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2014-06-19

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LINGUISTICS
UDC 81
A.P. Sedykh, E.I. Kugan
Belgorod state national research university
Belgorod, Russia
redaction-el@mail.ru
TO THE QUESTION OF LITERAL SYMBOLS OF NATIONAL LINGUACULTURE:
MARCEL PROUST, BORIS PASTERNAK
[К вопросу о литературных символах национальной лингвокультуры:
Марсель Пруст, Борис Пастернак]
The study of linguistic identity of the writer is one of the most complex and urgent problems of modern linguistics. As part of the national culture the linguistic identity is mediated in the national language and the national type of
communication that can be attributed to this research to the field of the theory of language and communication theory.
The article reveals the symbolic figures of Russian and French cultures, which are Boris Pasternak and Marcel Proust. It
is based on verbalization analysis methods of national key concepts and on identifying the essential characteristics of
writers’ world perception and cognition. It is proposed to consider the linguistic identity of the writer as a repository of
the basic values of linguistic culture. The basic unit of analysis supports is the statement which is a relevant material to
identify the significance of creative persons for national linguistic culture.
Key words: linguistic identity, literary cultural symbol, linguistic semiotics, concept, verbalization, linguistic
consciousness, theory of language, communication theory.
France and Russia with good reason can be attributed to literature-centered nations. It is
known that "it is in France evolved pan-European" model "of literary forms - whether heroic folk
epic of the Middle Ages, in the seventeenth century classicism, critical realism, naturalism and
symbolism" [1]. In modern French republic attitude to literature as a formative factor in the national
language norms remains consistently high.
Russia has also traditionally been considered the cradle of the great examples of classic literature, despite the alarming trends of recent decades, not only related to accession to the throne of
world popular culture of the Internet. Modern thinking, unfortunately, also affected Russia. "Long"
texts Tolstoy and Gogol hardly perceived by new generations of Russian readers. In times of crisis
the art of thinking, and not just economic, we turn to the work of the writers of the recent past: Marcel Proust and Boris Pasternak. The challenge is to determine how much data can be attributed to
the authors of literary characters, see linguocultures and identify ways to influence the works of these linguistic individuals to voice culture of each nation.
Following domestic and foreign scientists, we believe that linguistic identity of Marcel
Proust can be attributed to the central literary character of modern France. [2]
During the life of the writer of his works have been the subject of heated debate and conflicting opinions: some considered him a genius writer, the other proclaimed his texts "boring and unbearable to read" (Andre Gide). Today the novel "In Search of Lost Time" is a recognized masterpiece of French language culture. Modern researchers say the language person Proust as "faceemblem of the French novel of the twentieth century." [5].
In France, the works of Marcel Proust included in school and university curricula in literature, there is a "Society of Friends of Proust" cherish prustovedy museum of the writer in his own
home in the town of Ilia-Combray («Maison de Tante Léonie»). However, it should be noted that
the general reader does not read out Proust, many ordinary French believe his book "difficult" to
read. Indeed, a certain type of people need only the voltage of the mind and imagination that match
their abilities. Great works of literature can not rely on such a reader, and this is a methodological
mission linguistic personality of the writer - to become the leader of the nation yazykotvorcheskim.
French prustovedy put forward this problem to the fore, in the hope that the twenty-first century
will bring a "message of reconciliation» (un message de paix) and the novel "In Search of Lost
Time" will be read, studied everywhere and on a voluntary basis [3].
Miriam Bendif-Sillas in his article on the colloquium held in Paris "Proust at the crossroads
of centuries" talks about the importance of methodological aspects of the study of Proust's text for
the development of cognitive and communicative potential of the national language of personality:
«Il établit (colloque) un vaste état des lieux« des progrès des études proustiennes dans tous les
domaines »et apporte des éclairages aussi divers que stimulants» [6].
Jean Delacour in favor of expanding the cognitive capabilities of the language person on the
basis of reading Proust's text: «La visée proustienne (...) offre une description importante pour les
sciences, de l'opposition entre« mémoire sémantique », reconstruction du passé, et« mémoire
épisodique », retour inattendu du passé. En découle un débat qui divise encore aujourd'hui les
scientifiques: ces deux formes de mémoire sont-elle à dissocier, ou sont-elles au contraire les deux
facettes d'une même activité cognitive? »[Cit. ibid.].
As you can see, works of classic French literature can be viewed from different perspectives.
Before philological task is to make the individual writer's understandable for the reader to grasp the
hidden meaning of his works. You can start from the classic biography, considering the striking
events of life, which gave impetus to the creation of works that have found a way reflected in the
work. But the priority is still a linguistic and, more broadly, philological approach to artistic discourse in terms of speech influence on the minds of native speakers.
Marcel Proust one of the first to give a reason to believe the novel "not a matter of technique,
structure or plot, and the question of language" [7]. From a methodological point of view, we can
talk about optimizing cognitive and aesthetic functions of language, when the beauty of the world
through language is learned through deciphering the language of symbols of human existence. We
can not agree with the idea YM Lotman that "to understand life - is to learn its dark tongue. And in
all these - and many others - cases it is not about a poetic metaphor, but a thorough understanding of
the process of learning the truth and - increasingly - life "[8].
Prustovedy calculated that the word "decrypt» (déchiffrer) stands for the number of repetitions in second place in the novel Proust after the word "pleasure» (plaisir): «Decipher - more than a
show; is to solve a code that can be read in will allow the human soul "[2]. This approach involves a
keen sense of the value of every human being, the priority of the deep aspirations of the individual
associated with the comprehension of the joy of everyday existence.
Language personality of the writer Marcel Proust as a literary symbol of the French world
can be seen in the potency of its impact on the consciousness of the national language of the individual. By the above, we add that the literary text is considered the author of methodological value
in all its forms, from the author's conceptual sphere, to the language of mythology.
Now we will try to outline a place of creativity and personality in the Russian ethno-cultural
continuum, to whom critics retroactively gave the following adjectives: "Hamlet XX century",
"Knight of Russian poetry", "Hostage of Eternity", "hazing classic", "Radiant Soul", "One at all,
and everyone has his own. "
In modern Russia, the works of Boris Pasternak finally entered the school curriculum (number of poems, the novel "Doctor Zhivago"). This does not mean, of course, that Russian schoolchildren his books became reference, not at all. Unfortunately, the general reader immense Russia this
author is also not very well known. One reason is the notorious "incomprehensibility" of his poems.
According to some of his contemporaries, the poet's poems are characterized by high subjectivity
and passion form over substance. We believe that creativity Pasternak (as well as his personality)
left before the end enigmatic phenomenon precisely because of its organic integrity of both internal
and external worlds.
In our opinion the linguistic identity of Boris Pasternak has a specific national characteristics, relevant for the Russian linguistic culture. As an illustration of this thesis and, give some elements of his discourse, reflecting the inextricable link creative nature of the poet with national
roots:
1. "Russian song, like water in a dam. It seems she stopped and not moving. And at the depth
it follows from the non-stop Veshnjakov and tranquility of its surface is deceptive. By all means,
repetitions, parallelisms, it delays the progress gradually developing content. At a certain limit, it
immediately opens suddenly and immediately strikes us. Restrain yourself, ruling over them yearning force expresses itself so. This is a crazy attempt to stop time words. "
2. "That's collar, here arc those I no longer a servant. Home guys "; "Sam cooked himself
and eat. Sam reached into the water, do not shout - a utopia. "
3. "And the people of the child, we must know it, one must know his mind, there is required
a special approach. We must be able to touch his best, a chord so that they rang "[Doctor Zhivago
Boris Pasternak - quotes, 2006-2014].
Contextual analysis of the tokens in the statements indicates that most of them verbalizes key
concepts of the Russian world "Russian Song" (Russian song, like water in a dam; Veshnyak),
"Tosca" (yearning force; limit), "soul" (the people of the child ; the sensitivity of the string). The
above language material reflects the essential need of the Russian people to go beyond the everyday
existence (ruling power) and to express themselves creatively (stop time), transmits patient waiting
release (that clip, I am not a servant), manifests the sincerity and gullibility worldview (the child;
touch for the best ). Thanks connotative Macrocomponents all-Russian vocabulary is not only a vivid means of expression of the national language, but also by functioning in an artistic discourse, affect the emotional structure of the individual representative of the Russian linguistic culture.
This is an incomplete arsenal of poetic discourse Boris Pasternak, however, cast material can
be considered as the initial stage of the algorithm research potential linguistic personality of the
writer.
Thus, the national literature not only verbalizes national concepts, but also contributes to the
formation of a national sample of high linguistic identity. Great works of French and Russian literature grafted native speakers positive attitude towards national and universal values. Conceptosphere
both cultures, reflected in the classical national literature, creates unique mental field of Frenchspeaking and Russian-speaking valorization of the individual and provides role models, the observance of which contributes to the formation of high standards of national communications.
Adequate analysis of the ethno-cultural characteristics personality is also possible on the basis of consideration of individual texts of the author. Typological features of language personality
and communication can be distinguished on the basis of individual characteristics and, significant
components of copyright thesaurus specifics of narrative structure and language of mythology creation of one writer. It is important that the object of analysis was not "pass" the text, and the product
of national importance that can excite and agitate national reader at all times, ie the claim to the
classic design.
References
1. Balashova T., Narkirer F. French writers of literature. M., 1978.
2. Balashova T.V. The author, the hero, the narrator in Proust // cycle of Philology. 1999. № 1.
3. Brun B. Problèmes théoriques de genèse proustienne, Marcel Proust 3. Nouvelles directions
de la recherche proustienne 2. Textes réunis et présentés par Bernard Brun. Rencontres de
Cerisy-la-Salle (2-9 juillet 1997). Paris-Caen: lettres modernes Minard, 2001.
4. Kristeva J. Le temps sensible / Proust et l'expérience littéraire. P .: Gallimard, 1994. - 455p.
5. Callu F. Proust M. // Les plus beaux manuscrits des romanciers français. P .: 1994.
6. Bendhif-Syllas M. Proust au tournant des siècles 1, Textes réunis par Bernard Brun et Juliette
Hassine, série Marcel Proust, 4, La Revue des Lettres Modernes. Paris-Caen, Minard, 2004.
7. Lezama Lima H. Entrevista con Lezama // Cuba international. 1971. № 18. Cited in Jilin YN
José Lezama Lima. Endless possibilities: Manuscript.
8. Lotman Yu. The structure of the art text // Lotman Y.M. About art. SPb.: The Art of St.
Petersburg, 1998.
9. Boris
Pasternak
citations,
2006-2014
http://www.livelib.ru/author/1009/quotes/~7.
[electronic
resource]
Access:
Литература
1. Балашова Т., Наркирьер Ф. Писатели Франции о литературе. М.: Прогресс, 1978.
2. Балашова Т.В. Автор, герой, рассказчик в цикле Пруста // Вопросы филологии. 1999. №
1.
3. Brun B. Problèmes théoriques de genèse proustienne, Marcel Proust 3. Nouvelles directions
de la recherche proustienne 2. Textes réunis et présentés par Bernard Brun. Rencontres de
Cerisy-la-Salle (2-9 juillet 1997). Paris-Caen: lettres modernes Minard, 2001.
4. Kristeva J. Le temps sensible / Proust et l’expérience littéraire. P.: Gallimard, 1994. - 455p.
5. Callu F. Proust M. // Les plus beaux manuscrits des romanciers français. P.: 1994.
6. Bendhif-Syllas M. Proust au tournant des siècles 1, Textes réunis par Bernard Brun et Juliette
Hassine, série Marcel Proust, 4, La Revue des Lettres Modernes. Paris-Caen, Minard, 2004.
7. Лесама Лима Х. Entrevista con Lezama // Cuba international. 1971. № 18. Цитируется по
Гирин Ю.Н. Хосе Лесама Лима. Бесконечная возможность: Рукопись.
8. Лотман Ю.М. Структура художественного текста // Лотман Ю.М. Об искусстве. СПб.:
Искусство СПБ, 1998.
9. Пастернак Борис – цитаты, 2006-2014 [Электронный ресурс] Режим доступа:
http://www.livelib.ru/author/1009/quotes/~7.
November, 27, 2014
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