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8288 - 5 - 9 - 2002 - 1 -

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3
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3
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2 + H
2
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+
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2+ + H
2
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3
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4 + H
2
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3 + 2OH
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2
O + 62 3) H
2
SO
4 + Na
2
O = Na
2
SO
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2
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2
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2
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3
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6 H 6
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2
6 H 6
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2 H 2
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S
+ H + \hkklZgh\bl_ev
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6
6 H 6
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) H )
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.
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9
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Mg
ijbf_kb %.
GZclb
9\ha^moZ
J_r_gb_
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(Mg) = m(Mg)
– m(Mg)
Mg
(
ijbf_kb
m
q
bkluc
(
Mg)
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]
AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbbk`b]ZgbyfZ]gby]
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o e
fhev
f
hev
F ]
fhev
9 e
fhev
P ]
9
e
0J 2 0J2
IhmjZ\g_gbxj_ZdpbbkhklZ\bfijhihjpbx
]
²e
]
²o e
o e
Ke_^h\Zl_evgh e qbklh]hdbkehjh^Zlj_[m_lky gZk`b]Zgb_
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GZc^_f
h[t_f\ha^moZdhlhjucihlj_[m_lkygZk`b]Zgb_fZ]gby
9\ha^moZ )
O
(
)
O
(
V
2
2
= e
Hl\_l
9\ha^moZ e
<hijhk
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P6 d] ]
= 80
%.
GZclb
: V(SO
2
)
J_r_gb_
AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbbk`b]Zgbyk_ju\dbkehj
h
^_
] oe
fhev
fhev
F ]fhev
9 efhev
P ]
9 e
6 H 62
KhklZ\bfijhihjpbx
]
²e
]
²o e
o e
V
ijZdl
(SO
2
) = V
l_hj
(SO
2
)
e
e
Hl\_l
: V(SO
2
e
<hijhk
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hdkb^_k_jZbf__lkl_i_gvhdbke_gby< k_jgbklhcdbkehl_
—4+.
10
<ukr_fmhdkb^m62
3
khhl\_lkl\m_lk_jgZydbkehlZ+
2
SO
4
.
K_jgbklhcdbkehl_+
2
SO
3
khhl\_lkl\m_lhdkb^62
2
.
>Zggu_khhl\_lkl\byfh`ghihdZaZlv]b^jhebahfhdkb^h\
62
G
H
62
+
62
G
H
62
+
<hijhk
Z0JKH
2
0JH K
0J H 0J
& H &
[6.KOH
3
= 2KCl + 3SO
2
6 H 6
&O H &O
§ 2
.
OZjZdl_jbklbdZobfbq_kdh]hwe_f_glZ
ihdbkehlgh
hkgh\gufk\hckl\Zf
h[jZam_fuo
bfkh_^bg_gbc
:fnhl_jgu_hdkb^ub ]b^jhdkb^u
<hijhk
:fnhl_jguf]b^jhdkb^Zfijbkms_k\hckl\hj_Z]bjh\Zlvk
dbke
h
lZfbdZdhkgh\Zgb_b khs_ehqZfbdZddbkehlZIhwlhfm
dh]^Zfud jZkl\hjms_ehqbijbeb\Z_fihdZieyfjZkl\hjkhebm
gZkihemqZ_lkyZfnhl_jguc]b^jhdkb^dhlhjuckjZam`_j_Z]bjm_l
k s_ehqvxh[j
Z
amyjZkl\hjbfmxkhevb fug_gZ[ex^Z_f
\uiZ^_gb_\hkZ^hdZfn
h
l_jgh]h]b^jhdkb^Z
<hijhk
%H
%H2
%H62
.
%H2
%H12
%H2+
1. 2Be + O
2
= 2BeO;
2. BeO + H
2
SO
4
= BeSO
4
G
2
H
<_HDHG D
2
<_H
2 G
2
H
<_HG12
3
= Be(NO
3
)
2 + H
2
O;
5. Be(NO
3
)
2
+ 2NaOH = 2NaNO
3
+ Be(OH)
2
;
6. Be(OH)
2
D2+ D
2
BeO
2
+ 2
H
2
O;
11
7. Be(OH)
2
+ H
2
SO
4
= BeSO
4
G
2
H
<hijhk
Z%H2+
2
G
+
<_
2
+
G
2
H%H2+
2
+ H
2
SO
4
=BeSO
4
G
2
H
Be(OH)
2
+ 2HNO
3
=Be(NO
3
)
2
G
2
H
[%H2+
2
2G
–
<_2
2–
G
2
H%H2+
2
+ 2KOH=K
2
BeO
2
+
G
2
H
Be(OH)
2
+ 2NaOH
=
Na
2
BeO
2
G
2
H
<hijhk
:fnhl_jghklvx gZau\Z_lky kihkh[ghklv\_s_kl\Z ijhy\eylv dZd
dbkehlgu_lZdb hkgh\gu_k\hckl\ZDbkehlgu_k\hckl\ZdZdijZ\beh
ijhy\eyxlkh_^bg_gbyg_f_lZeeh\
GZijbf_j+
2
S
O
4
; P
2
O
5
; C
O
2
.
Ghkms_kl\mxldbkehluh[jZah\Zggu_f_lZeeZfb
GZijbf_j.
Mn
O
4
²i_jfZg]ZgZldZebyD
2
Cr
2
O
7
²^bojhfZl
dZeby1D
3
V
O
4
²\ZgZ^ZlgZljby
1D>
Al
(OH)
4
]
²]b^jhdkhZexfbgZl
g
Z
ljby
Lh_klvf_lZeeufh]mllZd`_ijhy\eylvdbkehlgu_k\hckl\Z
Hkgh\gu_k\hckl\ZoZjZdl_jguijZdlbq_kdblhevdh^eyf_lZeeh\
GZijbf_j
Na
OH, K
2
O, Li
NO
3
.
§ 3
I_jbh^bq_kdbcaZdhgb i_jbh^bq_kdZykbkl_fZ
obfbq_kdbowe_f_glh\>B
F_g^_e__\Z
<hijhk
I_jbh^bq_kdbcaZdhgF_g^_e__\Z
²h^bgbahkgh\hiheZ]Zxsbo
aZdhgh\obfbbFh`ghml\_j`^Zlvqlh\kykh\j_f_ggZyobfby
i
h
kljh_gZgZg_fHgh[tykgy_laZ\bkbfhklvk\hckl\Zlhfh\hlbo
kljh
_
gbyh[h[sZ_lwlmaZ\bkbfhklv^ey\k_owe_f_glh\jZa^_eyy
bogZjZ
a
ebqgu_]jmiiuZ lZd`_ij_^kdZau\Z_lbok\hckl\Z\
aZ\bkbfhklbhlkljh_gbyb kljh_gb_\aZ\bkbfhklbhlk\hckl\
Kms_kl\mxl^jm]b_aZdhgug_kmsb_h[tykgyxsmxh[h[sZxsmx
b ij_^kdZaZl_evgmxnmgdpbbGZijbf_jaZdhgkhojZg_gbywg_j]bb
a
Z
dhgij_ehfe_gbyk\_lZ]_g_lbq_kdbcaZdhgF_g^_ey
<hijhk
Jmdh\h^kl\mykvi_jbh^bq_kdhckbkl_fhcgZc^_fwe_f_glk gm`guf
jZkiheh`_gb_fwe_dljhgh\b Wlhlwe_f_gl
²Zahl
:
N
1s
2
2s
2
2p
3
.
Wlhlwe_f_glh[jZam_lijhklh_\_s_kl\h
—
N
2
, Zahl<h^hjh^gh_
kh_^bg_gb_ZahlZ
—NH
3
ZffbZd<ukrbchdkb^ZahlZ
— N
2
H
5
.
12
D
b
kehlguchdkb^
N
2
O
5
ijbjZkl\hj_gbb\\h^_i_j_oh^bl\
kbevgmxZah
l
gmxdbkehlm+12
3
.
N
2
O
5
+ H
2
O = 2HNO
3
;
N
2
O
5
+ BaO = Ba(NO
3
)
2
;
N
2
O
5
+ Ba(OH)
2
= Ba(NO
3
)
2
+ H
2
O;
N
5
+
h[eZ^Z_lkbevgufbhdbkebl_evgufbk\hckl\Zfb
2N
2
O
5
K
= 2
N
2
K2
2
.
<hijhk
JZgvr_we_f_gl[_jbeebchrb[hqghhlghkbebd
,,,]jmii_IjbqbgZ
wlh]h aZdexqZeZkv\g_ijZ\bevghf hij_^_e_gbb Zlhfghc fZkku
[_jb
e
eby \f_klh __ kqblZeb jZ\ghc >B
F_g^_e__\
ij_^iheh`be qlh [_jbeebc gZoh^blky\,, ]jmii_ hkgh\u\Zykv gZ
obfbq_kdbo k\h
c
kl\Zo we_f_glZ K\hckl\Z [_jbeeby [ueb hq_gv
ihoh`bgZk\hckl\Z0J b KZ b kh\_jr_gghg_ihoh`bgZk\hckl\Z$O
AgZy qlh Zlhfgu_ fZkku
/L b < khk_^gbo we_f_glh\ d <_ jZ\gu
khhl\_lkl\_gghb >BF_g^_e__\ij_^iheh`beqlhZlhfgZyfZ
k
kZ
[_jbeebyjZ\gZ
<hijhk
KZ
²Zlhfm dhlhjh]hwe_dljhgujZkij_^_e_gukh]eZkghjy^m
q
b
k_e
We_f_gl
7
— N,
we_f_gl
8
— O
.
MjZ\g_gbyj_Zdpbc
KZ
+ N
2
KZ
3
N
2
,
KZ
+ O
2
KZ2
Ijh^mdluj_Zdpbcbf_xlbhgguclbik\yab
:ahl b dbkehjh^ bf_xl fhe_dmeyjgh_ kljh_gb_ djbklZeebq_kdbo
j_r_lhdZ mdZevpbyf_lZeebq_kdZydjbklZeebq_kdZyj_r_ldZ
Ijh^mdlu\aZbfh^_ckl\by
²KZ
3
N
2
b KZ2bf_xlbhggh_kljh_gb_
djbklZeebq_kdhcj_r_ldb
<hijhk
N, P, As, Sb, Bi — mkbe_gb_f_lZeebq_kdbok\hckl\
F_lZeebq_kdb_k\hckl\Z\]jmiiZomkbeb\Zxlky
<hijhk
Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl — mkbe_gb_g_f_lZeebq_kdbok\hckl\
G_f_lZeebq_kdb_k\hckl\Z\i_jbh^Zomkbeb\Zxlky
<hijhk
Cl
2
O
7
, P
2
O
5
, SiO
2
, Al
2
O
3
, MgO, Na
2
O
—
mf_gvr_gb_dbkehlguo
k\hckl\
13
Dbkehlgu_k\hckl\Z\i_jbh^Zom\_ebqb\Zxlky
+KO2
4
, H
3
PO
4
, H
2
SiO
4
, Al(OH)
3
, Mg(OH)
2
, NaOH
— mf_gvr_gb_
d
b
kehlguok\hckl\
<hijhk
B
2
O
3
, BeO, Li
2
O
²\hajZklZgb_hkgh\guok\hckl\ld\i_jbh^Zo
hkgh\gu_k\hckl\ZhkeZ[_\Zxl
B(OH)
3
, Be(OH)
2
, LiOH
— \hajZklZgb_hkgh
\
guok\hckl\
B(OH)
3
—
keZ[ZydbkehlZ
Be(OH)
2
—
keZ[h_hkgh\Zgb_
LiOH
— kbevgh_hkgh\Zgb_
<hijhk
I_jbh^bq_kdZy kbkl_fZ we_f_glh\ hljZ`Z_l\aZbfhk\yav
obfbq
_
kdbo we_f_glh\:lhfguc ghf_j we_f_glZ jZ\_g aZjy^m y^jZ
qbke_ggh hg jZ\_g qbkem ijhlhgh\
Qbkeh g_cljhgh\ kh^_j`Zsboky\
y^jZo h
^
gh]h we_f_glZ\hlebqb_ hl qbkeZ ijhlhgh\ fh`_l [ulv
jZaebqguf:lhfu h^gh]h we_f_glZ y^jZ dhlhjuo kh^_j`Zl jZagh_
qbkehg_clj
h
gh\gZau\ZxlkybahlhiZfb
DZ`^uc obfbq_kdbc we_f_gl bf__l ih g_kdhevdh bahlhih\
ijbjh
^
guo beb ihemq_gguo bkdmkkl\_ggh:lhfgZy fZkkZ
obfbq_kdh]h we
_
f_glZ jZ\gZ kj_^g_fm agZq_gbx ba fZkk\k_o _]h
ijbjh^guobahlhih\k mq_lhfbojZkijhkljZg_gghklb
K hldjulb_fbahlhih\^eyjZkij_^_e_gbywe_f_glh\ih
i_jbh^bq
_
kdhckbkl_f_klZebbkihevah\ZlvaZjy^uy^_jZ g_bo
Zlhfgu_fZkku
<hijhk
LZdijhbkoh^blba
-
aZlh]hqlhk\hckl\Zwe_f_glh\b bokh_^bg_gbc
aZ\bkylg_hlh[s_]hqbkeZwe_dljhgh\Z lhevdhhl\Ze_glguo
dhlhju_gZoh^ylkygZihke_^g_fkeh_Dhebq_kl\h\Ze_glguo
we_dljhgh\f_g
y
_lkyi_jbh^bq_kdbke_^h\Zl_evghk\hckl\Z
we_f_glh\lZd`_f_gyxlkyi_jbh^bq_kdb
<hijhk
K\hckl\Zobfbq_kdbowe_f_glh\b h[jZah\Zgguobfb\_s_kl\
g
Z
oh^ylky\i_jbh^bq_kdhcaZ\bkbfhklbhlhlghkbl_evguoZlhfguo
fZkkwe_f_glh\
K\hckl\Z obfbq_kdbo we_f_glh\ b h[jZah\Zgguo bfb\_s_kl\
g
Z
oh^ylky\i_jbh^bq_kdhc aZ\bkbfhklb hl aZjy^Z Zlhfguo y^_j
we_f_
g
lh\
K\hckl\Zobfbq_kdbowe_f_glh\b h[jZah\Zgguobfb\_s_kl\
g
Z
oh^ylky\i_jbh^bq_kdhcaZ\bkbfhklbhlkljh_gby\g_rgbo
wg_j]_l
b
q_kdbomjh\g_c\we_dljhgghch[hehqd_ZlhfZ
14
=eZ\ZF_lZeeu
§ 4
<_df_^guc
[jhgah\uc`_e_aguc
<hijhk
< wihom Zglbqghklb k_fvx qm^_kZfb k\_lZ kqblZeb _]bi_lkdb_
i
b
jZfb^u\bkyqb_ kZ^u <Z\behgZ klZlmx DhehkkZ Jh^hkkdh]h OjZf
:
j
l_fb^u\Wn_k_ klZlmx hebfibckdh]h [h]Z
Xibl_jZ fZ\ahe_c\
=Ze
b
dZjbZk_:e_dkZg^jbckdbcfZyd
< kha^Zgbb_]bi_lkdboibjZfb^b]jZeZg_fZemxjhevf_^vld^ey
khhjm`_gby ibjZfb^ubkihevah\Zebkvbgkljmf_glu ba]hlh\e_ggu_ba
f_^b
=b]ZglkdZyklZlmyDhehkkZJh^hkkdh]h[ueZiheghklvxba]hlh\e_gZ
ba[jhgau
KlZlmyXibl_jZ[ueZqZklbqghk^_eZgZbaahehlZba[eZ]hjh^gh]h
f_lZeeZ[ueba]hlh\e_gieZsXibl_jZ
<hijhk
K\hckl\Zjlmlbijbh[uqguomkeh\byofh`ghhibkZlvke_^mxsbfb
ijbeZ]Zl_evgufb`b^dZyy^h\blZy[e_klysZy[]_
<hijhk
< hkgh\_h[jZah\Zgbyebl_jZlmjgh]h\ujZ`_gby
©klZevghc
oZjZ
d
l_j
ª©`_e_agu_g_j\uª©ahehlh_k_j^p_ª©f_lZeebq_kdbc
]hehkª©k\bgph\ucdmeZdªe_`Zlke_^mxsb_k\hckl\Zf_lZeeh\
l\_j^hklvijhqghklv
<hijhk
>eyoZjZdl_jbklbdbij_^]jhah\h]hg_[Zfh`ghbkihevah\Zlv
ijbe
Z
]Zl_evgu_k\bgph\h_ly`_eh_\^
<hijhk
>eylh]hqlh[uohjhrhih^]hlh\blvkyd khh[s_gbx\ufh`_l_
\hkihevah\Zlvky^_lkdhcwgpbdehi_^b_cbebwgpbdehi_^b_c
bkdm
k
kl\Z
<hijhk
Ij_^hklZ\ey_f\hafh`ghklv\ZfkZfbfihnZglZabjh\ZlvgZwlml
_
fm
>ey lh]h qlh[u\Zf e_]q_ [ueh khjb_glbjh\Zlvky h[hagZqbf
g_d
h
lhju_\hafh`ghklb ^ey ijbf_g_gby f_lZeeh\
dhgkljmdpbhggu_
fZl
_
jbZeu
we_dljhl_ogbq_kdb_ fZl_jbZeu
`Zjhijhqgu_fZl_jbZeu
15
§ 5
Iheh`_gb_f_lZeeh\\i_jbh^bq_kdhckbkl_f_
>B
F_g^_e__\Zb kljh_gb_boZlhfh\
<hijhk
<hkklZgh\bl_evgu_k\hckl\Zf_lZeeh\hij_^_eyxlkykihkh[ghklvx
hl^Z\Zlvwe_dljhgu\g_rg_]hkehyQ_fe_]q_Zlhfhl^Z_l
we_dljhgu\g_rg_]hkehyl_f[he__kbevguf\hkklZgh\bl_e_fhg
y\ey_lky
<hijhk
KZfucZdlb\gucf_lZee
²njZgpbc
)U
NjZgpbce_]q_\k_]hhl^Z_lwe_dljhg\g_rg_]hkehyHgh[eZ^Z_l
kZfuf[hevrbfZlhfgufjZ^bmkhfihwlhfmwg_j]by
\aZbfh^_ckl\byy^jZZlhfZk\g_rg_cwe_dljhgghch[hehqdhcfZeZ
<hijhk
F_lZeeuijhy\eyxl\hkklZgh\bl_evgu_k\hckl\Z\gme_\hckl_i_gb
hdbke_gbyl_kZff_lZeefh`_l[ulvlhevdh\hkklZgh\bl_e_f
Ijb\
_
^_ggucijhp_kk
²ijbf_jhdbke_gby
&X
2+
^h&X
0
< ^Zgghf
ijbf_j_f_^v\uklmiZ_l\\b^_dZlbhgZ
§ 6
Nbabq_kdb_k\hckl\Zf_lZeeh\
<hijhk
KZfuce_]dhieZ\dbcf_lZee
²jlmlvM`_ijbdhfgZlghc
l_fi_j
Z
lmj_hgy\ey_lky`b^dhklvx
<hijhk
< l_ogbd_bkihevamxlkylZdb_k\hckl\Zf_lZeeh\dZd
we_dljhij
h
\h^ghklvl\_j^hklvl_jfhmklhcqb\hklv
<hijhk
S_ehqgu_f_lZeeubf_xlkZfmxgbadmxwg_j]bxbhgbaZpbbl_
hgbe_]dhhl^Zxlwe_dljhgk ihke_^g_]hkehy>eylh]hqlh[u
hlgylvwlhlwe_dljhghlf_lZeeZ^hklZlhqgh^Z`_wg_j]bbk\_lZ
nhlhgZ
GZy\e_gbbnhlhwnn_dlZhkgh\Zgh^_ckl\b_nhlhwe_dljbq_kdbo
ijb[hjh\ihemqb\rb_jZaghh[jZagh_ijbf_g_gb_\jZaebqguo
h[eZ
k
lyogZmdbb l_ogbdb
²nhlhwe_f_glujZ[hlZxsb_gZhkgh\_
nhlhw
n
n_dlZij_h[jZamxlwg_j]bxbaemq_gby\we_dljbq_kdmx
<hijhk
GZlm]hieZ\dhklb\hevnjZfZhkgh\Zgh_]hijbf_g_gb_\eZfiZo
g
Z
dZeb\Zgby
16
<hijhk
< ebl_jZlmjguo\ujZ`_gbyo©k_j_[jygucbg_cª©ahehlZyaZjyª
©k\bgph\u_lmqbªaZdexq_ghk\hckl\hf_lZeeh\hljZ`Zlvk\_lh\u_
e
m
qb\j_amevlZl_q_]hhgbijbh[j_lZxloZjZdl_jgmxhdjZkdm
f_lZee
b
q_kdbc[e_kd
§ 7
KieZ\u
<hijhk
;jhgah\uc\_d ijh^he`Zeky ijb[ebabl_evgh e_l dhg_p —
gZqZeh lukyq_e_lby^hgwGZa\Zgb_©[jhgah\uc\_dªh[mkeh\e_gh
l_f qlh\wlhl i_jbh^ rbjhdh bkihevah\Zeky kieZ\ f_^b b heh\Z
dhl
h
jucihemqbegZa\Zgb_[jhgaZ
<hijhk
F_evobhj
² kieZ\ kh^_j`Zsbc hdheh f_^b b gbd_ey
Ihwlhfm^eyijhba\h^kl\Zd]f_evobhjZg_h[oh^bfh\aylv
P&X Pf_evobhjZ
KX
\kieZ\_
= 25
d]
P1L Pf_evobhjZ
(Ni)
\kieZ\_
= 25
d]
Hl\_l
d]&Xb d]1L
<hijhk
G_ljm^gh aZf_lblv qlh keh\Z ©e_]bjmxsbcª b
©ijb\be_]bjh\Z
g
gucª bf_xl h^bgZdh\mx qZklv ©e_]bjª\dhjgyo
Hq_\b^ghqlhhgbijhbkoh^ylhlh^gh]hb lh]h`_keh\ZE_]bjmxsb_
we_f_glu^h[Z\e
y
xl\kieZ\qlh[umemqrblvbonbabq_kdb_k\hckl\Z
©Ijb\be_]bj
h
\Zggucª hagZqZ_l ©emqrbcª ©[he__\ukhdbc q_f m
h
k
lZevguoª
§ 8
Obfbq_kdb_k\hckl\Zf_lZeeh\
<hijhk
AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbch[jZah\Zgby`_e_aghchdZebgu
3Fe
+ 4H
2
O = Fe
3
O
4
+ 4H
2
(1)
Fe
3
O
4
²ij_^klZ\ey_lkh[hckf_kv^\mohdkb^h\)H2
Fe
2
O
3
.
Ihwlhfm mjZ\g_gb_ j_Zdpbb fh`gh mkeh\gh ij_^klZ\blv\\b^_
^\mo mjZ\g_gbc b ^ey dZ`^h]h khklZ\blv mjZ\g_gb_ we_dljhggh]h
[
Z
eZgkZ
Fe
+ H
2
O = FeO
+ H
2
)H H )H
+ H +
2Fe
+ 3H
2
O = Fe
2
O
3
+ 3H
2
17
)H H )H + H +
3Fe
+ 4H
2
O = FeO
Fe
2
O
3
+ 4H
2
)H H )H )H
+ H +
Lh_klvihemqbebqlh\j_Zdpbbh[jZah\Zgby`_e_aghchdZebguljb
ZlhfZ`_e_aZhl^Zxlwe_dljhgh\
<hijhk
>Zgh
P0J ]
H
2
) = 0,21.
GZclb
9\ha^
J_r_gb_
AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbbk`b]ZgbyfZ]gby
] oe
fhev
fhev
F efhev
9 efhev
P ]
9 e
0 J 2 0J2
,
KhklZ\bfijhihjpbxb hij_^_ebfh[t_fdbkehjh^Zg_h[oh^bfh]h
^eyijh\_^_gbyj_Zdpbb
]
²e
]
²[e
o e
V(O
2
e
GZc^_fh[t_f\ha^moZg_h[oh^bfh]h^eyijh\_^_gbyj_Zdpbb
9\ha^ )
O
(
)
O
(
V
2
2
= e
e
Hl\_l
9\ha^ e
<hijhk
>Zgh
P&D f] ]
= 80
%
GZclb
: V(H
2
)
J_r_gb_
AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_ZdpbbjZkl\hj_gbydZevpby\\
h
^_
]
fhev
fhev
F ]fhev
9 efhev
P ]
9 e
&D +2 &D2+ +
KhklZ\bfijhihjpbxb gZc^_fh[t_f\h^hjh^Zdhlhjuc
l_hj_lbq
_
kdb^he`_g[ueihemqblvky\oh^_j_Zdpbb
]
²e
]
²o e
o e
18
V
l_hj
G
2
e
Hl\_l
: V
G
2
e
Ihmkeh\bxaZ^Zqb\uoh^]ZaZkhklZ\ey_l
hll_hj_lbq_kdb
\hafh`gh]hIhwlhfmijZdlbq_kdb[uehihemq_gh
V
ijZdl
G
2
) = V
l_hj
G
2
)
e
e
Hl\_l
: V
i
jZdl
G
2
e
<hijhk
S_ehqgu_b s_ehqgha_f_evgu_f_lZeeuhq_gvZdlb\gub
j_Z]bj
m
xlijZdlbq_kdbkh\k_fk q_fkhijbdZkZxlky
GZijbf_j gZ\ha^mo_ wlb f_lZeeu e_]dh hdbkeyxlky
?keb wlb
f
_
lZeeu ojZgblv ih^ keh_f d_jhkbgZ d dhlhjhfm hgb bg_jlgu lh
fh`gh m[_j_qv hl g_gm`guo\aZbfh^_ckl\bc Eblbc
² kZfuc e_]dbc
ba f
_
lZeeh\ Hg e_]q_ d_jhkbgZ b\ hlebqb_ hl ^jm]bo f_lZeeh\
\kieu\Z_l\g_fihwlhfm_]hojZgyl\\Za_ebg_
<hijhk
KZ
+ 12HNO
3
= 5Ca(NO
3
)
2
+ N
2
+ 6H
2
O.
&D H &D
1 H 1
<hijhk
IhijZ\bemdhlhjh_]eZkblqlhf_lZeeuklhysb_\jy^m
gZijy`
_
gbye_\__\h^hjh^Z\ul_kgyxl_]hbajZkl\hjh\dbkehl
\h^hjh^ijbj_Zdpbbk\bgpZk jZkl\hjhfk_jghcdbkehlu^he`_g
ihemqblvkyGh^Zggh_ijZ\behkh[ex^Z_lky_keb\j_Zdpbb
f_lZeeZk dbkehlhch[j
Z
am_lkyjZkl\hjbfZykhevZ
3E62
4
—
g_jZkl\hjbfZykhevIhwlhfm\kemqZ_k\bgpZb k_jghcdbkehlu
ijZ\behg_^_ckl\m_lbke_^h\Zl_evgh\h^hjh^g_evayihemqblv
ijb\aZbfh^_ckl\bbk\bgpZk jZkl\hjhfk_
j
ghcdbkehlu
<hijhk
4Zn
+ 5H
2
SO
dhgp
= 4ZnSO
4
+ H
2
S
+ 4H
2
O
=Q H =Q
6 H 6
< wlhcj_Zdpbbpbgdijhy\ey_l\hkklZgh\bl_evgu_k\hckl\Z
§ 9
Ihemq_gb_f_lZeeh\
<hijhk
=:]jbdhe\k\h_cdgb]_bf_e\\b^mibjhf_lZeemj]bx
Ibjhf_lZeemj]bq_kdb_ijhp_kku\dexqZxlh[`b]ijbwlhf
kh^_
j
`Zsb_ky\jm^Zokh_^bg_gbyf_lZeeh\\qZklghklbkmevnb^u
i_j_\
h
^ylky\hdkb^uZ k_jZm^Zey_lky\\b^_62
2
gZijbf_j
19
2CuS
+ 3O
2
2Cu
O
+ 2S
O
2
;
Cr
2
O
3
+ 2Al
Al
2
O
3
+ 2Cr.
AZl_fhdkb^ui_j_\h^ylky\qbklu_f_lZeeuiml_fZfhghl_
j
fbb
<hijhk
Wdheh]bq_kdb[he__[_ahiZk_g[Zdl_jbZevgucf_lh^ihemq_gbyf
_
^b
<hijhk
S_ehqgu_b s_ehqgha_f_evgu_f_lZeeug_evayihemqblv
]b^jhf
_
lZeemj]bq_kdbff_lh^hfihlhfmqlh^Zggucf_lh^
hkgh\ZggZ\u^
_
e_gbbf_lZeeh\bajZkl\hjZih^^_ckl\b_f
we_dljbq_kdh]hlhdZ:_kebfubajZkl\hjZ\u^_ebfs_ehqghc
f_lZee\qbklhf\b^_lhhgkjZam`_[m^_l\aZ
b
fh^_ckl\h\Zlvk
\h^hch[jZamy]b^jhdkb^
<hijhk
1) 2PbS
+ 3O
2
t
=
2SO
2
+ 2PbO,
3E6 3E2 3E
2) PbO
+ CO
t
=
Pb
+ CO
2
.
<hijhk
)H6
)H
2
)H
62
62
+
62
4FeS
2
+ 11O
2
t
=
2Fe
2
O
3
+ 8SO
2
;
2SO
2
+ O
2
= 2SO
3;
SO
3
+ H
2
O = H
2
SO
4
;
Fe
2
O
3
+ 3C
t
=
2Fe
+ 3CO
.
<hijhk
>Zgh
P]hjihj l d]
(Cu
2
S) = 20
%, W = 90
%
GZclb
: m(Cu)
J_r_gb_
GZc^_fkdhevdh&X
2
6kh^_j`blky\]hjghcihjh^_
m(Cu
2
S) = m
]hjihj
(Cu
2
S) = 1,2
10
8
]
0,2 = 2,4
10
7
]
GZc^_fkdhevdhqbklhcf_^bfh`ghihemqblvl_hj_lbq_kdbba
Cu
2
S:
m
l_hj
(Cu) = m(Cu
2
S) &X\&X
2
S
) = m(Cu
2
S) U
U $ & X 0 &X 6
=
= 2,4 10
7 = 1,92 10
7
]
GZc^_fkdhevdhqbklhcf_^bihemqbebijZdlbq_kdb
m
ijZdl
(Cu) = m
l_hj
(Cu)
W = 1,92
10
7
0,9 = 1,728
10
7
] l
Hl\_l
: m(Cu) = 17,28
l
20
§ 10
Dhjjhabyf_lZeeh\
<hijhk
MjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbbdhjjhabbf_^b
fZeZobl
&X2 + 2&2 &X2+ &2
<hijhk
S_ehqgu_b s_ehqgha_f_evgu_f_lZeeufh]mlj_Z]bjh\Zlvk H
2
,
N
2
, H
2
2b KH
2
\oh^ysbfb\khklZ\\ha^moZ
4Li+O
2
= 2LiO
2
;
6Li
+ N
2
= 2Li
3
N;
D
H
2
D
2
H
2
;
Li
2
O+CO
2
=Li
2
CO
3
;
2Na+O
2
=Na
2
O
2
;
2
Na
2
O
2
+2CO
2
=2Na
2
CO
3
+O
2
;
Ca(Mg, Ba) + O
2 = CaO (MgO, BaO);
CaO
+ CO
2
= CaCO
3
.
<hijhk
G_j`Z\_xsZyklZev
²kieZ\kh^_j`Zsbc^h
ojhfZ
%
g
b
d_eyIhwlhfm^ey\uieZ\dbd]g_j`Z\_xs_cklZebgm`gh
\aylv
P&U PkieZ\Z
&U d]
d]
P1L PkieZ\Z
1L d]
d]
P)H PkieZ\Z
&U d]±d]±d] d]
Hl\_l
PKU d]P1L d]P)H d]
<hijhk
<<FZydh\kdbc]h\hjblh[hpbgdh\Zgghf`_e_a_
<hijhk
>mfZx\k_fohjhrhba\_klghqlhlZdh_]Zev\Zgbq_kdbcwe_f_gl
>\Zkh_^bg_gguof_`^mkh[hcwe_dljh^ZhimkdZxl\jZkl\hj
we_dljhe
b
lZgZh^ghfwe_dljh^_\j_amevlZl_H<Jijhbkoh^bl
hkZ`^_gb_f_lZeeZgZ^jm]hfgZh[hjhljZkl\hj_gb_LZd`_
ihemqbehkvb kdhjZ[e_ffh
j
kdZy\h^Zku]jZeZjhevjZkl\hjZ
we_dljheblZ:exfbgb_\ucdhjimkb f_^gu_aZde_idb
²jhev
we_dljh^h\\j_amevlZl_f_lZeebq_kdbc
Al
i
_
j_oh^bl\
Al
3+
, gZ
f_^ghfdhjimk_\u^_ey_lky\h^hjh^
2
H
+
+
+
,
Al
0
±
Al
3+
.
LZdbfh[jZahff_lZeebq_kdbcdhjimkgZr\ZogZqZejZkl\hjylvky
b dhjZ[evmlhgme
21
§ 11
S_ehqgu_f_lZeeu
<hijhk
Z
/L
/L
2
/L2+
/L&O
1. 4Li
+ O
2
= 2Li
2
O,
2. Li
2
H
G
2
2 /L2G
/LHG
G&O LiCl
+ H
2
O,
4. 2Li
G
2
O = 2LiOH
+ H
2
,
5. Li
2
H
G&O G
2
H
+ 2LiCl.
[
1D
1D
2
1D
2
1D2+
1D
62
1D12
1D
32
1. 2Na
+ O
2
= Na
2
O
2
;
2. Na
2
O
2
+ 2Na = 2Na
2
O;
3. Na
2
O
+ H
2
O = 2NaOH;
4. 2NaOH
+ H
2
SO
4
= Na
2
SO
4
+ 2H
2
O;
5. Na
2
O
+ 2HNO
3
= 2NaNO
3
+ H
2
O;
6. 3Na
2
O
+ 2H
3
PO
4
= 2Na
3
PO
4
+ 3H
2
O.
<hijhk
>Zgh
P1D ]
ijbf_kb %, W = 95
%
GZclb
: V(H
2
)
J_r_gb_
GZc^_ffZkkmqbklh]hgZljby
01D P1Dijbf_kv±P1Dijbf_kv
ijbf_kb ] ±]
] ±
0,23
] ]
AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbb
]
o e
fhev
fhev
F ]fhev
9 efhev
P ]
9 e
1D +2 1D2+ +
KhklZ\bf ijhihjpbx b gZc^_f h[t_f\h^hjh^Z dhlhjuc
l_hj_lbq
_
kdb^he`_g[ueihemqblvky\oh^_j_Zdpbb
]
²e
]
²o e
x = 11,2722,4
46
e
V
l_hj
G
2
e
Hl\_l
: V
l_hj
(
H
2
e
Ihmkeh\bxaZ^Zqb\uoh^]ZaZkhklZ\ey_l
hll_hj_lbq_kdb
\hafh`gh]hIhwlhfmijZdlbq_kdb[uehihemq_gh
V
ijZd
G
2
) = V
l_j
G
2
)
W = 5,488
e
Hl\_l
: V
ijZd
G
2
e
22
<hijhk
K_fbwlZ`guc^hf
²i_jbh^bq_kdZylZ[ebpZih^t_a^s_ehqguo
f_lZeeh\
²,]jmiiZwe_f_glh\\Za_ebgh\Zy©rm[Zªkihkh[
ojZg_gbyeblbyih^keh_f\Za_ebgZLZd`_GZlZrZbkihevah\ZeZ
om^h`_kl\_
g
gucyaud^eyhibkZgbyb h[tykg_gbyobfbq_kdbo
k\hckl\/L\hkklZg
h
\bl_evgu_k\hckl\Zj_Zdpbyk dbkehjh^hf
<hijhk
Ij_^hklZ\ey_f\Zf\hafh`ghklv ih^mfZlv gZ^ wlbf kZfbf DZd
l
_
fm^eykhqbg_gbyfh`gh\aylvhdjZkdmieZf_gbs_ehqguof_lZ
e
eh\
<hijhk
<ajhkeucq_eh\_d\kmldb^he`_gihlj_[eylvk ibs_c
] bhgh\
dZeby
KhklZ\bfijhihjpbx
] dmjZ]b
²] dZeby
o ]dmjZ]b
²] dZeby
o ]
Hl\_l
PdmjZ]b ]
§ 12
;_jbeebcfZ]gbcb
s_ehqgha_f_evgu_f_lZeeu
<hijhk
ImklvfZkkZq_eh\_dZo d]Lh]^ZfZkkZ_]hdhkl_c[m^_ljZ\gZ
o
Z fZkkZnhknZlZdZevpby
— 0,2
0,2
o o d]
PKZ
3
JH
4
)
2
) = 0,04
o]^_o
²fZkkZq_eh\_dZ
<hijhk
=_fhnbeby
²aZ[he_\Zgb_k\yaZggh_k iehohck\_jlu\Z_fhklvx
djh\bIjbdjh\hl_q_gbyo\\h^yljZkl\hj&D&O
2
^eyih\ur_gby
dh
g
p_gljZpbbdZlbhgh\KZ
2+
\djh\bdhlhju_kihkh[kl\mxl
k\_jlu\Z_f
h
klbdjh\b
<hijhk
>Zgh
PKZKH
3
l
ijbf_kb %.
GZclb
PKZHG
2
)
J_r_gb_
GZc^_ffZkkmKZKH
3
[_aijbf_kb
PKZKH
3
)=
Ph[s
(1–
ijbf_kb 2
(1–
0,25)=2
0,75=1,5
]
2. M(CaCO
3
]fhev0KZHG
2
]fhev
KhklZ\bf ijhihjpbx ih dhlhjhc gZc^_f dhebq_kl\h ]Zr_ghc
b
a
\_klbdhlhjh_fh`_l[ulvihemq_gh
]fhev
— 1,
5
10
6
]
23
]fhev
²o ]
o =
1,11 ] l
Hl\_l
PKZHG
2
l
<hijhk
FKH
FH
FHG
062
062
FKH
3
W
FH
KH
2
;
FH
G
2
H FHG
2
;
FHG
2
+ Na
2
SO
3
= MSO
3
+ 2NaOH;
4. MSO
3
+ H
2
SO
4
= MSO
4
+ SO
2
G
2
H
Fh]ml[ulvbkihevah\Zgu%_0J
G_fh]ml[ulvbkihevah\ZguKZ<Z
<hijhk
K
D
&D+
&D
HG
&D&
2
&D
2
&D&O
&D
32
&D2
KZ
G
2
t
=
KZG
2
;
KZG
2
G
2
H KZHG
2
G
2
;
KZHG
2
+ Na
2
CO
3
= CaCO
3
+ 2NaOH;
KZKH
3
t
=
KZH
+
KH
2
;
KZH
+ 2HCl = CaCl
2
+ H
2
O;
6. 3CaCl
2
+ 2Na
3
PO
4
= Ca
3
(PO
4
)
2
+ 6Na
Cl
;
7. Ca
+ 2H
2
O = Ca(OH)
2
+ H
2
;
KZ
H
2
t
=
KZH
KZH
G
2
H KZHG
2
.
<hijhk
Ij_^hklZ\ey_f\Zf\hafh`ghklvih^mfZlvgZ^wlbfkZfbf
DZd l_fm ^ey khqbg_gby fh`_f ij_^eh`blv ©Ij_\jZs_gb_
f_lZ
e
ebq_kdh]hKZ\fjZfhjª
<hijhk
>ey]bikh\uoih\yahdbkihevamxlZe_[ZkljHgijb^h[Z\e_gbb\h^u
ij_\jZsZ_lky\ieZklbq_kdmx fZkkm dhlhjmx b bkihevamxl ^ey
gZeh`
_
gbyih\yadbFZkkZ\ukuoZ_lb ij_\jZsZ_lky\l\_j^ucijhqguc
]bik
Ihem\h^guc]bikbebZe_[Zklj&D62
4
)
H
2
2ijb\aZbfh^_ckl\bb
k\h^hch[jZam_l^\m\h^guc]bik
(2CaSO
4
)
H
2
O
+ 3H
2
O
2CaSO
4
2H
2
O.
24
WlZj_Zdpbyb^_lk\u^_e_gb_fl_ieZ
<hijhk
KZKH
3
KZH
KH
2
–Q.
>eykf_s_gbyjZ\gh\_kby\ijZ\hd kbkl_f_g_h[oh^bfhih^\_klb
l_iehl_mkeh\b_fijh\_^_gbyy\ey_lky\ukhdZyl_fi_jZlmjZb
ihg
b
ablv^Z\e_gb_
§ 13
:exfbgbc
<hijhk
< Zexfbgb_\hcihkm^_g_evayojZgblvs_ehqgu_jZkl\hjuld
ijhbkoh^blke_^mxsZyobfbq_kdZyj_Zdpby
2Al
+ 2NaOH
+ 6H
2
O=2Na[Al(OH)
4
]
+ 3H
2
.
Ijhbkoh^bljZkl\hj_gb_Zexfbgby\s_ehqb
<hijhk
Kdhj__\k_]hfZl_jbZehf^ey]bi_j[hehb^Zfh]ihkem`blv$O
2
O
3
baaZ_]hbg_jlguok\hckl\
<hijhk
;_g]Zevkdb_k\_qbkh^_j`Zlkf_kvkhklhysmxbaZexfbgb_\uo
hibehdhdbkebl_ey
— KNO
3
beb.&O2
4
b de_y
Ijbih^`b]Zgbbihy\ey_lkykghibkdjB^_lhdbke_gb_Zexf
b
gby
8Al
.KO2
4
t
=
4Al
2
O
3
+ 3KCl.
<hijhk
Ijbf_g_gb_Zexfbgby\l_ogbd_hkgh\ZghgZke_^mxsbo
k\hck
l
\Zoe_]dhklvieZklbqghklv[hevrZywe_dljhijh\h^ghklvb
l_iehij
h
\h^ghklvK ^jm]bfbf_lZeeZfbZexfbgbch[jZam_l
ijhqgu_kieZ\u
<hijhk
Z$O
2
(SO
4
)
3
+6KOH
g_^
=2Al(OH)
3
D
2
SO
4
;
Al
3+
HG
–
g_^
=Al(OH)
3
[$O
2
(SO
4
)
3
+8KOH
ba[
D>$O2+
4
@D
2
SO
4
;
Al
3+
HG
–
ba[
=[Al(OH)
4
]
–
.
<hijhk
Al
1
AlCl
3
2
Al(OH)
3
3
Al
2
O
3
4
NaAlO
2
5
5
Al
2
(SO
4
)
3
6
Al(OH)
3
7
AlCl
3
8
NaAlO
2
.
1. 2Al
+ 6HCl = 2AlCl
3
+ 3H
2
;
2. AlCl
3
+ 3NaOH = Al(OH)
3
+ 3NaCl;
Al
3+
+ 3OH
–
Al(OH)
3
;
25
$O H $O
+ H +
3. 2Al(OH)
3
t
=
Al
2
O
3
+ 3H
2
O
;
4. Al
2
O
3
+ 2NaOH
k
ieZ\e_gb_W
=
2NaAlO
2
+ H
2
O
;
5. 2NaAlO
2
+ 4H
2
SO
4
t
=
Na
2
SO
4
+ Al
2
(SO
4
)
3
+ 4H
2
O;
6. Al
2
(SO
4
)
3
+ 6NaOH
g_^
=3Na
2
SO
4
+ 2Al(OH)
3
;
Al
3+
+ 3OH
–
= Al(OH)
3
;
Al(OH)
3
+ 3H
+
= Al
3+
+ 3H
2
O;
7. Al(OH)
3
+ 3HCl=AlCl
3
+ 3H
2
O;
8. AlCl
l\
+ 4NaOH
l\
kieZ\e_gb_W
=
NaAlO
2
+ 3NaCl
+ 2H
2
O
.
<hijhk
>Zgh
PkieZ\Z ]
(Cu) = 20
%, W = 85
%.
GZclb
: V
ijZd
G
2
)
J_r_gb_
GZc^_ffZkkmZexfbgby\kieZ\_
P:O PkieZ\Z±PkieZ\Z
(Cu) = 0,27–0,27
]
AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbbb gZc^_fh[t_f\h^hjh^Zdhlhjuc
l_hj_lbq_kdb^he`_g[ueihemqblvky
P ]
fhev
fhev
F ]fhev
9 efhev
P ]
9 e
$ O 1D2++2 1D>$O2+@ +
]
²e
]
²o
o e
V
l_hj
G
2
e
GZc^_fh[t_f\h^hjh^ZdhlhjucihemqbekyijZdlbq_kdb
V
ijZdl
G
2
) = V
l_hj
G
2
)
: e
e
Hl\_l
: V
ijZdl
G
2
e
<hijhk
Ij_^hklZ\ey_f\Zf k\h[h^m ^ey l\hjq_kl\Z Ij_^eZ]Z_f\dZq_kl\_
l_fu ^ey khqbg_gby ©:exfhl_jfby beb [hjv[Z Zexfbgby k ^jm]bfb
f_lZeeZfbª
§ 14
@_e_ah
<hijhk
AZibr_fkgZqZeZko_fm]_g_lbq_kdbojy^h\
1) Fe
FeCl
2
Fe(OH)
2
FeO;
26
2) Fe
FeCl
3
Fe(OH)
3
Fe
2
O
3
;
)H
+
&O
)H&O
G
FeCl
2
+ 2NaOH
Fe(OH)
2
+ 2NaCl;
Fe
2
+
+ 2OH
–
Fe(OH)
2
;
Fe(OH)
2
t
=
FeO
+ H
2
O
.
J_ZdpbxjZaeh`_gbygm`ghijh\h^blv\hlkmlkl\bbhdbkebl_e_c
)H
&O
)H&O
FeCl
3
+ 3NaOH
Fe(OH)
3
+ 3NaCl;
Fe
3+
+ 3OH
–
Fe(OH)
3
;
2Fe(OH)
3
t
Fe
2
O
3
+ 3H
2
O.
<hijhk
1) 3Fe
2+
+ 2[Fe(CN)
6
]
3–
= Fe
3
[Fe(CN)
6
]
2
:
3FeSO
4 + 2K
3
djZkgZy
djh\ygZykhev
>)H&1 @
=
3K
2
SO
4
+ ]_dkZpbZghn_jjZl,,,
`_e_aZ,,
)H >)H&1 @
;
2) 4Fe
3+
+ 3[Fe(CN)
6
]
4–
= Fe
4
[Fe(CN)
6
]
3
:
4FeCl
+ 46
`_elZy
djh\ygZykhev
3K[Fe(CN)]
=
463
]_dkZpbZghn_jjZl,,
`_e_aZ,,,
Fe[Fe(CN)]
;
3) Fe
3+
+ 3NCS
–
Fe(NCS)
3
:
FeCl
3
+ jh^Zgb^gZljby
1D1&6
jh^Zgb^`_e_aZ,,,
)H1&6
+ 3NaCl.
<hijhk
DZq_kl\_ggZyj_ZdpbygZ)H
2+
:
3FeCl
2
+ 2K
3
[Fe(CN)
6
] Fe
3
[Fe(CN)
6
]
2
+ 6KCl;
3Fe
2+
+ 2[Fe(C
N
)
6
]
3–
Fe
3
[Fe(CN)
6
]
2
K
3
[Fe(C
N
)
6
]
²djZkgZydjh\ygZykhev)H
3
[Fe(CN)
6
]
2
²lmjg[mee_\Z
kbgv
DZq_kl\_ggZyj_ZdpbygZ)H
3+
:
4FeCl
3
+ 3K
4
[Fe(CN)
6
]
Fe
4
[Fe(CN)
6
]
3
+ 12KCl;
4Fe
3+
+ 3[Fe(C
N
)
6
]
4–
Fe
4
[Fe(CN)
6
]
3
K
4
[Fe(CN)
6
]
²`_elZydjh\ygZykhev)H
4
[Fe(CN)
6
]
3
²[_jebgkdZy
e
Z
amjv
27
GZa\Zgb_djh\yguokhe_cijhbkoh^blhlf_lh^Z
boihemq_gby
JZgvr_boihemqZebbahloh^h\gZfykh[hcg_l_ba]hlZ\eb\Zebba
dj
h
\b©
@_elZyªb ©djZkgZyª
²baaZjZaebqguohll_gdh\jZkl\hjh\
khe_c
Lmjg[mee_\Z khev ihemqbeZ k\h_ gZa\Zgb_\q_klv mq_gh]h
Lmjg[
m
eydhlhjuc__\i_j\u_kbgl_abjh\Ze
;_jebgkdZyeZamjvgZa\ZgZ\q_klv]hjh^Z;_jebg
<hijhk
3Fe
+ 4H
2
O Fe
3
O
4
+ 4H
2
.
Ijbih\ur_gbb^Z\e_gbyjZ\gh\_kb_g_baf_gblkyldj_Zdpby
ijhl_dZ_l[_abaf_g_gbyqbkeZfhe_dme]Zah\
H
2
O
²]Za
<hijhk
)H
)H&O
)H2+
)H2+
)H
2
)H
)H
&O
1. Fe
+ 2HCl = FeCl
2
+ H
2
;
Fe
0
– 2
H
Fe
2+
;
2H
+
+ 2
H
+
;
Fe
2+
+ 2OH Fe(OH)
2
;
2. FeCl
2
+ 2KOH = Fe(OH)
2
+ 2KCl;
3. 4Fe(OH)
2
+ 2H
2
O
+ O
2
= 4Fe(OH)
3
;
4. 2Fe(OH)
3
t
=
Fe
2
O
3
+ 3H
2
O;
5. Fe
2
O
3
+ 3CO
t
=
2Fe
+ 3CO
2
;
)H H )H & H & 6. Fe
2
O
3
+ 6HCl=2FeCl
3
+ 3H
2
O;
Fe
2
O
3
+ 6H
+
2Fe
3+
+ 3H
2
O;
7. 2FeCl
3
+ 3Zn=3ZnCl
2
+ 2Fe
;
2Fe
3+
+ 3Zn 3Zn
2+
+ 2Fe
8. FeCl
3
+ 3NaOH
=3NaCl
+ Fe(OH)
3
;
Fe
3+
+ 3OH
–
Fe(OH)
3
.
<hijhk
1. 10Fe
+ 36HNO
3
= 10Fe(NO
3
)
3
+ 3N
2
+ 18H
2
O.
28
)H H )H
1 H 1
2. Fe
+ 4HNO
3
= Fe(NO
3
)
3
+ NO
+ 2H
2
O
)H H )H 1 H 1
3. 8Fe
+ 3
0
HNO
3
= 8Fe(NO
3
)
3
+ 3NH
4
NO
3
+ 9H
2
O
) H H ) H
1 H 1
<hijhk
>Zgh
: m(Fe
3
O
4
l
ijbf_kb %, W = 80
%.
GZclb
: (Fe), V(CO)
J_r_gb_
GZc^_ffZkkmihjh^u[_aijbf_kb
m(Fe
3
O
4
)=m(Fe
3
O
4
ij
– m(Fe
3
O
4
ij
ij ±
0,05=2,204
l
AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbb
\
]
P l
[
e W
fhev
fhev
fhev
9 efhev F ]fhev
F ]fhev
P ]
9 e
P ]
) H 2 & 2 ) H & 2 GZc^_f9&2b P)H
]
²e
2,204
] ²o e
o e
9&2 e
]
²]
2,204
10
6
²m ]
m = 1,596
10
6
]
GZc^_ffZkkm`_e_aZihemqb\r_]hkygZijZdlbd_
m(Fe) = y
W = 1,596
10
6
0,8 = 1,2768
]
(Fe) = m(Fe)
M(Fe)
= 6
1,276810
]
56 ]fhev
fhev
Hl\_l
: (Fe) = 2,28 10
4
fhev
V
(
CO) = 8
,5 10
5
e
<hijhk
Ij_^hklZ\ey_f\Zfk\h[h^m^eyl\hjq_kl\Z
29
=eZ\Z
2
G_f_lZeeu
§ 15
G_f_lZeeu
Zlhfub ijhklu_\_s_kl\Z
Dbkehjh^hahg\ha^mo
<hijhk
Z
'
\
ha^
H
2
) = U U
0 2 0 \ha^
= 29
32
1,1;
['
\ha^
KH
2
) = U U
0 &2 0 \ha^
= 29
44
1,52;
\'
\ha^
G
2
) = U U
0 + 0 \ha^
= 29
2
0,069.
<hijhk
>Zgh
9\ha^ e
\ha^
(N
2
) = 78,2
%,
\ha^
H
2
) = 20,95
%.
GZclb
: (N
2
), H
2
)
J_r_gb_
GZc^_fh[t_fH
2
b 1
2
:
V(O
2
9\ha^
\ha^
H
2
e
e
V(N
2
9\ha^
\ha^
(N
2
e
e
GZc^_fqbkehfhev]Zah\
H
2
) = V
)
O
(
V
2
= e
efhev
fhev
(N
2
) = V
)
N
(
V
2
= e
efhev
fhev
Hl\_l
: H
2
fhev
(N
2
fhev
<hijhk
>Zgh
9\ha^ e
GZclb
: N(O
2
), N(N
2
)
J_r_gb_
<ujZabfh[t_fdZ`^h]h]ZaZ
V(O
2
9\ha^
\ha^
H
2
); V(N
2
9\ha^
\ha^
(N
2
)
GZc^_fqbkehfhev]Zah\
H
2
)=
92 9
=
9
\ha^ H 9
=
e efhev
fhev
(N
2
) = 9
\ha^ 1 9
= e efhev
fhev
GZc^_fqbkehfhe_dmedZ`^h]h]ZaZ
30
N(O
2
) = H
2
)
N
A
= 0,2095
6,022
10
23 1,26
10
23
.
N(N
2
) = (N
2
)
N
A
= 0,782
6,022
10
23 4,7
10
23
.
Hl\_l12
2
) = 1,26
10
23
fhe_dme
N(N
2
) = 4,7
10
23
fhe_dme
<hijhk
>Zgh
: V(H
2
S) = 20
f
3
= 20
10
3
e
GZclb
9\ha^P\ha^
J_r_gb_
AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbb
fhev
fhev
9 ]fhev 9 efhev
9 e 9 e
+ 6 2 + 262
GZc^_fh[t_fdbkehjh^Zg_h[oh^bfuc^eyijh\_^_gbyj_Zdpbb
e
²e
2
10
4
e
²o e
o 8
44
2
67
10
2
4
,
,
= 3
10
4
e
GZc^_fh[t_f\ha^moZg_h[oh^bfuc^eyihemq_gbylZdh]h
h[t
_
fZdbkehjh^Z
V(
\ha^ )
H
(
)
O
(
V
2
\ha^
2
= e
= 1,43
10
5
e f
3
.
m(
\ha^ M
r
(
\ha^
\ha^ M
r
\ha^
9
\ha^
9
=
= 29
efhev
e
efhev
= 1,85
10
5
] d]
Hl\_l
: V
\ha^ f
3
, m
\ha^ d]
<hijhk
Ljm^ghij_^klZ\blvgZrm`bagv[_adbkehjh^ZHgkem`blij_`^_
\k_]h^ey^uoZgbyJZkl\hj_gguc\\h^_dbkehjh^kem`bl^ey
^uoZgbyh[blZl_e_c\h^ghckj_^uIh^^_ckl\b_fdbkehjh^Z
\ha^moZb [Zdl_jbcijhbkoh^blhdbke_gb_hj]Zgbq_kdbohklZldh\
< ijhfure_gghklb dbkehjh^ ijbf_gy_lky\f_lZeemj]bb ijb
\
u
ieZ\d_ f_lZeeh\ dZd hdbkebl_ev\h fgh]bo obfbq_kdbo
ijhba\h^k
l
\Zo^eyk\Zjdbb j_adbf_lZeeh\\f_^bpbgkdbop_eyo
@b^dbcdbkehjh^
²hdbkebl_ev^eyjZd_lguolhieb\hoeZ^
b
l_ev
<hijhk
Hahgh\u_^ujuihy\eyxlkybaaZ\u[jhkh\\Zlfhkn_jm
oeZ^Z]_
g
lh\nj_hgh\hdkb^h\ZahlZdhlhju_h[jZamxlky\h
fgh]boijhfu
r
e_gguoijhp_kkZo
>ey ij_^mij_`^_gby hahgh\uo ^uj g_h[oh^bfh hqbsZlv\u[jhku
ijhfure_gguoij_^ijbylbcb ij_djZlblvbkihevah\Zgb_nj_hgh\
31
Hahgh\u_^uju
²mlhgvr_gb_bebjZajmr_gb_hahgh\h]hklehy
Z
l
fhkn_ju
§ 16
Obfbq_kdb_we_f_glu\de_ldZo`b\uohj]Zgbafh\
<hijhk
JZaebqb_ f_`^m`b\hc b g_`b\hc ijbjh^hc h[gZjm`b\Zxlky
lhe
v
dhgZmjh\g_keh`guo\_s_kl\gZfhe_dmeyjghfmjh\g_
<hijhk
LZdb_\_s_kl\ZoZjZdl_jgulhevdh^ey`b\uohj]Zgbafh\
gZij
b
f_jhj]Zgbq_kdb_\_s_kl\Z[_edb`bjum]e_\h^u
gmde_bgh\u_d
b
kehlu\blZfbgu]hjfhgub ^j
<hijhk
;bh]_ggu_fZdjhwe_f_glu
²we_f_gludhlhju_\oh^yl\khklZ\
hj]Zgbq_kdbo\_s_kl\Wlhm]e_jh^\h^hjh^dbkehjh^b Zahl
<hijhk
Wg^_fbq_kdbcah[dZdba\_klgh\uau\Z_lkyg_^hklZldhfbh^Z\
ibs_b\h^_WlhaZ[he_\Zgb_ihy\ey_lky\hij_^_e_gguo
]_h]jZnbq
_
kdbojZchgZo^eydhlhjuooZjZdl_j_gg_^hklZlhdbh^Z
Wg^_fbdb
²wlhjZkl_gbybeb`b\hlgu_dhlhju_\klj_qZxlky
lhevdh\h^ghfhij_^_e_gghfZj_Ze_
Wg^_fbdbjZkl_gbygZijbf_jebZguwg^_fbdb`b\hlgu_
gZij
b
f_jdhZeZmkkmjbckdbclb]j
<hijhk
N_jf_glu
² wlh [
_edb dhlhju_ dZlZebabjmxl [bheh]bq_kdb_
j_Z
d
pbb
<blZfbgu
² wlh [bheh]bq_kdb_ Zdlb\gu_\_s_kl\Z ijbgbfZxsb_
mqZklb_\j_Zdpbyo h[f_gZ\_s_kl\ Ih k\h_fm [bheh]bq_kdhfm
^_ck
l
\bx\blZfbgu [ebadb d n_jf_glZf gh n_jf_glu h[jZamxlky
de_ldZfbhj]ZgbafZZ\blZfbguh[uqghihklmiZxlk ibs_c
<hijhk
@_e_au
=hjfhgu
Nmgdpbb]hjfhgh\
Ih^`_em^hqgZy
`_e_aZ
Bgkmebg
Kgb`_gb_]exdhau\djh\b
=bihnba
:DL=
>_ckl\m_lgZgZ^ihq_qgbdb
kihkh[k
l
\m_lbonmgdpbb
GZ^ihq_qgbdb
:^j_gZebg
GhjZ^j_g
Z
ebg
MqZklb_\klj_kkhjguoj_Zdpbyo
m\
_
ebq_gb_qZklhluk_j^_qguo
khdjZs
_
gbc
32
Sblh\b^gZy
`_^_aZ
Lbjhdkbg
< ^_lkdhf\hajZkl_
²jZa\blb_
g_j
\
ghckbkl_fu\h\ajhkehf
\hajZkl_
²ih\
u
r_gb_h[f_gZ\_s_kl\
§ 17
=Zeh]_gu
<hijhk
>Zgh
: V(F
2
) = V(Cl
2
e
GZclb
: m(F
2
); m(Cl
2
); D
\ha^
(F
2
); D
\ha^
(Cl
2
); 2
H
D
(F
2
); 2
H
D
(Cl
2
)
J_r_gb_
: 1. m(F
2
)=
(F
2
)
M(F
2
)=
V
)
F
(
V
2
M(F
2
)=
e
efhev
]fhev ]
m(Cl
2
)=
(Cl
2
)
M(Cl
2
)
=
V
)
Cl
(
V
2
M(Cl
2
)
=
e
efhev
]fhev ]
2. D
\ha^
(F
2
) = U U
0 ) 0 \ha^
= 1,31;
+
'
(F
2
) = U U 0 ) 0 + = = 19;
D
\ha^
(Cl
2
) = U U
0 &O 0 \ha^
= 2,45;
+
'
(Cl
2
) = U U 0 &O 0 + = = 35,5.
<hijhk
NlhjgZy\h^Zg_kms_kl\m_lldnlhjj_Z]bjm_lk\h^hc
2F
2
+ H
2
O = 2HF
+ F
2
O.
<hijhk
S_ehqgu_ f_lZeeu ij_`^_\k_]h [m^ml j_Z]bjh\Zlv k\h^hc k
\
u
^_e_gb_f\h^hjh^ZZ g_k jZkl\hj_gghckhevx
>eykjZ\g_gby\havf_fj_Zdpbb$Ok jZkl\hjhf)H&O
3
b oehjghc
\
h
^uk jZkl\hjhf1D%U
$O
)H&O
)H
$O&O
Cl
2
+2NaBr 2NaCl+Br
2
.
2
B\lhfb\^jm]hfkemqZ_b^_lH<J;he__Zdlb\gucwe_f_gl
\
u
l_kgy_lf_g__Zdlb\gucbajZkl\hjZkheb
<hijhk
&O
2
&O
2
&O
2
.
KO
2
+
KO
2
±
+
KO
2
33
<hijhk
H
2
+ I
]Za
2HI
+ Q.
Obfbq_kdh_jZ\gh\_kb_fh`ghkf_klblv\ijZ\h_kebkbkl_fZ[m^_l
hoeZ`^ZlvkyihijbgpbimE_
RZl_ev_
<hijhk
JZkkfhljbf\aZbfh^_ckl\b_]Zeh]_gh\k\h^hjh^hfNlhjj_Z]bjm_l
k G
2
\ex[uomkeh\byokh\aju\hfoehj
²kh\aju\hflhevdhijb
ih^`b]Zgbbbebh[emq_gbbijyfufkheg_qgufk\_lhf[jhf
\aZbf
h
^_ckl\m_lk G
2
ijbgZ]j_\Zgbbb [_a\aju\ZWlbj_Zdpbb
wdahl_jfbq
_
kdb_J_Zdpby`_kh_^bg_gbybh^Zb G
2
keZ[h
wg^hl_jfbq_kdZyhgZijhl_dZ_lf_^e_ggh^Z`_ijbgZ]j_\Zgbb
<u\h^ q_f Zdlb\g_c j_Z]bjmxsb_\_s_kl\Z l_f\ur_ kdhjhklv
ijhl_dZgbyj_Zdpbb
<hijhk
>Zgh
PjjZ., ]
\jj_
(KI) = 0,15;
GZclb
: V(Cl
2
), m(KCl);
J_r_gb_
GZc^_ffZkkmkmohckheb.,
P., PjjZ.,
., ]
]
AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbbb gZc^_ffZkkmkhebb h[t_f
g_h
[
oh^bfh]hoehjZ
m ]
P ] oe
fhev
fhev
fhev
0 ]fhev
0 ]fhev
9 efhev
P ]
P ]
9 e
., &O .&O ,
]
²o e
]
²e
o = 3.
V
(
Cl
2
)
e
]
²m ]
]
²]
y
]
m(KCl) = 20,2 ]
P.&O
]
.&O fhev
0.&O ]fhev
Hl\_l
: V(Cl
2
e
P.&O ]
.
<hijhk
>Zgh
: V(H
2
e9&O
2
e
GZclb
: V(HCl)
J_r_gb_
AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbb
34
f
hev
fhev
fhev
9 e
fhev
9 efhev 9 efhev
9 e
9
e
9 e
+ &O +&O
GZc^_fdZdhc]Za\ayl\ba[uld_
G
2
) = 9+ 9
= 4
,
22
200
, V
KO
2
) = V
)
Cl
(
V
2
= .
3
IhmjZ\g_gbxj_Zdpbb
V
G
2
):
V
KO
2
ke_^h\Zl_evgh
\h^hjh^\ba[uld_
>
).
IhmjZ\g_gbxj_Zdpbb9G&O 9KO
2
eLh]^ZhklZehkv
g_ijhj_Z]bjh\Z\r_]h\h^hjh^Z9
hkl
e±
e e
Hl\_l
9+&O e9
hkl
G
2
e
<hijhk
Wlh gZa\Zgb_ nlhj ihemqbe [eZ]h^Zjy kihkh[ghklb ieZ\bdh\h]h
riZlZihgb`Zlvl_fi_jZlmjmieZ\e_gbynlhjb^h\
§ 18
Kh_^bg_gby]Zeh]_gh\
<hijhk
We_dljheblbq_kdZy^bkkhpbZpbym\_ebqb\Z_lkyhl
H
)d
HI
.
KZfZykbevgZyba]Zeh]_gh\h^hjh^guodbkehl
²bh^h\h^hjh^gZyZ
kZfZykeZ[Zy
²nlhjh\h^hjh^gZy;hevrZyijhqghklvobfbq_kdhc
k\
y
ab+)nlhjh\h^hjh^gZydbkehlZkeZ[h^bkkhpbbjm_l\\h^_
h[mkeh
\
e_gZfZeufjZaf_jhfZlhfZ)b khhl\_lkl\mxsbffZeuf
jZkklhygb_ff_`^my^jZfbZlhfh\\h^hjh^Zb nlhjZK jhklhf
jZ^bmkZZlhfZhl)d
I
jZkl_lb f_`ty^_jgh_jZkklhygb_ijhqghklv
fhe_dmemf_gvrZ_lkyb khhl\_lkl\mxsZykihkh[ghklvd
we_dljheblbq_kdhc^bkkhpbZpbbm\
_
ebqb\Z_lky
<hijhk
<havf_f\dZq_kl\_j_Zdlb\ZjZkl\hjgbljZlZk_j_[jZ
1. AgNO
3
+ NaF
AgF
+ NaNO
3
²gbdZdbobaf_g_gbc
2. AgNO
3
+ NaCl=AgCl
+ NaNO
3
²\uiZ^Z_l[_euchkZ^hd
3. AgNO
3
+NaBr=AgBr
+NaNO
3
²\uiZ^Z_l[e_^gh`_eluchk
Z
^hd
4. AgNO
3
+ NaI=AgI
+ NaNO
3
— \uiZ^Z_l`_eluchkZ^hd
<hijhk
K ihfhsvx^Zgghcj_Zdpbbfh`ghihemqblv[_a\h^guc
MgCl
2
Mg
+ Cl
2
= MgCl
2
.
2
. Mg(OH)
2
+ 2HCl = MgCl
2
+ 2H
2
O
;
3. MgO + 2HCl = H
2
O + MgCl
2
;
35
4. MgSO
4
+ BaCl
2
= BaSO
4
+ MaCl
2
.
<hijhk
&O
+&O
&X&O
=Q&O
$J&O
1. Cl
2
+ H
2
= 2HCl; & O H & O
; + H +
;
2. 2HCl
+ Cu(OH)
2
= CuCl
2
+ 2H
2
O;
2H
+
+ Cu(OH)
2
Cu
2+
+ 2H
2
O;
3. CuCl
2
+ Zn = Cu
+ ZnCl
2
;
Cu
2+
+ Zn Cu + Zn
2+
;
4. ZnCl
2
+ 2AgNO
3
= 2
AgCl
+ Zn(NO
3
)
2
; Ag
+
+ Cl
–
AgCl
.
§ 19
Ihemq_gb_]Zeh]_gh\;bheh]bq_kdh_agZq_gb_
b ijbf_g_gb_]Zeh]_gh\b bokh_^bg_gbc
<hijhk
>Zgh
: m(
NaCl
+ ij ]
ij %;
GZclb
: V(Cl
2
)
;
m(Na)
J_r_gb_
:
GZc^_ffZkkmqbklhckheb
M(NaCl)=m(NaCl+
ij±
m(NaCl+
ij
ij ]±
]
0,02
]
AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbc
m
P ]
o
fhev
fhev
fhev
0 ]fhev 0 ]fhev
9 efhev
P ] P ]
9 e
1D&O 1D &O
GZc^_ffZkkmgZljbyb h[t_foehjZ
]
²o ]
]
²]
o ]
m
(
Na)
]
]
²m e
]
²e
m e
V
(
Cl
2
) = 109,76 e
Hl\_l
: m(Na) = 225,4
]
V(Cl
2
) = 109,76 e
<hijhk
>Zgh
: m(
Na
]
\jj_
(
NaOH
) = 40
%;
GZclb
: m(NaOH)
J_r_gb_
:
AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbbihemq_gby
NaOH
:
P ]
o ]
fhev
fhev
0 ]fhev 0 ]fhev
P ] P ]
1D +2 1D2+
G
GZc^_ffZkkm
NaOH
ihemqb\r_]hky\oh^_j_Zdpbb
a
36
]
²]
]
²o ]
o ]
m(NaOH) = 392 ]
GZc^_ffZkkm
]hjZkl\hjZ]b^jhdkb^ZgZljby
m(
jjZ
NaOH) = )
NaOH
(
)
NaOH
(
m
j_
\j
= = 980 ]
Hl\_l
: m(
jjZ
1D2+ ]
.
<hijhk
>Zgh
: V(Cl
2
) = 100 e
W
= 95
%;
GZclb
: m(MnO
2
); (
HCl)
J_r_gb_
GZc^_fkdhevdhoehjZ^he`ghihemqZlvky
l_hj_lbq
_
kdbqlh[uijZdlbq_kdbihemqbehkvebljh\
V
l_hj
(
Cl
2
) = W
)
Cl
(
V
2
= e
= 105,26 e
AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbb
105,26 e
o ]
2222
= 4 fhev
fhev
fhev
M = 87 ]fhev 9 efhev
m = 87 ]
V = 22,4 e
MnO4HCl = MnClCl
G 2
(
HCl) = 4
(
Cl
2
) = 4
l_hj
9&O 9
= 4
= 18,8 fhev
GZc^_ffZkkm
MnO
2
:
]
²e
o ]
²e
o ]
Hl\_l
: V
(
HCl)
fhev
m
(
MnO
2
) = 408
]
<hijhk
Ij_^hklZ\ey_f\Zf\hafh`ghklvkZfbfih^mfZlvgZ^wlbf\hij
h
khf
<hijhk
F
²ihfh]Z_lij_^hl\jZsZlvlZdh_aZ[he_\Zgb_dZddZjb_kam[h\
Cl
²klbfmebjm_lh[f_g\_s_kl\jhkl\hehkijb^Z_l[h^jhklvb
kbem
Br
²j_]mebjm_lijhp_kku\ha[m`^_gb
y blhjfh`_gby
p_gljZevghcg_j\ghckbkl_fuijbf_gy_lky^eye_q_gbyg_j\guo
[he_ag_c
I
²\eby_lgZ\ujZ[hldm]hjfhgZsblh\b^ghc`_e_au
_]hg_^hklZlhdij
b
\h^bld lZdhfmaZ[he_\ZgbxdZdwg^
_
fbq_kdbc
ah[
< lh`_\j_fy\k_]Zeh]_gu\oh^yl\khklZ\y^h\bluohljZ\eyxsbo
\_s_kl\
Ijbba[uld_]Zeh]_gh\\hj]Zgbaf_jZa\b\ZxlkyjZaebqgu_[he_
a
gb
1
1
Hl\_l\aylbamq_[gbdZ
gZklj
37
<hijhk
< jhebm[bcpu\uklmiZ_l]Zeh]_g
²oehj
—
]Zak _^dbfaZiZohf
[e_^gha_e_gh]hp\_lZy^h\blHibku\Z_lkyijbf_g_gb_\\hcg_
obf
b
q_kdh]hhjm`by
<hijhk
Ij_^hklZ\ey_f\Zf\hafh`ghklvihnZglZabjh\ZlvkZfbf
§ 20
Dbkehjh^
<hijhk
1) 4Al
+ 3O
2
= 2Al
2
O
3
;
Al
0
± $O
3+
, 0
2
O
2
2–
2) 3Fe
+ 2O
2
=Fe
3
O
4
;
Fe
0
±
Fe
2+
, 2
Fe
0
±
2Fe
3+
, 0
2
O
2
2–
<hijhk
S
+ O
2
= SO
2
,
4P
+ 5O
2
= 2P
2
O
5
,
C
+ O
2
= CO
2
.
<hijhk
DZlZebaZlhjZfbgZau\ZxlkylZdb_\_s_kl\Zdhlhju_ih\urZxl
kdhjhklvj_ZdpbbghkZfbijbwlhf\j_Zdpbxg_\klmiZxl<
ijbkm
l
kl\b_dZlZebaZlhjZ
— MnO
2
\eZ[hjZlhjbbihemqZxlH
2
iml_fjZae
h
`_gby+
2
O
2
.
2H
2
O
2
2
MnO
2H
2
O
+ O
2
.
<hijhk
J_ZdpbyjZaeh`_gby
HgO
:
2HgO
t
2Hg
+ O
2
;
AZ^ZqZImklvm gZk_klv] aZ]jyag_ggh]h+J2Ba\_klghqlh
k
h
^_j`Zgb_ijbf_k_ckhklZ\ey_l
<uoh^j_Zdpbb
%.
JZkkqblZcl_h[t_fdbkehjh^Zihemq_ggh]hijbjZaeh`_gbbhdkb^Z
jlmlb
J_r_gb_
GZc^_ffZkkmqbklh]h+J2
m(HgO) = m
kf_kb
kf_kb
(HgO) = 10
± ]
2) W
fhev
fhev
0 ]fhev
9 efhev
P ]
9 e
+J2 +J 2
9H
2
)
l_hj
= ] e
]
e
3) ijZdl
l_hj
92 92 = 0,8;
V(O
2
)
ijZdl
= V(O
2
)
l_hj
e
e
Hl\_l
e dbkehjh^Zj_Zevgh\u^_ebehkv
38
<hijhk
J_Zdpbb]hj_gby
²j_Zdpbb\_s_kl\Zk dbkehjh^hfijhl_dZxsb_k
[hevrhckdhjhklvxk\u^_e_gb_f[hevrh]hdhebq_kl\Zl_ieZb
khij
h
\h`^Zxsb_ky\hkieZf_g_gb_f
>uoZgb_
² wlh ijhp_kk f_^e_ggh]h hdbke_gby Hg aZdexqZ_lky\
ke_^mxs_fdbkehjh^^hklZ\ey_lky]_fh]eh[bghfdjh\b\h\k_ldZgbb
de_ldb hj]ZgbafZ dbkehjh^ hdbkey_l m]e_\h^u h[jZamy ijb wlhf
m]e
_
dbkeuc ]Za b\h^m b hk\h[h`^Zy wg_j]bx g_h[oh^bfmx ^ey
hj]ZgbafZ
Koh^kl\h aZdexqZ_lky\lhf qlh h[Z ijhp_kkZ _klv ijhp_kku
hdb
k
e_gby\h[hbo kemqZyo\uk\h[h`^Z_lky wg_j]by\j_amevlZl_
j_Zdpbch[jZamxlkyhdkb^u
JZaebqbyaZdexqZxlky\kdhjhklyohdbke_gby\dhebq_kl\_
\u^
_
ey_fhcwg_j]bb
<hijhk
Nhlhkbgl_a
²wlhij
hp_kk`bag_^_yl_evghklbjZkl_gby\
j_amevl
Z
l_dhlhjh]hhgbih]ehsZxlKH
2
b\u^_eyxlH
2
.
>uoZgb_
²wlhijhp_kk`bag_^_yl_evghklbjZkl_gby`b\hlgh]hb
q_eh\_dZ\j_amevlZl_dhlhjh]hih]ehsZ_lkyH
2
b\u^_ey_lkyKH
2
.
Ijbnhlhkbgl_a_b ^uoZgbb\jZkl_gbyoijhbkoh^yl
ijhlb\hiheh
`
gu_ijhp_kku
<hijhk
Ijhy\bl_k\hbl\hjq_kdb_kihkh[ghklb\gZibkZgbbkhqbg_gby
<hijhk
2F
2
+ H
2
O = 2HF
+ F
2
O;
) H )
hdbkebl_ev
\hkklZgh\bl_ev
2 H 2
§ 21
K_jZ
<hijhk
>Zgh
: m(ZnS
ij d]
ijbf_kb %.
GZclb
: V(SO
2
)
J_r_gb_
GZc^_ffZkkm\_s_kl\Z[_aijbf_kb
m(ZnS)=m(ZnS
ij±P=Q6
ij
ij d]
±d]
d]
AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbb
P o e
fhev
fhev
0 ]fhev
9 efhev
P ]
9 e
=Q6 2 =Q2 62
]
²e
388
10
3
]
²o e
39
o 100
10
3
e f
3
.
Hl\_l
: V(SO
2
f
3
.
<hijhk
3S
.KO2
3
= 2KCl
+ 3SO
2
;
6 H 6 \hkklZgh\bl_ev
hdbkebl_ev
&O H &O
<hijhk
S
1
HgS
2
SO
2
3
Na
2
SO
3
4
SO
2
5
SO
3
6
H
2
SO
4
.
1. S
+ Hg = HgS;
2. HgS
+ O
2
= SO
2
+ Hg;
3. SO
2
+ 2NaO
H
= Na
2
SO
3
+ H
2
O;
4. Na
2
SO
3
+ 2HCl = 2NaCl
+ H
2
O
+ SO
2
;
5. 2SO
2
+ O
2
= 2SO
3
;
6. SO
3
+ H
2
O = H
2
SO
4
.
<hijhk
Kh_^bg_gby\oh^ysb_\khklZ\\medZgbq_kdbo]Zah\h[eZ^Zxl
lh
d
kbq_kdbfbk\hckl\Zfb
<hijhk
JZgvr_jlmlvgZau\Zebf_jdmjb_f\q_lvieZg_luF_jdmjbc
IjbklZ\dZ^_hagZqZ_lhljbpZgb_Lh]^Z©^_f_jdmjbaZpbyª
²wlh
mgbqlh`_gb_jlmlbl_h[_aaZjZ`b\Zgb_
§ 22
Kh_^bg_gbyk_ju
<hijhk
Z K_jh\h^hjh^ ijhy\ey_l lhevdh\hkklZgh\bl_evgu_ k\hckl\Z ld
k_jZ\^Zgghfkh_^bg_gbbbf__lkl_i_gvhdbke_gby±gZbf_gvrZyba
\hafh`guo
2H
2
S
+ 3O
2 W
2H
2
O
+ 2SO
2
.
[hdkb^k_ju,9fh`_lijhy\eylvk\hckl\ZdZdhdbkebl_eylZdb
\hkklZgh\bl_eyldkl_i_gvhdbke_gbyk_ju\^Zgghfkh_^bg_gbb
y\ey_lkyijhf_`mlhqghc
2SO
2
+ 3C
ba[
t
=
CS
2
+ 2CO
2
,
SO
2
+ Cl
2
t
=
SO
2
Cl
2
;
\k_jZlZd`_fh`_lijhy\eylvhdbkebl_evgu_b\hkklZgh\bl_evgu_
kihkh[ghklbl_kl_i_gvhdbke_gbyk_juy\ey_lky
ij
h
f_`mlhqghc
S
+ H
2
= H
2
S
,
S
+ O
2
= SO
2
;
40
]k_jgZydbkehlZijhy\ey_lhdbkebl_evgu_k\hckl\Zldkl_i_gv
hdbke_gbyk_juy\ey_lkyfZdkbfZevgh\hafh`ghc
2H
2
SO
dhgp
+Cu = CuSO
4
+SO
2
+2H
2
O.
<hijhk
ZK_jgbkluc]ZaihemqZxlijbiheghfk`b]Zgbbk_jh\h^hjh^Zb
h[`b]_kmevnb^h\
2H
2
S+3O
2
t
=
2SO
2
+2H
2
O,
2ZnS+3O
2
t
=
2ZnO+2SO
2
.
K_jgbkluc]Za62
2
)
²[_kp\_lguc]Zak oZjZdl_jgufaZiZohf
ij
h
y\ey_llbibqgu_k\hckl\Zdbkehlguohdkb^h\b ohjhrh
jZkl\hjy_lky\\h^_h[jZamykeZ[mxk_jgbklmxdbkehlm
SO
2
+H
2
O H
2
SO
3
.
Kh_^bg_gbyk_ju
IV)
: NaHSO
3,
Na
2
SO
3
b 62
2
bkihevamxlky^ey
h
l
[_eb\Zgbyr_jklbr_edZ[mfZ]bb khehfuZ lZd`_\dZq_kl\_
dhgk_
j
\bjmxsbokj_^kl\^eykhojZg_gbyk\_`boieh^h\b njmdlh\
[Hdkb^k_ju9,ihemqZxlihke_^mxs_cj_Zdpbb
2SO
2
+O
2 WFDW
2SO
3
.
Hdkb^k_ju9,
²[_kp\_lgZykbevgh^ufysZykygZ\ha^mo_
`b
^
dhklvijhy\ey_llbibqgu_dbkehlgu_k\hckl\ZjZkl\hjyykv\
\h^_h
[
jZam_lk_jgmxdbkehlm
H
2
O
+ SO
3
= H
2
SO
4
.
K_jgZydbkehlZ
²h^bgba\Z`g_crboijh^mdlh\
bkihevam_fuo\
jZaebqguohljZkeyoijhfure_gghklb
<hijhk
JZa[Z\e_ggZyk_jgZydbkehlZ\uklmiZ_l\dZq_kl\_we_dljheblZ\
bhgguoj_ZdpbyoGZijbf_j
BaCl
2
+ H
2
SO
4
BaSO
4
+ 2HCl;
Ba
2+
+ SO
4
2–
BaSO
4
.
K_jgZydbkehlZijhy\ey_lk\hckl\Zhdbkebl_ey< H<J+
2
SO
4
\kl
m
iZ_llhevdhdhgp_gljbjh\ZggZy
JZkkfhljbfj_Zdpbb+
2
SO
4
k f_lZeeZfb=Qb &Xk ihabpbb
hdb
k
ebl_evgh\hkklZgh\bl_evguoj_Zdpbc
Zn
+ H
2
SO
jZa[
ZnSO
4
+ H
2
,
Cu
+ 2H
2
SO
dhgp
CuSO
4
+ SO
2
+ 2H
2
O.
B\lhfb\^jm]hfkemqZ_b^_lH<Jgh\i_j\hcj_Zdpbbjhev
hdbkebl_eyb]jZxldZlbhguG
+
Z\h\lhjhc
²k_jZ
AZibr_fbhggh_mjZ\g_gb_^eyi_j\hcj_Zdpbb
41
Zn
0
+ 2H
+
Zn
2+
+ +
.
Wlmj_Zdpbxfh`ghhlg_klbd j_Zdpbyfbhggh]hh[f_gZ
L_i_jvjZkkfhljbfj_Zdpbbbhggh]hh[f_gZk ihabpbbl_hjbb
we_dljheblbq_kdhc^bkkhpbZpbbDZd\uagZ_l_j_Zdpbybhggh]h
h[f
_
gZb^_llhevdh\lhfkemqZ__keb\j_amevlZl_h[jZam_lkykeZ[h
^bkk
h
pbbjmxs__\_s_kl\h
GZijbf_j
ZnSO
4
+ MgCl
2
MgSO
4
+ ZnCl
2
.
J_Zdpbyg_b^_lldg_h[jZamxlkyfZeh^bkkhpbbjmxsb_\_s_kl\Z
< jZkl\hj_gZoh^blkykf_kvbhgh\
ZnSO
4
+ BaCl
2
BaSO
4
+ ZnCl
2
.
62
+ Ba
2+
BaSO
4
.
J_Zdpbyijhl_dZ_lld%D62
4
²fZehjZkl\hjbf
<hijhk
Ihemq_gb_k_jghcdbkehlu
4
2
3
3
2
2
1
2
2
SO
H
SO
SO
S
H
FeS
S
.
1. S+O
2
=SO
2
;
4FeS
2
H
2
t
=
2Fe
2
O
3
+8SO
2
;
2H
2
S+3O
2
t
=
2H
2
O+2SO
2
.
62
2
62
WFDW
3. SO
3
+H
2
O = H
2
SO
4
.
<hijhk
>Zgh
: V(H
2
2 fe ]962
2
e
GZclb
: \jj_
(H
2
SO
3
)
J_r_gb_
AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_ihemq_gbyk_jgbklhcdbkehlu
H
2
O+SO
2
= H
2
SO
3
.
BamjZ\g_gby\b^ghqlh^eyh[jZah\Zgbyfhev+
2
SO
3
gm`gh\aylv
fhev+
2
2b fhev62
2
GZc^_fqbkehfhev+
2
2b 62
2
:
G
2
H P+ 2
0+ 2
= fhev
/
]
18
]
400
fhev
(SO
2
) = V
)
SO
(
V
2
= e
e fhev
fhev
Ke_^h\Zl_evgh62
2
gZoh^blky\g_^hklZld_b ihemqbehkvfhev
H
2
SO
3
Lh]^Zm gZkhklZehkv
G
2
H
hkl
± fhev
42
2. \jj_
(H
2
SO
3
) = )
jZ
j
(
m
)
SO
H
(
m
3
2
= .
hkl
2
3
2
3
2
)
O
H
(
m
)
SO
H
(
m
)
SO
H
(
m
=
= hkl + 62 0+ 62 + 62 0+ 62 + 2 0+ 2
=
= fhev ] fhev
fhev ] fhev fhev ] fhev
= 0,095 = 9,5
%.
Hl\_l
: \jj_
(H
2
SO
3
) = 9,5
%.
<hijhk
AZibr_fj_Zdpbxkbgl_aZ62
3
:
2SO
2
+ O
2
2SO
3
.
Ij_`^_\k_]hwlZj_Zdpbyhdbkebl_evgh\hkklZgh\bl_evgZy
6
hdbke_gb_
l_ev
\hkklZgh\b
4
S
e
2
S
;
2
_gb_
\hkklZgh\e
hdbkebl_ev
0
2
O
2
e
4
O
.
LZd`_j_Zdpbykbgl_aZ62
3
y\ey_lkyh[jZlghcj_Zdpb_cl_hgZb^_l
h^gh\j_f_ggh\h[_klhjhguJ_ZdpbygZqbgZ_lkylhevdhijb
hlghk
b
l_evgh\ukhdbol_fi_jZlmjZo
K bijhl_dZ_l\
ijbkmlkl\b_dZl
Z
ebaZlhjZieZlbguhdkb^h\\ZgZ^by`_e_aZb l^
>eykf_s_gbyjZ\gh\_kby\ijZ\hgZ^h\kihfgblvijbgpbiE_
R
Z
l_ev_^ey]Zah\ijb\ukhdhf^Z\e_gbbj_Zdpbyb^_l\lm
klhjhgm]^_h[sbch[t_f]Zah\f_gvr_
< gZr_fkemqZ_ke_\Zdhebq_kl\h]Zah\fhevkijZ\Z
²fhev
l_ijbm\_ebq_gbb^Z\e_gbyj_Zdpby[m^_lkf_sZlvky\klhjhgm
h[j
Z
ah\Zgby62
3
.
<hijhk
>Zgh
: V(H
2
H fe0&X62
4
5H
2
2 ]
GZclb
: \jj_
(CuSO
4
)
J_r_gb_
: 1. m(H
2
O) = V(H
2
O)
(H
2
2 fe
]fhev ]
GZc^_ffZkkmjZkl\hjZkheb
Ph[s P+
2
O)
+ m(
CuSO
4
5H
2
O) = 5000
]
GZc^_ffZkkmkmevnZlZf_^b[_a\h^gh]h
m(CuSO
4
) = m(CuSO
4
5H
2
O)
\&X62
GH
(CuSO
4
) =
= m(CuSO
4
)
0U&X62 0U&X62 0U+ 2
]
]
]
Lh]^ZfZkkh\Zy^hey&X62
4
\jZkl\hj_
(CuSO
4
) = )
h[s
(
m
)
CuSO
(
m
4
= ]
5500
320
0,058 = 5,8
%.
Hl\_l
: (CuSO
4
) = 5,8
%.
43
<hijhk
<gbfZl_evgh jZkkfhljbl_ ko_fm ijbf_g_gby k_jghc dbkehlu
jbk
gZkljb ihiulZcl_kvkZfbhl\_lblvgZwlhl\hijhk
§ 23
:ahl
<hijhk
Z0J
+ N
2
= Mg
3
N
2
²gbljb^fZ]gby
0J H 0J 1 H 1
[KZ
+ N
2
= Ca
3
N
2
²gbljb^dZevpby
&D H &D 1 H 1
\$O
+ N
2
= 2AlN
²gbljb^Zexfbgby
$O H $O 1 H 1
< i j h ^ m d l Z o j _ Z d p b c bhgguc lbi obfbq_kdhc k\yab b bhggZy
dj
b
klZeebq_kdZyj_r_ldZ
Gbljb^uf_lZeeh\e_]dh]b^jhebamxlkyk\u^_e_gb_fZffbZdZ
Mg
3
N
2
+ 6H
2
O 3Mg(OH)
2
+ 2NH
3
;
<hijhk
1
/L
1
1+
12
12
+12
1. N
2
+ 6Li = 2Li
3
N; 1 H 1 2. Li
3
N
+ 3H
2
O = 3LiOH
+ NH
3
; Li – 1
H
Li
+
;
3. 4NH
3
H
2
cat
=
4NO
+ 6H
2
O;
4. 2NO
+ O
2
= 2NO
2
;
5. 4NO
2
+ 2H
2
O
+ O
2
= 4HNO
3
.
<hijhk
JZkkfhljbfke_^mxsmxj_Zdpbx
2NO
+ O
2
2NO
2
+ Q.
Ij_`^_\k_]hwlZj_Zdpbyhdbkebl_evgh\hkklZgh\bl_evgZy
hdbke_gb_
\hkklZgh\bl_ev
1 H 1
;
2
_gb_
\hkklZgh\e
hdbkebl_ev
0
2
O
2
e
4
O
.
44
LZd`_j_Zdpbykbgl_aZ12
2
y\ey_lkyh[jZlghcj_Zdpb_cl_hgZ
b^_lh^gh\j_f_ggh\h[_klhjhguLd\j_ZdpbbmqZkl\mxl]Zaulh
fuf
h
`_fijbf_gblvijbgpbiE_RZl_ev_
< gZr_cj_Zdpbbdhebq_kl\hfhev]Zah\ke_\Z[hevr_q_fkijZ\Z
Lh]^Zijbm\_ebq_gbb^Z\e_gbyjZ\gh\_kb_kf_klblky\ijZ\h
< ijyfhcj_Zdpbb\u^_ey_lkyl_iehke_^h\Zl_evghijb
mf_gvr
_
gbbl_fi_jZlmjujZ\gh\_kb_kf_klblky\ijZ\h
<hijhk
Z1+
3
+ 5O
2
= 4NO
+ 6H
2
O
1 H 1 2 H 2
[1+
3
+ 3O
2
2N
2
+ 6H
2
O
1 H 1 2 H 2
.
<hijhk
>Zgh
: m(NH
4
NO
2
]
ijbf_kb %.
GZclb
: V(N
2
), (H
2
O)
J_r_gb_
GZc^_ffZkkmkheb[_aijbf_k_c
m(NH
4
NO
2
)=m(NH
4
NO
2
ij±P1+
4
NO
2
)
ij
]±]
0,012=19,76
]
AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbb
m ]
]
W
o e
fhev
fhev
fhev
0 ]fhev 9 ]fhev F ]fhev
P ] P ]
9 ]
1+ 12 1 + 2
GZc^_f91
2
b P+
2
O):
]
²e
]
²o e
o 19,7622,4
64
e91
2
e
]
²]
]
²m ]
y = 19,7636
64
= 11,115 ]P+
2
2 ]
Lh]^Z
(H
2
O) = P+ 2
0+ 2
= ]
] fhev
fhev
Hl\_l
: V(N
2
e
(H
2
2 fhev
45
§ 24
:ffbZd
<hijhk
:ffbZd e_]dh k`b`Z_lky ijb h[uqghf ^Z\e_gbb b l_fi_jZlmj_ ±
33,4
KZ ijbbkiZj_gbb`b^dh]h]ZaZbahdjm`Zxs_ckj_^uih]ehsZ_lky
fgh]hl_ieZihwlhfmhgijbf_gy_lky\oheh^bevguom
k
lZgh\dZo
:ffbZdhq_gvohjhrhjZkl\hjbf\\h^_
jZkl\hjZffbZdZ
g
Z
au\Z_lkygZrZlujgufkibjlhfb bkihevam_lky\f_^bpbg_
2
<hijhk
<h^hjh^gZyk\yav
²wlhobfbq_kdZyk\yavf_`^mZlhfZfb\h^hjh^Z
b ZlhfZfbkbevghwe_dljhhljbpZl_evguowe_f_glh\nlhj
dbkehjh^Zahl<h^hjh^gZyk\yavh[jZam_lkyh[uqghf_`^m^\mfy
khk_^gbfbfhe_dmeZfbGZijbf_jhgZh[jZam_lkyf_`^m
fhe_dmeZfb\h^ukib
j
lh\nlhjh\h^hjh^ZZffbZdZ
Wlhhq_gvkeZ[Zyk\yav
²ijbf_jgh\jZakeZ[__dh\Ze_glghc
;eZ]h^Zjy _c g_dhlhju_ gbadhfhe_dmeyjgu_ \_s_kl\Z h[jZamxl
Zkk
h
pbZlu qlh ijb\h^bl d ih\ur_gbx l_fi_jZlmj ieZ\e_gby b
dbi_gby\_s_kl\
:ghfZevgh\ukhdb_ l_fi_jZlmju ieZ\e_gby b dbi_gby oZjZdl_jgu
^ey\h^u_kebjZkkfZljb\Zlv\h^hjh^gu_kh_^bg_gby9, ]jmiiu <k_
\h^hjh^gu_kh_^bg_gby9,]jmiiudjhf_\h^uy\e
y
xlky]ZaZfb
Hq_gv\Z`gmxjhevb]jZ_l\h^hjh^gZyk\yav\fhe_dmeZo\Z`g_crbo
^ey`b\uokms_kl\kh_^bg_gbc
²[_edh\b gmde_bgh\uod
b
kehl
3
<hijhk
>hghjghZdp_ilhjgZyk\yav
²wlhhkh[uc\b^obfbq_kdhc
k\yab
d
h
lhjZy\hagbdZ_lg_aZkq_lkiZjb\Zgbyg_iZjguowe_dljhgh\Z aZ
kq_lk\h[h^ghcwe_dljhgghciZjuh^gh]hZlhfZb k\h[h^ghcyq_cdb
^jm]
h
]h
4
<hijhk
Kl_i_gvhdbke_gbyZahlZ\oehjb^_Zffhgby1+
4
Cl: 1+ &O
.
Kl_i_gvhdbke_gbyZahlZ\gbljZl_Zffhgby1+
4
NO
3
: 1+ 12
.
<hijhk
3CuO
+ 2NH
3
= N
2
+ 3Cu
+ 3H
2
O.
&X H &X 1 H 1
.
2
>eyhl\_lZbkihevah\Zekymq_[gbdklj
3
>eyhl\_lZbkihevah\Zekymq_[gbdklj
4
>eyhl\_lZbkihevah\Zekymq_[gbdklj
46
<hijhk
:ffbZd ijhy\ey_l lhevdh\hkklZgh\bl_evgu_ k\hckl\Z ld Zahl
g
Z
oh^blky\kZfhc gbadhc kl_i_gb hdbke_gby b g_ fh`_l [hevr_
ijbg
b
fZlvwe_dljhgu
§ 25
KhebZffhgby
<hijhk
Z1+
4
)
2
SO
4
+ BaCl
2
= BaSO
4
+ 2NH
4
Cl;
SO
4
2–
+ Ba
2+
= BaSO
4
.
[1+
4
Cl
+ AgNO
3
= AgCl
+ NH
4
NO
3
;
Ag
+
+ Cl
–
= AgCl
.
<hijhk
Z1+
4
)
2
CO
3
+H
2
SO
4
=(NH
4
)
2
SO
4
+H
2
O+CO
2 ;
CO
3
–
2
+2H
+
=H
2
O+CO
2
.
[1+
4
)
2
CO
3
+2NaOH=Na
2
CO
3
+2NH
3
+2H
2
O;
NH
4
+
+OH
–
=NH
3
+H
2
O.
\1+
4
)
2
CO
3
+ CaCl
2
= CaCO
3
+ 2NH
4
Cl;
CO
3
2–
+ Ca
2
+ = CaCO
3
.
]1+
4
)
2
CO
3
W
CO
2
+ 2NH
3
+ H
2
O
.
<hijhk
(NH
4
)
3
PO
4
²nhknZlZffhgby
(NH
4
)
2
HPO
4
²]b^jhnhknZlZffhgby
NH
4
H
2
PO
4
²^b]b^jhnhknZlZff
hgby
(NH
4
)
3
PO
4
3NH
4
+
+ PO
4
3–
.
(NH
4
)
2
HPO
4
2NH
4
+
+ H
+
+
PO
4
3–
(NH
4
)H
2
PO
4 NH
4
+
+ 2H
+ + PO
4
3–
.
<hijhk
N
2
1
NH
3
2
(NH
4
)
2
HPO
4
3
NH
4
Cl
4
NH
4
NO
3
.
1. N
2
+ 3
H
2
WSFDW
-
2NH
3
;
2. H
3
PO
4
+ 2NH
3
= (NH
4
)
2
HPO
4
;
3. (NH
4
)
2
HPO
4
G&O 1+
4
Cl
+ H
3
JH
4
;
4. NH
4
Cl
+ AgNO
3
= AgCl
+ NH
4
NO
3
.
<hijhk
>ZghP
(
(NH
4
)
2
SO
4
d]
GZclb91+
3
), m(NH
3
)
J_r_gb_GZc^_ffZkkh\mx^hexZffbZdZ\kmevnZl_Zffhgby
1+ 62
(NH
3
)=
0 1 + 01+ 62 =
fhev
/
]
132
fhev
/
]
17
2
=0,2576=25,76
%.
GZc^_ffZkkmZffbZdZg_h[oh^bfh]h^eyihemq_gbyd]
(NH
4
)
2
SO
4
:
m(NH
3
) = m((NH
4
)
2
SO
4
)
(NH
3
d]
d]
GZc^_fh[t_fZffbZdZ
47
V(NH
3
)=
(NH
3
)
V
=
P1+ 01+ V
=
]
]fhev
efhev e f
3
.
Hl\_l
: m(NH
3
d]91+
3
f
3
.
§ 26
Dbkehjh^gu_kh_^bg_gbyZahlZ
<hijhk
:ahlgZy dbkehlZ g_ h[jZam_l dbkeuo khe_c ld hgZ h^ghhkgh\gZy b
bf__l\k_]hh^bgZlhf\h^hjh^Zdhlhjucb hl^Z_lijbh[jZah\Zgbbk
h
eb
<hijhk
Z&X2+
2
+ 2HNO
3
=2H
2
O
+ Cu(NO
3
)
2
;
Cu(OH)
2
+ 2H
+
=Cu
2+
+ 2H
2
O;
[)H
2
O
3
+ 6HNO
3
= 2Fe(NO
3
)
3
+ 3H
2
O;
Fe
2
O
3
+ 6H
+
= 2Fe
3+
+ 3H
2
O.
\1D
2
CO
3
+2HNO
3
=2NaNO
3
+ H
2
O
+ CO
2
;
CO
3
2–
+ 2H
+
=H
2
O
+
CO
2
.
<hijhk
Na
2
SiO
3
+ 2HNO
3
= 2NaNO
3
+ H
2
SiO
3
;
SiO
3
2–
+ 2H
+
= H
2
SiO
3
.
<hijhk
1) 3Cu
+ 8HNO
jZa[
= 3Cu(NO
3
)
2
+ 2NO
+ 2H
2
O,
&X H &X 1 H 1
.
2) Cu + 4HNO
3(
dhgp
)
= Cu(NO
3
)
2
+ 2NO
2
+ 2H
2
O
&X H &X 1 H 1
<hijhk
I. N
2
1
NO
2
NO
2
3
HNO
3
.
1. N
2
+ O
2
= 2NO,
1 H 1 2 H 2
.
2. 2NO
+ O
2
= 2NO
2
,
1 H 1 2 H 2
.
3. 4NO
2
+ O
2
+ 2H
2
O = 4HNO
3
,
1 H 1 2 H 2
.
II. NH
3
1
NO
2
NO
2
3
HNO
3
.
1. 4NH
3
+ 5O
2
= 4NO
+ 6H
2
O,
48
1 H 1 2 H 2
.
MjZ\g_gbyb kfhljb\ur_
<hijhk
>Zgh
: V(NO
2
f
3
; (HNO
3
) = 68
%.
GZclbP+12
3
)
J_r_gb_
AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbbihemq_gbyZahlghcdbke
h
lu
e
o ]
fhev
fhev
9 efhev
0 ]fhev
P ]
9 e
12 2 +2 +12
89,
6
e
— 252
134,4
10
3
e
²o ]
o ] e
e
d]
GZc^_ffZkkmjZkl\hjZZahlghcdbkehlu
m(HNO
3
) = )
HNO
(
x
3
= 379 d]
0,68
= 55
5
,
9
d]
;
Hl\_l
: m(HNO
3
) = 55
5
,
9
d]
<hijhk
>Zgh
: m(NaNO
3
]92
2
e
GZclb
Pijbf_kb
J_r_gb_
AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbb
e
o ] W
fhev
fhev
9 efhev
0 ]fhev
P ]
9 e
1D12 1D12 2
]
²e
o ]
²e
o ]
m
qbklZy
(NaNO
3
]
GZc^_ffZkkmijbf_kb
Pij P1D12
3
)–m
qbklZy
(NaNO
3
]±] ]
ij
= ij
k_e
P
P beb
Hl\_l
: ij
= 25%.
<hijhk
Kf\hijhk,,
49
§ 27
Nhknhjb _]hkh_^bg_gby
<hijhk
1. Na
3
PO
4
²nhknZlgZljby
Na
3
PO
4
=
3Na
+
+ PO
4
3–
;
2. Na
2
HPO
4
²]b^jhnhknZlgZljby
Na
2
G32
4
=
2Na
+
G
+
+ PO
4
3–
;
3. NaH
2
PO
4
²^b]b^jhnhknZlgZljby
1DG
2
PO
4
=
Na
+
G
+
+ PO
4
3–
.
<hijhk
J
1
Mg
3
P
2
2
PH
3
3
P
2
O
5
4
H
3
PO
4
5
Ca
3
(PO
4
)
2
.
1. J
+ 3Mg
t
=
Mg
3
P
2
,
3 H 3 0J H 0J
,
2. Mg
3
P
2
+ 6H
2
O = 3Mg(OH)
2
+ 2PH
3
.
3. 2PH
3
+ 4O
2
= P
2
O
5
+ 3H
2
O,
3 H 3 2 H 2
,
4. P
2
O
5
+ 3H
2
O = 2H
3
PO
4
;
5. 2H
3
PO
4
&DHG
2
= Ca
3
(PO
4
)
2
+ 6H
2
H
<hijhk
3P
+ 5HNO
3
+ 2H
2
O =
3H
3
PO
4
+ 5NO
,
3 H 3 1 H 1
.
<hijhk
>Zgh
: m(Ca
3
(PO)
4
ij ]
ij %, W = 80
%.
GZclb
: m(P)
J_r_gb_
GZc^_ffZkkmkheb[_aijbf_kb
m(Ca
3
(PO
4
)
2
) = m(Ca
3
(PO
4
)
2
ij±P&D
3
(PO
4
)
2
ij
ij ]±
]
]
AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbb
o ]
]
fhev
fhev
0 ]fhev
0 ]fhev
P ]
P ]
&D 32 6L2 & &D6L2 3
]
²]
]
²o ]
o ]
m(P)
l_hj
]
GZc^_ffZkkmnhknhjZdhlhjZyihemqbeZkv\oh^_j_Zdpbb
m(P)
ijZdl
= m(P)
l_hj
: ]
]
50
Hl\_l
: m(P)
ijZdl
]
<hijhk
>Zgh
P3 ]
ij %,
(H
3
PO
4
) = 80
%.
GZclb
: m
jjZ
(H
3
PO
4
)
J_r_gb_
GZc^_ffZkkmnhknhjZ[_aijbf_kb
m(P) = m(P
ij
– m(P
ij
ij ]
– 31
]
Bah^gh]hfhevnhknhjZfh`ghihemqblvjh\ghh^bgfhev
nh
k
nhjghcdbkehlu
(H
3
PO
4
)=
(P)=
P3
03
(H
3
PO
4
)=
P3
03
=
]
31
]
45
,
29
=
0,95
fhev
Lh]^ZP+
3
PO
4
)=M(H
3
PO
4
)
(H
3
PO
4
]fhev
fhev ]
FZkkZjZkl\hjZnhknhjghcdbkehlujZ\gZ
PjjZ+
3
PO
4
) = )
PO
H
(
)
PO
H
(
m
4
3
4
3
= ]
]
Hl\_l
PjjZ+
3
PO
4
]
<hijhk
>Zgh
PjjZ+
3
PO
4
]
1
(H
3
PO
4
) = 5
PJ
2
H
5
]
GZclb
: 2
(H
3
PO
4
)
J_r_gb_
AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbbihemq_gbynhknhjghc
d
b
kehlu
G
2
H
J
2
H
5
G
3
JH
4
.
BamjZ\g_gby\b^ghqlhbafhevJ
2
H
5
ihemqZ_lkyfhevG
3
JH
4
.
GZc^_ffZkkmnhknhjghcdbkehluihemqb\r_cky\oh^_j_Zdpbb
(H
3
PO
4
) = 2
(P
2
O
5
) = 2
P3 2 03 2 = 2
]
] fhev
fhev
m(H
3
PO
4
) = (H
3
PO
4
)
M(H
3
PO
4
fhev
]fhev ]
GZc^_fkdhevdh[uehnhknhjghcdbkehlu\jZkl\hj_
m(H
3
PO
4
PjjZ
1
(H
3
PO
4
) = 980
]
GZc^_fgh\mxfZkkh\mx^hexdbkehlu\jZkl\hj_
2
(H
3
PO
4
) = h[s
P+ 32 P
j jZ P3 2 = 152
980
49
72
,
209
= 0,2286.
Hl\_l
: 2
(H
3
PO
4
) = 22,86
%.
<hijhk
:DhgZg>hce\k\h_f ijhba\_^_gbb g_ mq_e obfbq_kdbo k\hckl\
nhknhjZ >Z\Zcl_ ih^mfZ_f\f_kl_ Nhknhj k\_lblky\l_fghl_
ke_^
h
\Zl_evgh wlh [_euc nhknhj ld djZkguc nhknhj g_ k\_lblky
\hh[s_ >Ze__ [_euc nhknhj hq_gv y^h\bl b bkihevah\Zlv _]h klhev
51
g_h[u
q
gufkihkh[hfg_kdhevdhjZa\_jhylgh[ueh[ukeh`ghDjhf_
lh]h [_euc nhknhj gZ\ha^mo_ e_]dh hdbkey_lky i_j_oh^y ijb wlhf\
kl
_
i_gvhdb
k
e_gby
4P
+ 5O
2
= 2P
2
O
5
.
DZdlhevdhijhp_kkhdbke_gbyaZdZgqb\Z_lkykh[ZdZi_j_klZ_l
k\
_
lblvky
Hdkb^nhknhjZ9hq_gv]b]jhkdhibqgh_\_s_kl\hl_hgh
ijbly]
b
\Z_ld k_[_\h^m<kihfgbfqlh\hlju\d_]h\hjbehkvh
lmfZg_badhl
h
jh]h\ukdhqbeh©qm^h\bs_ªLmfZg
²wlh
kdhg^_gkbjh\Zggu_iZju\
h
^uLh]^Zkdhj__\k_]hh[jZah\Z\rbcky
P
2
O
5
ih^^_ckl\b_f\eZ]bij_\jZlbeky\nhknhjgmxdbkehlm
J
2
H
5
G
2
H
G
3
JH
4
.
Ljm^gh ij_^klZ\blv k_[_ qlh kh[ZdZ h[fZaZggZy y^h\bluf
\_s_k
l
\hfb dbkehlhcfh`_l_s_qlheb[hk^_eZlv
§ 28
M]e_jh^
<hijhk
:efZa
²ijhajZqgh_djbklZeebq_kdh_\_s_kl\hkZfh_l\_j^h_ba
\k_o ijbjh^guo\_s_kl\ LZdZy l\_j^hklv h[mkeh\e_gZ hkh[hc
kljmdl
m
jhc_]hZlhfghcdjbklZeebq_kdhcj_r_ldb < g_cdZ`^ucZlhf
m]e_j
h
^Z hdjm`_g lZdbfb`_ ZlhfZfb jZkiheh`_ggufb\\_jrbgZo
ijZ\be
v
gh]hl_ljZw^jZ
DjbklZeeuZefZaZh[uqgh[_kp\_lgu_gh[u\Zxlkbg_]h]hem[h]h
djZkgh]hb q_jgh]hp\_lh\Hgbbf_xlhq_gvkbevguc[e_kd
[eZ]h^Zjy\ukhdhck\_lhij_ehfeyxs_cb k\_lhhljZ`Zxs_c
kihkh[ghklb:efZaohjhrhijh\h^bll_iehh[eZ^Z_l
we_dljhbaheyp
b
hggufbk\hckl\Zfb
5
=jZnbl
²l_fghk_jh_`bjgh_gZhsmivdjbklZeebq_kdh_
\_s
_
kl\hk f_lZeebq_kdbf[e_kdhf< hlebqb_hlZefZaZ]jZnbl
fy]dbcb g_ijhajZqgucohjhrhijh\h^bll_iehb we_dljbq_kdbc
lhdFy]dhklv]jZnblZh[mkeh\e_gZkehbklhckljmdlmjhcjbk\
mq_[gbd_< dj
b
klZeebq_kdhcj_r_ld_]jZnblZZlhfum]e_jh^Z
e_`Zsb_\h^ghcieh
k
dhklbijhqghk\yaZgu\ijZ\bevgu_
r_kl
b
m]hevgbdb
6
5
Hl\_l\aylbamq_[gbdZklj
6
Hl\_l\aylbamq_[gbdZklj
52
<hijhk
K
H
2
KH
2
& H &
\hkklZgh\bl_ev
hdbkebl_ev
2 H 2
.
K
G
2
W
KG
4
& H & hdbkebl_ev
\hkklZgh\bl_ev
+ H +
.
<hijhk
DZj[hg
² wlh h^bg ba i_jbh^h\ iZe_hahckdhc wju < dZj[hg_
ij
h
^he`Zxl jZkijhkljZgylvky kihjh\u_ jZkl_gby l_ iZihjhlgbdb
HklZldbih]b[rboiZihjhlgbdh\ f_^e_ggh hdbkeyebkv ih^ keh_f a_feb
\l_q_gb_ fgh]bo fbeebhgh\ e_l < j_amevlZl_ h[jZah\Zebkv h]jhfgu_
aZe_`b d
Z
f_ggh]h m]ey dhlhjuc g_ qlh bgh_ dZd hklZldb ^j_\g_crbo
jZkl_gbc
<hijhk
DZj[he_g
²wlhjZagh\b^ghklvZdlb\bjh\Zg
gh]hm]ey
Ke_^h\
Z
l_evghhgh[eZ^Z_lohjhrbfbZ^khj[bjmxsbfb
k\hckl\Zfbb bkihe
v
am_lky^eyih]ehs_gbyjZaebqguoaZiZoh\\
oheh^bevgbdZo
<hijhk
K
+ Fe
2
O
3
t
=
2Fe
KH
;
& H & )H H )H
2) PbO
2
+ 2C
t
=
Pb
+ 2CO
;
3E H 3E & H &
.
<hijhk
>Zgh
PK
ij ]9&2
2
e: %.
GZclb
: ij
J_r_gb_
GZc^_fh[t_fm]e_dbkeh]h]ZaZdhlhjuc^he`_g[ue
ihemqblvky
V(CO
2
)
l_hj
= 9&2 :
= e
e
AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbb
K
H
2
W
KH
2
.
Ba mjZ\g_gby j_Zdpbb\b^gh qlh ba h^gh]h fhev m]ey ihemqZ_lky
jh\ghh^bgfhevm]e_dbkeh]h]ZaZAgZqbl
53
K KH
2
) = V
)
CO
(
V
l_hj
2
= e
e fhev
fhev
Lh]^ZP& K
0K fhev
]fhev ]
Pij P&
ij±PK ]±] ]
Lh]^Z
ij )
ij
C
(
m
)
ij
(
m
= ]
8
]
2
= 0,25 = 25
%.
Hl\_l
: ij %.
<hijhk
K
KH
2
KH
& H & \hkklZgh\bl_ev
hdbkebl_ev
K H K
.
<hijhk
K
1
CaC
2
2
C
2
H
2
3
CO
2
4
CO
1. 2C
+ Ca
t
=
CaC
2
;
& H & hdbkebl_ev \hkklZgh\bl_ev
&D H &D
2. CaC
2
+ 2H
2
O = Ca(OH)
2
+ C
2
H
2
;
3. 2C
2
H
2
+ 5O
2
= 4CO
2
+ 2H
2
O;
& H &
\hkklZgh\bl_ev hdbkebl_ev H H H
4. CO
2
+ C = 2CO.
§ 29
Dbkehjh^gu_kh_^bg_gbym]e_jh^Z
<hijhk
Fe
2
O
3
+ 3CO t
=
2Fe
+ 3CO
2
)H H )H & H &
<hijhk
G_khe_h[jZamxsb_ beb bg^bnn_j_glgu_ hdkb^u g_ j_Z]bjmxsb_
k\h^hc
²wlhgZijbf_jK212
6L2djZcg_g_mklhcq
b
\uc
<hijhk
KH
H
2 KH
2
.
Ih\ur_gb_^Z\e_gbyijb\h^bld kf_s_gbxiheh`_gbyjZ\gh\_kby
\ijZ\h
<hijhk
KH
2
G
2
H
G
2
KH
3
,
54
KH
2
K
KH
KH
2 + 2Mg = 2MgO
+ C;
2
1
4
Mg
e
2
Mg
C
e
4
C
2
0
0
4
.
<hijhk
IjbjZkl\hj_gbbm]e_dbkeh]h]ZaZ\\h^_h[jZam_lkykeZ[Zy
m]he
v
gZydbkehlZihwlhfmeZdfmkbf__ldjZkgmxhdjZkdm
CO
2
+ H
2
O H
2
CO
3
IjbklhygbbjZkl\hjZm]hevgZydbkehlZjZaeZ]Z_lkyb jZkl\hjkgh\Z
klZgh\blkyg_cljZevguf
<hijhk
CuCO
3
²kj_^gyyfhev
²dZj[hgZlf_^b,,
&XG&2
3
)
2
²d
bkeZykhev
²]b^jhdZj[hgZlf_^b,
I
I),
(CuOH)
2
CO
3
²hkgh\gZykhev
²]b^jhdkhdZj[hgZlf_^b,,fZe
Z
obl
Bai_j_qbke_gguokhe_clhevdh&X+&2
3
)
2
y\ey_lkywe_dljhe
b
lhf
&XG&2
3
)
2
Cu
2+
+ 2CO
3
2–
+ 2H
+
.
<hijhk
ZKD&2
3
1
CaO
2
&Z2+
2
3
CaCO
3
4
Ca(HCO
3
)
2
5
CaCO
3
1. CaCO
3 t
=
CaO
+ CO
2
;
2. CaO
+ H
2
O = Ca(OH)
2
;
3. C
a
(OH)
2
+ CO
g_^
= CaCO
3
+ H
2
O;
4. CaCO
3
+ CO
ba[
+ H
2
O = Ca(HCO
3
)
2
;
5. Ca(HCO
3
)
2
t
=
CaCO
3
+ H
2
O
+ CO
2
.
[K
1
CO
2
2
CO
3
CO
2
4
C
1.
C
+ O
2
t
=
CO
2
;
& H & 2 H 2
2. CO
2
+ C = 2CO;
& H & & H &
3. 2CO
+ O
2
= 2CO
2
;
& H &
2 H 2
4. CO
2
+ 2Mg
t
=
2MgO
+ C.
55
& H & 0J H 0J
<hijhk
>Zgh
PjjZ1D
2
CO
3
]
1
(Na
2
CO
3
) = 2
%;
m(Na
2
CO
3
G
2
H ]
GZclb
: 2
(Na
2
CO
3
)
J_r_gb_
GZc^_ffZkkm1D
2
CO
3
\djbklZeeh]b^jZl_
m(Na
2
CO
3
)=m(Na
2
CO
3
G
2
H
(Na
2
CO
3
)=
=m(Na
2
CO
3
G
2
H
0U1D &2 0U1D &2 0U+ 2
= 14,3
]
GZc^_ffZkkm1D
2
CO
3
\jZkl\hj_
m(Na
2
CO
3
PjjZ1D
2
CO
3
)
1
(Na
2
CO
3
) = 1060
]
3. 2
(Na
2
CO
3
)=
h[s
P1D &2 P
j jZ P1D &2 + 2
=
] ]
] ]
]
Hl\_l
: 2
(Na
2
CO
3
] beb
%.
§ 30
Dj_fgbcb _]hkh_^bg_gby
<hijhk
>bhdkb^dj_fgbyb m]e_dbkeuc]Zay\eyxlkydbkehlgufbhdkb^Zfb
H^gZdh\hlebqb_hlKH
2
hdkb^dj_fgby,9bf__lg_
fhe_dmeyjgmxZ ZlhfgmxdjbklZeebq_kdmxj_r_ldmIhwlhfm6L2
2
y\ey_lkyl\_j^ufb lm]hieZ\dbf\_s_kl\hfZ KH
2
y\ey_lky]Zahf
M]e_dbkeuc]Za\aZbfh^_ckl\m_lk\h^hck h[jZah\Zgb_fm]hevghc
dbkehlu+
2
O
+ CO
2
H
2
CO
3
\aZbfh^_ckl\m_lk s_ehqZfbKH
2
+
+
2NaOH = Na
2
CO
3
+ H
2
2j_Z]bjm_lk hkgh\gufbhdkb^ZfbKH
2
+
+
KZH
KZKH
3
\klmiZ_l\j_Zdpbxk f_lZeebq_kdbffZ]gb_f
KH
2
+ +
2Mg
= 2MgO
+ C.
Hdkb^dj_fgby,9g_jZkl\hjy_lky\\h^_\aZbfh^_ckl\m_lijb
\ukhdbol_fi_jZlmjZokhs_ehqZfbk h[jZah\Zgb_fkbebdZlh\
SiO
2
+ 2NaOH
t
=
Na
2
SiO
3
+ H
2
2\aZbfh^_ckl\m_lijbkieZ\e_gbbk
hkgh\gufbhdkb^Zfb
SiO
2
+ CaO
t
=
CaSiO
3
,
j_Z]bjm_lk fZ]gb_f
SiO
2
+ 2Mg
2MgO
+ Si.
<hijhk
M]e_jh^
² wlh hkh[uc obfbq_kdbc we_f_gl Hg
hkgh\Z
fgh]hh[j
Z
aby hj]Zgbq_kdbo kh_^bg_gbc ba dhlhjuo ihkljh_gu\k_
`b\u_hj]
Z
gbafugZgZr_cieZg_l_
< ijbjh^_dj_fgbc
²\lhjhcihjZkijhkljZg_gghklbihke_
dbke
h
jh^Zobfbq_kdbcwe_f_glA_fgZydhjZ[he__q_fgZq_l\_jlv
khklhblba_]hkh_^bg_gbc
Ihwlhfmm]e_jh^gZau\Zxlhkgh\guf
56
we_f_glhf`b\hcijbjh^uZ dj_fgbc²hkgh\gufwe_f_glhf
g_`
b
\hcijbjh^u
<hijhk
>Zgh
: m(Si
+ ij ]
V(H
2
) = 22,4 e
(
NaOH) = 60
%.
GZclb
: (Si
), m(SiO
2
), m(
jjZ
NaOH)
J_r_gb_
AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbc
Si
+ 2NaOH
+ H
2
O = Na
2
SiO
3
+ 2H
2
.
BamjZ\g_gby\b^ghqlhbafhevdj_fgbyihemqZ_lkyfhev
\h^
h
jh^ZAgZqbl
(
Si
) = 2
1
G
2
) = 2
1
V
)
H
(
V
2
= 2
1
fhev
/
e
4
,
22
e
4
,
22
fhev
Lh]^Z
m(Si) = (
Si)
M(Si) = 0,5
28 = 14
]
(
Si) = )
ij
Si
(
m
)
Si
(
m
= ]
16
]
14
0,875 = 87,5
%.
2. m(SiO
2
) = m(Si
ij±
m(Si) = 16
]±] ]
BamjZ\g_gbyj_Zdpbb\b^ghqlh^eyjZkl\hj_gbyfhevdj_fgby
gm`gh\aylvfhevs_ehqbKe_^h\Zl_evgh
(
NaOH) = 2
(Si) =
=
2
0
fhev fhev
m(NaOH) = (NaOH)
M(NaOH) = fhev
]fhev ]
PjjZ1D2+ )
NaOH
(
)
NaOH
(
m
= 6
,
0
]
40
]
Hl\_l
: (
Si
) = 87,5
%; m(SiO
2
) = 2 ]
PjjZ1D2+ ]
<hijhk
Z6L
O
2
1
Si
2
C
a
2
Si
3
SiH
4 4
Si
O
2
5
Si
1. Si
O
2
+ 2Mg
t
=
2Mg
O
+ Si
;
6L H 6L 0J H 0J
,
2. Si
+ 2Ca
t
=
Ca
2
Si;
6L H 6L &D H &D
3. Ca
2
Si
+ 4H
2
O = 2Ca(OH)
2
+ SiH
4
;
4. SiH
4
+ 2O
2
= SiO
2
+ 2H
2
O;
6L H 6L 2 H 2
,
5. SiO
2
+ Mg
W
2MgO
+ Si.
57
[
6L
6L2
1
D
6L
2
+
6L2
6L
2
6L
1. Si
+ O
2 t
=
Si
O
2
;
6L H 6L 2 H 2
,
2. SiO
2
+ 2NaOH
l\
t
=
Na
2
SiO
3
+ H
2
O
;
3. Na
2
SiO
3
+ H
2
SO
4
= H
2
SiO
3
+ Na
2
SO
4
;
4. H
2
SiO
3
t
=
H
2
O
+ SiO
2
.
5. SiO
2
+ 2Mg
t
=
Si
+ 2MgO.
<hijhk
Dhg_qgh`_wlhkh_^bg_gb_
²hdkb^dj_fgby
(IV)
.
<hijhk
Hlebqbl_evghchkh[_gghklvxkl_deZy\ey_lky_]hk\hckl\h
jZafy
]
qZlvkyb\jZkieZ\e_gghf\b^_ijbgbfZlvex[mxnhjfm
dhlhjZyk
h
ojZgy_lkyijbaZklu\Zgbbkl_deZGZwlhfhkgh\Zgh
ijhba\h^kl\hi
h
km^ub ^jm]boba^_ebcbakl_deZ>hihegbl_evgu_
dZq_kl\Zkl_demijb^ZxljZaebqgu_^h[Z\dbLZd\\_^_gb_fhdkb^Z
k\bgpZihemqZxlojmklZevgh_kl_dehhdkb^ojhfZhdjZrb\Z_l
kl_deh\a_e_gucp\_lh
d
kb^dh[ZevlZ
²\kbgbcb l^
H[eZklv ijbf_g_gby kl_deZ hq_gv h[rbjgZ Wlh hdhggh_
[mlueh
q
gh_ eZfih\h_ a_jdZevgh_ kl_deh kl_deh hilbq_kdh_
² hl
kl_dhehqdh\^hkl_dhenhlhdZf_jebgau[_kqbke_gguoijb[hjh\
²hl
fbdjhkdhih\^hl_e_kdhih\
58
=eZ\Z
3
Hj]Zgbq_kdb_\_s_kl\Z
§ 31
Ij_^f_lhj]Zgbq_kdhcobfbb
<hijhk
S = C = S
k_jhm]e_jh^
&
+
&O
&O
&O
ljboehjf_lZg
K
K
G
G
G
G
G
G
KG
3
²KG
3
ijhiZg
G
K
G
G
K
G
G
G
K
G
G
K
G
G
KG
3
²KG
2
²KG
2
²KG
3
[mlZg
<hijhk
K
2
G
6
kl_i_gvhdbke_gbym]e_jh^Z±kl_i_gvhdbke_gby\h^hjh^Z
\Ze_glghklvm]e_jh^Z\Ze_glghklv\h^hjh^Z
K
K
G
G
G
G
G
G
N
2
kl_i_gvhdbke_gbyZahlZ\Ze_glghklv
N N.
H
2
O
2
: kl_i_gvhdbke_gbydbkehjh^Z±kl_i_gvhdbke_gby
\h^hj
h
^Z\Ze_glghklvdbkehjh^Z\Ze_glghklv\h^hjh^Z
G
²H
²H
²G
<hijhk
L_hjby:F;mle_jh\Zml\_j`^Z_l
lhqlhdZ`^h_\_s_kl\hbf__l
hij_^_e_ggh_obfbq_kdh_kljh_gb_hldhlhjh]haZ\bkylk\hckl\Z
\
_
s_kl\K\hckl\Z\_s_kl\aZ\bkylhlijbjh^uobfbq_kdbo
we_f_glh\hlbodhebq_kl\Zb hllh]hdZdhgbkh_^bgyxlkyf_`^m
kh[hc
Ijb\_^_f ijbf_j ^\mo bahf_jh\ k jZaebqgufb obfbq_kdbfb
k\h
c
kl\Zfb
59
& 2
+
1
+
1
NH
4
— N
=
K
=
O
fhq_\bgZ
pbZgZlZffhgby
<hijhk
Kl_i_gvhdbke_gbyoZjZdl_jbam_ldhebq_kl\hijbgyluobeb
hl^Z
g
guowe_f_glhfwe_dljhgh\Kl_i_gvhdbke_gbyfh`_l[ulv
iheh`
b
l_evghchljbpZl_evghcgme_\hc
<Ze_glghklvihdZau\Z_ldhebq_kl\hk\ya_cdhlhju_h[jZam_l
we_f_gl\fhe_dme_<Ze_glghklvfh`_l[ulvlhevdhiheh`bl_evghc
<hijhk
Ij_^hklZ\ey_f\Zf\hafh`ghklvih^mfZlvgZ^wlbf\hijhkhf
k
Z
fbf
<hijhk
>Zgh
: V(CH
4
) = f
3
, H
2
)
\ha^
= 21
%.
GZclb
: V
\ha^
J_r_gb_
AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbbk`b]Zgbyf_lZgZ
KG
4
H
2
W
KH
2
G
2
H
Ba mjZ\g_gby\b^gh qlh ^ey k`b]Zgby fhev f_lZgZ g_h[oh^bfh
2
fhevdbkehjh^ZAgZqbl
H
2
) = 2
KG
4
) = 2
V
)
CH
(
V
4
.
Lh]^Z
V
\ha^ \ha^
)
O
(
)
O
(
V
2
2
= \ha^
)
O
(
V
)
O
(
2
2
= \ha^
)
O
(
V
)
CH
(
V
2
2
4
=
= \ha^
)
O
(
)
CH
(
V
2
2
4
= 21
,
0
f
250
2
3
f
3
.
Hl\_l
: V
\ha^ f
3
.
§ 32
Ij_^_evgu_m]e_\h^hjh^u
<hijhk
Ijbqbgu fgh]hh[jZaby m]e_\h^hjh^h\ ykgu ba iheh`_gbc l_hjbb
:F
;mle_jh\Z
:lhfu\fhe_dmeZohj]Zgbq_kdbo\_s_kl\k\yaZgu^jm]k ^jm]hf
kh]eZkghbo\Ze_glghklb
60
K\hckl\Z\_s_kl\ aZ\bkyl g_ lhevdh hl khklZ\Z bo fhe_dme gh b
hlbokljh_gby
<hijhk
=hfheh]bq_kdbcjy^fh`ghaZibkZlvdZd
C
n
H
2n+2
.
M]e_\h^hjh^uk
n
y\eyxlky]ZaZfb
M]e_\h^hjh^uk < n
y\eyxlky`b^dhklyfb
M]e_\h^hjh^uk
n
y\eyxlkyl\_j^ufb\_s_kl\Zfb
Ihf_j_m\_ebq_gby
n
m\_ebqb\Z_lkyl_fi_jZlmjZdbi_gbyb
ieZ
\
e_gbym]e_\h^hjh^h\
<hijhk
GZ]hjh^kdhfb k_evkdhohayckl\_gghfljZgkihjl_ijbf_gyxlky
[_gabgd_jhkbgkheyjdZ^ba_evgh_lhieb\hhgby\eyxlky
e_]dh\h
k
ieZf_gyxsbfbky]hjxqbfb\_s_kl\Zfihwlhfmke_^m_l
kh[ex^Zlvijhlb\hih`Zjgu_ijZ\beZl_ogbdb[_ahiZkghklb
<hijhk
KG
²
KG
²
&+
²
KG
&+
Z=hfheh]b
KG
²
KG
²
KG
&+
KG
3
²KG
2
²KG
3
bah[mlZg
ijhiZg
[Bahf_ju
KG
3
²KG
2
²KG
2
²KG
2
²KG
3
&
&+
&+
&+
&+
i_glZg
l_ljZf_lbef_lZg
<hijhk
K
3
G
8
K
3
G
6
G
2
;
K
3
H
6
—
ijhi_gK
4
G
10
K
4
G
8
G
2
;
K
4
G
8
—
[
m
l_g
<hijhk
>Zgh
: V
kf_kb e
KH
2
) = 10
%.
GZclb
: V(O
2
)
J_r_gb_
GZc^_fh[t_fijhiZgZ[_aijbf_kb
V(C
3
H
8
)=V(
kf_kb±
V(
kf_kb
KH
2
e
±e
e
AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_ZdpbbK
3
G
8
H
2
KH
2
G
2
H
BamjZ\g_gby\b^ghqlh^eyk`b]ZgbyfhevijhiZgZgm`ghfhev
dbkehjh^Z
61
Ke_^h\Zl_evgh
H
2
) = 5
K
3
G
8
) = 5
9& + 9
.
Lh]^Z
V(O
2
) = V
H
2
) = V
#
5
38
V(CH)
V
= 5
e
Hl\_l
: V(O
2
) = 100
e
§ 33
G_ij_^_evgu_m]e_\h^hjh^u
Wlbe_gb _]h]hfheh]b
<hijhk
>ey wlZgZ oZjZdl_j_g lbi j_Zdpbc aZf_s_gby Z ^ey wlbe_gZ
—
ij
b
kh_^bg_gby
<hijhk
J_Zdpbyijbkh_^bg_gby\h^hjh^ZgZau\Z_lky]b^jbjh\Zgb_f
KG
2
KG
2
G
2
KG
3
–
KG
3
;
KG
3
±KG CH
2
+
H
2
CH
3
–CH
2
–CH
3
<hijhk
2
CH
3
–CH
3
+ 7O
2
4CO
2
+ 6H
2
O;
CH
2
=CH
2
+ 3O
2
2CO
2
+ 2H
2
O
;hevr_ dbkehjh^Z ihlj_[m_lky ^ey k`b]Zgby wlZgZ ld wlZg bf__l
gZ^\Z\h^hjh^Z[hevr_q_fwlbe_g
Wlbe_g ]hjbl k\_lysbf ieZf_g_f ld\gf [hevr_ fZkkh\Zy ^hey
m]e_jh^Zq_f\wlZg_
<hijhk
&
+
&
+
&
+
Q
KG
KG
²
KG
a
ihebijhibe_g
a
Q
Ijh^mdlihebf_jbaZpbbijhibe_gZgZau\Z_lkyihebijhibe_g
<hijhk
&
&+
&+
&+
&
G
Z=hfheh]b
CH
2
C
CH
3
CH
3
CH
2
=CH–CH
3
f_lbeijhi_g
ijhi_g
[Bahf_ju
KG KG²KG
2
²KG
2
²KG
3
²i_gl_g
62
&+
KG
²
K KG²KG
²f_
lbe[ml_g
<hijhk
KG
2
KG
2
G
2
KG
KG
Zp_lbe_g
:p_lbe_g ijhy\ey_l kbevgh g_ij_^_evguc b ^Z`_ keZ[hdbkehlguc
oZjZdl_j
§ 34
G_ij_^_evgu_m]e_\h^hjh^u
:p_lbe_g
<hijhk
H[sZynhjfmeZm]e_\h^hjh^h\jy^ZZp_lbe_gZ
C
n
H
2n–2
.
<hijhk
:p_lbe_gfh`ghbgZq_gZa\Zlvwlbghf
<hijhk
&+
&²&+²&+
²&+
&+
Z=hfheh]b
KG
K
H
,
²wlbg
KG
K
—
&+
&+
²KG
3
²f_lbe[ml_g
-1
.
[Bahf_ju
&+
&²&²&+
&+
&+
— 3
,3-
^bf_lbe[mlbg
KG
3
–
K
K
–
KG
2
–
KG
2
–
KG
3
— ]_dkbg
<hijhk
KG
KG
H
2
KH
2
G
2
H
63
:p_lbe_g ]hjbl dhilysbf ieZf_g_f ihlhfm\g_f hq_gv [hevrZy
fZkkh\Zy^heym]e_jh^Z
<hijhk
>Zgh
: m(CaC
2
) = 720 d]
ij %.
GZclb
: V
K
2
G
2
)
J_r_gb_
GZc^_ffZkkmdZj[b^ZdZevpby[_aijbf_k_c
m
K
a
K
2
) = 720
(1–0,2) = 720
d]
AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbb
o
e
d]
fhev
fhev
0 ]fhev 9 efhev
P ]
9 e
&D& +2 & + &D2+
KhklZ\bfijhihjpbx
]
²e
]
²o
o = 201,6
10
3
e f
3
.
Hl\_l
: V
K
2
G
2
f
3
.
<hijhk
>Zgh
: V(C
2
H
2
) = 134
,4
e
; W
= 75
%.
GZclb
: m
K
6
G
6
)
J_r_gb_
AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbb
e
W
o ]
fhev
fhev
9 efhev
0 ]fhev
P ]
9 e
&+ & +
e
²o ]
e
²]
o 2
,
67
4
,
134
78
]
m(C
6
H
6
)
l_hj
]
GZc^_ffZkkm[_gaheZihemqb\r_]hky\oh^_j_Zdpbb
m(C
6
H
6
)
ijZdl
= m(C
6
H
6
)
l_hj
W
]
]
Hl\_l
: m(C
6
H
6
)
]
§ 35
:jhfZlbq_kdb_m]e_\h^hjh^u;_gahe
<hijhk
K
6
G
5
–
KG
3
²f_lbe[_gahe
=hfheh]
K
6
G
5
–
K
2
G
5
²wlbe[_gahe
64
Bahf_j
HC
C–C
C–CH
2
–CH
2
–CH
3
²]_ilZ^bbg
<hijhk
Hj]Zgbq_kdb_\_s_kl\Zrbjhdhijbf_gyxlky\k_evkdhfohayckl\_
^eyaZsblujZkl_gbchl\j_^bl_e_c[he_ag_cb khjgydh\Wlh
y^ho
b
fbdZlubebi_klbpb^uIhk\h_fmgZagZq_gbxi_klbpb^u
^_eylkygZg_kdhevdh\b^h\Fum`_gZa\Zebbgk_dlbpb^
]_dkZoehjZg>eybae
_
q_gbyjZkl_gbcb ihq\uhl]jb[dh\uo
aZ[he_\Zgbcijbf_gyxlnmg]
b
pb^u^eymgbqlh`_gbykhjgydh\
—
]_j[bpb^u^eymgbqlh`_gby\j_^guofbdjhhj]Zgbafh\
—
[Zdl_jbpb^uZ ]j
u
amgh\
²ahhpb^u
<k_i_klbpb^u
²y^h\blu_\_s_kl\Zihwlhfmg_h[oh^bfhke_^blv
qlh[uhgbg_ihiZeb\hj]Zgbaf
<hijhk
;_gahedZdb Zp_lbe_ggZ
khklhblbam]e_jh^Zihwlhfmhg
dhilblijbk]hjZgbb
>ey lh]h qlh[u [_gahe ]hj_e [_a dhihlb fh`gh\f_klh dbkehjh^Z
bkihevah\Zlv hahgdZd[he__kbevguchdbkebl_ev
<hijhk
< hkgh\_ijbf_g_gby[_gaheZ\khklZ\_fhlhjgh]hlhieb\Ze_`bl
j_Zdpby]b^jbjh\Zgbyl_gZkus_gbym]e_jh^Z\h^hjh^hf
G
2
<hijhk
1. CaC
2
+ 2H
2
O C
2
H
2
+ Ca(OH)
2
.
2. 3C
2
H
2
t, p, cat
3. + HONO
2 N
O
2
+ H
2
O
.
§ 36
Kibjlu
<hijhk
KG
3
HG
H
2
t
KH
2
G
2
H
²]hjbl[
_kp\_lgufieZf
_
g_f
65
K
2
G
5
HG
H
2
t
KH
2
G
2
H
²]hjblk\_lysbfky
]hem[h\
Z
lufieZf_g_f
3) 2
C
H
2
C
H
2
O
H
O
H
H
2
t
KH
2
G
2
H
4) 2
C
H
2
C
H
O
H
C
H
2
O
H
O
H
H
2
t
KH
2
G
2
H
<hijhk
+
&
2
+
KG
HG
&X
H
W
&X
+
2
<hijhk
F_lbeh\ucb wlbeh\uckibjluijbf_gyxlky\dZq_kl\_
jZkl\hj
b
l_e_c
<hijhk
KG
2
KG
2
G
2
H
KG
3
KG
2
HG
+ Q
.
Obfbq_kdh_jZ\gh\_kb_wlhcj_Zdpbbfh`ghkf_klblv\ijZ\h
i
h
\ukb\^Z\e_gb_b h[_ki_qb\hl\h^l_ieZ
<hijhk
>Zgh
: K
6
G
12
H
6
fhev
GZclb
: m(C
2
H
5
OH), V(CO
2
)
J_r_gb_
AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbb
K
6
G
12
H
6 K
2
G
5
HG
KH
2
.
BamjZ\g_gby\b^ghqlhbafhev]exdhaufhevm]e_dbkeh]h
]ZaZIhwlhfmbafhev]exdhauihemqbehkvfhevKH
2
.
Lh]^Z
V
KH
2
) = KH
2
)
V
fhev
efhev e
Hl\_l
: m
\h^db ]
V
KH
2
e
§ 37
:ev^_]b^u
<hijhk
&
+
&
2
+
K
G
HG
>2@
+
2
&
+
&
+
2
+
&+
KG
G
H
&
+
&
2
+
66
<hijhk
+
&
2
+
KG
HG
>2@
<hijhk
.
+
&
2
+
$J
2
+
&
2
2
+
$J
nhjfZev^_]b^
fmjZ\vbgZydbkehlZ
+
&
2
+
&X2+
+
K
2
2+
&X
2
+
2
nhjfZev^_]b^
fmjZ\vbgZydbkehlZ
2) &
+
&
2
+
$J
2
$J
&
+
&
2
2
+
Zp_lZev^_]b^
mdkmkgZy
dbkehlZ
&
+
&
2
+
&X2+
K
X
H
G
H
&
+
&
2
2
+
Zp_lZev^_]b^
mdkmkgZy
dbkehlZ
<hijhk
J_Zdpby©k_j_[jygh]ha_jdZeZªfh`_lijbf_gylvky^eyihemq_gby
lh
g
dh]hgZe_lZk_j_[jZgZdZdhf
-
gb[m^vij_^f_l_beb^eyihemq_gby
a_jdZe
.
<hijhk
Ij_^eZ]Z_f\Zfih^mfZlvgZ^wlbfkZfbf
<hijhk
wlZg
wlbe_g
2
wlbeh\uckibjl
3
mdkmkgucZev^_]b^
4
mdkmkgZydbkehlZ
KG
3
±KG
3
G
2
KG
2
KG
2
J_Zdpby^_]b^jbjh\Zgby
KG
2
KG
2
G
2
H
K
2
G
5
HGJ_Zdpby]b^jZlZpbb
&
+
&
2
+
KG
±
KG
HG
>2@
G
H
J_Zdpbyhdbke_gby
&
+
&
2
+
$J
H
&
+
&
2
2
+
$J
J_Zdpbyhdbke_gby
k_j_[jyggh]ha_jdZeZ
§ 38
Ij_^_evgu_h^ghhkgh\gu_dZj[hgh\u_dbkehlu
Keh`gu_wnbju
<hijhk
I. GKHHG
+ Mg = (CHOO)
2
Mg
+ H
2
.
67
2) GKHHG
+ MgO = (CHOO)
2
Mg
+ H
2
O.
3) GKHHG
+ Mg(OH)
2
= (CHOO)
2
Mg
+ 2H
2
O.
4) GKHHG
+ MgCO
3
= (CHOO)
2
Mg
+ H
2
O
+ CO
2
.
II
. 1) Mg
+ 2CH
3
COOH = (CH
3
COO)
2
Mg
+ H
2
.
2) MgO
+ 2CH
3
COOH = (CH
3
COO)
2
Mg
+ H
2
O.
3) Mg(OH)
2
+ 2CH
3
COOH = (CH
3
COO)
2
Mg
+ H
2
O.
4) MgCO
3
+ 2CH
3
COOH = (CH
3
COO)
2
Mg
+ CO
2
+ H
2
O.
<hijhk
Keh`guc wnbj ihemqZ_lky\oh^_ j_Zdpbb ^_]b^jZlZpbb f_`^m
d
b
kehlhc b kibjlhf j_Zdpby wl_jbnbdZpbb GZa\Zgb_ wnbjZ
h[jZam_lky iml_f h[t_^bg_gby ^\mo ijbeZ]Zl_evguo i_j\h_
² hl
gZa\Zgbydbke
h
lu\lhjh_²hlgZa\ZgbykibjlZ
<hijhk
+
&
2
2
+
+2
²&+
2
&
+
+
&
2
G
H
fmjZ\vbghf_lbeh\uc
wnbj
<hijhk
>eylh]hqlh[ukf_klblvjZ\gh\_kb_\j_Zdpbbwl_jbnbdZpbb
\ij
Z
\hgm`gh\\_klb\kbkl_fm\h^hhlgbfZxs__\_s_kl\h
gZijbf_jdh
g
p_gljbjh\Zggmxk_jgmxdbkehlm
<hijhk
KG
3
KHHG
+ Cl
2 KG
2
Cl
KHHG
+ HCl oehjmdkmkgZydbkehlZ
KG
2
Cl
KHHG
+ Cl
2 KG
Cl
2
KHHG
+ HCl ^boehjmdkmkgZydbkehlZ
.
KG
Cl
2
KHHG
+ Cl
2 K
Cl
3
KHHG
HCl ljboehjmdkmkgZydbkehlZ
.
<hijhk
wlZg
1
wlbe_g
2
wlbeh\uckibjl
3
mdkmkgucZev^_]b^
4
mdkmkgZydbkehlZ
5
mdkmkghwlbeh\uckibjl
oehjmdkmkgZyd
b
kehlZ
KG
3
±KG
3
t, p
KG
2
KG
2
G
2
.
KG
2
KG
2
G
2
H
KG
3
±KG
2
HG
KG
3
KG
2
HG
+ [O]
C
H
3
C
O
H
G
2
H
4. C
H
3
C
O
H
+ Ag
2
H
KG
3
KHHG
+ 2
Ag
.
KG
3
KHHG
K
2
G
5
HG
O
C
2
H
5
C
H
3
C
O
+ G
2
O
KG
3
KHHG
+ Cl
2
KG
2
Cl
KHHG
+ HCl
.
68
§ 39
@bju
<hijhk
&
+
2
&
&
+
2
2
&
+
&
2
&
+
2
&
+
&
2
&
+
&
+
&
+
2
+
&
+
2
+
2
+
K
G
KHHG +
2
<hijhk
>eykf_s_gbyjZ\gh\_kbyj_Zdpbbwl_jbnbdZpbb\ijZ\hgm`gh
h[_ki_qblvm^Ze_gb_\h^ubakbkl_fu
<hijhk
C
H
2
O
C
C
17
H
31
O
O
C
17
H
31
C
O
C
H
O
C
17
H
31
C
O
C
H
2
G
2
C
H
2
O
C
C
17
H
35
O
O
C
17
H
35
C
O
C
H
O
C
17
H
35
C
O
C
H
2
<hijhk
K
17
G
35
KHH
Na
+ CaSO
4
K
17
G
35
KHH
2
KZ
+ Na
2
SO
4
.
<hijhk
@bju y\eyxlky\Z`ghc qZklvx ibs_\h]h jZpbhgZ < hj]Zgbaf_
ijhbkoh^bl ]b^jheba`bjh\ dhlhju_ jZks_ieyxlky gZ ]ebp_jbg b
`bjgu_ dbkehlu g_dhlhju_ ba gbo y\eyxlky g_aZf_gbfufb ld g_
fh]mlkbgl_abjh\Zlvky\hj]Zgbaf_q_eh\_dZ
DZd b ^jm]b_ iblZl_evgu_\_s_kl\Z`bju ijbgbfZxl mqZklb_\
ie
Z
klbq_kdhf b wg_j]_lbq_kdhf h[f_g_ Bo hdbke_gb_ ijb\h^bl d
\uk\h[
h
`^_gbx ]hjZa^h [hevr_]h dhebq_kl\Z wg_j]bb q_f hdbke_gb_
[_edh\b m]e_\h^h\Djhf_lh]h`bjufh]mlgZdZieb\Zlvky\hj]Zgbaf_
h[jZamy mgb\_jkZevgh_ ^_ih wg_j]_lbq_kdb p_ggh]h fZl_jbZeZ
IhklmiZxsb_\hj]Zgbaf\ba[ulhqghf dhebq_kl\_ m]e_\h^u b qZklv
[_edh\ fh]ml ljZgknhjfbjh\Zlvky \`bj qlh ijb\h^bl d jhklm _]h
hleh`_gbc Ijb g
_
h[oh^bfhklb aZiZk_gguc lZdbf h[jZahf`bj fh`_l
ij_\jZsZlvky\]e
b
dh]_g b bkihevah\Zlvky\j_Zdpbyo m]e_\h^gh]h
h
[
f_gZ
69
§
40
:fbghdbkehlub [_edb
<hijhk
Fhe_dmeuZfbghdbkehlkh^_j`Zl^\_nmgdpbhgZevgu_]jmiiu
H
2
N
—
Zfbgh]jmiimb
COOH— dZj[hdkbevgmx]jmiimihwlhfm
Zf
b
ghdbke
h
luijhy\eyxlk\hckl\ZdZdZfbgh\lZdb dZj[hgh\uo
dbkehl
<hijhk
JZaebqb_f_`^mj_Zdpbyfbihebdhg^_gkZpbbb ihebf_jbaZpbb
a
Z
dexqZ_lky\lhfqlh\i_j\hcj_ZdpbbgZjy^mk ihebf_jhf
h[jZam_lkygbadhfhe_dmeyjgh_\_s_kl\hqZs_\k_]h\h^Z\
j_Zdpbbihebf_jba
Z
pbbh[jZam_lkylhevdhihebf_j
<hijhk
N_jf_glu±wlh[bheh]bq_kdb_dZlZebaZlhjuHgbij_^klZ\eyxl
kh[hc[_edbN_jf_gluhlebqZxlkyhlg_hj]Zgbq_kdbo
dZlZebaZlhjh\\ukhdhcwnn_dlb\ghklvxb ki_pbnbqghklvx
^_ckl\by
<hijhk
1
+
&
+
5
&
2
Q
Q+
2
>+ @
Q
1
+
&
+
5
&
2
2
=b^jheba[_edh\ih^^_ckl\b_fdbkehlbebs_ehq_ce_`bl\hkgh\_
ijhp_kkZibs_\Zj_gby
<hijhk
K
2
G
6
1
K
2
G
5
HG
2
KG
3
KHG
3
KG
3
KHHG
4
4
KG
2
K
lCOOH
5
CH–NH
2
–COOH
6
ihebi_ilb^
K
2
H
6
W3
CH
2
= CH
2
+ H
2
; CH
2
= CH
2
+ H
2
O K
2
H
5
OH;
2. K
2
H
5
OH
+ [O] CH
3
COH
+ H
2
O;
3. CH
3
COH
+ Ag
2
O CH
3
COOH
+ 2Ag
;
4. CH
3
COOH
+ Cl
2 CH
2
ClCOOH
+ HCl;
5. CH
2
ClCOOH
+ 2NH
3 CH
2
NH
2
COOH
+ NH
4
Cl;
6. 1
+
&
+
5
&
2
Q
Q+
2
Q&+
1+
&22+
§ 41
M]e_\h^u
<hijhk
>Zgh
: K
6
G
12
H
6
fhev
K
2
G
5
HG %.
GZclb
: m
kibjlZ
70
J_r_gb_
AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbb
K
6
G
12
H
6 2
K
2
G
5
HG
+ 2CO
2
.
BamjZ\g_gbyj_Zdpbb\b^ghqlhbafhev]exdhauihemqZ_lkyfhev
wlbeh\h]hkibjlZihwlhfm
K
2
G
5
HG K
6
G
12
H
6
)=2
fhev fhev
2. m
K
2
G
5
HG K
2
G
5
HG
M
K
2
G
5
HG fhev
]fhev ]
Lh]^Z
m
kibjlZ m
K
2
G
5
HG
K
2
G
5
HG ] ]
Hl\_l
m
kibjlZ ]
<hijhk
>Zgh
: m
G
2
H d]
GZclb
: V(O
2
)
J_r_gb_
AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbb
KH
2
G
2
H
K
6
G
12
H
6
H
2
.
BamjZ\g_gby\b^ghqlhbafhev\h^uihemqZ_lkyfhev
dbkehj
h
^Zihwlhfm
H
2
) = G
2
H P+ 2
0+ 2
= ]fhev
= 2
10
4
fhev
Lh]^Z
V
H
2
)=
H
2
)
V
=2
10
4
fhev
efhev 10
4
e f
3
.
Hl\_l
V
H
2
f
3
.
<hijhk
2
&
+
2
+
+
2
+
+
+
2
+
+
+
2
2
2
&
+
2
+
+
2
+
+
+
2
+
+
+
Q
+nH
2
O
+
t
H
n
2
&
+
2
+
+
2
+
+
+
2+
+
+
2+
2+
<hijhk
=exdhaZ
DZd\b^gh ba nhjfmeu ]exdhau hgZ bf__l Zev^_]b^gmx
]jmiim b kibjlh\mx ]jmiim ±HG < wlhf b aZdexqZ_lky
^
\hck
l
\_gghklv]exdhau
H
C
O
O
H
:
]jmiiZ
C
O
O
H
— dZj[hdkbevgZy
]jmiiZ
; ]jmiiZ
C
O
H
²Zev^_]b^gZy]jmiiZ
FmjZ\vbgmxdbkehlmfh`ghgZa\ZlvZev^_]b^hdbke
h
lhc
.
<hijhk
Fhe_dmeZdjZofZeZbf__ljZa\_l\e_ggh_kljh_gb_ihoh`__gZ
k_
l
dmZ fhe_dmeZp_eexehaubf__lkljh_gb_p_ihqdbghbo
fhghf_jhfy\ey_lky]exdhaZ
2
+
&
&+
2+
+±&±2+
+±&±2+
2+±&±+
+±&±2+
71
<hijhk
=exdhaZijbf_gy_lky\f_^bpbg_b ibs_\hcijhfure_gghklbijb
ijhba\h^kl\_ a_jdZe KZoZjhaZ\ibs_\hc ijhfure_gghklb
DjZ
o
fZe
²\ibs_\hc l_dklbevghc [mfZ`
ghc iheb]jZnbq_kdhc
ijhfu
r
e_gghklyo
P_eexehaZ ijbf_gy_lky ^ey ihemq_gby [mfZ]b
obfbq_kdbo\he
h
dhgieZklfZkkihjhoZeZdh\
§ 42
Ihebf_ju
<hijhk
&
+
&
+
&
O
Q
Q
&
+
&
+
&
O
<hijhk
&
+
&
+
&
+
Q
ihebijhibe_g
Q
&
+
&
+
&
+
<hijhk
Bkdmkkl\_ggu_\hehdgZba]hlZ\eb\Zxlbaijbjh^guoihebf_jh\
ij_`^_\k_]hbap_eexehauKbgl_lbq_kdb_\hehdgZ\ujZ[Zlu\Zxl
bakbgl_lbq_kdboihebf_jh\
<hijhk
HklZ\ey_fwlhl\hijhk^eykZfhklhyl_evgh]hbamq_gby
< j_amevlZl_ j_Zdpbb ihebdhg^_gkZpbb ihemqZxl
n_henhjfZev^
_
]b^gmxkfhem
<hijhk
Ij_^hklZ\ey_f\Zf\hafh`ghklvih^mfZlvgZ^wlbf\hijhkhfk
Z
fbf
72
Ijbeh`_gb_
1
H[sZydeZkkbnbdZpbym^h[j_gbc
<hijhk
Z
)
N
(
3
NaNO
= )
NaNO
(
Mr
)
N
(
Mr
3
= 85
14
= 16,5
%.
[
)
N
(
4
2
4
SO
)
NH
(
= 424
2Mr(N)
Mr((NH)SO)
= 132
28
= 21,2
%.
\
1+ 12
1
= )
NO
NH
(
Mr
)
N
(
Mr
2
3
4
= 80
28
= 35
%.
GZb[he__dhgp_gljbjh\Zggh_
m^h[j_gb_
NH
4
NO
3
.
<hijhk
Z
.12 .2
= )
KNO
(
Mr
2
)
O
K
(
Mr
3
2
= 202
94
= 46,5
%.
.12
1
= )
KNO
(
Mr
)
N
(
Mr
3
= 101
14
= 14
%.
[
1+ +32
1
= 4
2
4
HPO
)
NH
(
Mr
)
N
(
Mr
2
= 132
28
= 21,2
%;
1+ +32 & 3 2 = 4
2
4
5
2
HPO
)
NH
(
Mr
2
)
O
P
(
Mr
= 264
142
= 53,8
%.
\
)
O
K
(
2
4
PO
3
K
= )
PO
K
(
Mr
2
)
O
K
(
Mr
3
4
3
2
= 424
282
= 66,5
%.
)
O
P
(
5
2
4
PO
3
K
= )
PO
K
(
Mr
2
)
O
P
(
Mr
4
3
5
2
= 424
142
= 33,5
%.
<hijhk
.
G_\k_m^h[j_gbyfh`ghkf_rb\Zlv^jm]k ^jm]hf
2
NH
4
NO
3
&D2G
2
Ca(NO
3
)
2
+ 2NH
3
G
2
H
:ffbZd\us_eZqb\Z_lihq\m
<hijhk
< khklZ\_\_s_kl\h[jZamxsbode_ldb\k_o`b\uohj]Zgbafh\
h
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74
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oZ
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kh^_
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k jZkl
b
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h j ] Z g b
a
fh\ nhknhj b dZebc kgh\Z i_j_oh^yl\ihq\m LZd
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m
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l
gu_
JZkl
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gby
M^h[j
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gby
DZebcgu_b
nhknhj
h
kh^_j`Zsb_
fbg_jZeub ihjh^u
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^he`guohjhrh\iblu\ZlvkyjZkl_gbyfbb g_hklZ\Zlvky\ihq\_
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<hijhk
Ieh^hjh^b_ ihq\u aZ\bkbl g_ lhevdh hl dhebq_kl\Z iblZl_evguo
\
_
s_kl\ gh lZd`_ hl\h^h b\ha^mohijhgbpZ_fhklb ihwlhfm ohjhrZy
i
Z
ohlZlZd`_g_h[oh^bfZdZdb\g_k_gb_m^h[j_gbc
75
2
Obfbq_kdZyf_ebhjZpbyihq\
<hijhk
CaCO
3
+ 2HCl = CaCl
2
+ H
2
O
+ CO
2
.
G_jZkl\hjbfucdZj[hgZldZevpbyjZkl\hjy_lky\dbkehlZo
<hijhk
J_dhf_g^m_lkyihke__^uihqbklblvam[ubebih`_\Zlv
`_\Zl_e
v
gmxj_abgdm^eylh]hqlh[ug_cljZebah\Zlvkj_^m
`_em^dZkexghc
<hijhk
CaCO
3
+ 2H
+
Ca
2+
+ H
2
O
+ CO
2
.
m(CaCO
3
) = 4
l]Z
100
6
l
Hl\_l
gm`gh\g_klbd]
CaCO
3
.
<hijhk
CaCO
3
MgCO
3
+ 4H
+
Ca
2+
+ Mg
2+
+ 2CO
2
+ 2H
2
O.
3
:ahlgu_dZebcgu_b nhknhjgu_m^h[j_gby
<hijhk
Ca
3
(PO
4
)
2
²fZehjZkl\hjbfh_\\h^_\_s_kl\hihwlhfm_]h\ghkyl
^hihk_\Zld\wlh\j_fy\eZ`ghklvihq\u[hevr_
<hijhk
Ca
3
(PO
4
)
2
— nhknhjblgZyfmdZ
²fZehjZkl\hjbfh_\_s_kl\h
i
h
wlhfmhgh©mk\Zb\Z_lkyªihq\hc^ebl_evgh_\j_fy
<hijhk
Nhknhjgu_m^h[j_gby\[hevrbgkl\_k\h_ffZehjZkl\hjbfu_
\
_
s_kl\Zke_^h\Zl_evghbojZkl\hj_gb_aZgbfZ_l^he]bci_jbh^
D
Z
ebcgu_`_m^h[j_gby
²ohjhrhjZkl\hjbfu_\_s_kl\Zihwlhfm
hgb[ukljhmk\Zb\Zxlkyihq\hc
<hijhk
Hl\_lgZwlhl\hijhk_klv\
\hijhkub <hijhk
>Zgh
: V
jjZ e ]
m(HNO
3
)
]
m(Ca
(NO
3
)
2
)=10
]
GZclb
: \jj_
(
K
2
O), \jj_
(
N), \jj_
(P
2
O
5
)
J_r_gb_
GZc^_ffZkkh\u_^hebwe_f_glh\
76
)
O
K
(
2
KNO
3
= U U 0 .2
0 .12 = 202
94
= 46,5
%.
)
N
(
3
KNO
= U
U 0 1
0 .12 = 101
14
= 14
%.
)
N
(
2
)
3
NO
(
Ca
= U
U
0 1
0 &D12 = 164
28
= 17
%.
)
O
K
(
2
4
PO
2
KH
= U U 0 .2
0 .+ 32 = 272
94
= 34,6
%.
)
O
P
(
5
2
4
PO
2
KH
= U U 0 3 2 0 .+ 32 = 272
142
= 52,2
%.
GZc^_ffZkkudhfihg_glh\
m(N)
= m(KNO
3
)
(N)
+ m(Ca(NO
3
)
2
)
(N)
= 2,5
0,14
+ 10
0,17
=
=
0,35
+ 1,7 = 2,05 ]
m(P) = m(K
2
HPO
4
)
(P
2
O
5
) = 2,5
0,522 = 1,305 ]
m(K)=m(KNO
3
)
(K
2
O)+m(KH
2
PO
4
)
(K
2
O)=2,5
0,465+2,5
0,346=2,02
75 ]
3. GZc^_ffZkkh\u_^hebdhfihg_glh\
(
N)
=
)
PO
KH
(
m
)
NO
(
Ca
(
m
)
KNO
(
m
)
jZ
j
(
m
)
N
(
m
4
2
2
3
3
=
=
= 0,2
%.
(K) = )
h[s
(
m
)
K
(
m
= 1015
0275
,
2
= 0,2
%.
(P) = )
h[s
(
m
)
P
(
m
= 1015
305
,
1
= 0,113
%.
Hl\_l
: (
N) = 0,2
%; J
) = 0,13
%; (
D %.
<hijhk
>Zgh
: kf_kb
(
J
2
H
5
) = 0,2.
GZclb
: KZG
2
JH
4
)
2
)
J_r_gb_
Kmi_jnhknZlijhklhckhklhblba
Ca(H
2
PO
4
)
2
b
CaSO
4
.
AgZqbl
J
2
H
5
) = )
kf_kb
(
m
)
O
P
(
m
5
2
= y
x
= 0,2.
o m]^_m
²fZkkZkf_kb
2. KZG
2
JH
4
)
2
) = )
kf_kb
(
m
)
)
PO
H
(
Ca
(
m
2
4
2
=
77
= )
kf_kb
(
m
)
O
P
(
:
)
O
P
(
m
5
2
2
)
4
PO
2
H
(
Ca
5
2
= &D+ 32 [ 3 2 \
;
)
O
P
(
5
2
)
PO
H
(
Ca
2
4
2
= U
U 0 3 2 0 &D+ 32 = 234
142
= 60,7
%.
Lh]^Z
KZG
2
JH
4
)
2
)=
[ \
=
\ \
=0,329=32,9
%.
Hl\_l
: \kmi_jnhknZl_
KZG
2
JH
4
)
2
) = 32,9
%.
<hijhk
>Zgh
: m(H
3
PO
4
) = ]
m(Ca(OH)
2
) = 37 ]
GZclb
: m(CaHPO
4
2H
2
O)
J_r_gb_
AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbb
K
a(OH)
2
+H
3
PO
4
=CaHPO
4
2H
2
O; (Ca(OH)
2
)=0,5
fhev
G
3
JH
4
fhev
BamjZ\g_gbyj_Zdpbb\b^ghqlh
G
3
JH
4
): (Ca(OH)
2
Ba
^Zgguo
\b^ghqlh
Ca(OH)
2
\ba[uld_ihwlhfmkqblZ_fihG
3
JH
4
.
Bafhev
G
3
JH
4
ihemqZ_lkyfhevij_pbiblZlZ
.
m(CaHPO
4
2H
2
O) = \_s\Z
M
\\Z ]
Hl\_l
: m(CaHPO
4
2H
2
2 ]
78
Obfbq_kdbcijZdlbdmf
I.
K\hckl\Z
f_lZeeh\b bokh_^bg_gby
IjZdlbq_kdZyjZ[hlZ
1
.
Hij_^_e_gb_\uoh^Zijh^mdlZj_Zdpbb
<ZjbZgl
Hij_^_e_gb_\uoh^Z\h^hjh^Zijb\aZbfh^_ckl\bbpbgdZk kheyghc
dbkehlhc
rlZlb\
ijh[bjdZk
ihjhrdhf
Zn b
HCl
ijh[dZ
]Zahhl\h^gZy
ljm[dZ
f_jguc
pbebg^j
djbklZeebaZlhj
k\h^hc
Kh[_j_fijb[hj^eyihemq_gby]Zah\dZdihdZaZghgZjbkmgd_
Ijh\_jbf_]hgZ]_jf_lbqghklv>eywlh]hhimklbfk\h[h^guc
dhg_p]Zahhl\h^ghcljm[db\\h^mb gZ]j__fijh[bjdmfh`ghk
ihfhsvxkibjlh\db?kebbaljm[db\uoh^ylimaujvdb\ha^moZ
jZkrbjb\r_]
h
kyijbgZ]j_\Zgbblhijb[hjkh[jZg]_jf_lbqgh
L_i_jvgZev_f\f_jgucpbebg^j\h^mZddmjZlghi_j_\_jg_f_]h\
\h^_ lZd qlh[u\ha^mo g_ ihiZe\gmljv dhg_p ]Zahhl\h^ghc ljm[db
ihf_klbf\pbebg^j dZd ihdZaZgh gZ jbkmgd_ < ijh[bjdm ihf_klbf
jZkq_lgh_ dhebq_kl\h ihjhrdZ pbgdZ b jZkl\hj kheyghc dbkehlu b
iehlghaZldg_f__ j_abgh\hcijh[dhck ]Zahhl\h^ghcljm[dhc
< ijh[bjd_gZqbgZ_lky\u^_e_gb_\h^hjh^Zdhlhjucihljm[d_
i
h
klmiZ_l\f_jgucpbebg^jb\ul_kgy_lbag_]h\h^mH[t_f
\ul_kg_
g
ghc\h^ujZ\_gh[t_fmihemq_ggh]h\h^hjh^Z
.)
ijZdl
(
H
2
V
).
>eylh]hqlh[umagZlv
.)
ijZdl
(
2
H
V
aZibr_fj_Zdpbx\aZbfh^_ckl\by
=Qb +&O
fhev
fhev
0 ]fhev
9 efhev
P 0
]
9 9 e
=Q +&O =Q&O +
79
Ij_^\Zjbl_evgh\a\_kb\pbgdjZkkqblZ_fl_hj_lbq_kdbh[t_f
\
h
^hjh^Z
.)
l_hj
(
2
H
V
= m
Z
n
m
V
= m
Z
n
65
4
,
22
= 0,345 m
Z
n
;
lh]^Z\uoh^\h^hjh^Zfh`ghihemqblvihnhjfme_
W = .)
l_hj
(
2
H
.)
ijZdl
(
2
H
V
V
100
% = + ijZdl
=Q
9
P
100
% = 2,9
+ ijZdl
=Q
9
P
100
%.
<ZjbZgl
Hij_^_e_gb_\uoh^Z\h^hjh^Zijb\aZbfh^_ckl\bbdZevpbyk\h^hc
Hiulijh\h^blkyZgZeh]bqghij_^u^ms_fm\ZjbZgl
HlebqZx
l
kyebrvjZkq_lu
KgZqZeZgZc^_ffZkkmqbklh]hdZevpby<a\_kb\\u^Zgguch[jZa_p
fumagZ_fkmffZjgmxfZkkmf_lZeeZk ijbf_kyfb
m
Ca
= %
100
%)
12
%
100
(
m
h[jZapZ
= 0,88 m
h[jZapZ
.
± ^heyqbklh]hf_lZeeZ\h[jZap_AZibr_fj_Zdpbx
\aZbfh^_ckl\byKZk G
2
H
o e
fhev
fhev
0 ]fhev
9 efhev
P ]
9 e
&D + 2 &D2+ +
Lh]^Z
.)
l_hj
(
2
H
V
= m
KZ
m
V
= 0,56m
KZ
= 0,4928 m
h[jZapZ
.
JZkkqblZ_f\uoh^\h^hjh^Zihnhjfme_
W = .)
l_hj
(
2
H
.)
ijZdl
(
2
H
V
V
100
% = 2,03
h[jZapZ
.)
ijZdl
(
2
H
m
V
100
%.
< j_Zdpbbh[jZam_lkyfZehjZkl\hjbfh_\_s_kl\hKZHG
2
Hgh
h
k
lZg_lky\ijh[bjd_\\b^_[_ehcfmlb
IjZdlbq_kdZyjZ[hlZ
2
.
Hkms_kl\e_gb_p_ihqdbobfbq_kdboij_\jZs_gbc
<ZjbZgl
Ijh\_^_fke_^mxsb_ij_\jZs_gby
MgCO
3
1
MgCl
2
2
Mg(OH)
2
3
MgSO
4
.
<havf_fl\_j^uc0J&2
3
b ^h[Z\bfd g_fmjZkl\hj+&O
MgCO
3
+ 2HCl
MgCl
2
+ H
2
O
+ CO
2
.
MgCO
3
+ 2H
+
Mg
2+
+ H
2
O
+ CO
2
.
80
L\_j^ucdZj[hgZlfZ]gbyjZkl\hjblky\dbkehl_b [m^_l\u^_eylvky
]Za
D ihemq_gghfmjZkl\hjm^h[Z\bfs_ehqvgZijbf_jjZkl\hj
NaOH.
MgCl
2
+ 2NaOH
2NaCl
+ Mg(OH)
2
;
Mg
2+
+ 2OH
–
Mg(OH)
2
.
Ijhbkoh^bl\uiZ^_gb_[_eh]hhkZ^dZ
D hkZ^dm^h[Z\ey_fjZkl\hj+
2
SO
4
.
Mg(OH)
2
+ H
2
SO
4
MgSO
4
+ 2H
2
O;
Mg(OH)
2
+ 2H
+
Mg
2+
+ 2H
2
O.
HkZ^hdjZkl\hjy_lky
<ZjbZgl
Ijh\_^_fke_^mxs__ij_\jZs_gb_
CuSO
4
1
Cu(OH)
2
2
CuO
3
Cu.
D jZkl\hjmf_^gh]hdmihjhkZ&X62
4
^h[Z\bfhklhjh`gh
jZ
k
l\hj1D2+
CuSO
4
+ 2NaOH = Cu(OH)
2
+ Na
2
SO4,
Cu
2+
+ 2OH
–
= Cu(OH)
2
.
<uiZ^Z_lkbgbchkZ^hd
Ijh[bjdmk ihemq_ggufhkZ^dhfZddmjZlghgZ]j__fgZkibjlh
\
d_
Cu(OH)
2
W
CuO
+ H
2
O.
KbgbchkZ^hdihkl_i_gghq_jg__lIjhbkoh^bljZaeh`_gb_
Cu(OH)
2
k h[jZah\Zgb_fq_jgh]hKX2
>eyihemq_gby&XkgZqZeZi_j_\_^_f&X2\jZkl\hj^h[Z\bf
jZkl\hj+&O
KX2
+ 2HCl
CuCl
2
+ H
2
O,
KX2
+ 2H
+
Cu
2+
+ H
2
O.
Q_jguchkZ^hdjZkl\hjy_lkyL_i_jv^h[Z\bflm^Zihjhrhd`_e_aZ
Ihemq_ggmxkf_kvfh`ghhklhjh`ghijhdbiylblvgZkibjlh\d_
CuCl
2
+ Fe
Cu
+ FeCl
2
;
Cu
2+
+ Fe
0
Cu
0
+ Fe
2+
.
GZ^g_ijh[bjdbhklZ_lkydjZkguchkZ^hdf_^b
<ZjbZgl
Ijh\_^_fke_^mxsb_ij_\jZs_gby
=Q&O
=Q2+
=Q&O
1D
=Q2
D jZkl\hjm=Q&O
2
^h[Z\bfg_fgh]hjZkl\hjZ1D2+
ZnCl
2
+ 2NaOH
Zn(OH)
2
+ 2NaCl,
Zn
2+
+ 2OH
–
Zn(OH)
2
.
<uiZ^Z_l[_eucklm^_gbkluchkZ^hd
81
<uiZ\rbchkZ^hdjZa^_ebfgZ^\_jZ\gu_qZklbD i_j\hc
ij
h
[bjd_^h[Z\bfjZkl\hj+&O
Zn(OH)
2
+ 2HCl
ZnCl
2
+ 2H
2
O,
Zn(OH)
2
+ 2H
+
Zn
2+
+ 2H
2
O.
HkZ^hdjZkl\hjy_lky
Dh\lhjhcijh[bjd_^h[Z\bfba[ulhd1D2+
Zn(OH)
2
+2NaOH
Na
2
[Zn(OH)
4
],
Zn(OH)
2
+2OH
–
[Zn(OH)
4
]
2–
.
H[jZam_lky]b^jhdkhdhfie_dkpbgdZIjb\_^_ggZy\mq_[gbd_
nhjfmeZ1D
2
ZnO
2
g_\_jgZ^eyj_Zdpbc\jZkl\hjZo
Zn(OH)
2
\j_Zdpbyob \_^_lk_[ydZdZlfhkn_jguc]b^jhdkb^
j_Z]bjmyb kdbkehlhcb khkgh\Zgbyfb
IjZdlbq_kdZyjZ[hlZ
3
.
Wdki_jbf_glZevgu_aZ^ZqbihjZkihagZ\Zgbx
b ihemq_gbx\_s_kl\
<ZjbZgl
<\u^Zgguoijh[bjdZokh^_j`Zlkyl\_j^u_[_eu_\_s_kl\Z>ey
gZqZeZjZkl\hjbfbo\\h^_>h[Z\bfd ihemq_ggufjZkl\hjZf
H
2
SO
4
.
Z1D2+
+ H
2
SO
4
Na
2
SO
4
+ 2H
2
O,
2Na
+
+ 2OH
–
+ 2H
+
+ SO
4
2–
2Na
+
+ SO
4
2–
+ 2H
2
O,
HG
–
G
+
G
2
H
G_l\b^bfuobaf_g_gbc
[D
2
KH
3
+ H
2
SO
4
K
2
SO
4
+ H
2
O
+ CO
2
.
2K
+
+ CO
3
2–
+ 2H
+
+ SO
4
2–
2K
+
+ SO
4
2–
+ H
2
O
+ CO
2
.
CO
3
2–
+ 2H
+
H
2
O
+ CO
2
.
<u^_ey_lky]Za
\%D&O
2
+ H
2
SO
4
BaSO
4
+ 2HCl;
Ba
2+
+ 2Cl
–
+ 2H
+
+ SO
4
2–
BaSO
4
+ 2H
+
+ 2Cl
–
.
Ba
2+
+ SO
4
2–
BaSO
4
.
<uiZ^Z_l[_euchkZ^hd
<ZjbZgl
< ijh[bjdZokh^_j`Zlkyl\_j^u_[_eu_\_s_kl\ZKgZqZeZbo
jZ
k
l\hjbf\\h^_
Z< h^ghcijh[bjd_\_s_kl\hg_[m^_ljZkl\hjylvkyWlh&D&2
3
.
>eyhdhgqZl_evghcijh\_jdb^h[Z\bfd g_fmjZkl\hj+&O
CaCO
3
+ 2HCl
CaCl
2
+ H
2
O
+ CO
2
.
CaCO
3
+ 2H
+
+ 2Cl
–
Ca
2+
+ 2Cl
–
+ H
2
O
+ CO
2
.
CaCO
3
+ 2H
+
Ca
2+
+ H
2
O
+ CO
2
.
<u^_ey_lky]Za
82
[D hklZ\rbfkyjZkl\hjZf^h[Z\bfjZkl\hj%D&O
2
< h^ghcba
ij
h
[bjhd\uiZ^_l[_euchkZ^hdWlhjZkl\hj1D
2
SO
4
.
Na
2
SO
4
+ BaCl
2
2NaCl
+ BaSO
4
.
2Na
+
+ SO
4
2–
+ Ba
2+
+ 2Cl
–
2Na
+
+ 2Cl
–
+ BaSO
4
.
SO
4
2–
+ Ba
2+
BaSO
4
.
\< hklZ\r_ckyijh[bjd_gZoh^blky.&O
<ZjbZgl
< ijh[bjdZo
²l\_j^u_[_eu_
\_s_kl\ZIhiulZ_fkybojZkl\hjblv
\\h^_G_jZkl\hjb\r__ky\_s_kl\h\h^ghcbaijh[bjhd
²wlh
KZK
O
3
>eyih^l\_j`^_gbyfh`gh^h[Z\blvd g_fmjZkl\hjdbkehlu
kfhljb\ZjbZglZ>eyhij_^_e_gby1D
2
SO
4
ijh\_^_f
ZgZeh]bqguchiuldZdb\\ZjbZgl_[
< hklZ\r_ckyijh[bjd_gZoh^blky%D
(
NO
3
)
2
.
<ZjbZgl
< ijh[bjdZo
²ljbjZaebqguojZkl\hjZ>h[Z\bfd dZ`^hcbalj_o
ijh[bjhdg_fgh]hjZkl\hjZ1D2+
Z< ijh[bjd_]^_g_l\b^bfuobaf_g_gbckh^_j`blky1D&O
[< ijh[bjd_k jZkl\hjhf$O&O
3
\uiZe[_eucklm^_gbkluchkZ^hd
jZkl\hjbfucdZd\dbkehlZolZdb\s_ehqZo
AlCl
3
+ 3NaOH
3NaCl
+ Al(OH)
3
.
Al
3+
+ 3Cl
–
+ 3Na
+
+ 3OH
–
3Na
+
+ 3Cl
–
+ Al(OH)
3
.
Al
3+
+ 3OH
–
Al(OH)
3
.
\< ijh[bjd_k jZkl\hjhf)H&O
3
hkZ^hdbf__l[mjucp\_lWlhl
hk
Z
^hdlZd`_jZkl\hjbf\dbkehlZob\ba[uld_s_ehqb
FeCl
3
+ 3NaOH
3NaCl
+ Fe(OH)
3
.
Fe
3+
+ 3Cl
–
+ 3Na
+
+ 3OH
–
3Na
+
+ 3Cl
–
+ Fe(OH)
3
.
Fe
3+
+ 3OH
–
Fe(OH)
3
.
AZ^ZqZ
>eyhij_^_e_gbyijbf_kbkmevnZlZ`_e_aZ,,,\`_e_aghf
dmihj
h
k_\hkihevam_fkydZq_kl\_gghcj_Zdpb_cgZbhg)H
3+
l_
ijh\_^_fj
_
Zdpbxk`_elhcdjh\yghckhevx
2Fe
2
(SO
4
)
3
+ 3K
4
[Fe(CN)
6
]
Fe
4
[Fe(CN)
6
]
3
+ 6K
2
SO
4
.
?kebijbf_kv)H
3+
kh^_j`blky\dmihjhk_lh\uiZ^_ll_fghkbgbc
hkZ^hdlmjg[me_\hckbgb
AZ^ZqZ
>eygZqZeZi_j_\_^_f)H&O
3
\]b^jhdkb^^h[Z\eyyjZkl\hj1D2+
FeCl
3
+ 3NaOH
Fe(OH)
3
+ 3NaCl.
83
<uiZ^Z_l[mjuchkZ^hd]b^jhdkb^ZL_i_jvkhev_fk g_]hjZkl\hjih
\hafh`ghklbZ kZfhkZ^hdi_j_g_k_f\nZjnhjh\uclb]evb
ijhdZebfgZh]g_HklZ\rbckyihjhrhdp\_lZj`Z\qbgub [m^_l
Fe
2
O
3
.
2Fe(OH)
3
t
Fe
2
O
3
+ 3H
2
O
.
AZ^ZqZ
>ey ihemq_gby ZexfbgZlZ gZljby g_h[oh^bfh d $O ^h[Z\blv
ba[
u
lhdjZkl\hjZ1D2+b ih^h`^Zlvg_dhlhjh_\j_fy
:exfbgbcgZ\ha^mo_ihdju\Z_lkyhdkb^ghcie_gdhcdhlhjZy
f_
^
e_gghjZkl\hjy_lky\s_ehqbKZf`_Zexfbgbck s_ehqvx
j_Z]bjm_l^h\hevghZdlb\gh
AZibr_f\k_ijhbkoh^ysb_j_Zdpbb
3H
2
O
+ Al
2
O
3
+ 6NaOH
2Na
3
[Al(OH)
6
];
2Al
+ 6H
2
O
2Al(OH)
3
+ 3H
2
;
Al(OH)
3
+ 3NaOH
Na
3
[Al(OH)
6
].
< j_amevlZl_h[jZam_lkyZexfbgZlgZljby
AZ^ZqZ
>eyihemq_gby)H&O
2
ijh\_^_fj_Zdpbxf_`^m)Hb jZkl\hjhf+&O
Fe
+ 2HCl
H
2
+ FeCl
2
.
IjZdlbq_kdZyjZ[hlZ
4
.
DZq_kl\_ggu_j_ZdpbbgZbhguf_lZeeh\
AZ^Zgb_
< obfbbbkoh^j_ZdpbbqZklhaZ\bkblhlmkeh\bc_]hijh\_^_gby
gZijbf_jhlkhhlghr_gbyj_Z]_glh\
Ijb^h[Z\e_gbbd jZkl\hjm$O&O
3
s_ehqb\uiZ^Z_lhkZ^hd
]b^j
h
dkb^Zlds_ehqv\wlhfkemqZ_\g_^hklZld_
AlCl
3
+ 3NaOH
g_^hkl
Al(OH)
3
+ 3NaCl.
Ijb^h[Z\e_gbbd s_ehqbjZkl\hjZ$O&O
3
hkZ^hdg_\uiZ^Z_lld
Al(OH)
3
kjZam`_j_Z]bjm_lk ba[uldhf1D2+^hh[jZah\Zgby
]b^j
h
dkhdhfie_dkZ
AlCl
3
+ 6NaOH
ba[
3NaCl
+ Na
3
[Al(OH)
6
]
.
AZ^Zgb_
>eyih^l\_j`^_gbydZq_kl\_ggh]hkhklZ\Z&D&O
2
^h[Z\bfd _]h
jZ
k
l\hjmdZj[hgZlgZljbyIjbwlhf\uiZ^_l[_euchkZ^hd
CaCl
2
+ Na
2
CO
3
=
CaCO
3
+ 2
Na
Cl;
Ca
2+
+ 2Cl
–
+ 2Na
+
+ &2
CaCO
3
+ 2
Na
+
+ 2Cl
–
;
84
Ca
2+
+ &2
= CaCO
3
.
>eyhij_^_e_gbybhgh\&O
–
\h[jZap_fh`ghbkihevah\ZlvjZkl\hj
AgNO
3
dhlhjuc^Z_lg_jZkl\hjbfuc[_euchkZ^hd
CaCl
2
+ 2AgNO
3
Ca(NO
3
)
2
+ 2AgCl
;
Ca
2+
+ 2Cl
–
+ 2Ag
+
+ 2NO
3
–
Ca
2+
+ 2NO
3
–
+ 2AgCl
.
AZ^Zgb_
Ijh\_^_fke_^mxsb_ij_\jZs_gby
Fe
1
FeCl
2
2
FeCl
3
.
JZkl\hjbf`_e_ah\jZkl\hj_+&O
)H
+&O
)H&O
+
Fe
0
+ 2H
+
= Fe
2+
+ 0
2
H
.
<u^_ey_lky\h^hjh^L_i_jvijh\_jbf\jZkl\hj_gZebqb_)H
2+
k
ihfhsvxdjZkghcdjh\yghckheb
3FeCl
2
+ 2
K
3
[Fe(CN)
6
]
Fe
3
[Fe(CN)
6
]
2
+ 6KCl.
3Fe
2+
+ 2[Fe(CN)
6
]
3–
Fe
3
[Fe(CN)
6
]
2
.
<uiZ^Z_ll_fghkbgbchkZ^hdlmjg[me_\hckbgbke_^h\Zl_evgh
bhgu)H
2+
²ihemq_gu
I_j_\_^_f)H
2+
\)H
3+
bkihevamyoehjgmx\h^mOehjgZy\h^Z
—
wlhjZkl\hj&O
2
\\h^_
)H&O
&O
)H&O
2
Fe
2+
+ 0
2
Cl
2
Fe
3+
+ 2Cl
–
.
P\_ljZkl\hjZbaa_e_gh]hi_j_oh^bl\`_elhdhjbqg_\ucL_i_jv
ijh\_jbfjZkl\hjgZgZebqb_)H
3+
k ihfhsvx`_elhcdjh\yghc
kheb
4FeCl
3
+ 3K
4
[Fe(CN)
6
]
Fe
4
[Fe(CN)
6
]
3
+ 12KCl.
4Fe
3+
+ 3[Fe(CN)
6
]
4–
Fe
4
[Fe(CN)
6
]
3
.
?keb\uiZ^Z_ll_fghkbgbchkZ^hdlmjg[me_\Zkbgvlh\jZkl\hj_
kh^_j`Zlkybhgu)H
3+
.
AZ^Zgb_
Ihemqbf)H62
4
.
Ijh\_^_fj_Zdpbx)Hk +
2
SO
4
.
0
Fe
+ 1
4
2
SO
H
2
4
FeSO
+ 0
2
H
.
@_e_ahjZkl\hjy_lky\dbkehl_b\u^_ey_lky]Za< jZkl\hj_
hklZ_
l
ky)H62
4
.
85
Ijh\_^_fj_Zdpbx)Hk jZkl\hjhf&X62
4
.
&X62
)H
)H62
&X
<uiZ^Z_ldjZkguchkZ^hdf_^b\jZkl\hj_hklZ_lky)H62
4
.
BajZkl\hjZkheb)H
2+
ihemqbfkgZqZeZ]b^jhdkb^`_e_aZ,,
FeCl
2
+ 2NaOH
Fe(OH)
2
+ 2NaCl.
Fe
2+
+ 2OH
–
Fe(OH)
2
.
Khev_fhklZ\rbckyjZkl\hjb ^h[Z\bf+
2
SO
4
H[jZam_lky)H62
4
.
Fe(OH)
2
+ H
2
SO
4
2H
2
O
+ FeSO
4
;
Fe(OH)
2
+ 2H
+
Fe
2+
+ 2H
2
O.
?s_)H62
4
fh`ghihemqblvba)H62
3
^h[Z\e_gb_fdbkehlu
FeSO
3
+ H
2
SO
4
FeSO
4
+ H
2
O
+ SO
2
;
FeSO
3
+ 2H
+
Fe
2+
+ H
2
O
+ SO
2
.
AZ^Zgb_
Ijh\_jbfdZq_kl\_gguckhklZ\kmevnZlZ`_e_aZ,,
>hdZ`_fkh^_j`Zgb_\jZkl\hj_bhgh\)H
2+
Bkihevam_f^ey
wl
h
]hdZq_kl\_ggmxj_Zdpbxk djZkghcdjh\yghckhevx
3FeSO
4
+ 2K
3
[Fe(CN)
6
]
Fe
3
[Fe(CN)
6
]
2
+ 3K
2
SO
4
;
3Fe
2+
+ 2[Fe(CN)
6
]
3–
Fe
3
[Fe(CN)
6
]
2
.
<uiZ^_gb_l_fghkbg_]hhkZ^dZ]h\hjblh gZebqbbbhgh\)H
2+
.
>hdZ`_fkh^_j`Zgb_\jZkl\hj_bhgh\62
4
2–
j_Zdpb_ck khevx
[Zjby
FeSO
4
+ BaCl
2
BaSO
4
+ FeCl
2
;
SO
4
2–
+ Ba
2+
BaSO
4
.
<uiZ^Z_l[_euchkZ^hdg_jZkl\hjyxsbcky\dbkehlZob s_ehqZo
Ke_^h\Zl_evghjZkl\hjkh^_j`Ze62
4
2–
.
86
Obfbq_kdbcijZdlbdmf
II
.
K\hckl\Z
kh_^bg_gbcg_f_lZeeh\
IjZdlbq_kdZyjZ[hlZ
5
.
Ihemq_gb_kheyghcdbkehlub bamq_gb___k\hckl\
Ihemq_gb_kheyghcdbkehlu+&O
Z;m^mqbg_e_lmq_ckbevghcdbkehlhc+
2
SO
dhgp
kihkh[gZy
\ul_
k
gylv^jm]b_dbkehlubabokhe_c< ^ZgghfkemqZ_+&OlZd`_
kbevgZydbkehlZghhgZh[eZ^Z_le_lmqbfbk\hckl\ZfbIhwlhfm
^ey__ ihemq
_
gbybkihevamxlj_Zdpbxk
H
2
SO
dhgp
ijbgZ]j_\Zgbb
H
2
SO
dhgp
+ NaCl
l\
t
NaHSO
4
+ HCl
.
< kbevghdbkehckj_^_kj_^gyykhev1D
2
SO
4
i_j_oh^bl\dbkemx
NaHSO
4
.
Na
2
SO
4
+ H
2
SO
4
2NaHSO
4
.
;_agZ]j_\Zgby\jZkl\hj_mklZgZ\eb\Z_lkybhggh_jZ\gh\_kb_
Oe
h
jh\h^hjh^g_\u^_ey_lky
NaCl
+ H
2
SO
4
NaHSO
4
1Z&O
JZkl\hjoehjh\h^hjh^Zg_fgh]hly`_e__\h^uihwlhfmfu
f
h
`_fgZ[ex^Zlvlhgdb_himkdZxsb_kykljmcdb_s_g_
i_j_f_rZ\r_ckylhevdhqlhh[jZah\Z\r_ckyijbjZkl\hj_gbb
kheyghcdbke
h
lu
Oehjh\h^hjh^hq_gvohjhrhjZkl\hjbf\\h^_?kebdhg_p
]Za
h
hl\h^ghcljm[dbhimklblvgbadhd ih\_joghklb\h^ulhfh`_l
ij
h
bahclb\kZku\Zgb_jZkl\hjZ\ljm[dm
Ihkfhljbl_jbkbamq_[gbdZkljbeexkljbjmxsbc
ohj
h
rmxjZkl\hjbfhklvoehjh\h^hjh^Z\\h^_
Bamq_gb_k\hckl\kheyghcdbkehlu
>eybamq_gbyk\hckl\kheyghcdbkehluijh\_^_fg_kdhevdh
oZjZ
d
l_jguo^eyg__j_Zdpbc
G_\k_f_lZeeuj_Z]bjmxlk kheyghcdbkehlhcB^_lj_Zdpbybeb
g_laZ\bkblhlZdlb\ghklbf_lZeeZQ_fZdlb\g_cf_lZeel_f
[uklj__b^_l\aZbfh^_ckl\b_>eym^h[kl\Zfh`ghjZkkfhlj_lv
we_dljhobfbq
_
kdbcjy^gZijy`_gbcf_lZeeh\hggZoh^blkygZ
nhjaZp_\dhgp_mq_
[
gbdZLh]^Zf_lZeeugZoh^ysb_kyi_j_^G
2
,
j_Z]bjmxlk dbkehlZfbihke_G
2
²g_j_Z]bjmxl
Ihwlhfm=Qb 0J\ul_kgyxl+
2
badbkehlu
Zn
+ 2HCl
ZnCl
2
+ H
2
,
87
Mg
+ 2HCl
MgCl
+ H
2
.
K f_^vxkheygZydbkehlZg_j_Z]bjm_l
< q_l\_jlhcijh[bjd_ijhl_dZ_lj_Zdpby
CuO
+ 2HCl
t
CuCl
2
+ H
2
O.
&X2jZkl\hjy_lky\dbkehl_h[jZam_lky]hem[hcjZkl\hjaZkq_l
h
d
jZr_gguobhgh\&X
2+
.
< iylhcijh[bjd_ijhbkoh^bljZkl\hj_gb_&X2+
2
\+&O
Cu(OH)
2
+ 2HCl
G
2
H
+ CuCl
2
.
LZd`_h[jZam_lky]hem[hcjZkl\hj&X
2+
).
< r_klhcijh[bjd_
CaCO
3
+ 2HCl
CaCl
2
+ H
2
O
+
CO
2
.
;he__kbevgZydbkehlZ\ul_kgy_l[he__keZ[mxm]hevgmxdbkehlm
dhlhjZyjZaeZ]Z_lkygZm]e_dbkeuc]Zab\h^m
H
2
CO
3
CO
2
+ H
2
O.
KgZqZeZaZibr_f\k_j_Zdpbbk $J12
3
.
HCl
+ AgNO
3
AgCl
+ HNO
3
;
NaCl
+ AgNO
3
AgCl
+ NaNO
3
;
CaCl
2
+ 2AgNO
3
2AgCl
+ Ca(NO
3
)
2
.
<h\k_oijh[bjdZo\uiZ^Z_l[_euchkZ^hdg_jZkl\hjbfuc\
HNO
dhgp
.
:gZeh]bqghijhbkoh^ylj_Zdpbbk 3E12
3
)
2
:
2HCl
+ Pb(NO
3
)
2
PbCl
2
+ 2HNO
3
;
2NaCl
+ Pb(NO
3
)
2
PbCl
2
+ 2NaNO
3
;
CaCl
2
+ Pb(NO
3
)
2
PbCl
2
+ Ca(NO
3
)
2
.
LZddZdjZkl\hjbfhklv3E&O
2
\k_lZdb^hklZlhqgh\_ebdZlhhkZ^hd
\uiZ^Z_lebrvba^hklZlhqghdhgp_gljbjh\ZgguojZkl\hjh\Ijb
^
h
[Z\e_gbbba[uldZdhgp_gljbjh\ZgghcG12
3
dhgp_gljZpbybhgh\
Pb
2+
b &O
–
mf_gvrZ_lkydjhf_lh]hjZ\gh\_kb_baaZba[uldZ+12
3
kf_sZ_
l
ky\e_\hihwlhfmhkZ^hd3E&O
2
jZkl\hjy_lky
Z>eylh]hqlh[uhlebqblvkheygmxdbkehlmhl^jm]bodbkehl
fh
`
ghijh\_klbj_Zdpbxk $J12
3
beb3E12
3
)
2
< j_amevlZl_
\uiZ^Z_l[
_
eucl\hjh`bkluchkZ^hd$J&ObebfZehjZkl\hjbfuc
PbCl
2
.
[Oehjb^uhij_^_eyxlkybgufh[jZahf
\Kheygmxdbkehlmhloehjb^h\fh`ghhlebqblvj_Zdpb_ck
f_lZ
e
eZfb
+&Oj_Z]bjm_lk f_lZeeZfbk\u^_e_gb_f\h^hjh^Z
88
IjZdlbq_kdZyjZ[hlZ
6
.
Wdki_jbf_glZevgu_aZ^Zqbihl_f_
©Ih^]jmiiZdbkehjh^Z
ª
AZ^ZqZ
>ey^hdZaZl_evkl\Zijh\_^_fkgZqZeZj_Zdpbxk_jghcdbkehluk =Q
Zn
+ H
2
SO
4
ZnSO
4
+ H
2
.
Pbgd\ul_kgy_l\h^hjh^badbkehlul_+
2
SO
4 kh^_j`blbhgu
\
h
^hjh^Z
Ijh\_^_fj_Zdpbx+
2
SO
4
k jZkl\hjhfkheb<Z
2
+
:
<Z&O
2
+ H
2
SO
4
BaSO
4
+ 2HCl.
<uiZ^Z_l[_euchkZ^hdg_jZkl\hjbfuc\dbkehlZob hkgh\Zgbyo
l_+
2
SO
4
kh^_j`blbhgu62
4
2
+
.
AZ^ZqZ
<j_ZdpbbpbgdZk jZa[Z\e_gghck_jghcdbkehlhc\u^_ey_lky\h^
h
jh^
:
Zn
+ H
2
SO
jZa[
ZnSO
4
+ H
2
.
Ijbj_Zdpbb=Qk dhgp_gljbjh\Zgghck_jghcdbkehlhc\u^_ey_lky
H
2
6h[eZ^Zxsbcg_ijbylgufoZjZdl_jgufaZiZohf
4Zn
+ 5H
2
SO
4(
dhgp
4ZnSO
4
+ H
2
S
+ 4H
2
O.
JZa[Z\e_ggZyk_jgZydbkehlZj_Z]bjm_lk f_lZeeZfbdZdh[uqgZy
fbg_jZevgZydbkehlZDhgp_gljbjh\ZggZyk_jgZydbkehlZ\_^_l
k_[ym`_dZddbkehlZhdbkebl_ev\j_amevlZl_j_Zdpbyijhbkoh^bl
ih^jm]hfm
AZ^ZqZ
OehjgZyb [jhfgZy\h^Z
²hdbkebl_ebihwlhfm\h[_boijh[bjdZo
kmevnb^hdbkeblky^hk_ju
Na
2
S
+ Cl
2
= S
+ 2
Na
Cl;
Na
2
S
+ Br
2
=
S
+ 2Na
Br.
JZkl\hjuh[_kp\_qb\Zxlky
AZ^ZqZ
M gZk_klvljbjZaebqguo\_s_kl\Z+&O+
2
SO
4
; NaOH.
>eyhij_^_e_gby1D2+fh`ghbkihevah\ZlveZdfmk
bg^bdZlh
j
gZy[mfZ`dZ^he`gZihkbg_lv\s_ehqghckj_^_beb
jZkl\hj0J
2+
.
MgCl
2
+ 2NaOH
2NaCl
+ Mg(OH)
2
.
< ijh[bjd_k 1D2+\uiZ^_l[_euchkZ^hd\hklZevguo\b^bfuo
baf_g_gbcg_ijhbahc^_l
>eyhij_^_e_gby+
2
SO
4
gZ^hbkihevah\ZlvjZkl\hj%D
2+
.
89
H
2
SO
4
+ BaCl
2
2HCl
+ BaSO
4
.
<uiZ^Z_l[_euchkZ^hdk +&OjZkl\hj%D
2+
g_\aZbfh^_ckl\m_l
< hklZ\r_ckyijh[bjd_jZkl\hj+&O>eyijh\_jdb^h[Z\bf
jZ
k
l\hj$J12
3
beb3E12
3
)
2
.
HCl
+ AgNO
3
AgCl
+ HNO
3
;
2HCl
+ Pb(NO
3
)
2
PbCl
2
+ 2HNO
3
.
<uiZ^Z_l[_euchkZ^hd
AZ^ZqZ
Ih\Zj_ggZykhevbf__lnhjfmem1D&O>eyhij_^_e_gby
ijbf_kb
kmevn
Z
lZfh`ghbkihevah\ZlvdZq_kl\_ggmxj_Zdpbxk %D
2+
.
Na
2
SO
4
+ BaCl
2
2NaCl
+ BaSO
4
.
?keb\uiZ^Z_l[_euchkZ^hdg_jZkl\hjbfuc\dbkehlZob
s_ehqZolhih\Zj_ggZykhevkh^_j`blijbf_kbkme
v
nZlh\
AZ^ZqZ
>eyhij_^_e_gbykmevnZlZbkihevam_foZjZdl_jgmxj_Zdpbxk
jZ
k
l\hjhf<Z
2+
.
<Z
2+
+ SO
4
2–
BaSO
4
.
<uiZ^Z_l[_euchkZ^hdK oehjb^hfb bh^b^hfj_Zdpbyg_b^_l
>eyhij_^_e_gbyoehjb^Zb bh^b^Z\havf_fjZkl\hj$J12
3
ij_^\Zjbl_evghijh\_jb\gZkmevnZl
Ag
+
+ Cl
–
AgCl
,
Ag
+
+ I
–
Ag
I
.
AgCl
²[_euc$J
I
²`_elucIhp\_lmfh`ghhij_^_eblvkhklZ\
\u^Zgghckheb
AZ^ZqZ
JZkl\hjbfihemq_gguchdkb^f_^b\k_jghcdbkehl_ijbgZ]j_\
Z
gbb
CuO
+ H
2
SO
4
t
CuSO
4
+ H
2
O.
H[jZam_lky]hem[hcjZkl\hjkmevnZlZf_^b
Ihemq_ggucjZkl\hj&X62
4
i_j_ev_f\nZjnhjh\mxqZr_qdmb
ijh^he`bf]j_lvgZh]g_^hihy\e_gbykeZ[hcie_ghqdbgZ
ih\_jog
h
klbjZkl\hjZAZl_fkgbfZ_fqZr_qdmk h]gyb hklZ\ey_f
hoeZ`^Zlvky< jZkl\hj_h[jZamxlkydjbklZeeuf_^gh]hdmihjhkZ
L_i_jvbofh`ghhklhjh`ghhlnbevljh\u\Zlvb\ukmrblv
NhjfmeZf_^gh]hdmihj
h
kZ
— CuSO
4
G
2
H
90
AZ^ZqZ
<havf_fjZkl\hjkheyghcdbkehlub ^h[Z\bf__\dZ`^mxbaijh[
b
jhd
< ijh[bjd_k kmevnZlhfgbq_]hg_ijhbahc^_l< ^\mo^jm]bo
ij
h
[bjdZo\u^_ey_lky]ZaBofh`ghjZaebqblvihaZiZom
Na
2
SO
3
+2HCl
2NaCl+H
2
O+SO
2
,
Na
2
S+2HCl
2NaCl+H
2
S
.
SO
2
bf__lj_adbcg_ijbylgucaZiZo+
2
6bf__loZjZdl_jgucaZiZo
ihjq_guoybp
IjZdlbq_kdZyjZ[hlZ
7
.
Ihemq_gb_ZffbZdZb bamq_gb__]hk\hckl\
Ihemq_gb_ZffbZdZIjh\_^_f\k_^_ckl\byhibkZggu_\mq_[gbd_
Ba]Zahhl\h^ghcljm[db[m^_l\u^_eylvkyZffbZdHgjZkl\hjy_lky
\\h^_ijhiblZ\r_cn_ghenlZe_bgh\mx[mfZ`dm
NH
3
+ H
2
O
NH
4
OH.
< j_amevlZl_h[jZam_lky]b^jhdkb^Zffhgbydhlhjucbf__l
s_eh
q
gmxj_Zdpbxb hdjZrb\Z_lbg^bdZlhj\fZebgh\ucp\_l
?kebih^g_klbd hl\_jklbxijh[dbkl_deyggmxiZehqdmkfhq_ggmx
dhgp_gljbjh\ZgghckheyghcdbkehlhclhgZ^hl\_jklb_f
h[jZam_lky[_eZy^ufdZIjhbkoh^blj_Zdpby
NH
3
+ HCl
NH
4
Cl.
NH
4
&Oh[eZ^Z_le_lmq_klvx_]hqZklbqdbih^gbfZxlky\f_kl_k
ZffbZdhfBofub\b^bf\\b^_[_ehc^ufdb
Ijh\_^_fjZkl\hj_gb_ZffbZdZlZddZdwlhhibkZgh\mq_[gbd_Ba
aZhq_gvohjhr_cjZkl\hjbfhklbZffbZdZ\h^Z\ijh[bjd_
ih^gbfZ_
l
kyH[jZam_lky1+
4
OH.
AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbbf_`^m&D2+
2
b 1+
4
Cl.
Ca(OH)
2
+ 2NH
4
Cl
CaCl
2
+ 2NH
3
+ 2H
2
O
.
DZdfh`gh\b^_lvbamjZ\g_gby\j_Zdpbbh[jZamxlkyiZju\h^u
Hgbdhg^_gkbjmxlkygZ[he__oheh^guokl_gdZoijh[bjdb?keb
d
Z
i_evdb\h^uihiZ^mlgZjZkdZe_ggh_^ghlhijh[bjdZfh`_l
lj_kgmlvIhwlhfm__ gZdehgyxllZdbfh[jZahfqlh[udZi_evdb
kdZlu\Zebkvd hl\_jklbxijh[bjdb
:ffbZde_]q_\ha^moZldF1+
3
]fhevF\ha^moZ
29
]fhevHgih^gbfZ_lky\\_joihwlhfm_]hgZ^hkh[bjZlv\
i_j
_
\_jgmlmxijh[bjdm:gZeh]bqghfh`ghkh[bjZlvG
2
F 2
]fhev&+
4
²f_lZgF ]fhev+HF ]fhevb ^jm]b_
91
?keb\f_klh+&Oih^g_klbd hl\_jklbxijh[bjdbk ZffbZdhf
i
Z
ehqdmkfhq_ggmxdhgp_gljbjh\ZgghcZahlghcdbkehlhclhfu
gbq_]hg_m\b^bf
NH
3
+ HNO
3
NH
4
NO
3
.
NH
4
NO
3
²g_h[eZ^Z_le_lmq_klvx
H[uqgh^eyhij_^_e_gbyhkgh\Zgbcbkihevamxlj_Zdpbbk
h[j
Z
ah\Zgb_fg_jZkl\hjbfuo]b^jhdkb^h\gZijbf_j0J2+
2
.
2NH
4
OH
+ MgCl
2
2NH
4
Cl
+ Mg(OH)
2
.
<uiZ^Z_l[_euchkZ^hd
Bamq_gb_k\hckl\\h^gh]hjZkl\hjZZffbZdZ
<h^guc jZkl\hj ZffbZdZ bf__l s_ehqgmx kj_^m l_ ^Z_l
fZe
b
gh\mxhdjZkdmk n_ghenlZe_bghf
Ijbdbiyq_gbbjZkl\hjZ]b^jhdkb^ZffhgbyjZaeZ]Z_lky\
j_ame
v
lZl_q_]hZffbZdme_lZ_lb jZkl\hjklZgh\blkyg_cljZevguf
NH
4
OH
t
NH
3
+ H
2
O
.
N_ghenlZe_bg\g_cljZevghckj_^_
²[_kp\_lguc
N_ghenlZe_bg^Z_lfZebgh\mxhdjZkdm\jZkl\hj_]b^jhdkb^Z
ZffhgbylZddZdlhly\ey_lkyhkgh\Zgb_fIjb^h[Z\e_gbbdbkehlu
ijhbkoh^blg_cljZebaZpbyb p\_lbkq_aZ_l
NH
4
OH
+ HCl
NH
4
Cl
+ H
2
O,
OH
–
+ H
+
H
2
O.
Ijhbkoh^bl\aZbfh^_ckl\b_f_`^mjZkl\hjhf$O&O
3
b 1+
4
OH.
AlCl
3
+ 3NH
4
OH
Al(OH)
3
+ 3NH
4
Cl,
Al
3+
+ 3OH
–
Al(OH)
3
.
<uiZ^Z_l[_eucklm^_gbkluchkZ^hd
IjZdlbq_kdZyjZ[hlZ
8
.
Wdki_jbf_glZevgu_aZ^Zqbihl_f_©Ih^]jmiiZZahlZª
AZ^ZqZ
ZJZkl\hjbfZffbZd\\h^_b ijh\_jbfhkgh\gu_k\hckl\ZjZkl\
h
jZ
NH
3
+ H
2
O
NH
4
OH,
2NH
4
OH
+ MgCl
2
= 2NH
4
Cl
+ Mg(OH)
2
.
<uiZ^Z_l[_euchkZ^hdN_ghenlZe_bghdjZrb\Z_lky\fZebgh\uc
p\_l
[Dhgp_gljbjh\ZggZyZahlgZydbkehlZjZkl\hjy_lf_lZeebq_kdmx
f_^v
92
Cu
+ 4HNO
dhgp
KX12
3
)
2
+ 2NO
2
+ 2H
2
O.
H[jZam_lky]hem[hcjZkl\hjb\u^_ey_lky[mjuc]Za
\GbljZlZffhgbyijbgZ]j_\ZgbbjZaeZ]Z_lkygZ^\Z]Zahh[jZaguo
ijbW
>100
K\_s_kl\Z
NH
4
NO
3
t
N
2
O
+ 2H
2
O
.
IjbgZ]j_\Zgbbk s_ehqvx\u^_ey_lkyZffbZd
NH
4
NO
3
+ NaOH
t
NaNO
3
+ NH
3
+ H
2
O.
:ffbZdfh`ghhij_^_eblvihaZiZombebdZdmdZaZgh\imgdl_
Z
AZ^ZqZ
Ijh\_^_fj_Zdpbx1+
4
)
2
SO
4
b 1+
4
NO
3
k &D
(OH)
2
.
< j_amevlZl_\aZbfh^_ckl\byiblZl_evgucwe_f_glZahl
me_lmqb\
Z
_lky\\b^_ZffbZdZ
(NH
4
)
2
S
O
4
+ Ca(O
H
)
2
=CaSO
4
+ 2NH
3
+ 2H
2
O;
2NH
4
NO
3
+ Ca(OH)
2
= Ca(NO
3
)
2
+ 2NH
3
+ 2H
2
O.
AZ^ZqZ
Z>eyhij_^_e_gby1+
4
+
fh`ghbkihevah\Zlvj_Zdpbxk s_ehqvx
ijbgZ]j_\Zgbb
NH
4
Cl
+ NaOH
t
NH
3
+ H
2
O
+ NaCl.
G_mklhcqb\uc1+
4
2+jZaeZ]Z_lkyijbgZ]j_\Zgbbk h[jZah\Zgb_f
]Zahh[jZagh]hZffbZdZHij_^_e_gb_1+
3
ih^jh[ghhibkZgh\
aZ^Zq_Z
Oehjb^bhgu&O
–
fh`ghhij_^_eblvk ihfhsvxbhgh\$J
+
beb3E
2+
.
AgNO
3
+ NH
4
Cl
NH
4
NO
3
+ AgCl
.
Pb(NO
3
)
2
+ 2NH
4
Cl
PbCl
2
+ 2NH
4
NO
3
.
<uiZ^Zxl[_eu_hkZ^db
[:gZeh]bqghhij_^_eyxlkybhguZffhgby
1+
\kmevn
Z
l_
KmevnZlbhgu62
4
2–
hij_^_eyxlkyj_Zdpb_ck jZkl\hjhf<Z
2+
.
<Z&O
2
+ (NH
4
)
2
SO
4
2NH
4
Cl+BaSO
4
<uiZ^Z_l[_euchkZ^hdg_jZkl\hjbfuc\dbkehlZob s_ehqZo
AZ^ZqZ
AZibr_fnhjfmeu\u^Zgguom^h[j_gbcoehjb^dZeby
—KCl;
Z
f
fbZqgZyk_ebljZ
— NH
4
NO
3
kmi_jnhknZl
—Ca(H
2
PO
4
)
2
.
KgZqZeZhij_^_ebf&D+
2
PO
4
)
2
>eywlh]h\havf_fba[ulhd
jZkl\
h
jZs_ehqb
93
3Ca(H
2
PO
4
)+12NaOH
Ca
3
(PO
4
)
2
+4Na
3
PO
4
+12H
2
H
<uiZ^Z_l[_euchkZ^hd< ijh[bjd_]^_gZoh^beZkvZffbZqgZy
k
_
ebljZih^^_ckl\b_fs_ehqb\u^_ey_lky]Za
NH
4
NO
3
+ NaOH=NaNO
3
+ NH
3
+ H
2
O.
Hij_^_ebfl_i_jv.&O>eywlh]h^h[Z\bfjZkl\hj$J12
3
beb
Pb(NO
3
)
2
.
AgNO
3
+KCl
AgCl
+KNO
3
,
Pb(NO
3
)
2
+2KCl
PbCl
2
+2KNO
3
.
<uiZ^Z_l[_euchkZ^hd
AZ^ZqZ
IjhdZeb\Zyl\_j^uc1+
4
&Ofh`ghihemqblvqbklucZffbZd
NH
4
Cl t
NH
3
+ HCl
.
IjbjZaeh`_gbbh[jZamxlky^\Z]Zahh[jZaguoijh^mdlZIjhimkdZy
wlmkf_kvq_j_as_ehqvfuba[Z\ey_fkyhloehjh\h^hjh^Z
HCl + NaOH
NaCl + H
2
O.
HklZ_lkyqbklucZffbZd
Ba1+
4
)
2
SO
4
b 1+
4
NO
3
ZffbZdfh`ghihemqblv\
kbevghs_eh
q
ghckj_^_ijbgZ]j_\Zgbb
(NH
4
)
2
SO
4 + 2NaOH
2NH
3
+ H
2
O+Na
2
SO
4
,
NH
4
NO
3
+ NaOH
NH
3
+ H
2
O + NaNO
3
.
AZ^ZqZ
I_j\ZybhggZyj_Zdpbykhhl\_lkl\m_lj_Zdpbbg_cljZebaZpbb
HCl+
NaOH
NaCl+H
2
O,
H
+
+OH
–
H
2
O.
<lhjZybhggZyj_Zdpby
²hkZ`^_gb_%D62
4
;
BaCl
2
+Na
2
SO
4
BaSO
4
+2NaCl;
Ba
2+
+SO
4
2–
= BaSO
4
.
Ihke_^gyyj_Zdpby
²hkZ`^_gb_$J&O
AgNO
3
+KCl
AgCl+KNO
3
,
Ag
+
+Cl
–
AgCl
.
AZ^ZqZ
JZkl\hjbff_lZeebq_kdmxf_^v\dhgp_gljbjh\ZgghcZahlghc
dbkehl_
Cu+4HNO
dhgp
Cu(NO
3
)
2
+2NO
2
+2H
2
O.
H[jZamxsbcky]hem[hcjZkl\hjkh^_j`bl&X12
3
)
2
.
JZkl\hjbf&X2+
2
\+12
3
:
Cu(OH)
2
+2HNO
3
Cu(NO
3
)
2
+2H
2
O.
H[jZam_lky]hem[hcjZkl\hjgbljZlZf_^b,,
94
Ihemqbf&X12
3
)
2
q_j_aj_ZdpbxhkZ`^_gby
CuSO
4
+Ba(NO
3
)
2
BaSO
4
+Cu(NO
3
)
2
.
H[jZam_lky[_euchkZ^hd_]hg_h[oh^bfhhlnbevljh\Zlv
HklZ
\
rbckyjZkl\hj
— Cu(NO
3
)
2
.
IjZdlbq_kdZyjZ[hlZ
9
.
Ihemq_gb_hdkb^Z
m]e_jh^Z
,9b bamq_gb_
_]h
k\hckl\
JZkihagZ\Zgb_dZj[hgZlh\
Ihemq_gb_hdkb^Zm]e_jh^Z,9b bamq_gb__]hk\hckl\
Ijb^_clk\bbkheyghcdbkehlugZf_ebebfjZfhjhgb
jZkl\hj
y
xlkyijbwlhf\u^_ey_lky&2
2
NhjfmeZf_eZb
fjZfhjZ
—CaCO
3
.
CaCO
3
+2HCl
CaCl
2
+CO
2
+H
2
O,
K
a
CO
3
+2H
+
&Z
2+ +
CO
2
+ H
2
O.
< ijh[bjd_k ba\_kldh\hc\h^hcijhbkoh^yl^\_
ihke_^h\Zl_e
v
gu_j_ZdpbbKgZqZeZijhbkoh^blh[jZah\Zgb_[_eh]h
hkZ^dZ
Ca(OH)
2
+CO
2
CaCO
3
+H
2
O.
AZl_fhkZ^hdjZkl\hjy_lky
CaCO
3
+CO
2
+H
2
O
Ca(HCO
3
)
2
.
Ca(HCO
3
)
2
²jZkl\hjbfh_\_s_kl\h
CaCO
3
+CO
2
+H
2
O
Ca
2+
+2HCO
3
–
.
IjbijhimkdZgbbKH
2
q_j_a^bklbeebjh\Zggmx\h^mm]e_dbkeuc
]ZaqZklbqghjZkl\hjy_lkyk h[jZah\Zgb_fm]hevghcdbkehluG
2
KH
3
.
CO
2
+H
2
O H
2
CO
3
,
DZddbkehlZ+
2
CO
3
bf__ldbkemxj_ZdpbxihwlhfmeZdfmk
hdj
Z
kblky\kbgbcp\_l
JZkihagZ\Zgb_dZj[hgZlh\
GZf\u^Zgh\_s_kl\Z1D
2
SO
4
, ZnCl
2
, K
2
CO
3
, Na
2
SiO
3
.
KgZqZeZijb[Z\bfjZkl\hj+&OIjbwlhfj_Zdpbyihc^_llhevdh
\^\moijh[bjdZo
K
2
CO
3
+2HCl
2KCl+H
2
O+CO
2
.
2K
+
+CO
3
2–
+2H
+
+2Cl
–
2K
+
+2Cl
–
+H
2
O+CO
2
.
CO
3
2–
+2H
+
CO
2
+H
2
O.
<u^_ey_lky]Za
Na
2
SiO
3
+2HCl
H
2
SiO
3
+2NaCl.
2Na
+
+SiO
3
2–
+2H
+
+2Cl
–
H
2
SiO
3
+2Na
+
+2Cl
–
.
SiO
3
2–
+2H
+
H
2
SiO
3
.
95
L_i_jv^h[Z\bfjZkl\hj%D&O
2
K 1D
2
SO
4
wlhljZkl\hj^Z_l
hk
Z
^hd
Na
2
SO
4
+BaCl
2
BaSO
4
+2NaCl,
2Na
+
+SO
4
2–
+Ba
2+
+2Cl
–
BaSO
4
+2Na
+
+2Cl
–
,
Ba
2+
+SO
4
2–
BaSO
4
.
<uiZ^Z_l[_euchkZ^hdK jZkl\hjhf=Q&O
2
gbq_]hg_ijhbkoh^bl
< hklZ\r_ckyijh[bjd_=Q&O
2
>h[Z\bfjZkl\hj$J12
3
qlh[u
ijh\_jblvwlh<uiZ^Z_l[_euchkZ^hd
ZnCl
2
+2AgNO
3
Zn(NO
3
)
2
+2AgCl
,
Zn
2+
+2Cl
–
+2Ag
+
+2NO
3
–
Zn
2+
+2NO
3
–
+2AgCl
.
Cl
–
+Ag
+
AgCl
.
<u\h^>eydZj[hgZlbhgh\dZq_kl\_gghcj_Zdpb_cy\ey_lky
j_Z
d
pbyk dbkehlhck\u^_e_gb_fm]e_dbkeh]h]ZaZ
CO
3
2–
+2H
+
H
2
O+CO
2
.
96
Obfbq_kdbcijZdlbdmf
III.
K\hckl\Zhj]Zgbq_kdbo\_s_kl\
IjZdlbq_kdZyjZ[hlZ
10
.
Ihemq_gb_wlbe_gZ
b bamq_gb__]hk\hckl\
< ijh[bjd_gZqbgZ_l\u^_eylvky]Za
C
2
H
5
OH
t, H
2
SO
4 (
dhgp
C
2
H
4
+H
2
O.
Dhgp_gljbjh\ZggZyk_jgZydbkehlZaZ[bjZ_l\h^mbakibjlZb\
j
_
amevlZl_h[jZam_lkywlbe_g
IjbijhimkdZgbbK
2
G
4
q_j_a[jhfgmx\h^mihke_^gyy
h[_kp\_q
b
\Z_lky
K
2
G
4
+Br
2(aq)
C
2
H
4
Br
2
.
Ijhbkoh^blhdbke_gb_wlbe_gZ[jhfghc\h^hcih^\hcghck\yab
Ih^dbke_gguci_jfZg]ZgZllZd`_hdbkey_lwlbe_g
K
2
G
4
+1
2
K
M
nO
4
+
18H
2
SO
4
=10CO
2
+6K
2
SO
4
+12MnSO
4
+28H
2
O.
JZkl\hj.
M
nO
4
h[_kp\_qb\Z_lky
Ih^h``_f\u^_eyxsbcky ]Za Hg ]hjbl yjdbf k\_lysbfky
ie
Z
f_g_f
K
2
G
4
H
2 t
2CO
2
+2H
2
O.
IjZdlbq_kdZyjZ[hlZ
11
.
Wdki_jbf_glZevgu_ aZ^ZqbihjZkihagZ\Zgbx
b ihemq_gbx\_s_kl\
GZfg_h[oh^bfhhij_^_eblvljb\_s_kl\Z]ebp_jbg
fgh]hZlh
f
guckibjlZev^_]b^]exdhamm]e_\h^
H^ghcbaoZjZdl_jguoj_Zdpbc^eywlbo\_s_kl\y\ey_lky
\aZbf
h
^_ckl\b_k &X2+
2
.
KgZqZeZihemqbf]b^jhdkb^f_^b,,>eywlh]hd f_^ghfm
dmihj
h
km^h[Z\bfg_fgh]hjZkl\hjZ1D2+
CuSO
4
+2NaOH
KX2+
2
+Na
2
SO
4
.
<uiZ^Z_l]hem[hchkZ^hd]b^jhdkb^Z
D h[jZah\Z\r_fmkyhkZ^dmijbev_fg_fgh]hZev^_]b^Zb gZ]j__f
kf_kv
C
O
R
H
+2Cu(OH)
2
t
C
O
R
O
H
+2CuOH
G
2
H
97
Zev^_]b^]hem[hc
`_eluc
2CuOH
t
KX
2
O
+H
2
O
`_eluc
djZkguc
< j_amevlZl_h[jZam_lkydjZkguchkZ^hd&X
2
O.
L_i_jvd &X2+
2
^h[Z\bfihdZieyf]ebp_jbgb kf_kv
\a[hel
Z
_fHkZ^hdjZkl\hjy_lkyihemqZ_lkyjZkl\hjyjdhkbg_]h
p\_lZH[j
Z
am_lkymklhcqb\ucdhfie_dk]ebp_jbgZk f_^vx
2
&
+
&
+
&
+
2
+
2
+
2
+
&X2+
&
+
&
+
&
+
2
2
+
2
+
&
X
2
2
+
2
+
&
+
&
+
&
+
+
2
=exdhaZihk\hbfobfbq_kdbfk\hckl\Zfy\ey_lky
Zev^_]b^h
k
ibjlhfl_hgZijhy\ey_lk\hckl\Zb Zev^_]b^h\b
fgh]hZlhfguokibjlh\DZdZev^_]b^hgZ\klmiZ_l\j_Zdpbb
oZjZdl_jgu_^eywlh]hdeZkkZ\_s_kl\\qZklghklbijbgZ]j_\Zgbb
\aZbfh^_ckl\m_lk &X2+
2
k h[jZah\Zgb_fdjZkghdhjbqg_\h]h
hkZ^dZ&X
2
HDZdfgh]hZlhfguckibjl]exdhaZ^Z_ljZkl\hjyjdh
kbg_]hp\_lZijb^h[Z\e_gbbd g_ck\_`_]hhkZ^dZ&X2+
2
.
&
+
&
+
&
2
+
+
2
2
+
&X2+
W
&
+
&
+
&
2
+
2
+
2
2
+
G
H&X2+
2CuOH
t
Cu
2
O
+H
2
O.
<uiZ^Z_ldjZkguchkZ^hd&X
2
O.
>eyhij_^_e_gbylj_o^Zgguo\_s_kl\badZ`^hcijh[bjdb
^h[
Z
\bfg_fgh]h&X2+
2
< ^\moijh[bjdZoh[jZam_lkyyjdhkbgbc
jZkl\hj]exdhaZb ]ebp_jbgL_i_jvgZ]j__f\k_ljbkf_kb\^\mo
ijh[bjdZo\uiZ^_ldjZkguchkZ^hdZev^_]b^b ]exdhaZLZdbf
h[jZahffumagZ_f\dZdhcijh[bjd_dZdh_\_s_kl\hgZoh^blky
FZrbggh_fZkehkhklhbl\hkgh\ghfbaij_^_evguo
m]e_\h^
h
jh^h\Z jZklbl_evgh_fZkeh
²ba`bjh\h[jZah\Zgguo
g_ij_^_evgufbdbkehlZfbJZklbl_evgh_fZkehh[_kp\_qb\Z_l
[jhfgmx\h^mZ fZrb
g
gh_²g_l
Z>eyihemq_gbyijhklh]hwnbjZijh\_^_fj_Zdpbx
^_]b^jZl
Z
pbbwlbeh\h]hkibjlZ
K
2
G
5
HG
t, H
2
SO
4 (
dhgp
K
2
G
5
²H
²K
2
G
5 G
2
H
H[jZamxsbcwnbjgZau\Z_lky^bwlbeh\uf>ZggZyj_Zdpby
ijho
h
^blebrvijbhij_^_e_gguomkeh\byogZ]j_\Zgbb\
ijbkmlkl\bb+
2
SO
4
b ijbba[uld_kibjlZ
[>eyihemq_gbyZev^_]b^ZbakibjlZgm`ghbkihevah\ZlvkeZ[uc
hdbkebl_evgZijbf_j&X
2+
.
98
C
2
H
5
OH+CuO
t
Cu+
C
H
3
C
O
H
+H
2
O;
C
H
3
C
O
H
²mdkmkgucZev^_]b^
\Ijb^Zevg_cr_fhdbke_gbbZev^_]b^Zh[jZam_lkydbkehlZ
C
H
3
C
O
H
+2Cu(OH)
2
t
CH
3
COOH+Cu
2
O
+2H
2
O;
H[jZam_lkymdkmkgZydbkehlZ
KZoZj
²wlhkeh`gh_hj]Zgbq_kdh_\_s_kl\hkh^_j`Zs__
^hkl
Z
lhqgh[hevrh_dhebq_kl\hm]e_jh^ZQlh[u^hdZaZlvwlh
\havf_fg
_
fgh]hkZoZjZb ^h[Z\bfd g_fm+
2
SO
dhgp
.
KZoZjih^^_ckl\b_fdhgp_gljbjh\Zgghck_jghcdbkehluhl^Zkl
\h^mb ij_\jZlblky\m]e_jh^
C
12
H
22
O
11
H
2
SO
4 (
dhgp
12C+11H
2
O.
Dhgp_gljbjh\ZggZy+
2
SO
4
aZ[bjZ_l\h^mm kZoZjZ\j_amevlZl_
i
h
emqZ_lkyk\h[h^gucm]e_jh^q_jgh_\_s_kl\h
Z>eyhij_^_e_gbydjZofZeZkms_kl\m_lohjhrZydZq_kl\_ggZy
j_Zdpbyk bh^hfH[jZam_lkymklhcqb\ucdhfie_dkyjdhkbg_]h
p\_lZ
DZig_fg_kdhevdhdZi_evjZkl\hjZbh^ZgZdZjlhn_evb [_eucoe_[
?kebgZijh^mdlZoh[jZam_lkykbg__iylghlhhgbkh^_j`Zl
djZofZe
[>eyijh\_jdby[ehdZgZkh^_j`Zgb_]exdhauijb]hlh\bf
g
_
kdhevdhdZi_evy[ehqgh]hkhdZ>h[Z\bfg_fgh]hkbg_]hhkZ^dZ
Cu(OH)
2
?kebbkke_^m_fucjZkl\hjkh^_j`bl]exdhamlhkgZqZeZ
fuihemqbfkbgbcjZkl\hjbfucdhfie_dk]exdhaudhlhjucijb
gZ]j_\
Z
gbbjZaeh`blky^hdjZkgh]h&X
2
H
ZKgZqZeZhij_^_ebfdjZofZe^h[Z\b\d dZ`^hfmbalj_o
\
_
s_kl\jZkl\hjbh^Z< ijh[bjd_k djZofZehfh[jZam_lkykbgbc
dh
f
ie_dk=exdhamhlkZoZjhaufh`ghhlebqblvaZkq_l
Zev^_]b^guok\hckl\H[Z\_s_kl\Zh[eZ^Zxlk\hckl\Zfb
fgh]hZlhfgh]hkibjlZghlhevdh]exdhaZh[eZ^Z_l_s_b
k\hckl\ZfbZev^_]b^Z>h[Z\bf\h[_ijh[bjdb&X2+
2
h[jZam_lky
kbgbcjZkl\hjGhlhevdhijbgZ]j_\
Z
gbbk ]exdhahc\uiZ^Z_l
djZkguchkZ^hd&X
2
2l_ijhbkoh^blhdb
k
e_gb_Zev^_]b^ghc
]jm
i
iu
[KgZqZeZhij_^_ebfdjZofZek ihfhsvxbh^ZH[jZam_lkykbgbc
dhfie_dk
99
L_i_jvijh\_jbfdbkehlghklbjZkl\hjh\fueZb ]ebp_jbgZ
=ebp
_
jbgbf__lkeZ[hdbkemxkj_^mZ fueh
²s_ehqgmx
=ebp_jbglZd`_h[jZam_lk &X2+
2
kbgbcjZkl\hjk\hckl\h
fgh]
h
Zlhfguokibjlh\
GZ]j__f ihemq_ggu_ jZkl\hju < h^ghc ba ijh[bjhd\uiZ^Z_l
[_euc hkZ^hd
² ijhbkoh^bl ^_gZlmjZpby [_edZ K ]ebp_jbghf ijb
g
Z
]j_\Zgbbgbq_]hg_ijhbkoh^bl
IjZdlbq_kdZyjZ[hlZ
12
.
JZkihagZ\Zgb_ieZklfZkk
Ijb\_^_f^ey^Zgguo\b^h\ieZklfZkkkljmdlmjgu_nhjfmeu
Ihebwlbe_g
²KG
2
—
KG
2
—) n
,
Iheb\bgbeoehjb^
(— KG
2
—
KG
— ) n
K
l
,
Ihebklbjhe
(– CH
2
– CH – )
n
,
N_ghenhjfZev^_]b^gZykf
h
eZ
O
H
C
H
2
C
H
2
C
H
2
C
H
2
C
H
2
C
H
2
O
H
O
H
n
IjZdlbq_kdZyjZ[hlZ
13
.
JZkihagZ\Zgb_\hehdhg
AZibr_fkljmdlmjgu_nhjfmeubkdmkkl\_gguo\hehdhg
:p_lZlgh_\hehdgh
[ – C
6
H
7
O
2
(OCCH
3
)
3
– ]
n
H
.
K
Zijhg
[
– (
KG
2
)
5
— K
— NH
— ]
n
O
.
EZ\kZg
>±&±
±
&±2±&+
±&+
±
H ±@
Q
2 2
.
100
IjZdlbq_kdZyjZ[hlZ
14
.
JZkihagZ\Zgb_fbg_jZevguom^h[j_gbc
< mq_[gbd_^hklZlhqghih^jh[ghijb\_^_ghhibkZgb_\k_ohiulh\
Ihwlhfmijb\_^_febrv\hafh`gu_j_Zdpbb
Hij_^_e_gb_Zffhgb_\uofbg_jZevguom^h[j_gbc
NH
4
+
+OH
–
t
NH
3
+H
2
O.
GZijbf_j1+
4
NO
3
+NaOH
t
NaNO
3
+NH
3
+H
2
O.
Hij_^_e_gb_kmevnZlguom^h[j_gbc
SO
4
2– + Ba
2+
BaSO
4
.
GZijbf_j
(NH
4
)
2
SO
4 + BaCl
2
BaSO
4
+ 2NH
4
Cl.
Hij_^_e_gb_oehjb^bhgh\
Cl
– + Ag
+
AgCl
.
GZijbf_j
KCl + NaCl + 2AgNO
3
KNO
3 + NaNO
3 + 2AgCl
.
Hij_^_e_gb_nhknhjguom^h[j_gbc
PO
4
3– + 3Ag
+
Ag
3
PO
4
GZijbf_j
K
3
PO
4 + 3AgNO
3
Ag
3
PO
4
+ 3KNO
3
.
J_Zdpby$J12
3
k bhgZfb62
4
2–
:
2Ag
+ + SO
4
2–
Ag
2
SO
4
.
Hij_^_e_gb_dZj[hgZlh\
CO
3
2– + 2H
+
H
2
O + CO
2
.
GZijbf_j
CaCO
3
+2HCl
CaCl
2
+H
2
O+CO
2
.
Автор
maska78.78
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