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UDC 81
E.V. Murugova
Don state technical university
Rostov-on-Don, Russia
[Разработка формальных приемов и способов выведения семного состава
словообразовательных значений слов]
Article is devoted to the development of formal ways of seme components deriving of word-formation meaning
on material of modern English. The formal seme identification can be based on word-formation processes and models,
and be determined by the context. Hierarchical relations of the categorical semes within the part-of-speech interconnection are in the focus of researcher’s attention. Subcategorial semantics imposes certain restrictions on seme identification. Semes get the status of the main or private depending on the degree of their manifestation in the semantic structure
of the interacting class of words.
Key words: part-of-speech interaction, key and peripheral semes, word-formation meaning, derivatives, word
building processes.
As rightly pointed out by OV Lukin, in the parts of speech, each element exists as such precisely because of ties with those elements [2, p.15]. Based on the theory of interaction of the parts of speech and ways
of their education human activities, we believe that the derivative of the word inherits from producing certain
properties that depend on supplies to last one or another part of speech. These properties of concepts like
penetrate one another, displaying all the new properties, connections and relationships knowable human reality, which can be typed, and thus unite all derivatives formed from one or another part of speech [3, p.179].
Nominative processes leading to the creation of a language derived words are treated as special acts semioza
reflecting the interaction of both the material parts and semantic shares concepts. Various types of semantic
communication in pairs and produces derivative facilitate the identification of word-building values derived
units. Sharing the view that the parts of speech are field structure formed by the center, which is characterized by the optimal concentration of part of speech features and the periphery, consisting of units with incomplete number of these signs or symptoms of acquiring other parts of speech, we believe that the basis of
the relevant areas of nominative each part of speech are the most important conceptual categories: objectivity, procedural, indicative of which are considered in linguistics as components of a general nature, characteristic broad classes of words are expressed in natural language by various means. In this thought-between these categories there are no clear boundaries, which contributes to the interoperability of such universal language semantic spaces. We appeal to the part of speech comparing semantic, morphological and wordformation potential of words, the method of expression of their values, determining the specificity of the interaction part of speech, identifying cases of interlanguage asymmetry in the parts of speech to illustrate the
features of the nomination as ontological entities and epistemological objects, processes or attributes.
The presence of semantic connections and differences between motivated derived words and their
producing and is usually accompanied by the presence of formal differences between them, which manifest
themselves in a linear way derivation explicitly and implicitly in nonlinear ways. Semantic role producing
base and word-formation means can be determined with regard to their role in the original design-definition.
Formal means of implementing reconstruction derived word is derived names, found expression in their deployment in the initial sentence or phrase on the basis of the application in the reverse order of rule sets nominalization syntactic structures [4, p.11].
Consideration of the interaction of parts of speech reveals the existence of close contacts between the
semantic lexical and grammatical word classes, that is confirmed by the analysis of semantic features derived
words, the value of which is based on the semantics of their generating base.
For each part of speech, there are specialized features that have their own characteristics in the implementation of other parts of speech by means of various means of word formation. The ability to act as
subject terms, in addition to nouns, endowed with more verbs (verb word form), adjectives; relatively rare adverbs, pronouns, numerals and interjections, function words. Sema "process" is present not only in verbs,
but also among certain groups of nouns. There are cases of interaction with the basics of verbs adjectives,
adverbs, numerals, interjections, conjunctions, prepositions. Most often, adjectives, realizing these things
"quality", interact with substantive, adjective and verb stems and word forms. Widely represented the interaction of function words to other parts of speech. In the English language is derived from the basics of adverbs, adjectives and prepositions in Old English and Middle English periods of language development, selfEnglish alliance, is a closed class of words, were the basis for the formation of nouns (if, and, or, seeing),
adjectives (assuming (arch .)) and prepositions (than, but). For Example:
There are so many ifs and buts in the policy (ODE). Not was much smaller than his sun (ODE).
Multifunctional and have self-English prepositions, which interact with adverbs (beside, around,
aboard), nouns (upside, past), adjectives (pending, gone, touching) and verbs (while, barring). Prepositions
themselves involved in the formation of verbs (up, down), adjectives (near, apropos, astraddle, fore), nouns
(despite, midst), adverbs (astride, after, notwithstanding), unions (like, since). As examples can be cited:
He downed five pints of cider (ODE). I was a mile from the nearest village (ODE). The theater only
earns my despite (ODE). He sat on the chair astride (ODE). I felt like I'd been kicked by a camel (ODE).
Restrictions on their use are determined etymological features (via, except, vis-à-vis - borrowed from
drevnefrantsuzskogo, Latin languages, most prepositions - 59.4% - actually English), regional variation, using dialect (bar - "except, except "- characteristic of spoken British variant of modern English language, toward - the American version of Modern English, outwith -" except "- Scottish, while - Yorkshire dialect),
stylistic features (come, 'cept - non-standard vocabulary, betwixt - excuse archaic Old English period).
It is interesting to note the fact that there are significant language semantic interaction zone of verbs
and nouns, adjectives and nouns, adverbs and adjectives. The degree of interaction between the verb and the
adjective is not so strongly expressed, as between nouns and verbs, adjectives and adverbs, which is explained by the participation of a small amount of OOP in the formation of adjectives verbs (in most cases anthroponymic adjectives) and quantitative composition of the derivatives (5, 8% of verbs). Identified common nominative semantic word classes are the intersection zone of the same attributes in different classes,
which combine all the classes in the system, where each of them in a certain way interact with each other.
Consequently, there is no strict boundaries between the parts of speech. The convergence of classes and one
featured a discrepancy on other grounds testifies to the existence of different types of interactions that combine lexical and grammatical classes of words in the parts of speech. Each of the major seed "objectivity",
"process", "quality", "sign of the second order", describing the content side of the specific features of the interaction has a different status in the hierarchy of this and in interacting classes.
In the interaction of words a certain part of speech explicitly (linear method of word formation) or
implicit (non-linear ways of word-formation) is an allocation of both nuclear and private seed. The absence
of external indicators of interaction does not entail the disappearance contacts, but only indicates in some
cases a formal unexpressed derivatives. Analysis of dictionary definitions suggests that the interaction of the
parts of speech is most characteristic by private seed lying on the periphery of the field of parts of speech,
which are shown on the lexical-semantic level in different parts of speech with varying degrees of intensity,
depending on the characteristics of their nominative functions. Sema "temporality" explicitly expressed in
dialects, which mark indicative of the second order, which is reflected in the type of NEOs "temporality". It
is no coincidence most of the dialects is the basis for the formation of functional words such as conjunctions,
prepositions varying degrees of localization (before, past). Concrete and abstract nouns are characterized by
particular type of NW "temporality", for the most part, are complicated words, as well as derivatives of adverbs and verbs of action, movement, status, communication and verbs denoting sound phenomena. Weak
degree of manifestation of this function rightly explained by linguists that categorical sign of "objectivity" is
conceived primarily space [1, p. 130]. At the lexical-semantic level verb sema "temporality", revealed verbs
formed from the basics of temporal adjectives and verbs of action bases, poorly represented, due to its expression in the morphological and syntactic levels through grammatical forms, and by means of a general
Sema "aspectuality" most explicitly expressed in verbs formed from verbal stems OOP action,
movement, and adverbs formed from adjectives parametric. In this sema nouns presented formations from
OOP verbs of action, movement, status, communication and verbs denoting sound effects, as well as phrasal
verbs and adjectives anthroponimical and parametric. This is realized sema adjectives formed from producing foundations of abstract nouns.
Sema "locative" manifests itself in concrete nouns formed from the specific substantive foundations
and nouns denoting animals, birds or plants with animate nouns formed from FGR concrete nouns, proper
nouns, action verbs, adjectives and parametric motion; verbs, education involving foundations locative adjectives concrete nouns, verbs of motion and locative adverbs; in parametric adjective derived from proper
names, and the interaction of the substantive bases and verbal word forms; from adverbs formed by the interaction of prepositions and adverbs or adverbial two bases.
Sema "number", which is the basis for the numerals, is a private derivatives of these things for the
noun form of FGR concrete nouns from nouns person for the interaction of compound nouns and numerals
bases derivatives substantive framework for the derivatives of verbs and adjectives complex in structure
which there is a basis of the numeral.
Sema "comparative" is presented in an adjective derived from the basis of concrete, real nouns,
nouns, naming a person, animal; in qualitative adverbs formed from the basics of abstract and concrete
nouns; verbs, word-formation base that are the basis of abstract nouns, nouns, naming animals and natural
phenomena, as well as adjectival bases expressing similarity and likeness to the subject; in compound nouns
formed by adding two substantive bases. The similarity observed in SS form (boxlike, snakelike), in quality,
characteristics, external characteristics (childish, ice-cold), the manner, character, style (Shakeaperian,
Elizabethian), color (blue-coloured, lemon-coloured) .
Sema "animate" is seen in the face of nouns formed from 7 OOP substantive and verb stems, 4 OOP
adjectival bases, as well as the adverbial, foundations, phrasal verbs, verb and substantive phrases, is an academic degree, title, organization. Derived verbs, nouns formed from basic face and derivative adjectives
formed from the basics of collecting and animate nouns, this sema is a peripheral character.
Sema "concrete" intensively represented in specific substantive nouns and phrases, naming concrete
objects. For derived verbs, adjectives formed from nouns based on specific, this sema represented implicitly
and is located on the far periphery of the field of parts of speech.
Sema "abstract" expressed in abstract nouns formed from the basics of social, parametric,
anthroponimical adjectives, from the basics of action verbs, movement, communication, state of the verb
stem, indicating sound effects, foundations nouns face, proper names, from the basics of phrasal verbs from
through alliances and adverbs of place and direction. Poorly represented in this sem derived verbs and adjectives formed from the basics of abstract nouns.
Sema 'quality' is found in anthroponimical adjective derived from the basics of abstract and concrete
nouns; in animate nouns in education involving substantive bases nouns persons of proper names, real nouns,
nouns, naming animals and birds, basics of OOP action verbs, communication, status, perception and mental
activity, physical manifestations of emotion, sound and light effects, anthroponymic adjectival bases, bases
phrasal verbs and verb phrases. For derived verbs formed from the basics of parametric and anthroponimical
adjectives and adjectival bases denoting color, sema "quality" is private and therefore is on the far periphery
of the field of parts of speech.
Sema "personality" that characterizes the proper names, is a privately for derivatives animate nouns,
verbs and adjectives formed from the basics of proper names.
Sema "real" is the basis for real nouns formed from basic nouns and proper nouns face, OOP action
verbs and verb word forms. Private character is Sam "real" for the derivatives of nouns, verbs, adjectives and
adverbs formed from nouns real foundations.
Sema "commitment" is presented in animate nouns formed from proper nouns and adjectives social.
Sema "causative" is present in animate noun form of the verb causative actions and adjectives. Some adjectives and verb word forms found private sema "passivity". Sam "negation" is expressed not only through lexical means, but through word-formation (negative prefixes that can be attached to the basics of nouns, verbs
and adjectives).
All of the above leads to the conclusion that semantics imposes certain restrictions on the allocation
of these things in a particular part of speech, which granted the status of principal or private depending on
the degree of their manifestation in the semantic structure of the interaction class words. The most characteristic of the interaction of parts of speech in the lexical-semantic level by private seed at the periphery of the
field under consideration parts of speech and implemented differently in each class of words.
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