close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Christmas and New Year (English Topic)

код для вставкиСкачать
The Holiday Season/Christmas and New Year's
Christmas
is an annual holiday celebrated throughout the world on December 25, that commemorates
(to
remember by ceremony or observation) the birth of Jesus Christ. The date is not Jesus' actual birthday, but was
probably chosen to correspond
(to compare or be equivalent) with a historical Roman festival celebrating the
winter solstice. Christmas Day marks the beginning of the larger season of Christmastide
, which lasts twelve
days; defined as the period from Christmas Day to the evening of 5 January. This period is also commonly
known as the Twelve Days of Christmas
, as referred to in the Christmas carol
(a song of joy or happiness,
usually religious in nature) of the same name. Although it was first published in England in 1780, certain words
used in the lyrics may indicate that the song is French in origin (i.e. french hens given as a gift on day 3, also the
partridge had only recently been introduced to England). The 12 Days of Christmas
On the first day of Christmas
my true love sent to me: A Partridge in a Pear Tree On the second day of Christmas
my true love sent to me: 2 Turtle Doves and a Partridge in a Pear Tree On the third day of Christmas
my true love sent to me: 3 French Hens 2 Turtle Doves and a Partridge in a Pear
Tree On the fourth day of Christmas
my true love sent to me: 4 Calling Birds 3 French Hens 2 Turtle Doves and a
Partridge in a Pear Tree On the fifth day of Christmas
my true love sent to me: 5 Golden Rings 4 Calling Birds 3 French Hens 2 Turtle
Doves and a Partridge in a Pear Tree On the sixth day of Christma
s my true love sent to me: 6 Geese a Laying 5 Golden Rings 4 Calling Birds 3
French Hens 2 Turtle Doves and a Partridge in a Pear Tree On the seventh day of Christma
s my true love sent to me: 7 Swans a Swimming 6 Geese a Laying 5 Golden
Rings 4 Calling Birds 3 French Hens 2 Turtle Doves and a Partridge in a Pear Tree On the eighth day of Christmas
my true love sent to me: 8 Maids a Milking 7 Swans a Swimming 6 Geese a
Laying 5 Golden Rings 4 Calling Birds 3 French Hens 2 Turtle Doves and a Partridge in a Pear Tree On the ninth day of Christmas
my true love sent to me: 9 Ladies Dancing 8 Maids a Milking 7 Swans a
Swimming 6 Geese a Laying 5 Golden Rings 4 Calling Birds 3 French Hens 2 Turtle Doves and a Partridge in a
Pear Tree Copyrights©2009English
Republic
.ru All rights reserved
On the tenth day of Christmas
my true love sent to me: 10 Lords a Leaping 9 Ladies Dancing 8 Maids a Milking
7 Swans a Swimming 6 Geese a Laying 5 Golden Rings 4 Calling Birds 3 French Hens 2 Turtle Doves and a
Partridge in a Pear Tree On the eleventh day of Christma
s my true love sent to me: 11 Pipers Piping 10 Lords a Leaping 9 Ladies
Dancing 8 Maids a Milking 7 Swans a Swimming 6 Geese a Laying 5 Golden Rings 4 Calling Birds 3 French
Hens 2 Turtle Doves and a Partridge in a Pear Tree On the twelfth day of Christmas
my true love sent to me: 12 Drummers Drumming 11 Pipers Piping 10 Lords a
Leaping 9 Ladies Dancing 8 Maids a Milking 7 Swans a Swimming 6 Geese a Laying 5 Golden Rings 4 Calling
Birds 3 French Hens 2 Turtle Doves and a Partridge in a Pear Tree -Are you familiar with this song? -What carols are sung during the Christmas season in Russia? -If someone were to give you gifts for 12 days, what are the kinds of gifts that you would like to receive? Modern customs of the Christmas holiday include gift-giving, church celebrations, the exchange of cards, and
the display of various decorations—including the Christmas tree, stockings
(a usually knit, close-fitting covering
for the foot and leg) hung by the fireplace, colored lights,
mistletoe
, and wreaths
(a decorative arrangement of
foliage or flowers in a circular shape) of holly. It is a tradition that if you are with someone under a sprig
(a small
shoot or twig from a plant) of mistletoe, they must give you a kiss! The traditions that are followed mainly focus
on celebrating the joy of Christ's birth. The vast differences are mostly due to other regional/cultural influences. While some people may celebrate
Christmas by reading the Bible and scriptures or make it more musical by singing Christmas songs, the main
theme is to involve the children and let them know about why Christmas is celebrated and to preach the
message of Christianity. The custom of giving presents commemorates the three Wise Men who gave precious
gifts to Jesus. Because gift-giving and several other aspects of the holiday involve increased economic activity,
Christmas has become a major event for many retailers. -What do you know about the biblical story of Jesus' birth? -What are some Christmas traditions in Russia? -Is this holiday an important time for celebration for you or your family? Why or why not? -What do you think is meant by the expression "to have the Christmas spirit"? -Christmas traditions and customs have become increasingly commercialized, do you believe that this conflicts
with the true spirit of Christmas? -Many stores in the USA have extensive decorations and offer huge discounts during the Christmas season to
attract more customers. Is this practice also followed by retailers in Russia? -Many consumers spend a great deal more money during this time, is this true for you? -How important is it for you to give and/or receive gifts for Christmas? Santa Claus
, also known as "
Saint Nicholas
", "
Kris Kringle"
, "
Old St. Nick
" or simply "
Santa
", is the
legendary and mythical figure who, in many Western cultures, symbolizes Christmas. While Saint Nicholas was
Copyrights©2009English
Republic
.ru All rights reserved
originally portrayed wearing bishop's robes, today Santa Claus is generally depicted as a plump (having a full
rounded form), jolly, white-bearded man wearing a red coat with white collar and cuffs, white-cuffed red trousers,
and black leather belt and boots. This image became popular in the United States and Canada in the 19th
century due to the influence of caricaturist
and political cartoonist Thomas Nast. In the USA this image has
been maintained and reinforced through song, radio, television, and films. In the United Kingdom and Europe,
his depiction is often identical to the American Santa, but he is commonly called "
Father Christmas
." One legend associated with Santa says that he lives in the far north, in a land of perpetual
(continuing forever)
snow. The American version of Santa Claus says that he lives at his house on the North Pole with his wife Mrs.
Claus, a countless number of magical elves, and eight or nine flying reindeer. Another legend of Santa says that
he makes a list of children throughout the world, categorizing them according to their behavior ("naughty" or
"nice") and that he delivers presents on the single night of Christmas Eve (24 December) to all of the good boys
and girls in the world, and sometimes coal to the naughty children. He accomplishes this feat
(a notable deed, or
uniquely skillful action) with the aid of the elves who make the toys in the workshop and the reindeer who pull his
sleigh. There has long been opposition to teaching children to believe in Santa Claus. Some Christians say the Santa
tradition detracts
(draws attention from or takes away) from the religious origins and purpose of Christmas.
Other critics feel that Santa Claus is an elaborate lie, and that it is unethical for parents to teach their children to
believe in his existence. Still others oppose Santa Claus as a symbol of the commercialization of the Christmas
holiday, or as an intrusion
(an inappropriate or unwelcome addition) upon their own national traditions. In Russia, Santa is replaced with Grandfather Frost
. He is similar to Santa Claus, but arrives on New Year's
Eve with his bag of toys wearing blue instead of red. Grandfather Frost can punish any evildoer by freezing
them. Large trees are decorated in the centers of major cities; often kids dance around the tree, tell rhymes or
sing songs to Father Frost and then receive their presents.
-What do you think about teaching children to believe in Santa/Grandfather Frost? -Did you grow up believing in this legendary symbol of Christmas, and if so, when did you learn that the legend
was not true? Did this affect your feelings about the holiday? Possibly the most traditional of all Christmas drinks is mulled
wine. The word "mulled" simply means heated and
spiced. Many liquids can be mulled - mead
(a fermented beverage made of water and honey, malt, and yeast),
ale/beer, cider, and of course wine. Mulled wines have a long history. In medieval times these wines were
thought to be very healthy, and indeed, with wine at the time being far more sanitary
(free from elements, such
as filth or germs, that endanger health) than water, these heated drinks did help to keep people healthier through
the cold winters. The following is one traditional recipe: Mulled Wine
3 bottles of Cabernet Sauvignon
1 cup orange juice
1/2 teaspoon nutmeg
1/2 teaspoon cinnamon
1/2 teaspoon powdered clove
2 tablespoon whole cloves
1 tablespoon honey
2 tablespoon brown sugar Combine ingredients in a large saucepan over very low heat. Stir frequently until hot and fragrant
. Serve warm.
Copyrights©2009English
Republic
.ru All rights reserved
Back in Europe of the 1700s, another drink was developed that mixed warm milk and eggs with sherry or brandy
to
keep the chill at bay
(
"keep at bay"
- to prevent something or someone unpleasant from coming too near
you or harming you). This was served in a noggin
- a small, wooden mug. Thus, this became nicknamed as
"
eggnog
". During the 1800's, this became hugely popular in England, especially at Christmastime. Eggnog was
a classic punch served in large volumes, both warm and cold, to anyone who came calling
(visits) during the
winter season. Eggnog
6 eggs
3 cups milk
8 tablespoons sugar
3 teaspoons vanilla essence
1/2 teaspoon ground nutmeg
In a large bowl, beat the eggs using an electric beater (if available).
Add milk & sugar, beating well after each addition.
Stir in the vanilla essence & ground nutmeg.
Cover with plastic wrap and refrigerate until chilled (at least 3 hours). Serves: 8. Unlike many holidays, where celebrants are bound
(confined, kept within limits) by tradition or religion, New
Year's
is a holiday that allows each individual to choose their own method of celebration. Some revelers
(people who engage in noisy partying or merrymaking) will soak themselves in alcohol, boozing it up
(drinking a
lot of alcohol) with copious
(in large quantity) bottles of champagne. It is customary in the USA for huge dance
parties to be thrown on New Year's Eve to celebrate the coming new year. In New York's Times Square a ball
drop
hosted by the television celebrity Dick Clark is broadcast all over the United States. They watch for the
moment when the giant brightly colored electric apple is lowered to the ground, at which time they start saying
"Happy New Year!"
At the stroke of midnight
(12am exactly) on New Year's Eve people will kiss or honk car
horns. Paper blowers and whistles are blown, and at many parties the participants are showered with ballons
and confetti. A soul food of black-eyed peas
is eaten by some; in the USA they believe that black-eyed peas are
lucky. It is also common to have champagne and decorative cakes. There are also several parades which are televised
and widely watched, such as the Tournament of Roses in Pasadena, California and the Mummers' Parade in
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
It used to be that the most formal New Year's celebration in Russia was a party held
at the Kremlin. As many as 50,000 attendance tickets would be sold in the weeks before the annual event. However you personally choose to celebrate New Year's 2009, people around the world certainly have some
wacky
(absurd or amusingly irrational) ways that they choose to bring in their new year. Here's a look at a few of
them: ·
South America
- in countries like Brazil and Bolivia, residents in cities such as Sao Paulo and La Paz
ring in the New Year
by donning
(putting on) brightly colored underpants. Those who choose red are
hoping for an amorous year ahead, those with yellow wish for money. This begs the question (raises
the question): How do you tell who is wearing what color underwear? ·
Philippines
- during New Year's celebrations in places like Manila the focus is on all things round,
consuming "round" fruits such as grapes and wearing clothing with round shapes like polka dots. The
spherical theme is meant to remind celebrants of the "round" shape of coins and prosperity. ·
Spain
- at the stroke of midnight, Spaniards begin to eat 12 grapes, attempting to down (eat or drink
quickly and completely) the whole bunch by the time the clock stops chiming. ·
Belarus
- the new year in Belarus is all about getting hitched
(married). Unmarried women compete at
games of skill and chance to determine who will tie the knot
(get married) in the coming months. One
Copyrights©2009English
Republic
.ru All rights reserved
game involves setting piles of corn and a rooster before the potential brides-to-be - whichever pile the
bird chooses also picks the lucky lady who will soon be married. -What do you know of the New Year's party held at the Kremlin? Are there any other large famous parties held in
Moscow/SPB for New Year's? -What are some of the ways you plan on celebrating? How have you celebrated in the past? -What are some traditional foods/drinks of Russia that are consumed for this holiday?
-Is New Years a bigger holiday than Christmas in Russia? A New Year's resolution
is a commitment that an individual makes to a future goal, or a lifestyle change that is
generally considered as advantageous
(favorable). The name comes from the fact that these commitments
normally go into effect on New Year's Day and remain until resolved
(accomplished successfully) or abandoned;
usually they are abandoned, as most people make commitments that are difficult to keep. Some examples
include resolutions to donate to the poor more often, to become more assertive, or to become more
economically or environmentally responsible; losing weight is also a very common goal.
Why do you think losing weight is a common New Year's resolution?
What would be some resolutions you might make for New Year's?
Christmas comes but once a year.
- Since Christmas only happens once a year, we should treat it as a special
time by being good to others or by indulging
(treat with excessive generosity or consideration) children.
Christmas comes but once a year, so we urge you to give to those less fortunate through this Christmas charity
campaign.
like turkeys voting for (an early) Christmas
(
British & Australian
) - If people are like turkeys voting for
Christmas, they choose to accept a situation which will have very bad results for them. Turkeys are large birds
which are often killed and eaten on Christmas Day. /Teachers agreeing to even larger class sizes would be like
turkeys voting for Christmas./
lit up like a Christmas tree
- To be drunk. /On New Year's Eve Ned was lit up like a Christmas tree./
(I'll) see you next year.
- a good-bye expression said toward the end of the year. /
Boris:
Happy New Year!
Sasha:
You, too! See you next year./
Olga:
Bye. See you tomorrow. Misha:
It's New Year's Eve. See you next
year! Olga:
Right! I'll see you next year!/
ring in the new year
- to celebrate the beginning of the new year at midnight on December 31. /We are
planning a big party to ring in the new year!/
Copyrights©2009English
Republic
.ru All rights reserved
Conversation:
Brent:
So, do you have any special plans for the holidays?
Vadim:
I don't really care about Christmas, but I was thinking about going to Moscow for New Year's for the
Kremlin party. What about you?
Brent:
Well, my family is really big into
Christmas. I have to figure out what presents I'm going to get for
everybody, and I know it's going to cost me a fortune
.
Vadim: You need to stop worrying about money so much and get into the Christmas spirit! It only comes once a
year, you know.
Brent: I'm into the Christmas spirit, I just don't like how commercial Christmas has become.
Vadim:
Just try to have fun! Isn't there going to be a big party at your office? Maybe you can get one of the cute
secretaries to kiss you under the mistletoe, hahaha!
Brent: Maybe... Lord knows everybody will be boozing it up and acting crazy. That's why I think I'm going to take
it easy for New Year's Eve. Just stay at home and watch the countdown.
Vadim: Not me! I'm going to be lit up like a Christmas tree and partying my ass off! And at the stroke of midnight
I'm going to ring in the new year by finding the cutest girl I can to swap spit
with.
Brent:
For crying out loud, do you have to be so vulgar all the time? You were probably such a bad kid that
Santa always left coal in your stocking!
Vadim:
Fortunately, I never believed in Santa Claus. My parents always bought me whatever I wanted for
Christmas.
Brent:
I think that you should make a resolution to settle down
next year.
Vadim: What?! Are you crazy? I'm not getting hitched anytime soon!
Brent: I wasn't saying you should get married, just calm down and stop being so wild.
Vadim: Oh, good. Because me getting married would be like turkeys voting for an early Christmas.
Brent: You're such a comedian. Anyway, I gotta go, have a great holiday and I'll see you in a couple weeks!
Vadim: Okay, see you next year!
Just Speak!
Copyrights©2009English
Republic
.ru All rights reserved
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа