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2014-06-20

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LINGUISTICS
UDC 81
L.N. Stefankova
Southern federal university
Rostov-on-Don, Russia
larisastefankova@gmail.com
HIERARCHIC SCRIPT ORGANIZATION PROBLEMS
IN THE SHORT STORY TEXT
[Проблемы иерархической организации скриптов
в тексте короткого юмористического рассказа]
Within the frameworks of the short story with comic meaning the local scripts participating in antonymic global
script opposition organization reveal some vagueness. Instead of direct indication on some negative personage characteristics the local scripts focus the readers’ attention on some features of this personage, from which the reader is to do some
logical deductions. In the process of the humorous story unfolding there appears the information content reducing of one of
the global scripts and information content increasing of the other global script which is antonymic to the first one. As the
result, the text reveals a sudden shift from the first script to the second one. This fact reflects the author’s attitude to the
modern society’s moral and ethic values.
Key words: short story, comic effect, text conceptual organization, local script, global script, script contrast.
This research is devoted to the analysis of conceptual organization of the comic short story,
modeled hierarchically heterogeneous contrast scripts generation and interpretation of which involves
the cooperative contact between the author and the reader relying on a common language code for
them, and background knowledge. We study the language modeling techniques comic effect in the genre of the short story, drawing on cognitive style, discursive and narratologichesky analysis and cognitive psychology. In modern linguistic science artistic text with cognitive and functional research prospects regarded as the trigger response of the reader, communication co-creation of the author and the
reader in the process of generating and interpreting speech product [1; 4; 5]. The nature of the response
is determined by the actualization of various cognitive processes in the reader's mind caused by this or
that text.
As a result, the text type determines the specificity of its linguistic and conceptual processing
and interpretation of the addressee, a special communicative contact between author and reader. In this
connection, the starting point of the current work situation appears that the methods of generation and
interpretation of comic effect, initiated within the short narrative texts differ substantially from those
that are utilized in the texts of humorous stories and novels. At this position, in particular, a number of
modern based linguistic theories humor (see. In more detail in [6 8]).
Obviously, the narrative structure of the text suggests short - compared with texts and novels more concentrated architectonic concept of space and, in this connection, the specific configuration of
the meaning of linguistic resources, and consequently, more intense communicative contact between
the author portrayed them virtual world and the reader. Linguistic study of short comic story from the
perspective of the problems outlined above reveals the need for research and prospects of the following
units and relevant to modern linguistic science questions:
- How the author modeled narrative world of the text, ludicrous in its effect, and thus reinforcing the corresponding effect of certain linguistic units and segments found in this part of the text;
- What cognitive mechanisms determine the humorous nature of the text, regardless of the context of this narrative;
- What kind of conceptual schemes, frames, scripts activates category comic in the reader's
mind, perceiving text;
- As a special frame hierarchy and scripts that simulated the author creates a comic effect of
surprise on the part of the recipient of the text;
- What language means involved in the conceptualization of the reader's surprise comic effect,
as well as stylistic this effect.
These issues, as well as the need to identify the specificity of the conceptual language (framing)
modeling text short humorous story determines the relevance of this research. We believe that the text
of the short story can be classified as humorous if its conceptual organization subject to the following
principles:
1. The principle of the Opposition: every script, modeled in the text activates the opposite script
(script form both the opposition on the basis of lexical antonymy).
2. Principle of Hierarchy: scripts, activated in the text, are organized in a hierarchical manner at
different semantic levels of narration so that: a) high-level scripting function as hyperonyms and have a
high degree of functionality, dominating within the entire paragraphs or even the entire text (global
scripts); b) lower-level scripts function as hyponyms and represent information that is limited to the
individual segments of the text (local scripts).
3. The principle of Recurrence: global scripts "run" (activated unfold) text-axis multiple local
scripts. In this regard, the reader anticipates the course of humorous storytelling, creating their own interpretive expectations.
4. The principle of informative: in the final narrative experience spontaneous, and because of
this unexpected reader inversion global script, which is the most informative in the story. There is a
sudden actualization of each top-level opposition, does not justify the pre-reader expectations.
5. Principle of Cooperation: the basis is clearly confusing conceptual nature interpretive process
in which expectations are modeled contradicting interpretations are cooperative intentions in understanding the comic part of the reader. In other words, in the process of understanding the text reader a
priori set to humorous effect narrative.
The focus of the narrative art in this game are not Lingvostilistichesky and highly technical issues which meaning, but an ontological problem absurdity of human existence in the modern world is
closely connected with the problem of the relation of the comic art and reality of life. In the text opposition implementation of past and present in the life of the hero-narrator axis become extremely capacious semantically, as it causes in the cognitive mind of the reader senses, perceptions and images, explicitly in the semantic oppozitivnosti scripts that do not always get an explicit expression in the text.
In particular, in the story V. Allen's "The Story of My Madness" [7] the objective reality becomes the hero-narrator virtual, as if generated by a hallucination. Character, watched as his body is
living separately from the mind sinks into hallucinatory reality blurs the boundaries between "dream"
and reality that gives rise to in the text undeniable comic effect. The contrast in terms of life styles,
tested the same character in itself presents a comic, because it gets in the text radical and extreme. In
this respect, important is the fact that the complete symmetry of the linguistic and structural elements
that are utilized in the test specification author forms a stable tendency in text regardless of whether the
character is a portrait image of an event or characteristic state of consciousness character story. In the
parallel text actualized minor antithesis, which, in turn, are the building blocks of a global oppositions
(eg, PERFECTION (perfection) - IMPERFECTION (imperfections).
In paragraph, the opening story in "The Story of My Madness" actualized information that is
fundamental, base for the subsequent development of the semantic text. The structure of the antithesis,
manifestiruemaya initial statements, introduces two nuclear (global) script, which in what follows, in
turn, will organize all the textual segments. These nuclear scripts correspond to the moments "before"
and "after" on the time axis of life of the protagonist: the past, in which he was a successful doctor, and
the present in which he is a loser, suffering from nervous disorders. These personality types of the he-
ro-narrator described in the narrative, as a rule, by adjectives and adverbs. Table 1 presents the analysis
of contrasting scripts BUM (Loser) and SUCCESSFUL DOCTOR (Successful doctor) in accordance
with the slots "subject", "activity", "location", "time" and "living conditions", the majority of which in
the context of narrative reveals contrasting past and present life of the hero-narrator.
Token bum «loser" in the text of the narrative never found, but the corresponding script prevail
in the literary text as a shadow haunts the hero-narrator heels. In fact, every action, thought the hero of
the narrative, any episode of his life, which belong to the past, when he was a successful doctor, shaded
"catastrophic decline", which said at the beginning of the narrative, and the verbs in this uncertain time,
actualized the beginning of the story . The fact that the hero-narrator "sank to the bottom of life" indicates not directly, but indirectly. Script SUCCESFUL DOCTOR, on the contrary, kontseptualizuetsya
in the narrative through direct lexical means. Expression of highly successful doctor (highly successful
doctor) explicitly introduced into the narrative forms semantic core that dominates the text short humorous story, being less dependent on the context of direct narration. An important semantic additions
analyzed expression appears a stable love life (stable feeling of love in my life).
Table. 1
Contrasting global scripts bum and successful doctor
in the story V. Allen's "The Story of My Madness"
BUM
Субъект:
[+Human] [+Adult] [+Male]
Деятельность:
> to have a job
> to earn money
= not to have a job
= to live idly
= to live on charity and on leftovers:
Pausing at trash cans to fill my shopping bags
= to have an eccentric behavior:
Wearing a surgical mask, screaming revolutionary slogans and laughing hysterically
Местоположение:
> workplace; home
= street:
Roaming through Central Park
Roller-skating down Broadway
SUCCESSFUL DOCTOR
Субъект:
[+Human] [+Adult] [+Male]
Деятельность:
> study / progress rapidly on the work ladder
= have a highly respected job:
A highly successful doctor
= earn lots of money
= lead an active social life
Местоположение:
> University/ workplace
= hospital/ office
= select places:
(A familiar face at) theatre openings, Sardi’s, Lincoln Centre, and the Hamptons
Время:
Время:
= everyday
> several years
= everyday (to work)
= often (socialize)
Условия жизни:
Условия жизни:
= display poverty and lack of personal hy- = display obvious signs of wealth:
Living on the upper East Side, gadding about town
giene:
Wearing moth-eaten clothes;
in a Mercedes, and bedecked dashingly in a varied
Roller-skating unshaven;
array of Ralph Lauren tweeds
= conform to one’s present condition
= have social savoir-faire:
= live in solitude/ not to have a stable love life
I boasted great wit and a formidable backhand
= be recognized
= have success with women/ have a stable love
life with a woman of equal social status
Analyzed above dichotomy global scripts reveals the fact that a large part of their content, as
well as the opposition itself these scripts, is expressed in the text of a humorous story implicit way. In
this regard, the reader requires updating various kinds of presuppositions which appears the main
transmission strategy implicit meaning. Semantic connections within analyzed in Table 1. scripts, and
between these scripts are detected based on the reader about pruppozitsionalnye knowledge. At the logical-linguistic level presuppositions directly correlated with semantic information, implemented some
concept. For example, bum presents a concept, which refreshes the presuppositions such as: 1) a bum is
an adult individual who: 2) does not have a job and 3) is homeless. Likewise, successful doctor is a
concept that involves the following presuppositions: 1) economic comfort; 2) social status; 3) hard
work.
Exaggeration - classical modeling tool comic effect in the text [3, p. 7] - are widely represented
in the analyzed our story V. Allen. The function of this stylistic device is to support the principle of
semantic opposition on which to build the text of the short story. In fact, initiating an exaggerated importance, hyperbole simulates this type of opposition scripts, which can be defined as POSSIBLE (possible) / IMPOSSIBLE (impossible) or REAL (real) / UNREAL (unreal).
In addition, the hyperbole manifests a typical example of a pragmatic organization humorous
discourse because konversatsionnuyu violates the maxim of Quality (GG Grice): "Do not say that, in
relation to what you have no adequate reasons" [2, p. 222]. However, this type of gain expression contains the implicature cooperative nature as her reader's decoding generates contextual effects comedy.
Focus on the effects that fired Osip his neighbor, Mrs. Faytlson: "The bullet passed through my
ceiling, causing Mrs. Fitelson in the apartment overhead to leap straight upward onto her bookshelf and
remained perched there throughout the high holidays "[7, p. 103] (WATLT). The text of the story there
is a "switch" scripts (SUICIDE (suicide) / HOMICIDE (murder)). In this case, the opposition SELFAGGRESSION (aggression, self-directed) / HETERO-AGRESSION (aggression aimed at the other) is
expressed through the image as if the accident is impossible. This expresses the impossibility of hyperbole.
We found that the virtual world of comic short story text is modeled by the author based on
contextual juxtaposition of incompatible scripts, which form a coherent text not only space, but also the
corresponding comic effect. Gain function mapping, take the stylistic means (in particular, hyperbole)
that punctuate the current reader's attention on certain conceptual objects text and individual - stylistically marked - text elements pointing to these objects. In other words, stylistic devices within a short
comic story are utilized as the implementation of specific stylistic techniques extension that allows the
author to focus the reader's attention to the opposition incompatible within the text script on the local
and global levels.
Conceptual organization comic effect in the framework of the short story requires the reader to
additional effort on the interpretation of the text, which is replete with implicit expression of meaning.
In other words, the overwhelming volume of copyright meanings transmitted the text of the short story,
is available on the implicit level of narration. Copyright meanings extracted reader relying on their own
presuppositions, allusive text components, non-literal aspects of knowledge and meaning of the individual text components (implicature). In this case, the reader periodically resorted to his encyclopedic
knowledge in order to restore the text informative gaps that are intentional in nature. At the heart of the
author's verbal behavior short comic story are certain communicative goal, which, in turn, subject to
the principles of cooperation, declared in the initial hypothesis of our study. Text hints semantic barriers and semantic trap, which are abundant in the text of a short comic story, appear effective means of
realization of the author's strategy to ensure that the reader has successfully decoded the information
layer text surprised a result of this decoding and got the pleasure of reading.
References
1. Belyanin V.P. Psychological Literature Studies: Text as Reflection of Author and Reader’s Internal Worlds. М., 2006.
2. Grice G.P. Logics and Speech Communication // New in Foreign Linguistics. Vol. XVI: Linguistic Pragmatics. M., 1985.
3. Degtyarenko K.A. Linguistic Mechanisms in Yu. Bujda’s Collection of Stories «Prussian
Bride»: Abstract Dis. … Candidate of Philological Science. Kaliningrad, 2009.
4. Kovylkin A.N. Reader as Theoretical and Literary Problem: Abstract Dis. … Candidate of Philological Science. M., 2007.
5. Shatrova T.I. Language Game in the Texts of Comic Orientation: Abstract Dis. … Candidate of
Philological Science. Tula, 2006.
6. Allen W. The Lunatic’s Tale // Allen W. Side Effects. NY., 1990.
7. Attardo S., Raskin V. Script Theory Revis(it)ed: Joke Similarity and Joke Representation Model
// Humor: The International Journal of Humor Research. 1991. № 4 (3-4).
Литература
1. Белянин В.П. Психологическое литературоведение: текст как отражение внутренних миров
автора и читателя. М., 2006.
2. Грайс Г.П. Логика и речевое общение // Новое в зарубежной лингвистике. Вып. XVI:
Лингвистическая прагматика. М., 1985.
3. Дегтяренко К.А. Языковые приемы комического в книге рассказов Ю. Буйды «Прусская
невеста»: автореф. дис. … канд. филол. наук. Калининград, 2009.
4. Ковылкин А.Н. Читатель как теоретико-литературная проблема: дис. … канд. филол. наук. М., 2007.
5. Шатрова Т.И. Языковая игра в текстах комической направленности: процессы кодирования и декодирования: автореф. дис. … канд. филол. наук. Тула, 2006.
6. Allen W. The Lunatic’s Tale // Allen W. Side Effects. NY., 1990.
7. Attardo S., Raskin V. Script Theory Revis(it)ed: Joke Similarity and Joke Representation Model
// Humor: The International Journal of Humor Research. 1991. № 4 (3-4).
December, 24, 2014
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