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UDC 32
M.I. Shpreiser
Southern federal university
Rostov-on-Don, Russia
[Психотерапия как культурная технология]
It is considered the psychotherapeutic function of culture, which is today one of the most important. It is realized through the formation of a specialized sphere of culture - psychotherapy. Therefore, this area should be studied not
only in the medical sciences, psychiatry or psychology, but also by the theory of culture. The article proves the efficiency of the approach based on an understanding of psychotherapy as a cultural technology shows its specificity compared
with industrial or information technology.
Key words: industrial/post-industrial society, function, culture, innovation, cultural, technology, therapy, subjectivity, adaptation, existential philosophy.
People and culture are integral unity of the parties. As a human being procedural (it changes,
evolves, is in constant motion, which occurs in the direction of adaptation to the outside world, on
the one hand, in the form of transformation itself and the world, on the other), the extent of human
activity requires energy renewal. Expending great efforts to ensure that "live", to develop themselves, interact with others, to overcome the resistance of the medium, the person at the same time
"spent" himself. Therefore, he needs psychological help and finds her in the cultural world. Hence,
recovery of mental function, psychological support is one of the most important in the culture.
The system of traditional culture performs this function, first of all, religion. However, with
the development of the industrial / post-industrial civilization, becoming "a society of the masses",
"consumer society", under the influence of factors of information and globalization, the bearer of
the function curative effects on the human psyche, stress reduction and harmonization of consciousness is increasingly becoming a specialized sphere of culture - Psychotherapy . In today's society,
prone to higher levels of neuroticism, the role of the spheres of cultural life increases. This makes it
necessary to study it, not only in special disciplines, but also the theory of culture.
At the heart of the cultural mechanisms of reproduction and development of modern Western
society are mounting depth on the transformation of some systems instead of constant refinement of
their parts. In the traditional culture of these settings implicitly mature, but not actively working.
Conditions for their actualization were created in the era of the first revolution, began to break
down the traditional and create industrial civilization - the industrial, scientific, more bourgeois. It
was that experience that arming the West entered a phase of modernity. Now the installation to
transform any type of activity, its products or conditions, provides an individual, economic, political
entity to implement breakthroughs that are needed in order to be able to overtake rivals and reach
the heights of success, or at least certain, clear and stable advantages.
However, the paradox is that such stability in innovation-oriented society is becoming less attainable. Because the pace of development of society is increasing steadily. Any innovation is designed to withstand attacks from all pass the test of strength. Almost every cultural achievement
disproved new. This process becomes infinite and stable dynamic. But every innovation, every
breakthrough are forms of risk, and therefore require not only intelligent, but also mental, nervous
Engaging in any sphere of human production and consumption, accompanied by a multitude
of experiences and excitement, as rapid change in operating conditions of each individual complicates stay in it, can make it an outsider. Moral indifference of market competition and unpredictable
consequences latest generate feelings hidden, and sometimes, sheer anxiety. All this requires constant vigilance man, being "vigilant" of nervous tension and emotional costs. Together with the
prosperity of modern Western society is flourishing feelings of uncertainty, insecurity. There is a
growing feeling that the world is capable of self-regulation in the past.
These phenomena have been described in detail by many theorists of culture, sociology, psychology, gravitating to the philosophical-cultural understanding problems. So, R.Mey writes that
these days anxiety pervades all aspects of society. Man is faced with conflicting standards of behavior and values, while experiencing inner turmoil, loss of direction, alienation, unsure-ness. Therefore anxiety comes to the surface, the problem becomes apparent. [8; cm. and 2; 9; 10] Z.Bauman
emphasizes that in our time the position of individuals in society, the places they tend to occupy,
"quickly transformed and can hardly be reliably serve as the target of someone's life. These new
fuzziness and fragility purposes equally affect all of us ... there is little we can sde¬lat, if any, that
you can, trying to "hedge their future" diligent observance of the currently accepted standards "[1.
P.183]. But there is the problem of identification and self-actualization cause disease both psychological and existential-philosophical nature.
The more fraught with painful condition persists in society dissatisfaction basic psychological
needs for safety, love, respect, self-esteem, identity and self-actualization. Maslow says that failure
to meet them leads to nervous and mental diseases. However, dissatisfaction with even higher,
metamotivatsionnyh needs, manifested in the loss of human values, leads to frustration, which he
calls metapatologiey [7. C.35]. These scientists refer, for example, inhibition of the spirit, arising
surrounded by insincere people and because of the crisis of confidence. However, in a situation of
total competition it would be strange person experiences too much trust in the environment. This
means that in society there is a tendency to reproduce metopatology.
We can conclude that modern culture creates complex factors of neuroticism, requiring social
response. Their action creates a problem crying out for solutions. Hence, the emergence and development of psychotherapy is not just the result of creative activity of the great minds, but the answer
to the questions of our time. Psychotherapy occurs as a cultural phenomenon is directly related to
the implementation of psychotherapeutic function of culture, specifically focused on her. "Psychotherapy is a kind of social counterweight to balance the basic protses¬sy and trends sick society writes M.E.Litvak.- No matter na¬skolko launched a disease of society. Psychotherapy allows every single indi¬vidu resist pathogenic social influences and helps to swim against the tide, it restores
human nature, it is revolutionary and radical in the root sense of the slo¬va. A therapist - a man rising up to fight the pathogenic social influences, to fight with society "[5. S.274-275].
But what is psychotherapy, if not analyze it in the usual medical, and cultural aspect? It seems
that the understanding of this phenomenon as one of the major cultural technologies can be quite
If we turn to the current in the Russian philosophy and culture of technological concept of
culture as a historically changing the way the regulation, conservation, reproduction and development of social life [3. P.88; 6], we can consider the cultural technologies as historically conditioned
principles, canons, cultural algorithms, regulations, cultural matrix process, which ensure its implementation by the rules and relatively clear direction. However, they contain a range of opportunities to overcome their own, like "folding in the side", due to the subjectivity of the individual, creativity as an attribute of human existence, with the goal-setting and meaning-function of human consciousness.
Turning to psychotherapy, we can see that she, as a cultural technology, inherent sustainability of the sequence of certain actions and measures with its own internal logic which are tailored to
the target and involve the necessary funds. Psychotherapy in this case is a way to "construct" a certain type of relationship, the establishment of which is necessary to achieve certain intended effect.
This technology is regulated and supervised by the relevant social institutions.
Meanwhile, psychotherapy, as a cultural technology, of course, can not be attributed parameters inherent in industrial technology. Using the latest achieves planned in advance of the planned
result, it implies the uniqueness of tools and approved recommendations. This uniqueness, design
and assess the impact of psychotherapy is not. Moreover, the problem of efficiency of psychiatry
today is very acute, because "bad" psychotherapy can bring a lot of trouble [4. P.116]. Yet, it should
be borne in mind that, like any cultural technology, psychotherapy contains a matrix of the process
(in this case, psychotherapy), algorithms and solutions that ensure its development on a relatively
clear direction.
Cognitive basis of psychotherapy as a cultural technology is the science (physiology, psychiatry, psychology, and others.). However, the latter is not something that is external psychotherapy.
Modern science, in general, reveals its technological nature. Scientific knowledge acquired in the
way of his being psychotherapy and psychotherapy developed as a way of applying the relevant sciences in the practice of the treatment of certain kinds of diseases. Communication of this cultural
technology and science is also carried out through the conceptualization of ideas "work" theories
are logged in as a critical component.
However, psychotherapy is beyond the end of the guidance given by only the natural sciences,
becomes a way of practical application of human knowledge, within the scope of the existential issues. It deals with human subjectivity, and not with the objective of process parameters and specific
direction changes or stationary objects. This is the specificity of psychotherapy as a cultural technology and its fundamental difference from those technologies that are aimed at the construction
and transformation of materials or information flow data.
Subjectivity is not certain, initially empty sphere, filled only from the outside. It has its own
content, determined by internal sources of activity. Therefore, the subjective world does not possess
the qualities of the object on the merits. In addition, it should not be and become, - in whole or in
fragments, - the object of corrective action by a specialist who supposedly better understands what
it takes to the patient and how to better adapt to environmental conditions.
Relationship to patient problems to the mentally ill person as an object is very convenient, because an opportunity for them to manipulate and solutions at the expense of the person their life
problems, with no extra effort. But smart and experienced professional, a good specialist will always be on the client side, and never above it. Respect for the other person, even mentally ill,
recognition of his merit, accurate and reverent attitude to his spiritual experiences, understanding
how painful could be depression, neurosis, the suffering person can experience finally sympathy he
will never lead to the transformation of human object.
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December, 17, 2014
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