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UDC 32
S.N. Zykov
Udmurtiya state university
Izhevsk, Russia
[Признаки синтеза проектных культур Коми и северных русских
на примере усадьбы семьи Гурленовых]
In the article herein specific features of wooden buildings in Konets-Ozerje village (known as Martynovka since
16th century) located on the border of the present-day Arkhangelsk Region and the Komi Republic which have been
forming over the course of history are considered. Attention is given to the fact that known uniformity of mansion
houses in the settlement suggests special design culture of wooden construction available in the area. In the article a
conclusion is drawn that since design culture within the territorial location was developed directly under influence of
design culture of North Russians and Komi people, wooden buildings in the area are characterized with the established
combination of aesthetic and layout features of a dwelling place typical for those two nations. Big size and ascetics of
the exterior and relative symmetry of houses in Konets-Ozerje village liken them with traditional Komi buildings, while
complexity of layout solutions of the interior and communication passages – with that of North Russians.
Key words: Konets-Ozerje village, design culture of Russians and Komi people, wooden residential buildings,
territorial location of design culture.
Researcher NS Pichko writes that "... the concept of" culture "(translated from the Latin. Cultivation, education, development) the human environment, presented in the form of products of
human activity ..." [6, p. 268]. At any given time, at each time epoch spiritual component of the
world cultural ethnic group found its visible materializes in the objective world. A striking example
- the traditional religious, residential and commercial buildings. In the north of Russia, most of these facilities are being built of the most affordable building material here - the tree. Therefore, over
the centuries the people living in the forest-rich regions formed its own, largely unique to each nation, the project culture erection of these buildings. Integral components of its ethnic and cultural
flavor were special construction formalism, the mythic and religious content of the buildings, the
specific aesthetic and performance. All this formed in the space-time coordinates under the influence of a complex set of factors (especially philosophy and way of life of the ethnos, engineering
and design specifics of building material, the influence of design culture of neighboring peoples,
etc.). Of course, holding the object-oriented analysis of the current regional project with the consideration of multi-cultural ethnic and cultural specificity is of great scientific interest in the context of
a wide variety of aspects of the study. For example, the relevance of the study of this problem
seems evident within obtaining and maintaining the most complete information about the originality
of the material carriers of original culture of the Finno-Ugric ethnic groups.
One particular issues to be considered in the framework of the aforementioned general problem is the question about the features of design culture of wooden construction, on the borders of
localized regions of Finno-Ugric peoples and neighboring ethnic groups. So on the border of modern Arkhangelsk region of Russia and the Republic of Komi centuries there has been intense mutual
interpenetration and cultural traditions of the people of the northern Komi and Russian, which was
directly reflected in the aesthetic, design and technology and other features of the design culture of
the border region. Let us analyze the phenomenon of the interpenetration of cultures of neighboring
peoples project by examining some of its characteristics: aesthetic appearance and planning decisions wooden buildings.
As objects of study, consider manor built village End-the-Lake (known from the XVI century
called Martynovka), located on the border of the Arkhangelsk region and Komi Republic. In the
context of studying the mutual influence of design culture of Russian and Komi is interesting to
note that the place where the object of study is in the Lena region Arkhangelsk region, surrounded
on three sides by lands of the Komi Republic and is in close proximity to the border of this republic.
Comparative analysis of settlement structures showed that some estates in general are fairly
similar (common design approaches, internal layout, architectonic). Therefore, there is reason to say
that in this area we are dealing with a special locally-generated project specific regional culture of
wooden buildings. In addition, each end of the village manor-the-Lake is its bright vivid pattern. In
the following study examined only one characteristic homestead settlements - family house
Gurlenovyh (Fig. 1).
Before the beginning of the comparative analysis and determination of the extent to which
the family's home Gurlenovyh to design culture of the northern Russian and Komi is necessary to
bring the total common characteristic structures of these peoples, give a brief description of the similarities and differences of design culture.
If we consider the traditional houses and estates of the northern Komi Russian with common
structural and operational positions, then we can talk about their similarities. This is a large Log
buildings with lots of carcass premises, united by one common roof. Professor VB Koshaev about
North House writes: "The sense of monumentality and grandeur, the awareness of it, rather, a natural sculptural body, rather than man-made structure ..." [3, p. 38]. There is no doubt that such a
monumental buildings is primarily determined by the harsh cold climate of northern regions of Russia and the acute need to preserve life in the premises of the heat for a long time. Maximum insulation from a deep freeze during the winter land also provides a large volume underground spaces.
Therefore, in the north of the house often erected high-rise, or were put on high basement, with the
formation is often difficult for the organization of the underground facilities. For these reasons, traditional houses and estates of the northern Komi Russian is usually a significant scale and complex
structures on the device. Construction of such a large carcass estate complexes required large material and labor costs, so basically achieved in stages (log for log cabins for several years). In this
case, the operation of such buildings counted in centuries. The total roof over the carcass premises
of the estate during the duration of the construction complicated and constantly expanding. To this
we must add that the roof (both houses of Komi and the northern Russian) traditionally erected by
tackless technology, were similar in design and is characterized by the functional elements as
"male" chicken "," flow "," ohlupen "etc. etc.
Note that, despite some similarities in the process of construction, as well as the similarity of
some constructive solutions, the final version of the completed construction of a traditional house
and the northern Komi Russian house on the overall layout and aesthetic characteristics varied significantly. This suggests that the neighboring nations had their own in their own unique design culture with certain specific ethnic identity. Consider the case of differences in space-planning decisions of residential and business premises buildings Komi and Russian, which to a large extent determines the visible difference in their architectonics.
The house Komi is characterized by almost equal parts (halves): residential and economic.
"One of the oldest types of Komi-house is a chalet-twins. It consists of two log, which are set very
close to each other "[2, p. 25]. As a result, according to Professor VB Koshaev, when you look at
the structure there is "... a sense of wholeness and concise as it flattened and fused with the ground
is proportional to the volume of a powerful, like a giant bird" [3, p. 38]. Log cabin (or combined
along a single line log-house) was separated from the residential half of economic half (large log
courtyard) "the lane" - a direct corridor, which provided communication links between all areas of
the house and the street (the lane had access to the porch). This corridor could constructively placed
as parallel to the ridge of the roof the log, and across it, determine the layout of the porch (or on the
front part, or to the side). This layout (provided in the RV Nekrasov [4, p. 67]) residential, commercial and ancillary facilities can be called the canonical houses for the Komi people. To this we must
add that to the characteristic features of these structures include approximately symmetrical with
respect to the house a vertical plane passing through the beam of the roof ridge, and very little decoration window casings (trim on the windows could be out at all).
Northern Russian house had a more complex layout (compared to home Komi), which defines a significant amount of self-constructed at different times, carcass premises. Northern Russian
house can be attributed to the type of "home-purse." Researcher SI Dmitriev writes: "In addition to
housing and facilities for cattle (yard), a peasant hut consisted Storeroom - baths, barns, haylofts,
barns, rings, cellars, closets, wells, etc." [1, p. 60]. Such buildings have a wide variability of recruitment and the spatial arrangement of carcass residential and residential use, as well as indoor
Farmstead. Facilities could be located on the same or on different levels, forming a number of floors
of the building. Communicative function between indoor and outdoor performing difficult a corridor-ladder system. Northern Russian house is rich in decoration window openings (in particular,
carved and painted aprons) and the presence of "ambulatory" (balconies).
Based on the above description of the house and the northern Komi Russian House of comparative analysis can determine the degree of belonging of the manor built in the village family
Gurlenovyh End-lake to the design culture of the northern Komi and Russian. It should be noted
that further comparative analysis and the formation of evidence focuses on copyright and archival
photographs, stories home owners and veteran settlements.
Description of house
The house is strictly oriented to the cardinal. In this case, on the south side of the front huts
located most of the windows of the structure (Figure 1), which is the traditional culture in the design
of many people, because this creates a regime of maximum illumination of premises. First Floor of
the house (right hut cage I in Figure 1) has been brought under the roof of the April 24, 1844, as
evidenced by the inscription on one of the logs (Figure 2). Later residential part of the house (left
hut pyatistenok-II in Figure 1), built in the late 19th century (1897). Later built a large log cabin
Farmstead located along the north side of the dwelling huts and lasted until the mid-20th century.
On its ground floor courtyard was a barn for cows, horses and sheep, and the second - with Sennik
vzvoz for arrival of horses and carts. House strictly along a straight line was divided into residential
and commercial part of the "bridge" (the term veteran settlements) - Through a corridor. "Bridge"
was output / input on the porch and in all residential and business premises. All the buildings, according to old-timers, for a long time had Samtsova roof (mandatory in this case, the structural elements of "chicken", "flow" and "ohlupen").
Said structure has common features to help you determine that it belongs to project culture
characteristic wooded northern territories of Russia: the gradual construction of log cabins of the
estate, a large number of carcass facilities under the same roof (including indoor household yard)
Samtsova roof; high basement, room for the animals on the ground floor courtyard with a hayloft
and vzvoz on its second floor. But while there are clear signs of specific ethnic and cultural influences, like the northern Russian and Komi.
Signs accessories design Komi culture manifested primarily in the architectonic object: the
approximate symmetry of the structure relative to the vertical plane of the ridge beams; strict rectilinear division for residential homes and economic parts of a wide corridor (with access to a door of
the premises); the mean dressing casings windows.
Signs accessories design culture in the northern Russian manor Gurlenovyh primarily seen
in the features layout and functionality of the interior. So filling the space between srubs residential
area and indoor Farmstead different from home Komi. While maintaining the principle of symmetry
between the ordered and the residential part of the economic yard (which is typical for homes
Komi) in addition to the sharing of the house "bridge", there are two additional areas:
1. On the other hand the first log hut (via a "bridge") is a building of log space, called
"Cleat" (terminology of the old-timers). This room has no windows, is used as a storage area (or
2. On the contrary the second hut is also available of log space, the old-timers called "room"
(sex in the "upper room" is higher than in other areas of the building).
Between "Cleat" and "upper room" of the bridge stretches wide passage to the indoor Farmstead, which also is a flight of stairs to the attic (Figure 3). All this (along with "bridge") can be positioned as elements of a complex multi-level system of the corridor that was the hallmark of the
northern Russian homes. Such features as decorating the top of the crown of log cabins of logs
(Figure 2) and a balcony with balusters (Figure 4) can also be attributed to the characteristics of design culture of the northern Russian.
PhD in art EV Ovchinnikov in his work writes that "... the wooden architecture of different
peoples is part of the visible reflection formed over the centuries a kind of national project culture"
[5, p. 79]. Based on the results of comparative analysis Gurlenovyh manor, located in the village of
End-lake on the border of the Arkhangelsk region and Komi Republic, we can conclude that in this
area there was a kind unique design culture of wooden structures, which incorporated features of
design culture of the Komi and the northern Russian . Moreover, a visible architectonic structure
gives reason to believe the predominant influence of design culture of Komi. The impact of the
Russian project culture refers to the three-dimensional composition of internal volume as well as
some additional elements of external decoration.
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