignlanguage units.
The text is replete with Anglo-Americanism, which, from the point of view of the purist may
be replaced with native words:
For example, she notes I've never done, although the very beginning of our love story had a
distinct pedagogical character.
Growing up in a typical professorial family, where each member had to 0.83 defended
dissertation, I listened for twenty-two years as energetic teachings that result was a teenager wildly,
each step of which - clumsiness or impropriety.
Staggering as a teenager, first hlebnuvshie port, go to the changing face of the spring in the
street.
After all, the same bytes my memory might be playing football.
... Nastya's friend from time to time receives an order for extortion of money from creditors to
recover arrears on the racket.
Be that as it may, the rating in the institute I nevazhnetsky.
The protagonist of "love affair with language" - a professor of philology and romance filled
with wonderful reflections of the character of linguistic phenomena. Let us dwell on those that
relate to topics of interest to us - foreign language units in the Russian language. Above all, the
main character is obvious that "nothing in another language is not conceived" and he was not just an
ordinary uses for bilingual reception "code switching", but also commented at length with my own
language choice.
Wed, both with the help of French, German, Italian and English names for the author clarifies
the important thoughts:
And I'm surrounded by the Institute unbearable sensitivity and compassion <...>. All right,
people - do not tell, "society", "people", but simply a certain set of men, shorter and easier to just
referred to the word "people" (it. "Laity", France. "Jean", Italy.,. "Gentili "; angloyazykie, however,
rest: they are" People "gives too Latin" Populus "and the" vox "which already Gate) - and so, these
people come to help, to support (and at the same time keep) you in the common everyday
horizontal; only some nonhumans secretly happy when you fell below Watery-line and already
swallowed some water leteyskoy.
The author constructs of English root word, which, as it seems to accurately convey the idea
than descriptive Russian counterparts:
And walking through the streets of the eternal - that's my main and true vocation. Street
Walker - so I outlined its essence, if that word as a number of other words in the English language,
it would not matter "prostitute."
Author interested in the possibility of different languages to transmit similar meanings, and it
captures the reader's attention (even such who have the intellectual baggage only "school English
vocabulary") on such facts:
What do you mean "like"? The word from the vocabulary of high school. Class in the seventh,
eighth, when the verb "to love" seemed too old, said, for example: "Ivanova like Petrov <...>. By
the way, not only in the Russian common people, but also in English, the same opposition: like love. "The peacock I like, but the dove I love" - something like this, right?
The new Anglo-Americanism in the Russian language are assessed in a broad context
linguocultural:
I got as many position early retiree. Pensions, however, are not paid, but - freedom. Once or
twice a week, read a couple of lectures excited girls and boys focused - and all. In addition, there
was such a thing as grants. First, the word made me emotional repulsion: for some reason this
"grant" in my mind firmly bonded even in his early years with a string of Shakespeare's sonnets, the
rooms do not remember, that deliberately designed in legal terminology. So there is about: "For how
do I hold you but by the granting // And for these riches where is my deserving? And further: "So
thy great gift upon misprision growing // Comes home again on better judgement making". To this
text are two footnotes commenting:
1. Translated by S. Marshak: I love gift to use, // merit not buy it. "In view of the Russian
language update this text today, you can edit: I like a grant, enjoy the love ...
2. S. Marshak: And not right to take the award // I kept to this day.
Ow. Novikov resorts to macaronic blotches where the use of native analogue would destroy
the ironic narrative modality:
Well, what I can pamper this time? <...> To Buy a "Novoarbatsky" a bottle of whiskey, whose
name - "Ticherz" - rather ironically contrasts with the income of the Russian "ticherov"?
Ow. Novikov uses foreign-language unit, creating a welcome linguistic metaphor that serves
the linking text:
But let us return to the Past Continuous, in the past continues. At the table, caught between
savvy hostess and newfound elusive woman doctor, I keep the last offense, carefully avoiding the
left, addressing their vulgar madrigals Lena.
And, as we can see, the author cares about the reader, without turning into a means of foreignlanguage blotches aggressive demonstration of language competence. Foreign-language blotches
needed Vl. Novikov for the transmission of expressions that correspond to Western notions of
political correctness:
But on the plane I can not sleep, slowly finish the book by Peter Mayle's "A Year in
Provence." By the way, quite unknown to us the type of literature. About the author reported in the
abstract, he worked in the advertising business, then something is administered, now only writes
books. About age it says very subtly: «He is approaching fifty as slowly as possible» (He
approaches fifty as slowly as possible).
As you can see, the most important thoughts about the nature of time and the position of the
human author conveys relying on foreign-language lexical means.
Consider further the role of the writer in inoyazychy younger generation - Zahara Prilepina,
the winner of several prestigious literary awards, the famous journalist, TV presenter and blogger. It
is called one of the brands of contemporary literature, its role in the renewal of the modern Russian
language is undeniable. Z. Prilepin in its journalism and spoke about the current state of the Russian
language:
Russian language picked up any infection at the time of "flourishing democracy",
accompanied not only by voucher and privatization, but incessant Latin American soap operas with
their obsessive and very stupid vocabulary ("Russia will save the army, the navy and the reform of
Russian language").
Z. Prilepin seeks to explain the nature of the phenomena that have come into our reality
together with borrowings:
Producing a product will never be a revelation. The producer does not want to talk, he wants
to earn (We only add to this topic a bit and bass. Notes on Russian rap).
Actual names are often used Z. Prilepin in an ironic way. The irony, as opposed to the simple
ridicule, characterized zavualirovannostyu: criticality and taunt it is dark, but at the same time, the
irony borders on contempt and negative evaluation of the object of irony. In fact, the irony
discredits the object and the author distances himself from the object of irony:
See how many things there was a new, curious, unusual democracy, Ksenia Sobchak,
werewolves in uniform, escort services, drug addiction and a million young, full of strength addicts,
the national question, Bin Laden, mobile phones, iPods, pincode, computer games, lekoradikaly,
right-wing radicals, "United Russia", surfing, diving, shopping (We only add to this topic a bit and
bass. notes on Russian rap).
He readily uses slang Anglo-Americanisms that are expressive transmits the corresponding
concepts:
However, the time is now, that everyone needs cash, loot, kilograms fragrant green paper
("The Pit"). Cache, according to the dictionary of modern youth slang MA Grachev - "cash" from
the English. «Cash» - «thing»).
Even more to the subprime Anglo-Americanism tends O. Kushanashvili - one of the most
famous journalists and music critics in our country:
I witnessed the altercation, thanks to heaven and I, an eyewitness, not overgrown in
mahalovku patentoavnnogo loser, I know from the time of the revolt of Spartacus, and pathetic
whiner, whom he had known since the beginning of the noble drinking party and who was also
disgusting.
It is a dream to me, when the wind bends the trees in the garden <...>. When it seems that the
whole world-Faking betrayed you ... ("I putin").
Invective sphere O. Kushanashvili calls a special genre, writes that owns it "masterly", and it
is difficult not to agree. He is actively using "code switching" if the English version seems to him
more expressive and concise. The first chapter of the book "I putin" called My ballerina. About First
love. Avg. ibid:
And I'm an old stump, all the time taldychu that if we save that, it is only Love.
Obviously, O. Kushanashvili wants to avoid triviality and pathos, its title should not resemble
any "first love" IS Turgenev, or "Story of First Love" by R. Frayerman - so used Anglicisms. In
contrast, when O. Kushanashvili wants to distance itself from any group that uses Anglicism, he
does it:
Still, "Vacation in Mexico" - is not the construction of the narrow gauge railway from "How
the Steel Was Tempered." It's just a "fan", as you say, and stupid, idiotic adventures as I say ("I
putin").
By the way, we use barbarisms during an interview a little poshpynyali each other, because
neither he nor I do not like barbarisms. Therefore, instead of the "frontman" ask to use the word
"leader".
Bob Goncharov was the frontman - forgive me for Eugene Friedland is the word - the group
"Cheboza" of Peter ("Epoch and I").
The most common feature of Anglo-Americanisms in texts O. Kushanashvili - Nomination of
new realities, and their characteristics to be extremely original and impressive:
In his judgment, zero were a triumph mannered what spospeshestvovali "all these Facebook,
privatized everything alive and able to give rise to ideas" ("I putin").
New actual names are used metaphorically, so - estimated:
Of course, it ended in a moral default (O. Kushanashvili "I putin").
I still do not know the word "chimeylz" and slovol "glamor" does not know me ("Epoch and
I").
Comparisons with which explains the essence of new concepts, unexpected and highly
expressive:
In the Internet age has become a PR cruel as Saddam Hussein after the concert of Eros
Ramazzotti finally grasped that PR and charm rarely go hand in hand ... ("The Age and I").
O. Kushanashvili often uses occasional derivatives formed from the "core" of AngloAmericanisms:
Wed .: Funny grandmother povergnuvshie in the ashes of our ridiculous copyists Timberlake,
Aguilera and other media priglamurennoy muti to cause lively reaction of Europe ("I putin").
Anglo-Americanisms are used to create an ironic tone, sometimes it is enough even the
service of the word. As the OP Ermakova [1, p. 179], "irony subject to all the words and all types of
values (including metaphorical) all parts of speech: significant and pronouns, independent and
official (particles), as well as modal." So, O. Kushanashvili writes:
Clearly, puberantnogo case, but there is not Prigogine (on the salary of his wife), there are
serious people with the duty scent. Thus, there is little face? There Is! Voice? Invariably, sweetie.
Character? Beat, if anything? Delicious «look» finish it ... Well, well, now the book. Her perfume,
expanding the scope of work.
Star NTV Leonid Zakoshansky, in a program that I'm shooting more often than S. Mikhailov
says the word "dear God," tempted to conduct a verbal sparring ("I putin").
As you can see, one of the means of irony is a graphical game. Ironic statement allows us to
express a great range of feelings in a replica. Stylistic feature irony is primarily concerned with the
emotional and aesthetic evaluation of the object, but the ironic statements O. Kushanashvili
valuable nonetheless informative. There are different types of irony: friendly, playful, light, thin,
sarcastic, contemptuous, judgmental, etc. O. Kushanashvili writing "about the show-meringue",
often uses scathing irony, though, and all other colors are subject to it. "Irony can be regarded as
one of the fundamental features of the artistic language of the twentieth century, as an ironic
principle, understood as the principle of distancing from directly expressed, the principle of
uncertainty in the possibility of a direct statement is a constitutive feature of the thinking of the
twentieth century" [2, p. 355]. It is obvious that in the twenty-first century, the role of irony has
only grown, ironic utterance becomes the dominant voice in many genres, reflecting the prevalence
of ironic communication.
Thus, the analysis of the texts of modern model (in our opinion) literature - prose Vl.
Novikov, Z. Prilepina and journalism O. Kushanashvili - convincingly showed how diverse
functions of the Anglo-Americanisms in various kinds of Russian discourse in the XXI century. All
three authors, convinced advocates of ecological approach to language (which is manifested in
direct statements on the subject contained in the work, and - most importantly - is manifested in the
spirit of their works), are actively using all types of English-Americanisms. Anglo-Americanisms
are a means of nomination (sometimes - only), and dokumentalizatsii tropeizatsii (first of all - for
the formation of ironic modality). Many of the words that appear in the papers today purists as
examples of "blockage" and "corruption" are used by these authors is highly relevant, and therefore
serve as enrichment of modern Russian language.
References
1. Ermakova O.S. The irony among tropes // Language in motion: the 70th anniversary of LP
Rat. Moscow, 2007.
2. Zolotareva S.A. Irony as a sign of destruction // Russian language and active processes in
modern speech: Proceedings of the All-Russian scientific-practical conference. M., 2003.
Литература
1. Ермакова О.С. Ирония среди тропов // Язык в движении: К 70-летию Л.П. Крысина.
М., 2007.
2. Золотарева С.А. Ирония как деструкция знака // Русский язык и активные процессы в
современной речи: Материалы Всероссийской научно-практической конференции. М.,
2003.
November, 14, 2014
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