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UDC 81
E.G. Koliovska
Moscow state university of M.V. Lomonosov
Moscow, Russia
[Экспликация природно-ландшафтного кода культуры в русских паремиях]
The problem of the relationship between language and culture still remains controversial in science.
Nevertheless, it is obvious that the connection between these two complicated semiotic systems is bilateral that
particularly appears when considering the various codes of culture. The code of culture in this case is treated as a
verbalized formation, whose units have additional cultural meanings besides general linguistic ones. The article
examines how the units of the natural-landscape code of Russian culture (the names related to the thematic field
"nature") manifest these special additional meanings in the composition of such complex linguistic signs as paremiaes.
The results of interpretive analysis of almost three hundred Russian proverbs give reason to speak about polysemy of
lexemes forest, field, mountain, sea, river as signs of the "language of culture" and allow to define some of their
Key words: language, culture, verbal code of culture, proverbs, symbol, standard.
Lotman’s definition of culture as "a form of communication between people" and "nongenetic memory of the collective" [5, p. 6, 8] contains a reference to its properties such as communication, cumulative, semiotic. Any information to be transmitted, should be treated in a certain way
- "signified", "coded". As a result, the human exploration of reality, a system of signs of material
and spiritual world, allocates them to certain cultural sense - hierarchic set of codes of culture, covering different areas, fragments of life. These signs do not necessarily have the verbal in nature, but
the language is semiotically is the most versatile method of signification of the world, and "symbolic means of natural language - words, idioms different types of utterances and whole texts take on
the role of signs" language "of culture in the unity of its form and content" [6, p. 777].
Any verbal code culture "belongs to natural language in a broad sense of the word, but it
forms a slightly different system of values other than those described in traditional dictionaries" [4,
p. 165]. For example, the code in zoomorphic bear is a symbol of strength, gentleness, pig - untidiness; in somatic lips associated with symbols of desire, desire for something (roll lip, lip no fool),
and throat - breathing threat throat is a threat to life or restriction of liberty (to take by the throat,
step on the throat) (see. [3 , pp. 182-189]). Units have a specific code of culture value that is not the
same as the common language, "everyday". This particular type of connotative meaning, which accumulated culturally relevant information.
The most important source of information is lingvokulturologicheskoj paremiological fund
language. "The basis of most proverbs are elements shall represent the evaluation of the content
from a cultural point of view," [1, p. 136]. Stand out among the codes of culture Natural Landscape
code and include the names of natural objects, generally forming the characteristic landscape of a
particular area, we will try to trace what specific values are a part of Russian proverbs, proverbs
pogovorochnyh tokens such as a forest, field, mountain, sea, river.
The material for the study were the following dictionaries and collections of "Russian proverbs", edited by VP Anikin, "Proverbs of the Russian people" and "Dictionary of the Russian Language" VI Dahl, "Dictionary of Russian proverbs and sayings" VP Zhukov, "Russian thought and
speech" and "Walking and marked with the word" MI Michelson, "500 most common Russian
proverbs sayings" GL Permjakova (in the book. "Fundamentals of structural paremiologii") and
others. The body of the test material was more than 300 proverbs. These include including archaic
examples, because they have a certain "memory of language" and is representative of the national
perception of the world.
The method of interpretation of selected proverbs and sayings we have identified 3 groups: 1)
paremias, which is dominated by a view of nature as human exploration included them in the economic and labor practices - "his" - space (these proverbs make up 19% of the studied language material), 2) paremias in which units of natural landscape culture code represent "foreign", opposed to
"own" space or boundary between two spaces - "their" and "other" (57%), and 3) paremias in which
the foreground reference units feature natural landscape code as a quantitative measure (24%). It
should be noted that this division is to some extent arbitrary, since a part of proverbs tokens - units
of natural landscape of code are polysemous culture (and even ambivalent) and sometimes one can
notice paremias manifestation of multiple values. Our classification based on which of these values
in each case, it is important in the interpretation of the semantics of the overall study reproducible
stable language units.
In the first group of proverbs primarily reflected different obihodno labor practices related to
forest, field and wetlands: firewood, gathering mushrooms and berries, hunting, farming, grazing,
fishing, as well as other kinds of employment rights: No forest clearance and should not be / is not
growing; Would be the woods, and the ax syschem; In the forest is not the Congress, and the freeze
on the stove; For trouble - not in the woods for raspberries / no mushrooms; Bear in the woods, and
the skin is sold; Do not feed the dogs then, when in the ride; In the sickle viloy yes, and yes the
house with a knife with a fork; Red millet field, and conversation mind; Bodlivuyu cow away from
the field; Mowed down the grass and in the field to dry; If I had a man on the stove was not lying,
ships fitted out to overseas; Sea will that take; With sea / mountain in the sea, and without it there is
no order; Fish in the river - not in his hand, and others.
This group is definitely prevalent in terms of quantity are paremias, in its origin related to agricultural labor, as well as those in which the reflected view of the forest as a material for domestic
use (mainly it - wood). This is due, apparently, due to certain features of the natural and climatic
conditions of life and the economic life of the Russian peasantry. Only 10% considered proverbs are
composed of names with "water semantics" (sea, river). It is significant that in this group we have
not met paremias containing component of the mountain.
In the second group of proverbs, much larger than the previous one, we can distinguish two
large subgroups in which the units of natural landscape code symbolize a) "foreign" space and b)
the boundary between two spaces, "his" and "others."
In proverbs subgroups (a) "foreign" space can be represented by non-judgmental (eg., Was
true, but the forest is gone, like wolves feed, he looks into the forest; bird in the hand is better nightingale in the woods; My Talan went through the mountains ), and can be characterized as a formidable and even dangerous, hostile (fear of wolves, so do not walk in the woods, walk in the woods to see death on the nose <or kill a tree, or a bear zaderet>; Do not believe the wind in the sea / in the
field; Who the sea did not happen, the grief did not see / that God is not fed to malivalsya; on the
part of the mountain, on the other hand - the sea, the third - yes bog moss, and on the fourth - oh !;
Praise the hill, as handled et al.). Among these proverbs can also be found such that the unit nature
and landscape code represent the "other" human world - external (village community) and inner
(soul) - as "non-native" weird, different from the "": In a strange place that in the forest; Strangers dense forest; Someone else's soul - dark wood; Not sowed in his field - the choice will not choose
(the bride), and others. In a few cases there is a positive evaluation of "foreign" space compared
with "his": the common people believe secular, believe the dark forest; Not nice white light - run
into the dark forest!
Proverbs among subgroups (b) can be identified such, which shows non-judgmental designation divide between "their" and "foreign" space (eg., You grief over the river - and it is already on
the right bank of the !; Crow flies, but not beyond the sea falls; killer hooks, flies, and for the sea
falls), as well as those where in addition to the notation "foreign" appears assessment of what is located behind it abroad as "foreign" space, which is opposed to "own" (eg., due cloud forest and
goes; beyond the mountains sing well and live well at home; Overseas fun, but someone else's, and
we and sorrow, but his own: Though the bit to be, and swim across the river), or that is associated
with "their" (and for sea peas are not under the oven sow; and the river people live; Uma overseas
can not buy, if it is not at home, etc.). Of special mention paremias, which is manifested spatial understanding of time: the thinking behind the mountains, and the death of his shoulders; Death /
trouble is not far off, and behind them; Mind overseas and death for collar / outside the gates.
The greatest number of proverbs of this group (43%) contain a token with "water semantics" the sea and the river. The second largest (29%) are paremias, which include forest component. Field
component is fixed in 22% proverbs, but most of them reflect the views of the field is not as agricultural land, and as a place of battle, the battle (in the field - no father, no mother, no one to intercede; field who serves on the house not tuzhit: where he became, here and camp, Koli in the field
has become so hit the spot; It is better to die in the field than at Babi hem; silly in the field will not
come! et al.). The least (6%) in this group noted proverbs, which meets token mountain or Diminutive slide.
Analyzing the third group of proverbs, the following reference quantificational function components - tokens that are correlated with the natural landscape culture code:
- High volume, appears as an integral value: World roar, so the fishing line moan / forest
slopes; The devil shakes the mountains, not just us; In debt, which in the sea: no bottom or shores;
Grief is not the sea, drink to the bottom <ohnesh - not izdohnesh>; And a big tub of the river do not
scoop, etc .;
- A large number / volume, consisting of individual objects (comparison of the whole and its
parts): God and the forest close to leveling; Wood on wood not tuzhit; Crumbs from a handful of
drops of the sea; A drop of rain, and the rain waters the rivers: the rivers sea stands, etc .;
- Measure the length (horizontal space or time axis): In the open field anguish: one cooks porridge, and the shed; Grief does not move in the sea; Chelny (chips) do not plow the sea; Age is not a
field, suddenly jump; Century to live, not the river Brest; Century / life to live - not a field to pass /
not cross the sea, etc .;
- Measure the height / depth (vertical space or time axis): Looking in / on the forest, not grow,
in spite of the people will not be rich; In a seven mountain drag and on the mountains and one pit; It
is time that the mountain: Scat, so look back, In the sea depths, but the people do not come to know
the truth, and others.
Different reference functions performed analyzed tokens as units of natural landscape culture
code, due to the fact, which features designated by them realities were isolated and digested in the
"language of culture": the size, the shape, the presence of horizontal and / or vertical dimension.
Mostly it "scale" of the respective elements of the landscape, and therefore no accident the most
"popular" in large measure a function reference is the sea: in conjunction with the token river, usage
examples, which are rare in the meantime, the sea as a quantifier occurs even more frequently
(52%) than others considered lexical units combined. "Second place" in the frequency takes the
mountain and hill Diminutive - 24% proverbs, forest - 18%, the field - 6%.
As mentioned above, natural landscape unit code paroemias this group appear as a large
measure of the quantity, volume (whole or composed of individual objects) length. At first glance,
the opposite view is reflected in proverbs Age is not a field, suddenly jump; Century to live, not the
river Brest; Century / life to live - not a field to pass / not cross the sea. However, from our point of
view, these proverbs by means of negation is carried out not so much contrast between the "small"
(field, river, sea) and "large" (c = a person's life) as a comparison of the "big" (field, river, sea) and
even "bólshego" t. e., we are dealing with a peculiar litotes used to emphasize the "hugeness" of
human life, cf .: life live that cross the sea. In addition, these units proverbs Natural Landscape code
not only perform standard functions measures, but also serve as symbols of "foreign" associated
with difficulties and dangers when it is overcome, of the space. On this basis, they certainly could
be attributed to the second group of proverbs. These examples show that the boundaries between the
three groups dedicated proverbs rather relative, and it explains meaning in their constituent units of
nature and landscape culture code. So, with paremias rifmoparoy sea - the mountain (of 20 proverbs) were classified by us in various groups despite the fact that all of them clearly manifested
negative symbolism of water, the sea reflected in paremic texts containing traditional folk rhymes
water - trouble abyss - grief (see. for it [2, p. 50]). Nevertheless, we found it possible in each case
based on the value of the components of interest proverbs, which, in our view, is found in the most
holistic in their interpretation of the content of paremias and plays a major role in the creation of its
Thus, our interpretative analysis sufficiently representative body proverbs components - units
of nature and landscape code allows you to select some specific values that are inherent in these
units as a sign of "the language of culture." Tokens forest, field, sea exhibit ambivalence, speaking
on the one hand, the symbols of "their" (fully or partially) on the other - "foreign" space; with tokens mountain and river, they also symbolize the frontier, the boundary between "their" and "foreign". All of these tokens operate as a reference function is a measure of a large number, volume
and length.
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