close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

32.Обучение чтению и устной речи на английском языке по страноведческой тематике. Часть 1. «Лондон»

код для вставкиСкачать
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Московский государственный технический университет
имени Н.Э. Баумана
И.Ф. Беликова, Л.И. Иванова
ОБУЧЕНИЕ СТУДЕНТОВ
ЧТЕНИЮ И УСТНОЙ РЕЧИ
НА АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ
ПО СТРАНОВЕДЧЕСКОЙ ТЕМАТИКЕ
Часть 1
ЛОНДОН
Учебно-методическое пособие
Москва
Издательство МГТУ им. Н.Э. Баумана
2011
1
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
УДК 802.0
ББК 81.2 Англ-923
Б43
Б43
Р е ц е н з е н т И.В. Стасенко
Беликова И.Ф.
Обучение студентов чтению и устной речи на английском языке по страноведческой тематике : учеб.-метод. пособие. — Ч. 1: Лондон / И.Ф. Беликова,
Л.И. Иванова. — М.: Изд-во МГТУ им. Н.Э. Баумана, 2011. — 31, [1] c. : ил.
Пособие посвящено изучению страноведческих экзаменационных материалов по
стране изучаемого языка — Великобритании. Представлены оригинальные тексты,
разработаны лексико-грамматические упражнения, задания по практике устной
речи, дополнительные тексты и тесты. Учебно-методическое пособие имеет
иллюстративный материал.
Для студентов I – IV курсов всех факультетов, обучающихся на кафедре Л-3.
УДК 802.0
ББК 81.2 Англ-923
Учебное издание
Беликова Ирина Федоровна
Иванова Людмила Ивановна
ОБУЧЕНИЕ СТУДЕНТОВ ЧТЕНИЮ И УСТНОЙ РЕЧИ
НА АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ ПО СТРАНОВЕДЧЕСКОЙ ТЕМАТИКЕ
Часть 1
ЛОНДОН
Корректор Е.К. Кошелева
Компьютерная верстка С.А. Серебряковой
Подписано в печать 24.12.2010.
Формат 60×84/8. Усл. печ. л. 3,72.
Изд. № 161. Тираж 200 экз. Заказ
.
Издательство МГТУ им. Н.Э. Баумана.
Типография МГТУ им. Н.Э. Баумана.
105005, Москва, 2-я Бауманская ул., 5.
© МГТУ им. Н.Э. Баумана, 2011
2
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ
В учебно-методическое пособие включены оригинальные английские тексты,
соответствующие содержанию фильма “London. The city of many faces”. Каждый
раздел включает задания по развитию навыков устной речи, тексты — скрипты,
вопросы на проверку понимания просмотренного видеофрагмента, активную
лексику, а также упражнения и задания на перевод с русского языка на английский
язык. В работе представлены иллюстрации значимых страноведческих реалий.
Пособие предназначено для студентов I – IV курсов всех факультетов, обучающихся на кафедре Л-3.
3
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
TOPIC 1
New words and word combinations
The farthest space metropolis
самая отдаленная столица
To be made up of three quarters
состоять из трёх районов
To spread along both sides of the river
To playhouse many buildings
располагаться по обе стороны реки
состоять из большого количества зданий
A system of singular administration
The changing of the royal guards
система единого управления
смена королевского караула
The most popular attractions
A varied mixture of people
самое популярное зрелище
разноликое общество
Extensive parks
To relax during spare time
огромные парки
отдохнуть в свободное время
Text
Let’s listen to the first part of the text.
Welcome to London — capital of the United Kingdom. London is the farthest space
metropolis with a population of more than 7 million, and one of the ten biggest cities in
the world. Initially London was made up of three quarters: the City, Westminster and
Suburbs.
The City of London spreads along both sides of the river Thames. The embankments
playhouse many historical building, modern constructions and the 20th century city’s
skyscrapers.
One unique factor is that London is the only metropolis in the world which does not
use a system of singular administration and is rather administrated by each city quarter
separately. London has been the seat of the British monarchy for hundreds of years and
the changing of the royal guards has become the city’s most popular attractions.
In 1777 Samuel Jonson wrote: “If you are tired of London then you are tired of life,
because London has everything that life has to offer.” He was right and the visitors of
London are convinced by that fact even today.
London playhouses to a varied mixture of people of all
different colors and nationalities. Just due to the tourists
mainly because of local residents a quarter of seven
million inhabitants came from all over the world which
means that 150 different languages are spoken in the city.
The extensive parks give a local residence a chance to
relax during their spare time.
(видеофрагмент — время звучания 2 мин)
4
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Key words
capital
embankment
histoical building
monarchy
changing of the royal guards
mixture of people
Proper names
The United Kingdom
The City
['âfkÇèã]
['ëfíf]
Westminster
The Thames
[ïÉëEíF'ãfåEíFëíè]
[íÉãò]
Samuel Johnson
['ëñãàìèä] — English writer and lexicographer (1709–1784)
Exercise 1. This part of the text introduces the City of London. Your task is to
answer the questions, using the given word combinations.
1. How many people live in London?
2. Where is the City situated?
3. What is unique about the City of London?
4. What is the most popular attraction in London?
5. What did Samuel Jonson write about London?
6. How many languages are spoken in London?
Now, after we have discussed the main points of the text, please, write a plan of
the text. Let’s sum up the text (one or more students retell the text briefly).
Exercise 2. Let’s focus on the new words. Your task is to match the word with its
definition.
1) embankment
2) space
3) guard
4) suburbs
5) extensive
6) mixture
7) royal
a) Distance, area, or volume that can be used or filled by a physical
object; room
b) An outer area of a town or city, where people live
c) A wide wall of stones or earth built to keep a river from
overflowing its banks or to carry a road or railway over low ground
d) Belonging to, or deals with a king or a queen
e) A person, especially a soldier, policeman, who watches over
a person or place to prevent danger, attack etc.
f) Large in amount, area, or range, having an effect on or including
many parts
g) A combination of thing or people of different types
5
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Exercise 3. Imagine that you are a guide and your task is tell the tourists about
one of London sightseeings.
Exercise 4. Samuel Johnson (Supplement p. 24).
TOPIC 2
New words and word combinations
A massive underground system
A red double-decker bus
To offer great views of the city
To gain more information
To be a great experience
A walk through the city
Life full of entertainment
To be famous throughout the world
широкая сеть метрополитена
красный двухэтажный автобус
показать захватывающие панорамы города
получить больше информации
получить ценный опыт
прогулка по городу
жизнь полная развлечений
быть известным во всем мире
Text
Let's listen to the second part of the text.
London has a massive underground system which with its 2.55 miles and its
2 hundred and 73 stations is the most extensive in the world.
A ride in a typical London taxi is a memorable experience, as is a ride on one of
a red double-decker buses which cruise round the city.
Tourists may find many companies which specialize in both city as well as regional tours.
Various tours in open buses tops not only offer great views of the city and local
regions, but also include professional running commentary in a number of different
languages.
A tour of London therefore not only proves to be a great experience but furthermore
helps to gain more important information and knowledge.
London in the evening is fantastic. A number of monuments and important buildings
are lit and enter the cozy and romantic
atmosphere during your walk through
the city. The centre is full of tourists and
locals and offers a rich night life full of
entertainment centers, cinemas.
London theaters are famous throughout
the world mainly due to their rich repertoires
and very high quality which can be traced
back to Shakespeare’s time.
(видеофрагмент — время звучания
1 мин 38 с)
6
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Key words
underground
ride on a double decker
to cruise round the city
tour
monuments
entertainment
Exercise 5. This part of the text goes on telling us about the City of London.
Your task is to answer the questions, using the given word combinations.
1. What can you say about London underground?
2. How can you get the information of London?
3. Describe the atmosphere of London in the evening?
4. What makes London theatres so famous throughout the world?
5. What entertainment can people get in London?
Now, after we have discussed the main points of the text, please, write a plan of
the text. Let’s sum up the text (one or more students retell the text briefly).
Exercise 6. Let’s focus on the new words. Your task is to fill in the gaps with
proper words and word combinations.
A walk through the city (1); underground (2); experience (3); double-decker (4);
to gain (5); entertainment (6); to trace back (7)
1. I know from my own__________ how difficult this kind of work can be. Don’t
correct him all the time — he will learn by ____________.
2. His family can_______________ its history to the 10th century.
______________________ gives you an opportunity to see all the great monuments
and important building of the city.
________________ has two levels, the typical British bus.
3. When you travel by ____________, it can save your time and you won’t be stuck
in traffic jams.
4. When students want to _____ more information, they use different sources, e. g.
the internet.
5. This law applies to theaters, cinemas, and other places of public ___________.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
7
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Exercise 7. Your task is to translate the sentences from Russian into English,
using the words and word combinations from the first and second parts.
a) Первоначально Лондон состоял из трех районов: Сити, Вестминстер и
окраины. Сити располагается по обе стороны реки Темзы. Набережные
представляют собой скопление исторических и современных зданий, а также
небоскребы, построенные в двадцатом веке.
b) Если вы устали от Лондона, то вы устали жить, потому что здесь есть всё,
чего можно ждать от жизни, — так писал Сэмюель Джонсон в 1777 году. Он был
абсолютно прав, и в этом убеждены и те, кто приезжает в Лондон сегодня.
с) Особенностью городского устройства является то, что Британская столица —
это единственный в мире многомиллионный город, не имеющий центральной
городской администрации.
d) Метро — самый удобный вид лондонского транспорта (4000 км). Билеты
следует сохранять до конца поездки — контроль производится на выходе.
e) Лондонские «кэбы» (такси) — удобный, надежный и не слишком дорогой вид
транспорта. На улице их подзывают, сигнализируя высоко поднятой рукой.
Exercise 8. Imagine that you are a guide and your task is to tell the tourists about
one of London sightseeings.
Exercise 9. Double-decker buses (Supplement p. 24).
TOPIC 3
New words and word combinations
To create a glittery atmosphere
создавать обстановку роскоши
To be worth seeing
Cuisine from all over the world
A former fruit and vegetable market
стоит того, чтобы увидеть
кухня, представленная разными странами
бывший рынок фруктов и овощей
A place of commerce
место торговли
Text
Let’s listen to the third part of the text.
Our walk begins on Piccadilly Circus where we will find a statue of Eros in the
centre of dominant public fountain. Eros is in this spot since the year 1893. Piccadilly
Circus was established in 1819 as the place where Piccadilly and Regent Street cross. It
is mainly known for its bright billboards which create a glittery atmosphere when lit up
at night. Piccadilly Circus has become the most popular hanger place for Londoners. The
entertainment part Trocadero — the place of entertainment for both young and old alike.
Piccadilly Circus stands in a gate area called Soho. Leicester Square founded in 1670
is the main square and a lively centre of Soho. In the 17th century it was known as
disreputable part of London. Today visitors are attracted by the many artists but insure
that always something is worth seeing there.
8
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
The square is surrounded by cinemas, night spots and casinos. Soho used to pose as a
hunting ground for Henry the VIII was named after the hunting ride Soho. Here we can
find many cafes and restaurants representing cuisine from all over the world.
(видеофрагмент — время звучания 1 мин 40 с)
Key words
statue
fountain
square
hunting ground
cuisine
market
Proper names
Piccadilly Circus
Regent Street
['ëbWâèë]
['gdEèFåí]
Henry the VIII
Covent Garden
['ÜÉåêf] — King of England and Ireland
['âlîEèFåíÖoÇEèFå] — a district with a flower, fruit and
vegetable market and the Royal Opera House which is known
as Covent Garden
['`~fåè]
China Town
9
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Exercise 10. This part of the text goes on telling us about famous London places.
Your task is to answer the questions, using the given word combinations.
1. Say some words about the most popular London place — Piccadilly Circus.
2. What can you find in Soho?
3. What is Covent Garden?
Now, after we have discussed the main points of the text, please, write a plan of
the text. Let’s sum up the text. (one or more students retell the text briefly)
Exercise 11. Let’s focus on the new words. Your task is to find synonyms for
the given words. There is more than one synonym for each word. Write hem down,
please.
1) glitter
2) to insure
3) to represent
4) cuisine
5) to establish
6) commerce
7) former
A style of cooking; trade; to found; previous; shine; to assure; merchandise; to
express; earlier; sparkle; to set up; prior; to correspond to; glare; to guarantee; to
create; brightness; to mean; foregoing; to protect; to symbolize; to institute.
Exercise 12. Imagine that you are a guide and your task is to tell the tourists
about one of London sightseeings.
Exercise 13. London streets, Piccadilly Circus, China town (Supplement p. 25).
TOPIC 4
New words and word combinations
A frequent avenue for demonstrations
постоянное место проведения
демонстраций
To be named after the famous battle
быть названным в честь знаменитой битвы
The square is dominated by the column над площадью возвышается колонна
To be designed in honor of
быть созданным в честь
Classicist style
классический стиль
To contain paintings
галерея обладает большой коллекцией
картин
The triumphant arch
триумфальная арка
10
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Text
Let’s listen to the fourth part of the text.
In the south of Soho lies the grandiose Trafalgar Square.
The square was founded between 1829 and 1850 based on design by Charles Barry.
Today it is mainly a place of commerce and traffic. It has become a frequent avenue for
demonstrations and protests. It was named after the famous battle of Trafalgar on
the Spanish land where Admiral Nelson’s fleet defeated the French and the Spanish
navies. Admiral Nelson, however, lost his life in the battle.
The thousands of pigeons that gather
on the square have become a major
tourists’ attraction.
The Square is dominated by the
55 meter high Nelson’s column. It was
designed in around 1840 by the architect
William Regan in honor, of course,
of Admiral Nelson.
On the northern side of the square
stands the National Gallery, a classicist
building dated from the year 1836.
It contains over 2200 paintings from
European painters of many different
styles. The oldest building of the square
is the church of St. Martin-in-the-Fields
built between 1721–1726 in classicist
baroque style. Alongside the Navy
building of the old Admiralty stands the
Triumphant Admiralty Arch which
connects Trafalgar Square with the Mall.
(видеофрагмент — время звучания
1 мин 34 с)
Key words
to be named after
famous battle
fleet navy
in honour of
painting
church
11
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Proper names
Soho
Trafalgar Square
Admiral Nelson’s column
The National Gallery
Admiralty Arch
The Church St. Martin in the Fields
[íêè'ÑñäÖè] [ëâïcè]
['ñÇãEèFêèä] ['âläèã]
['åñpEèFåEèFä] ['ÖñäEèFêf]
['ñÇãEèFêèäíf] [o`]
[`bW`] [ÑgäÇò]
Exercise 14. This part of the text goes on telling us about the main London
square. Your task is to answer the questions, using the given word combinations.
1. What is Trafalgar Square famous for?
2. What is the height of Nelson’s Column and when was it designed?
3. What is National Gallery? What kind of pictures are collected there?
Now, after we have discussed the main points of the text, please, write a plan of the
text. Let’s sum up the text (one or more students retell the text briefly).
Exercise 15. Finally, let’s focus on the new words. Your task is to replace the
parts in bold with the new words and expressions.
to contain;
frequent;
to defeat;
pigeon;
major;
in honor of
а) After a long campaign the Duke of Wellington’s army beat Napoleon.
b) The party was organized in order to show respect to the guests from England.
c) The book holds all the information you need.
d) In the UK people used to think of Trafalgar Square as a place where you could go
to feed a fairly large grey short-legged birds.
e) Storms are common on this part of the coast.
f) Shipbuilding used to be one of our important industries.
Exercise 16. Your last task for today is to translate the sentences from Russian into
English, using the words and word combinations from the third and the fourth parts.
a) Известный символ Лондона — площадь Пиккадилли и прилегающий к ней
квартал и его главная улица. Само название родилось в XVII веке, когда здесь торговали кружевными воротниками (Piccadells).
b) Главная достопримечательность площади — статуя ангела, символизирующего христианскую любовь к ближнему и получившего в обиходе имя Эрос.
c) Площадь Leicester оккупирована главным образом туристами и уличными
артистами.
d) В 1805 году адмирал Нельсон разгромил французов и испанцев в морском
сражении при Трафальгаре. Трафальгарская площадь символизирует национальную гордость и военную мощь.
Exercise 17. Imagine that you are a guide and your task is to tell the tourists
about one of London sightseeings.
Exercise 18. Trafalgar Square (Supplement p. 25).
12
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
TOPIC 5
New words and word combinations
To attract many artists
To be significantly outstanding
During the reign
To surround the statue
привлекать многих художников
существенно выделяться
во время царствования
окружать статую
Text
Let’s listen to the fifth part of the text.
A very wide avenue the Mall as founded in the year 1660. On its northern side stand
three important palaces, the most dominant being St. James’s Palace — the home of the
present Queen mother. On the other side of the Mall is St. James’s Park, the oldest of all
Royal Parks established by Henry the VIII in the year 1532. It is reputed to be one of the
most beautiful city parks of all time. With its grace and charm the park attracts many artists.
London’s most important and admired buildings is Buckingham Palace, the seat of
the British monarchy. The original building was constructed in a garden by Joan
Sheffield in 1705. It was significantly outstanding during the reign George the IV. In
1847 the young queen Victoria moved in her apartment of 600 — room palace. Today
the present queen Elizabeth the II inhabits only 12 of the rooms in the northern wing.
The open area in front of the palace is decorated by the queen Victoria memorial
inaugurated in 1911. Allegoric figures surround the statue of Victoria and symbolize
such values as justice, truth, motherhood, peace and progress.
(видеофрагмент — время звучания 1 мин 29 с)
13
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Key words
to be founded
to attract artists
during the reign
to inhabit
to be decorated
to inaugurate
Proper names
The Mall
St. James's Park
St. James's Palace
Buckingham Palace
Queen Victoria
Queen Elizabeth
[ãiä]
[éoâ]
['Ä^âfkèã]
[âïgå] [îfâ'íiêfè] — queen of UK and Ireland, reigned
in 1837–1901
[âïgå] [f'äfòèÄèq] — queen of UK and Northern Ireland,
reigns from 1952 — present time
Exercise 19. This part of the text tells us about the most important London
palaces. Your task is to answer the questions, using the given word combinations.
1. Who made St. James’s Park very popular?
2. Which building is admired and important in the centre of London?
3. When was Buckingham Palace constructed?
4. Which English Queen moved in Buckingham Palace and when?
5. How many rooms does the present queen Elisabeth inhabit?
6. Where is Queen Victoria’s memorial?
7. What do allegoric figures on the monument symbolize?
Now, after we have discussed the main points of the text, please, write a plan of
the text. Let’s sum up the text (one or more students retell the text briefly).
Exercise 20. Imagine that you are a guide and your task is to tell the tourists
about one of London sightseeings.
Exercise 21. Buckingham Palace (Supplement p. 26).
14
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
TOPIC 6
New words and word combinations
To reconstruct the original
church
The parliament and judiciary
A new gothic style
Lower and upper chambers
The most famous feature
восстановить церковь в её первоначальном
виде
парламент и судебная власть
новый готический стиль
нижняя и верхняя палаты
самая знаменитая черта
Text
Let’s listen to the sixth part of the text.
Along St. James’s Park we reach the heart of Westminster – Westminster Abbey.
The coronations of all the British monarchs are taking place here since William the
Conqueror 1056. In 1220 Henry the III constructed the Chapel of the Virgin Mary, and
with it he reconstructed the original church. The work wasn’t completed for 300 years.
Its modern day look dates from 1745 after the works on the west house were completed.
Members of the Lower house of Parliament — the Commons have traditionally been
married in the neighboring St. Marks Church. Visitors can be impressed by the Abbey’s
great impressive proportions.
Close by is Westminster Palace which stretches
along the banks of the river Thames. This is being
the site of the royal palace since the 11th century, and
since the signing the Magna Carta in 1215 has
housed the parliament and the judiciary.
The present Houses of Parliament were built in
a new gothic style after a fire in the mid 19th century.
It was made from gold and brown yorstone and was
designed by the architects Charles Barry and
Augustus Pugin. Today the house is only the
legislative divided into the lower and upper chambers
— the House of Lords and the House of Commons.
Probably its most famous feature is its St. Steven
tower with the 16-tone bell called Big Ben.
(видеофрагмет – время звучания 1 мин 37 с)
Key words
coronations of monarchs
to be impressed by
banks of the river
to be devided into
lower and upper chambers
bell
15
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Proper names
Westminster Abbey
William the Conqueror
[ïÉëEíF'ãfåEíFëíè] ['ñÄf]
['âlkâEèFêè] — king of England and Dyke of Normandy,
reigned in 1066 –1087
The Houses of Parliament ['éoäèãèåí]
Magna Carta
[ãñÖåè'âoíè] — the document which restricted English
King’s power in 1215
Big Ben
Exercise 22. This part of the text tells us about the heart of Westminster. Your
task is to answer the questions, using the given word combinations.
1. What happens every day in front of the Buckingham Palace?
2. Where is Westminster Abbey situated? What is it famous for?
3. What is situated nowadays in Westminster Palace?
4. When was the Magna Carta signed and where?
5. What is Big Ben?
Now, after we have discussed the main points of the text, please, write a plan of
the text. Let’s sum up the text. (one or more students retell the text briefly)
Exercise 23. Let’s focus on the new words. Your task is to fill in the gaps with
the proper words and word combinations.
chapel;
judiciary;
legislative;
chamber;
to reconstruct
1. In Britain the upper __________ of Parliament is the House of Lords, the lower
the House of Commons.
2. He goes to the ________ every Sunday night.
3. The parliament obtains _____________ power.
4. The police are trying to _________________ the crime from the few clues they
have.
5. ______________ are judges in the courts of law, considered as one group, and
forming one of the branches of the government.
Exercise 24. Your last task is to translate the sentences from Russian into
English, using the words and word combinations from the fifth and the sixth parts.
a) Здание Парламента, или Вестминстерский дворец, — это огромный комплекс
площадью 3,3 га, находящийся в распоряжении Палаты общин и Палаты лордов.
b) Слева от Вестминстер-холла возвышается часовая башня Биг Бен, знаменитая своим 16-тонным колоколом. Его назвали по имени Бенджамина Холла, заказавшего отливку этого колокола.
c) Пространство перед дворцом украшает великолепный монумент королевы
Виктории, которая была коронована в 1911 году. Аллегорические фигуры окружают статую королевы Виктории и символизируют правосудие, правду, материнство, мир и прогресс.
16
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
d) Коронация всех британских монархов проходит в Вестминстерском аббатстве. В 1220 году Генрих Третий возвел часовню Святой Марии и таким образом
восстановил церковь в ее первоначальном виде.
е) Современное здание парламента было построено в новом готическом стиле
после пожара в середине XIX века.
Exercise 25. Imagine that you are a guide and your task is to tell the tourists
about one of London sightseeings.
Exercise 26. Westminster Abbey, Houses of Parliament (Supplement p. 26).
TOPIC 7
New words and word combinations
to be located
быть расположенным
heavy traffic
to gain
интенсивное движение
получать, приобретать
skyscraper
to dominate
небоскреб
доминировать, возвышаться (над)
a moat
internal
to defend
defense
armour = armor
ров
внутренний
защищать, оборонять
оборона, защита
вооружение, доспехи
jewels
ювелирные изделия, драгоценности
Text
Let’s listen to the seventh the part of the text.
Across from Parliament Square we reach the street Whitehall where many important
government buildings are located. One of its most important sights is the Cenotaph —
a memorial to those lost their lives in both two world wars.
Almost anybody has heard of Downing Street. For more than 250 years number 10
has been the official home of the British Prime Minister.
We follow the Thames down to the City Quarter, and probably it is the most well
known sight in London — Tower Bridge, built in 1894 in a gothic style. It was only
opened to the public in 1982. It is a drawback — that it takes only 15 seconds to open
allowing the tour ships to sail through. Most of the time, however, it serves as a river
crossing for London’s heavy car traffic. Tower Bridge is a triumph of engineering.
Visitors can find more about its history, and how it operates in the local museum. From
the gallery walkway it is possible to gain a wonderful view of the city skyscrapers,
the Docklands as well as the river Thames. The view over river to the Tower of London.
The original building was the White Tower constructed in the 11th century by William
the Conqueror and which dominates the complex even today. At the end of the 12th
17
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
century Richard I ordered to dig a moat and 100 years later Henry III built
the wall surrounding internal courtyard so as to improve the court defense. From its
beginning the Tower primaried the city defense and the security of the naval passage
along the Thames, as well as to defend the Royal Palace. In the courtyard of the Tower
we don't only come across the Royal guard but also the famous Beefeaters who carry out
the evening ceremony of closing the Tower.
Things of the interest in the White Tower include a collection of Henry VIII armour
and weapons. The main attraction are crown jewels which are located in the Jewelry
House.
(видеофрагмент — время звучания 2 мин)
Key words
memorial
triamph of engineering
internal courtyard
defense
armour and weapons
crown jewels
Proper names
The Cenotaph
Downing Street
Tower Bridge
The Tower of London
Beefeater
18
['ëÉåèíoÑ] — a monument to one who is buried elsewhere,
commemorates the dead of both world wars
['Ç~ìåfk]
['í~ìè]
['ÄgÑgíè]
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Exercise 27. This part of the text tells us about the most important historical
places of London. Your task is to answer the questions, using the given word
combinations.
1. What can you say of Whitehall Street?
2. Where is the official home and working place of the British Prime Minister?
3. When was Tower Bridge built? What does it serve for?
4. Who founded the Tower of London and when?
5. What was the Tower’s main function in old days?
6. Who guards the Tower?
7. What can you see in the Tower museum?
Exercise 28. Let’s focus on the new words. Your task is to match the synonyms.
1) to be located
a) to head
2) to gain
3) internal
b) protection
c) treasure
4) to operate
5) to defend
6) defense
7) jewels
d) view
e) to work
f) to get
g) inner
8) dominate
9) sight
h) to be situated
i) to protect
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Exercise 29. Your task is to translate the sentences from Russian into English,
using the words and word combinations from the seventh parts.
a) На улице Whitehall расположены многие правительственные здания.
b) Более 250 лет 10 Downing Street был официальным домом премьера
министров Великобритания.
c) Лондонский Тауэр был построен в 11 веке Вильгельмом Завоевателем.
d) В Тауэре вы можете увидеть бифиторов, которые являются королевской
стражей и охраняют Тауэр.
e) Оружие и доспехи из коллекции Генриха VIII, находящиеся в Тауэре,
представляют интерес.
Exercise 30. Imagine that you are a guide and your task is tell the tourists about
one of London sightseeings.
Exercise 31. The Tower of London, Tower Bridge (Supplement p. 27).
19
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
TEST
Exercise 32. Match the description to the picture.
1. There is a statue of Eros in the
center of dominant public fountain.
The place was established in 1819
and became the most popular hanger
place for Londoners.
th
a)
2. In the 17 century it was
known as disreputable part of
London. Today visitors are attracted
by cinemas, night spots and casinos.
Here we can find many cafes and
restaurants representing cuisine from
all over the world
b)
3. Built in 1894 in a gothic style,
it is a triumph of engineering. It takes
only 15 seconds to open allowing
tour ships to sail through.
c)
4. It was established by Charles
Faulder in 1828 on a site of a former
London’s biggest fruit and vegetable
market.
d)
20
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
5. It was built in a new gothic
style after the fire in the mid of the
19th century. Today the house is
divided into the tower and upper
chambers – the House of Lords and
the House of Commons.
e)
6. It was named after the famous
battle on the Spanish land where
admiral Nelson’s fleet defeated the
French and Spanish navies. The
place is dominated by the 55th meter
high Nelson’s column.
f)
7. Busy London intersection and
popular meeting place. Lying
between the neighbourhoods of St.
James (south) and Soho (north) in the
borough of Westminster, it serves as
the crossing of Coventry Street,
Shaftesbury Avenue, Regent Street,
and Piccadilly.
g)
21
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
8. The coronations of all British
monarchs have been taken place here
since William the Conqueror in
1066.
h)
9. It is London’s most important
and admired building and the seat of
the British monarchy. In 1847 queen
Victoria moved in her apartment of
600 room place.
i)
10. It is the oldest of all Royal
Parks established by Henry VIII in
1532. It is reputed to be one of the
most beautiful city places and attracts
many artists.
j)
1
22
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Exercise 33. Choose the suitable proper name.
1. The City of London spreads along both sides of the river _______________
(Avon, Severn, Thames).
2. Downing Street 10 has been the official home of the British _______________
(king, president, Prime Minister) for more than 250 years.
3. The Tower of London was constructed in the 11th century by _______________
(William the Conqueror, Henry the VIII, Queen Victoria).
4. (Piccadilly Circus, Oxford Street, Trafalgar Square) _________________
is dominated by the high column in honor of admiral Nelson.
5. The coronations of all the British monarchs are taking place in _____________
(Westminster Abbey, Buckingham Palace, Houses of Parliament).
6. On Piccadilly circus we can find a statue of ____________ (Queen Victoria, Eros,
Henry VIII).
7. Covent Garden is _____________________ (London’s biggest market, Opera and
ballet theatre, London’s museum).
8. Soho attracts tourists by ___________________ (hunting grounds, theaters,
various restaurants and casinos).
9. In front of Buckingham Palace there is a memorial to ____________________
(William the Conqueror, Queen Victoria, Admiral Nelson).
10. Visitors can find more its history, and how it operates in the local museum of
____________________ (the National Gallery, Tower Bridge, Tower of London).
23
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
SUPPLEMENT
Text 1. Samuel Johnson
Samuel Johnson
Samuel Johnson (18 September 1709 [O.S. 7 September] — 13 December 1784),
often referred to as Dr Johnson, was an English author who made lasting contributions to
English literature as a poet, essayist, moralist, novelist, literary critic, biographer, editor
and lexicographer.
After nine years of work, Johnson's Dictionary of the English Language was
published in 1755; it had a far-reaching impact on Modern English and has been
described as “one of the greatest single achievements of scholarship”. The Dictionary
brought Johnson popularity and success. Until the completion of the Oxford English
Dictionary, 150 years later, Johnson’s was viewed as the pre-eminent British dictionary.
Text 2. Double-decker bus
Double-decker bus
A double-decker bus is a bus that has two levels. While double-decker long-distance
coaches are in widespread use around the world, double-decker city buses are less
common. Double-decker buses are popular in some cities of Europe and in parts of Asia,
usually in former British colonies. Some double-deckers specialise in short sight-seeing
tours for tourists for, as William Gladstone observed, “the way to see London is from
the top of a bus.” (Gladstone was referring to London’s once ubiquitous double-deck
horse drawn omnibuses, rather than a motor bus.)
Text 3. London streets, Piccadilly Circus, China town
London streets
Names of streets and districts are often connected with the history of the country and
the city. But very often names of streets are so old and so changed that only few people
know how this or that street got its name.
People who read books by English writers, listen to the radio, see English films, can’t
help knowing such names as Trafalgar Square, Soho, Piccadilly, Charing Cross, etc.
Let’s begin with Piccadilly Circus. It is a fine square which has seen much history
over the centuries. For, generations Piccadilly has been the heart of London. Nowadays
it is such a focal place that on special occasions, such as the Coronation or on New
Year’s Eve, as many as 50,000 people gather there.
Actually it immortalized a man who is now forgotten. The man was a tailor who grew
rich by making-high collars called “piccadillies”. He built a grand house which he called
the Piccadilla Hall, and the name, slightly changed, has lived on.
Charing Cross is one the oldest spots in London. Once there was a small village in
that place. The villagers were charing wood, making charcoal of it. That is why the
village was named Charing. Centuries ago, an English Queen died outside London. Her
24
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
husband wanted her body to he taken to Westminster Abbey and buried there. At every
place where the funeral procession stopped, a wooden cross was erected. The last place
was at Charing rand since then the place has been called Charing Cross.
A reproduction of that last cross can be seen at the entrance to Charing Cross Railway
Station. Nowadays Charing Cross is known by its bookshops where one can buy books
in different languages and of new and old editions.
No one, however, can explain “Soho” convincingly. The legend goes that in the old
days there used to be green fields there and people around went foxhunting a great deal.
When a hunter saw a fox, he called to the dogs “So-Ho”, “So-Ho”! Now Soho is
the district where one can see people of different types and hear them speak different
languages. It is famous for its different restaurants.
There are some short streets in Soho in which six or seven restaurants of different
ethnic cuisine stand one after another in a line.
Piccadilly Circus
As a traffic hub and neon-lit gathering place, Piccadilly Circus attracts visitors from
throughout the world, many of whom sprawl on the steps of its stone island, which is
crowned by the 1893 aluminum statue of Eros (formally entitled the Angel of Christian
Charity, it was built as a memorial to the 7th earl of Shaftesbury). The intersection’s first
electric advertisements appeared in 1910, and from 1923 giant electric billboards were
set up on the facade of the London Pavilion (then a theatre). Many of the surrounding
buildings were redeveloped to house retail shops in the 1980s. The 19th century Criterion
building was restored in the early 1990s. Within easy walking distance of Piccadilly
Circus are the shops of Regent Street and the theatres of the West End. The area is the
location of well-known nightclubs.
China town
At the start of the 20th century, the Chinese population of London was concentrated
in that area, setting up businesses which catered to the Chinese sailors who frequented in
Docklands. The area began to become known through exaggerated reports and tales of
(legal) opium dens and slum housing, rather than the Chinese restaurants and
supermarkets in the current Chinatown.
After the Second World War, however, the growing popularity of Chinese cuisine
and an influx of immigrants from Hong Kong led to an increasing number of Chinese
restaurants being opened elsewhere.
Text 4. Trafalgar Square
Trafalgar Square
Main plaza in the City of Westminster, London, named for Lord Nelson’s naval
victory (1805) in the Battle of Trafalgar. Possibly the most famous of all London
squares, Trafalgar Square has always been public and has had no garden. Seven major
25
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
arteries pump automobiles around the great paved space, which is dominated by
Nelson’s Column (1839–1843), a 185-foot- (56-metre-) high monument to Lord Nelson
that includes a 17-foot- (5-metre-) high statue of him by E.H. Baily. At the corners of the
column’s plinth are four bronze lions sculpted by Sir Edwin Landseer and cast by Baron
Marochetti.
Trafalgar Square was constructed between the 1820s and ’40s on the site of
the former King’s Mews. It is flanked by the National Gallery and the church of St.
Martin-in-the-Fields. The Charing Cross intersection is adjacent to the south, and from it
the avenue of the Strand runs off to the City to the east, where its name changes to Fleet
Street.
Traditions associated with Trafalgar Square include political rallies, caroling (in
December) around a large Christmas tree sent from Norway (donated since World War
II), and boisterous New Year’s Eve celebrations.
Text 5. Buckingham Palace
Buckingham Palace
Palace and London residence of the British sovereign. It is situated within
the borough of Westminster. The palace takes its name from the house built (1705) for
John Sheffield, duke of Buckingham. It was bought in 1762 by George III for his wife,
Queen Charlotte, and became known as the queen’s house. By order of George IV, John
Nash initiated the conversion of the house into a palace in the 1820s. Victoria was the
first sovereign to live there (from 1837).
Within the palace the Queen’s Gallery exhibits works from the royal art collection,
including Fabergé eggs and drawings by Leonardo da Vinci. The changing of the guard
takes place regularly (generally every morning from May through July and every other
morning during the rest of the year), but the royal standard is flown over the palace only
when the sovereign is in residence. Traditionally closed to the public, the State Rooms
of the palace were opened to tourists during August and September in the mid-1990s
in order to finance repairs to Windsor Castle, which was damaged by fire in 1992.
Text 6. Westminster Abbey, Houses of Parliament
Houses of Parliament
In the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the seat of bicameral
Parliament, including the House of Commons and the House of Lords. It is located on
the left bank of the River Thames in the borough of Westminster, London.
A royal palace was said to have existed at the site under the Danish king of England
Canute was built for Edward the Confessor in the 11th century and enlarged by William I
(the Conqueror). In 1512 the palace suffered greatly from fire and thereafter ceased to be
used as a royal residence.
St. Stephen’s Tower, 320 feet (97.5 metres) in height, contains the famous tower
clock Big Ben. Along with Westminster Abbey and St. Margaret’s Church, the Houses
of Parliament were designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1987.
26
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Westminster Abbey
One of the examples of Early English Gothic architecture, founded by Edward
the Confessor in 1065. There all the English monarch have been crowned for over 600
years and many of them subsequently buried.
Some prime ministers, artists, poets, actors, authors, soldiers and politicians are also
buried there. The tomb of the Unknown Warrior commemorates nearly a million who
perished in the First World War.
The Coronation Chair is situated between the high after and the chapel of Edward
the Confessor. The oak chair which was built by order of Edward I in 1300 to contain
the legendary stone of scone, captured 4 years earlier in Scotland, has been used for
every Coronation since 1300.
Text 7. The Tower of London, Tower Bridge
Tower Bridge
Movable bridge of the double-leaf bascule (drawbridge) type that spans the River
Thames between the Greater London boroughs of Tower Hamlets and Southwark. It is
a distinct landmark that aesthetically complements the Tower of London, which it
adjoins.
The bridge was completed in 1894 and provides an opening 250 feet (76 metres)
wide. Its twin towers rise 200 feet (61 metres) above the Thames. Between the towers
stretch a pair of glass-covered walkways that are popular among tourists. The Tower
Bridge was operated by hydraulic pumps driven by steam until 1976, when electric
motors were put into operation; the steam power system is still kept (in good repair) as
a tourist display. Because of the reduction in shipping at the London Docklands,
however, the leaves are now seldom raised.
The Tower of London
The Tower of London dates from the Norman Conquest, before this had been used by
the Romans, and later by the Saxons as a fortress. Romans, and later by the Tower has
served many purposes: a fortress, a Royal Palace, a prison, a treasure, a mint, an arsenal,
an observatory, a royal zoo. The oldest part is the White Hall was built by William
the Conqueror in 1078.
Today it houses the unique collection of arms and armour, instruments of torture. The
crown Jewels had been kept for many years in the Tower. The yeoman or “Beefeaters”
are ex-army men are used mainly as guides. They are also involved in the security of this
historic building Beefeaters wear dark-blue tunics with red braid (or red and yellow)
(a uniform given to them in 1858). Raven have lived in the Tower from its very
beginning over 900 years, and they are here now until the white Tower stands. People
say that The Crown of England will fall if the ravens leave the Tower. The Revens of
the Tower have been under Royal protection.
27
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
PRESENTING A PAPER
Making a presentation. To make your presentation (report) clear and easy to
understand remember the following.
1. Presentation is NOT an oral report read aloud.
2. Presentation CAN NOT be delivered as a written report. You should speak more
slowly.
3. BEFORE introducing new information give the listener time to anticipate what
kind of information is coming next.
4. Make a list of the most important items and arrange them logically.
5. Make a list of minor but interesting points.
6. Arrange the information in logical sequence.
7. Use the links between the points (the issues), the beginning and the end.
The following phrases can be used at different stages of your presentation.
Introducing the topic
To begin with, let’s consider …
During this short talk I’m going to …
This morning I’m going to … (talk about …)
Today I’d like to … (describe …)
The aim of my presentation is to … (explain …)
I’ve divided my presentation into … (three parts)
First, I’d like to … (give you a review of the project)
Then I’ll focus on …
After that we’ll deal with … (the technical aspects)
Finally, we’ll consider … (what new skills will be needed)
Introducing each section
So, let’s start with … (the objectives …)
Now let’s move on to … (the next part …)
I’d like to emphasize the fact that …
I wish I could agree with you but …
I think, you are entirely right …
I would object just a little …
I have doubts about …
It is worth mentioning the fact that …
Let us have a closer look at …
On the contrary …
I can tell you without any exaggeration …
Finally … (let’s consider …)
28
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Referring to information
This diagram shows …
Actually, I don’t know …
If you look at this graph you can see …
I’d rather not answer that, if you don’t mind …
I’d like to draw your attention to …
Summarizing a section
In conclusion let me …
So, to summarize, the main idea of my report …
In closing (conclusion), I’d like to mention very briefly …
Are there any questions?
Could you be more specific about … ?
In addition, I would like to mention …
That brings me to the end of my presentation …
Since I am running out of time …
If you have any questions …
I’d like to express my gratitude to …
Give the English equivalent.
1. Тема моего сообщения …
2. В докладе я затрону следующие вопросы …
3. Цель моего сообщения — сделать обзор …
4. Мне интересна эта тема, так как …
5. Сначала я хотел бы дать общее описание …
6. Я хочу подчеркнуть тот факт, что …
7. Я хочу обратить ваше внимание на чертеж …
8. Позвольте дать пояснения …
9. С одной стороны, …, с другой стороны …
10. Это, в частности, справедливо для …
Distribute the speech patterns according to:
Introductory patterns
Patterns for the body of report
Closing speech patterns
This is true for …
I am pleased to have this opportunity to …
In conclusion, let me say …
Let me give you my explanation of …
On the contrary …
The subject that I’ll discuss is …
I end this report with the description of …
29
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
First of all I would like to …
Finally, I’d like to say a few words about …
Let me begin with …
The object of this paper is …
Let us have a closer look at …
Since I am running out of time …
It should be pointed out that …
The last part of my talk will be devoted to …
The first think I’d like to talk about is …
It is worth mentioning the fact that …
In closing, I’d like to mention very briefly …
30
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
REFERENCES
Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. Cambridge: University Press, 2005.
Longman English Language and Culture. Longman, 2005.
British Studies. СПб.: Оракул, 1998.
***
http://www.lingvo.ru (онлайн-словарь ABBYY Language Services).
http://www.multitran.ru (онлайн-словарь «Мультитран»).
http://en.wikipedia.org (свободная энциклопедия Интернета).
Фильм «London. The city of many faces», произведенный Wolwocom
Ltd. And Travel video в 2000 г.
www.britainexpress.com
www.britannica.com
31
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
CONTENTS
Предисловие............................................................................................................... 3
Topic 1 ........................................................................................................................ 4
Topic 2 ........................................................................................................................ 6
Topic 3 ........................................................................................................................ 8
Topic 4 ...................................................................................................................... 10
Topic 5 ...................................................................................................................... 13
Topic 6 ...................................................................................................................... 15
Topic 7 ...................................................................................................................... 17
Test............................................................................................................................ 20
Supplement................................................................................................................ 23
Text 1. Samuel Johnson .......................................................................................... 24
Text 2. Double-decker bus ...................................................................................... 24
Text 3. London streets, Piccadilly Circus, China town ............................................ 24
Text 4. Trafalgar Square ......................................................................................... 25
Text 5. Buckingham Palace .................................................................................... 26
Text 6. Westminster Abbey, Houses of Parliament ................................................. 26
Text 7. The Tower of London, Tower Bridge ......................................................... 27
Presenting a paper ...................................................................................................... 28
References ................................................................................................................. 31
32
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа