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UDC 371
V.N. Kharchenko
Rostov institute of entrepreneurship protection
Rostov-on-Don, Russia
[Образовательная услуга как объект рыночных отношений]
The article considers the views of educational services as multifactorial process, which bring together a set of its
characteristics. It is analyzed the specific characteristics of services for the implementation of educational programs.
The mechanism of the provision of educational services in the region is taken into account. It is also stated the view of
the submarket economic education as part of the education market specific purpose and name, which is actively manifested processes of competition through segmentation, diversification, integration.
Key words: market, educational services, educational services market, competition, competitive advantage, main
features of educational services, segmentation, diversification, integration scheme.
In modern scientific literature considered not related to the pedagogy of the concept of "market", "educational services", "education market", however, they are widely used in the scientific debate and practice of educational activities. Defined in the interpretation of these terms, you should
first determine what constitutes a category of "market". In the socio-cultural dictionary AS
Akhiezer market called a form of universality that connects a particular aspect of the entire diversity
of life in a single unit, where all the elements in the form of activities focused on production, consumption, storage, movement, etc. goods, including services ... [1].
In terminological dictionary VV Maslov educational services are understood as "... a set of purposefully create and offer opportunities for people to acquire certain knowledge and skills to meet
those or other educational needs. The term is borrowed from economic theory, where domestic,
transportation and other services are considered on a par with the other results of labor-shaped
goods and is the subject of sale. Since educational activities focused on human development, which
in no reservations can not act as its objectives, ways of achieving the objectives of the educational
activities and its results unacceptable to interpret in terms of commodity production and the market
economy. At the same time it is necessary to set off the purely economic side of the activity associated with the reproduction of the labor force. In its aims and content of educational services are divided into three types: a) address the needs of the labor market - professional; b) address the needs
of organizations and social communities - social; c) address the needs of human development - social and cultural [7].
Many researchers agree that the main focus of the university is to provide educational services,
but they do not give a clear definition of what a particular form of service there is what is meant by
the product of the labor of high school when this product becomes a commodity. AO Chentcov offers the following definition: "Educational services are in the process of scientific and pedagogical
work, which is in turn a kind of scientific work. The result of scientific and pedagogical work can
be called educational product. Educational product - it's part of an intellectual product, adapted to
the corresponding segment of educational services "[15].
From the definition it is clear that educational service is the result of scientific and pedagogical
work, which is created to meet the needs of the consumer. MA Lukashenko offers category "ultimate educational product as the formation of the individual, and the intermediate educational product as a result of the intermediate stages of the educational production, expressed in educational
goods and services" [6]. There are other points of view, what is the educational service. For example, AM Strizhov "under the educational services understands purposeful activity, characterized by
the interaction of participants in the educational process and are designed to meet the educational
needs of the individual" [12].
R. Dzhaparov for educational services understands "activity-transfer system to impart
knowledge and proven experience of practical skills to a certain type of employment through direct
communication with the student" [2]. Consequently, the educational service is the interaction between educational institutions and students in the process of providing and acquiring this particular
In a number of educational services is the process of information transfer students to produce a
specific result. From this perspective, educational service is considered by many authors. ED Lipkin
"under the educational services as a set of knowledge, skills and a certain amount of information
that are used to meet the specific needs of the individual and society in the intellectual development
and the acquisition of professional skills" [5]. SA Zaychikova analogous to the "educational services under the system understands the knowledge and skills that are used to meet the needs of the
individual, society and the state, and are aimed at the increase of human capital" [3]. NN
Tereshchenko, "defining the content of educational services, said that it is a set of actions: educational and training measures aimed at meeting the needs of the individual, as a result of which there
is the improvement of existing and acquired skills" [13]. This view is shared by VN Zotov, who
formulates his conclusions as follows: "educational service - is the amount of academic and scientific information transmitted by the citizen as the sum of public knowledge and special character, as
well as practical skills, citizen transmitted on a particular program" [4].
TA Sleep states that "... an educational service is the result of training, management and financial and economic activities of the institution, designed to meet the industrial demand for training,
retraining and labor demand of individuals for a profession or qualification, requalification ..." [17].
IB Romanov "under the educational services understands career economic unit, designed to
meet the needs of some subjects in education (ie, in the acquisition of systematized knowledge,
skills and abilities), with the prior consent of the subject" [9]. Broader educational services are defined VP Schetinin who "understands the educational services under the system of knowledge, information and skills that are used in order to meet the multiple needs of the individual, society and
the state" [16].
In our view, the definition of VP Shchetinina missed an important point about the fact that the
educational service - is the interaction of the educational institution students and employers. In nonstate entities in the process of interaction of the presence of parents of students who pay for their
children's education.
AA Braverman sees universities as producers of goods called young professionals. In his view,
higher education institutions should ensure optimal saturation of the labor market experts, relevant
consumer needs and demands of the scientific and technical progress. This ignores the fact that
people actually item can not be, because it is not a product of production, and is a natural thing.
From our perspective, we should agree with OV Saginova, which expresses the opposite, in
contrast to AA Braverman opinion on the matter under consideration and said "... you can not make
a definitive statement of the author of the university as a producer of goods in the form of young
professionals. After all, with the same base manufacturer of this particular product could be called
parents, school environment and surroundings of the graduate. After all, even in the formation of
professionally significant knowledge and skills that are used by employers in the labor market, is
involved not only the university. Self-education in the period of study at the university, parallel
training in various courses, the influence of family, environment, etc. brings graduates the
knowledge, skills and abilities, then claimed by the labor market. Therefore, the university is not the
manufacturer of graduates, and educational programs in the form in which they mastered its graduates. In turn, the educational program is a set of educational services aimed at changing the educational level or training demand and providing adequate resources educational organization "[10].
Services by implementing educational programs characterized by a certain specificity. In our
view, it is manifested in a combination of traditional ideas about the services and their unique features [14]:
1) undecidability organs of touch;
2) the inseparability of sources to provide it;
3) the variability in quality;
4) inability to retain the services in one way or another;
5) immateriality;
6) regular evaluation of services;
7) consumer participation in the provision of services;
8) the yield from the services;
9) maintenance related services;
10) the satisfaction of social needs in education;
11) State quality control.
For educational services is characterized by a low degree of recognizability organs of touch.
Consumers of educational services by contacting the university can not advance and reliably establish the quality of educational services. The second characteristic of services is shown through its
inseparability from the source of: Educational services inseparable from high school and his teachers, even if you use distance learning.
The quality of educational services is variable because the qualification of teachers is different,
material and technical base, support curriculum work programs of disciplines at various levels of
quality and other elements. Furthermore, variability in quality of service may mean the same result,
and, consequently, the demand of the consumer. The same teacher can participate in the educational
process in different ways, depending on the payment for work, his intellectual abilities and traits.
In recent years, the most actively expanded its scope of services provided Southern Federal
University. Offering 8 particularly interesting for students of economic trends, it is now the clear
market leader in highly competitive segments, and the monopoly of independent submarkets (in
"Economic Theory", "The World Economy", "Tax").
In the division of the market except for the Southern Federal University, Rostov State including
other universities and one private university. Their product policy is based on the desire to form and
defend their monopoly position. At the same time higher education institutions seeking to consolidate its position in the education market with high potential demand. In contrast to the large public
schools, private universities tend to operate on a high-capacity segments already proven specialties
("Management", "Economy", "Accounting and Audit", "Marketing"), thus minimizing their risks.
Competition is forcing universities increasingly expand the list of specialties, which leads to better
accommodate and meet consumer demand.
Competition universities manifested in territorial aspect, takes into account the geography of
demand, particularly peripheral local markets of educational services. It forces the universities to
strengthen the processes of formation of its own territorial strategy to maximize coverage, or, conversely, the optimum location, use of the potential market space region. Geographically localized
aspect of market competition is extremely important because it allows not only to be more competitive, but also allows you to earn an income due to its excellent location.
The territorial dimension in the activities of the university is extremely important. Porter
stressed that "the geographical location remains a fundamental factor in competition. Paradoxically,
"- said the researcher - is that a sustainable competitive advantage in the global economy are often
more local, arising from concentrations of highly specialized skills and knowledge, institutions, rivals, interconnected economic activities, as well as sophisticated consumers in a particular country
or region ". [8]
Accommodation university branches at the periphery of the Rostov region, or directly in the
traditional academic center is nothing more than as an approximation of higher economic education
to the consumer. This process can be called a natural reaction to competition universities. Risks for
the development of peripheral markets are able to take over, perhaps, only financially stable universities. Nevertheless, the competition win those who have business image and focuses on comprehensive and dynamic segments. The level of competition in the education market environment increases due to penetration into the region of high schools from other regions. Those who come to
the region, focused on pre-largest city, because here there is a pent-up demand for education and
good pay.
In a new advertising policy began to show schools. Many of them are not limited to traditional
advertising texts and deploy thoughtful and targeted PR - campaigns in several areas: information
press releases in local periodicals, international forums and symposiums; providing space for regionally significant actions; regular "open days", etc. These measures reflect the traditional aspects
of market competition and the desire to universities or to maintain its presence in the market in the
presence of a few large competitors, or to provide some sort of monopoly market.
In addition, in this context of regular steps to enter the market with the original special, important are those which employ different integration scheme. Integration ties are built on the vertical (university - school, high school - college, etc.) principle allows the institute virtually monopolize a (more or less significant) segment demand. Tasks repartition of the market and its joint
(group) is the monopolization of the horizontal integration. Educational institution may be link both
vertical and horizontal chains simultaneously.
Acting in accordance with the logic of competitive relations, leading economic universities
tend to have infrastructure programs Magistracy, training of the teaching staff in graduate school,
residency and doctoral studies. In this area appear various forms of competition, and the most important competitive advantage is considered dissertation council.
Thus, the general parameters of the regional market of educational services, its relatively long
by modern Russian standards, the history of formation and functioning expressed elements positioning of market participants in the conditions of deep segmentation, market strategies implemented by
universities - all of this illustrates the fact that competition, its potential for self-development of the
market . Entry in the last stage of not only its relative maturity, which is expressed in a variety of
forms and manifestations of competition, but also the general instability in the negative dynamics of
demand, makes the need to have effective regulation of the market for educational services.
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