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UDC 371 LBC 74.26
G 49
Recommended for publishing by Methodological Council of
Center of Excellence
AEO «Nazarbayev Intellectual Schools»
Reviewers: Shamshidinova K.N.
Karayev J. A.
Beisenova Zh. S. G 49 “Glossary for the multilevel in-service training Programme for the pedagogic staff of the Republic of Kazakhstan, developed by the Center of Excellence jointly with the Faculty of Education of the University of Cambridge”: Study guide – Astana: Centre of Excellence AEO «Nazarbayev Intellectual Schools». – 2012. –.........p. ISBN 978-601-80263-6-2
This publication is a glossary of concepts and categories, as well as key thinkers cited in the multilevel Programme developed by the Center of Excellence jointly with the Faculty of Education, University of Cambridge. The glossary was compiled in three languages (Kazakh, Russian and English) and is designed for use by educational organizations and the wider education community.
UDC 371 LBC 74.26
ISBN 978-601-80263-6-2 © Center of Excellence AEO «Nazarbayev Intellectual Schools» (Kazakhstan)
Faculty of Education of the University of Cambridge (Great Britain)
1.Foreword 4
Section 1. Glossary of the concepts and categories for the multilevel in-
service training Programme for the pedagogic staff of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
Section 2. Key thinkers cited in the multilevel in-service training Programme for the pedagogic staff of the Republic of Kazakhstan 39
At present the Center of Excellence (hereinafter called Center) is conducting the multilevel in-service training Programme for the pedagogic staff of the Republic of Kazakhstan for the third (basic), second (intermediate) and irst (advanced) levels (hereinafter called Programme), which was developed by Center together with the Faculty of Education of the University of Cambridge. This multilevel Programme includes professional terminology used by modern Western publications and educational systems in the questions of teaching and learning. The Glossary for the in-service training Programme for the pedagogic staff of the Republic of Kazakhstan developed by the Center of Excellence jointly with the Faculty of Education of the University of Cambridge was prepared to facilitate understanding and comprehension of the Programme’s material. Many categories and concepts, such as scaffolding, coaching, mentoring and others are encountered for the irst time in the framework of the Programme and are new for the pedagogic community of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Pedagogical approaches such as Action Research and Lesson Study proven in practice abroad were deliberately not translated and suggested in the Glossary in the original language, since according to the authors of this publication, they require careful etymological analysis to determine an adequate equivalent in the Kazakh and Russian languages that considers their adaptation to the Kazakhstani education system.
This glossary (Lat. Glossarium – “collection of glosses”) represents a collection of specialized categories and concepts (terms) used in the main teaching materials of the Programme. The glossary’s structure has two sections. The irst section highlights terms and concepts corresponding to the alphabetical order of the words. The concepts and categories relect etymologic history, meaning, comments and examples, along with the Kazakh and Russian equivalents of the concepts. The second section of the Glossary represents the information about the scientists, whose theories deine the conceptual basis of the Programme. The authors will be grateful for additions and suggestions to improve the list and the conceptual characteristics of terms and categories proposed in this edition.
If you have any questions and suggestions please feel free to contacts us, Center of Excellence AEO Nazarbayev Intellectual Schools:
Action research / Action research / Action research - a research method that provides a number of consistent, planned activities, aimed at improving the practice of teaching and learning, together with systematic monitoring of the results obtained in the course of its implementation.
Action Theory / Қызмет теориясы / Теория деятельности - a system of methodological and theoretical principles of research of mental phenomena, according to which the main subject of research is activity being an intermediate link for all mental processes. The theory was developed in 1920 - 1930 based on the constructivist approach of L.S. Vygotsky. The founders of the theory are A.N. Leontiev and S.L. Rubinstein. The basic thesis is formulated in the following way: consciousness does not determine activity, but activity determines consciousness. Consciousness can be known only through subjective relations, and through the activity of a person, in the process of which a person develops.
Active learning / Белсенді оқыту / Активное обучение – an approach to teaching and learning arranged and conducted in a way to enhance learning and cognitive activity of students through a range of student-centered teaching activities that are facilitated by the teacher.
• Active learning / Белсенді оқыту / Активного обучения методы – actions and techniques which motivate students to concentrate intellectual involvement into independent initiative and creative mastering of educational material. The methods of active learning include: debates, discussions, role-play, project activity, trainings, imitation games, etc. Affective factor / Аффекттік фактор / Аффективный фактор (Latin Affectus – emotion) – a factor associated with the emerging and actively proceeding mental state which is characterized by deep-seated feeling and emotional expression affecting human activity. Affective theory / Аффекттік теория / Аффективная теория - a theory in the ield of education and psychology, based on formation of emotional and personal attitude to the phenomena of the outside world, from simple perception, interest, experience to adopting value orientations, forming attitudes and their active manifestation in practice.
Age-related differences / Жас ерекшеліктері / Возрастные особенности - cognitive, motivational, emotional, perceptual and other characteristics of an individual that consistently change in the succession of age stages in development. American Psychological Association / Америкалық психологиялық қауымдас­
тық, АПҚ / Американская психологическая ассоциация, АПА - Association of Professional Psychologists of the United States of America, Canada and other countries recognized as one of the most inluential association of psychologists in the world. APA’s mission is to promote psychology as a science and profession and as means of improving well being, mental health and education of people. A group of 26 psychologists of Clark University founded APA in July 1892. The irst president of APA was G. Stanley Hall. Today the association consists of 54 subdivisions by science and practice, and 58 regional ofices in the U.S. and Canada.
Analysis / Талдау / Анализ – a process of decomposition of the whole object, subject or phenomenon into components, the selection of individual aspects and the study of each components and aspects as a part of the whole. There are 2 forms of analysis: 1. Practical action. 2. mental process.
Argumentation / Дәлелдеу / Аргументация – a logical-communicative process for underpinning the certain point of view aimed at its perception, understanding and adoption by an individual or collective recipient. Assessment / Бағалау / Оценивание – a systematic and critical analysis of learning process and its outcomes leading to subsequent judgments, decision makings and/or recommendations regarding the current and further learning process.
• Сriteria assessment / Критериалды бағалау / Оценивание Критериальное – the process based on a comparison of academic achievement of students with clearly predetermined and collaboratively developed criteria known to all stakeholders (students, school administrators, parents, legal representatives, etc.) which are consistent with the aims and content of education. There are two types of criteria assessment - formative and summative.
Formative assessment (assessment for learning) / Қалыптастырушы бағалау (оқыту үшін бағалау) / Оценивание Формативное (оценива-
ние для обучения) – a current assessment of teaching that provides teachers, students and other members of the educational process with information neces-
sary for the improvement of learning. Formative assessment is carried out in the course of daily work in the classroom, indicates the current student performance, provides feedback between student and teacher and allows timely improvement in the learning process.
Summative assessment (assessment of learning) / Жиынтық бағалау (оқуды бағалау) / Оценивание Суммативное (оценивание обучения) – assessment, aimed at summarising learning outcomes for classiication, certii-
cation and registration of the results. Summative assessment is carried out at the end and it is realized on the basis of consistent criteria for evaluation.
Assessment criteria / Бағалау критерийі / Крите́рий оценивания – a key characteristic or feature of a task, on which the quality of the work is assessed. Criteria are characterized by descriptors which (for each speciic work) give a clear concept about an ideal work, and according to the descriptors, assessment is the determination of the level of student approximation to the purpose. Assimilation / Ассимиляция / Ассимиляция (Latin assimilatio — merging, adaptation, identiication) - mastering certain material with the help of existing behavioral patterns, “pulling up” real events to cognitive structures of an individual. In the context of Jean Piaget’s intelligence development concept assimilation means the ability to adapt existing skills to a new situation.
Association / Ассоциация / Ассоциация (Latin associatio connection, correlation) — a connection that occurs in the process of thinking between the elements of the psyche, as a result of which the emergence of one element in certain circumstances causes the emergence of the image of the other element associated with it.
Associative learning / Ассоциациялық оқу / Ассоциативное обучение - learning based on associations with the use of mnemonics, training exercises, simulations, tutorials and promoting gradual formation of ideas and skills. Associative learning promotes accurate reproduction and successful memorization.
Asynchronous learning / Синхронды емес оқыту / Асинхронное обучение – a teaching and learning method using information and communication technologies and resources, where the contact between the teacher and students is carried out with a delay in time. Asynchronous learning emphasizes the importance of peer-to peer interactions and is based on constructivist learning theory according to which students are provided with opportunities for developing individual learning paths to meet their educational needs. In addition, asynchronous training provides students the freedom to choose the subjects of the educational programme, as well as the sequence of their study.
Authentic / Нақты / Аутентичный (Greek authentikys original) – true, real, authentic.
Authentic classroom / Нақты сынып / Аутентичный класс – a classroom operating in real conditions.
Authentic teaching and learning / Нақты оқыту және оқу / Аутентичное преподавание и обучение – a process in the course of which a teacher develops and produces activities for students by adapting existing knowledge on how each individual student learns in class. Blooms’ taxonomy of learning objectives / Блум таксономиясы / Таксономия Блума – a classiication of pedagogical learning objectives in cognitive sphere proposed in 1956 by an American psychologist Benjamin Bloom. It provides for six levels of intellectual skills: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation. • Knowledge / Білу / Знание - conirmation of memorizing of previous material by specifying the facts, terms, basic concepts and answers.
• Comprehension / Түсіну / Понимание - converting material from one form of expression to another, interpretation of the material, assumption about the further course of events and facts.
• Application / Қолдану / Применение - using new knowledge, techniques and rules in various ways.
• Analysis / Талдау / Анализ – a process of decomposition of the whole object into smaller component parts in order to study or consider its essence more precisely. • Synthesis / Жинақтау / Синтез – a process of combining previously disconnected B
concepts into a whole. Systematization of information by combining elements in different ways in a new pattern or the provision of an alternative solution.
• Evaluation / Бағалау / Оценка – a process of identifying advantages, disadvantages, value, importance and other characteristics of an object based on deined criteria and standards. Brainstorming / Миға шабуыл әдісі (Брэйнсторминг) / Метод мозгового штурма (Брэйнсторминг) – an extensive discussion of some issue, a form of stimulation to creative activity during which a participants’ thought process is focused on development and discussion of various ideas for solving a speciic problem. CIndLe (Child Independent Learning) / CIndLe / CIndLe - a 2-year project that researches the development of self-regulated learning by children between the ages 3 to 5. The project is developed by specialists from Cambridge University with the aim of achieving the highest degree of understanding of the developmental process of self-regulation of 3 to 5year-olds; to design assessment tools for development of self-
regulation and to deine actions and approaches, necessary for this process. During the project teachers demonstrated and discussed methods, used in the classroom, which promoted the development of children’s self-regulation. Classroom environment / Сыныптағы ахуал / Атмосфера в классе – a prevailing atmosphere in the classroom based on a number of factors: affective, social, cognitive. The basic factors are the interpersonal relations and involvement of students in the educational process.
Coach / Коуч / Коуч – a specialist, expert who helps a learner to improve professional knowledge and skills in a thematic context by creating conditions for the learner to independently perceive required actions and deine methods for achieving the desired results. Coaching / Коучинг / Коучинг – teach, prepare, train – a conidential, creative, active and formative process of collegial cooperation, when based on cooperative relection of existing teaching practices, exchange of ideas, coach’s stimulation for relective dialogue, the learner improves professional knowledge, existing skills and experience. It is aimed to advance competence in particular aspects of practice, moving to another qualitative, more extended level of understanding and decision making. The process of coaching is interrelated to the process of mentoring: coaching concentrates on the learner’s discovery of capability in a thematic context, while mentoring focuses on professional support. Cognitive / Когнитивтілік / Когнитивность (Latin cognitio «perception, memory, judgement, reasoning, understanding») – an ability for mental perception and processing of external information. Collaborative teaching and learning / Бірлескен оқу (ынтымақтастық оқу) / Коллаборативное обучение (обучение в сотрудничестве) - a framework of learning based on close cooperation between students and between those who are taught and those who teach. It is characterized by acknowledgement of each student’s abilities and his personal contribution to the learning process. Participants gain knowledge through active cooperative research, discussion, analysis or the synthesis of information. In the context of collaborative teaching and learning, authority and responsibility are distributed between group members for more effective work. The main prerequisite for collaborative teaching and learning lies in the consensus achieved through the group member’s cooperation. Conception / Тұжырымдама / Концепция (Latin conceptio –understanding, system). 1. General meaning, leading idea. Conception deines performance strategy. 2. A belief system about the events in the world, nature and society. 3. A certain way of understanding (interpretation, perception) of any object, event or process; it is a basic viewpoint about the subject, a leading idea for its systematic interpretation, a complex of attitudes, both interrelated and interdependent, a system of methods for speciic problem solving.
Conceptual memory / Семантикалық жады / Память семантическая – a memory subsystem, responsible for holding rules, ideas and general concepts about the world, which is based on the generalization or images connected with the events, experience and gained knowledge. Constrictivist theory of education / Оқудың сындарлылық теориясы / Конструктивистская теория обучения (Latin Constructivus – related to construction, building) a theory that student thinking develops in terms of interactions of existing knowledge with new knowledge, or with knowledge, gained during classes from different sources, such as a teacher, peers and various educational resources. 13
Constructive / Сындарлы / Конструктивный (Latin constructivus - used for construction, functional) - helpful, productive, applicable for the future work. Constructivist learning / Cындарлы оқу / Обучение конструктивистское – learning through formation of understandings or skills, using active research techniques, such as analysis, experiment, research under supervision, problem solving, thinking. Constructivist learning promotes skills integration and extension of issue/problem understanding.
Constructivist teaching / Сындарлы оқыту / Преподавание конструктивистское - teaching, aimed at developing a student’s deep understanding of the subject and to create the conditions for usage and implementation of the student’s knowledge beyond the classroom. Content knowledge / Пәндік білім (ПБ) / Предметные знания (ПрЗ) – actual knowledge of the teaching subject. Thus, a qualiied chemistry teacher has suficient understanding of modern scientiic ideas, conceptions, a practical view of chemistry, as well as perfect knowledge of theories and procedures, used in chemistry.
Context / Мәнмәтін / Контекст – 1. A self-contained piece of writing or a speech, the whole meaning of which allows the reader to deine accurately and speciically the meaning and value of a particular word, phrase or combination of phrases, contained in it. 2. Combination of factors which are necessary for understanding and explanation of a phenomenon. Convergent thinking / Конвергентті/репродуктивтік ойлау / Конвергентное/ репродуктивное мышление (Latin cоnvergere – it together) – a type of thinking, based on the exact reproduction of preliminarily learned algorithms of problem solving. It is used with the concept “reproductive”, as it assumes traditional approach to the problem, resulting in analogical ideas. This type of thinking is opposed to the divergent thinking. Core values / Құндылықтар (түйінді құндылықтар мен ұстанымдар) / Ценности (ключевые ценности и убеждения) – central internal principles and standards, which are immutable. Core values are stable, and if they change, this happens very slowly, over a long period of time. Core values are the basis of ideas about life, ideas of a person about himself and those around him, about human potential and the potential of others. Values, and those things that humanity believes in, nurture attitudes towards everything and determines the behavior of a person
Counseling / Әріптеспен кеңесу / Консультация с коллегой – interactions with colleagues, aimed at solving professional problems through discussion constructed in a certain way. Creativity / Креативтілік / Креативность - 1. Ability of an individual to take and develop innovative ideas characterized by a willingness to deviate from traditional or accepted patterns of thinking, and included in the frame of giftedness as an independent aspect. 2. The ability to problem solve in static systems where there is no change. Critical analysis / Сыни талдау / Анализ критический – a process of determining eficiency / value / validity of any action, process or product and establishing its underlying reasons. Critical friend / Сыншы дос / Критически настроенный друг – a co-worker, coach, mentor with whom the professionally trust-based relation is established and who promotes the improvement of teaching and learning practice conducting critical analysis of practice and providing constructive feedback.
Critical thinking / Сын тұрғысынан ойлау / Мышление критическое - a type of thinking, that supposes analytical approach for thinking, assessment and synthesis of information, collected during observation, experience, relection or reasoning, which further can be used as basis for actions.
• Teacher’s critical thinking skills / Мұғалімнің сыни тұрғыдан ойлауы / Мышление критическое учителя – teacher’s ability to recognize and admit problems in his own teaching and learning practice, to ind effective solutions, to collect and classify relevant evidences of modiications in the practice and to formulate valid conclusions. Сollaborative / Бірлескен / Коллаборативный – cooperative; performed in cooperation.
Сonceptual / Тұжырымдамалық / Концептуальный (Latin conceptio - understanding, system) 1. Possessing signiicant independent conception. 2. based on a statement or idea. 3. Fundamental, essential, vital.
Cumulative talk / Куммулятивтік әңгіме / Беседа кумулятивная ­ a type of talk in the process of which each participant accepts the opinion and agrees with the views of others. Cumulative talk is used to share knowledge, but its members remain tolerant of the ideas of others. During cumulative talk the ideas form and are repeated, but are not always carefully evaluated.
Dialogic teaching / Диалогтік әңгіме / Беседа диалогическая - a verbal-communicative method consisting of conducting a theme focused dialogue accompanied by the participants’ voicing their ideas. It helps to promote the dynamics of learning. In dialogue the students as well as their teachers) are equal partners working hard to get consistent results, experiencing and developing what Mercer (2000) described as a joint acquisition of knowledge or involvement in the process of “exchange of ideas”. Differentiation / Оқытуды саралау / Дифференциация в обучении – a process of selecting instructions, activities, materials, methods, etc. according to the needs of each individual student.
Digital literacy / Ақпараттық сауаттылық / Информационная грамотность – an ability to effectively and critically select, analyze and generate information using a wide range of digital technologies, as well as knowledge of the components and functions of such technologies. Digital technologies / Сандық технологиялар / Цифровые технологии – digital hardware, including Internet networks, cell phones, video and photo camera, IPAD, IPhone, etc. Discussion / Әңгіме / Беседа – a teaching method applied for enhancing the mental activities of students; during discussion the students review and reinforce existing knowledge, acquire new knowledge by answering questions posed by the teacher and their peers. Disputational talk / Әңгіме­дебат / Беседа­дебаты – a type of talk, in the process of which the participants display a signiicant disagreement in opinions and at the end D
each of them comes to their own decision. Disputational talk exists in a competitive atmosphere not focused on cooperation.
Divergent thinking / Дивергентті ойлау / Дивергентное мышление – a form of creative thinking used to ind a variety of possible solutions for the same problem.
Draft / Драфт нұсқа / Драфт версия (Eng. draft - plan, schematic drawing, sketch- rough variant, project version.
Dyslexia / Дислексия / Дислексия (Greek Δυσ - preix negating the positive sense of the word + λέξις «speech) /dyslexia) – a selective neurological disorder of the person’s ability to master reading skills while maintaining the overall ability for learning intact. Dyslexia is characterized by the inability to quickly and accurately recognize words, decode, and master spelling skills. Dyslexia does not exclude demonstration of signiicant abilities in various ields as sports, art, music, mathematics or physics by a student. The main symptoms of dyslexia: deferred reading by syllables or letters, mistakes in writing in the form of replacement or rearrangement of letters, inadequate understanding or misunderstanding of reading.
Dyspraxia / Диспраксия / Диспраксия (Greek praxis - activity) - a chronic neurological disorder that manifests itself in a kind of restricted mobility and coordination. With dyspraxia a student experiences dificulty with making directed movements.
Educational approach / Оқудағы тәсілдер / Подход в обучении - a combination of methods and skills, systematically used in teaching and learning. • Behaviorists’ approach / Оқудағы бихевиористік тәсіл / Под-
ход Бихевиористский в обучении - an approach based on a learning process in which only the student impact and the feedback are taken into consideration. The mental process, leading to the reaction, is called “the black box” which is unavail-
able for an objective scientiic analysis. The subject of study is behavior, and is limited by a combination of actions. • The behaviorists’ approach appeared in psychology at the end of 19
century in the 17
ield of learning theory, but at the beginning of the 20
century it was acclaimed as a common-psychological and dominant approach in psychology. John B. Watson was considered as a founder of the behaviorists’ approach. He suggested that the inner experience, on which psychology is oriented, cannot be studied in a proper way as it cannot be observed. In this regard, the researcher performed an experiment that re-
sulted in the development of “challenge – reaction”, where environment is consid-
ered as the generator of challenges, on which a person reacts. Researchers such as Edward L. Thorndike and others developed a learning theory “challenge-reaction” (C-R), according to which reaction can be reinforced or weakened by behavior. • Constructivists’ approach / Оқудағы сындарлылық тәсілі / Подход Кон-
структивистский в обучении (Latin constructivus – related to building, con-
struction) – an approach based on a statement that learning should be concerned with a student’s formation of beliefs or skills by means of active independent re-
search such as observation, experimentation, supervised research, problem solving and relection. Application of the constructivists approach in teaching and learning promotes the development of students’ deep understanding of the subject and cre-
ates conditions for usage and implementation of knowledge by students beyond the class. • Social constructivists’ approach / Оқудағы Әлеуметтік­сындарлылық тәсілі / Подход Социально­конструктивный в обучении – a learning ap-
proach which is based on the statement that learning should be concerned with cooperation between students through dialogue such as discussion, debates, col-
laboration, collaborative knowledge building, beliefs and skills formation. Educational paradigm / Білім берудегі парадигма / Парадигма в образовании - a combination of key educational conceptual aspects and ideas which are determined by pedagogical scientiic research and are accepted by the pedagogical community in a certain period. Episodic memory / Эпизодтық жады / Память эпизодическая - a memory subsystem, containing eventful information about a person’s experience where the contextual characters, such as place, time and situation, are important. Epistemic subject / Эпистемиялық субъект / Эпистемический субъект – a concept used in a theory of cognitive development established by a researcher Jean Piaget. The object of this theory is an ideal individual which most likely does not exist in nature, and if it does, its logical thinking is indistinguishable from that of an ordinary individual. Such an ideal person is an epistemic subject, namely a carrier of knowledge, who does F
not have any personal characteristics or personality traits, neither sex, nor the motives (except those that moved him to cognition), and who does not belong to any particular nationality or culture. Escalation / Өрістеу / Эскалация - expansion, developing, increasing, gradual strengthening, spread (of a conlict, etc.), exacerbation (of a situation, etc.)
Exploratory talk / Зерттеушілік әңгіме / Беседа исследовательская - a discussion in which the ideas of each participant are considered useful but undergo a detailed evaluation. The participants of exploratory talk ask each other questions and prove their answers trying to reach an agreement. However, exploratory talk is characterized primarily by the process of searching for rather than reaching consensus.
«Flow» / «Ағын» / «Поток» - a concept, introduced in psychology by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, a professor of the University of Chicago. It is an optimal state of intrinsic motivation, where a person is fully immersed in what he is doing. It is a state, characterised by feeling of freedom, pleasure, fulilment and one’s own skill perception, and during which some needs, including primary needs, are ignored: a person forgets about time, food, ego-self, etc.
Facilitator / Фасилитатор мұғалім / Фасилитатор­учитель ­ a teacher working in line with the ideas of individual oriented pedagogy and helping the student in the course of his/her development. The concept was introduced by Carl Rogers. Feedback / Кері байланыс / Обратная связь – a comment, response, reaction to an action or event indicating understanding, learning, agreement or disagreement with any act or event. Flipchart / Флипчарт / Флипчарт – large sheet of paper ixed on a special stand and used for presentations of information. Functional literacy / Функционалдық сауаттылық / Функциональная грамотность – a student’s ability to solve problems in an educational activity (based on mastering cognitive skills); standard life problems (based on mastering rules and 19
algorithms); problems of orientation in values (based on mastering values ); problems of preparation for vocational education (based on mastering supportive knowledge and skills, and knowledge of the system of vocational education, rules of entering the professional educational institutions and peculiarities of the process of studying there.) Tony Wagner (co-director of the project Change Leadership Group at Harvard University, Graduate School of Education) in his book “The skills that lead to success” deined the qualities necessary to achieve success in the 21st century: critical thinking and problem-
solving skills, ability to adapt, initiative and entrepreneurial skills, skills of effective oral and written communication, ability to ind and process information, curiosity and imagination.
Gifted and talented children / Дарынды және талантты оқушылар / Одаренные и талантливые ученики – according to the key aspects of the Programme the notions “gifted” and “talented” are joined – “gifted and talented”: a category of students who have a skill of self-control and a skill to search for ways for improvement of their learning performance; capable to analyze information, to reill, to select, to differentiate into relevant or irrelevant information, to practically understand its meaning; capable of recognising the problems and choosing alternative solutions, different from others; capable of developing more dificult games and tasks in order to raise their interest; since their childhood they have had unique abilities to focus attention over a long time without forcing it; early the ability to communicate, read and write.
Group work / Топтық жұмыс / Групповая работа – organization of an activity in a classroom which provides small working groups (no more than 5-6 people) for collaborative performance of a learning task. It helps all students to participate in group work, to practice the skills of cooperation and interpersonal communication, which is not always possible when working in big groups.
High­order questions (open questions) / Жоғары деңгейлі сұрақтар (ашық сұрақтар) / Вопросы высокого порядка (открытые вопросы) - questions focused on a student’s ability to use, modify, extend, evaluate and analyze information. High-order thinking skills / Жоғары деңгейлі ойлау дағдылары / Навыки мышления высокого порядка – skills (in accordance with Bloom’s taxonomy) of analysis, synthesis and conclusion. They are opposed to the low-order thinking skills (навыки мышления низкого порядка): a skill of memorizing and reproducing the information. Inclusive education / Инклюзивті оқыту / Инклюзивное обуче­
ние ­ education based on the principle of making education available for everybody, adaptation of teaching for students with various (including special) needs.
Individualization/personalization of education / Оқытуды да­
ра лау (дербестендіру) / Индивидуализация (персонализа ция) обучения - organization of the educational process so that the choice of teaching methods, techniques and tempo takes into account individual differences and level of learning abilities of students. The need to individualize learning is predetermined by differences in the level of knowledge and learning abilities of all students. Individualization of learning based on the teacher’s knowledge of the individual and age differences, promotes the unity of nurture and learning.
Initiation – Response – Follow­up (IRF) / Бастама­жауап­кейінгі әрекет (БЖӘ) / «Инициатива-ответ-последующее действие» (ИОД) - a model of a dialogue in a situation in which a teacher initiates and monitors implementation of the dialogue in a classroom (Mercer, 1995). IRF is not intended to provide opportunities for students to participate in it.
Jigsaw / Джигсо (мозаика) / Джигсо (мозаика) – a method of teaching and learning developed by Elliot Aronson, providing for the students’ learning in the form of cooperation with each other in the process of solving educational problems. Label / Лейбл / Лейбл – a characteristic of the task performance level. In the Republic of Kazakhstan labels are quantitative marks in the range from 1 (or 0) to 5. However, qualitative characteristics, such as very good, advanced, satisfactory, incomplete requires improvement are also referred to as labels.
Leadership in teaching / Мұғалімнің көшбасшылығы / Лидерство в преподава нии – an activity, position of the teacher, which is not limited to the administrative framework and does not involve the delegation of administrative authority and responsibility. On the contrary, it is a voluntary choice of the teacher to initiate changes of teaching and learning practice in a school and to support these changes regardless of their status. Taking the role of school practice researcher, coach and mentor, the initiator of the pedagogic community, the teacher becomes a leader beyond the classroom who promotes the improvement of school culture, teaching and learning and effectively changes school conditions.
Learning / Оқу / Обучение – a focused teaching process of organization and stimu -
la tion of active and cognitive learning activities of students to master the knowledge, abilities, skills, creativity and moral ethical views. Learning is a form of educational activity in which the quantity and quality of the students’ knowledge and skills are brought to the proper level since they constitute part of the learning aims and objectives.
Learning styles / Оқу стилі / Стили обучения - methods used for learning. First the concept of learning styles was introduced in the 1970s and today there is a great variety of learning styles classiication. It is usually considered that there is no single correct combination and application of the style, as the use of various learning styles is dependent on circumstances. The most widespread and frequently used classiication is Neil Fleming’s classiication; according to it students are divided into auditory learners, visual learners and kinesthetic learners (VAK model). • Auditory learners / Аудиалдар / Аудиалы – a category of students who predominantly perceive information via auditory channels. In order to learn and to understand material, auditory learners needs to listen and to tell the information. • Kinesthetic learners / Кинестетиктер / Кинестетики (Greek κινέω —move, touch+ αίσθησις —feeling, sensation) – a category of students who predominantly perceive information by tactile sensations (such as touching, action of structure and dimension). • Visual learners / Визуалдар / Визуалы – a category of students who perceive ideas, concepts and information by associating them with visual images, in other words – they predominantly perceive information through visual organs. Lesson Study / Lesson Study / Lesson Study - collaborative teaching approach aimed at developing the knowledge about teacher’s practice. The approach was established in Japan in the 1970’s. Lesson Study involves a group of teachers in joint planning, teaching, observation, analysis of teaching and learning, and stating and recording their indings. During the lesson study cycle teachers modify or improve pedagogical approaches that afterwards are shared with colleagues through open Lesson Study, presentations and publications. Apart from in Japan, Lesson Study is currently used successfully in Singapore, Hong Kong, China, the USA, the UK, Sweden and Canada in order to improve teaching methods, increase students’ knowledge on key subjects in primary and secondary schools, as well as to develop conceptual pedagogical approaches.
Life­long learning / Үздіксіз білім алу (өмір бойы білім алу) / Непрерывное обучение (обучение в течение всей жизни) – task-oriented acquisition and mastering of knowledge and skills by an individual throughout life to maintain a socially and personally required level of general education and vocational training.
Long­term memory / Ұзақ мерзімді жады / Память долгосрочная — a memory subsystem characterized by an almost unlimited time for a volume of stored information. Its eficiency is determined by the systematic repetition of information, encouraging the establishment of associated connection, with the help of which particular information can be restored from the whole information ield. 23
Low-order questions (closed questions) / Төмен деңгейлі сұрақтар (жабық сұрақтар) / Вопросы низкого порядка (закрытые вопросы) - questions focused on memorizing information, the answers to which are evaluated as “right” or “wrong”. Management in education / Білім беруді басқару / Менеджмент в образовании ­ a system of principles, methods, organizational standards and techniques of educational management aimed at improving its eficiency. Marking scheme / Рубрикатор / Рубрикатор – a document, which explains the method for assessment of students’ work and involves criteria, labels and descriptors. Maslow’s hierachy of Needs / Маслоу қажеттіліктер пирамидасы / Пирамида потребностей Маслоу - a hierarchical model of human needs, representing a simpliied summary of the ideas of the American psychologist, A. Maslow. Maslow’s pyramid represents one of the most popular and well-known theories of motivation - a theory of hierarchical needs. According to this theory the lowest level contains biological and physiological needs, and the top level, self-expression.
Master class / Шеберлік сыныбы / Мастер­класс – a form of activity, where a teacher demonstrates his gained professional experience to his colleagues with the aim to knowledge and skills sharing. Memory / Жады / Память - 1. One of the mental functions and types of mental activi-
ty designed to save, gather and reproduce information. 2. An ability to lastingly cherish information about events all over the world and about reactions of the organism, and to use it frequently in the consciousness in order to organize further activity. Mentee / Тәлім алушы / Подопечный – a person who is under the tutorage of a mentor. Mentor / Тәлімгер / Ментор (Greek Μέντωρ) – a leader, advisor, teacher who is ready to voluntarily share their experience with a less experienced person (mentee) regularly and in an organised way. Subsequently a mentee develops professional skills and seeks a solution to problems in order to achieve signiicant changes in career.
Mentoring / Тәлімгерлік / Менторинг – a long-term process of creating conidence, personally concerned relationship between a mentor and a mentee, which is aimed at the latter’s development of knowledge, thinking, eficiency of the practical activity with the purpose to his professional development as a comprehensive individuality of the teacher. During mentoring the mentor voluntarily shares his experience and knowledge, and the mentee develops his professional skills and inds solutions to the problems, aiming at achievement of signiicant changes in his career. The mentoring is closely related to coaching: mentoring emphasizes the process of providing professional support for the mentee while coaching concentrates on development of capabilities.
Meta learning / Метаоқу / Метаобучение – a process, where students understand and control strategies of their perception, learning and development. Meta learning is also known as learning how to learn and assumes development of students’ abilities for understanding, controlling and monitoring their learning experience. Metacognition / Метатаным / Метапознание – is deined as thinking about thinking and is a speciic form of thinking about one’s own mental abilities. For instance, metacognition implies students’ understanding of strategies for learning or problem solving. First, John Flavell used the concept of metacognition in psychology (J.H. Flavell, 1976). He believed that the major function of metacognition is relective control of cognitive activity, resulting in a student’s ability to regulate their own cognitive activity, based on their knowledge of these characteristics. Metacognitive strategies / Метатану стратегиялары / Метакогнитивные стратегии – management methods, aimed at student’s independent control of the learning process (for instance, a skill to individually plan the learning process, set objectives, monitor and assess personal learning progress).
Mission / Миссия / Миссия – a philosophical concept that refers to the purpose, vocation, the ultimate goal of an individual, by achievement and fulillment of which an individual realizes his capacity effectively and reveals his potential. In addition this individual interacts harmoniously with his surrounding environment, society and nature.
Mnemonics / Мнемоника / Мнемоника (Greek τα μνημονικά — a skill to memorize) — a combination of special techniques and methods, which aid in memorizing necessary М
information and reines the memory through associations. Mnemonics is characterized by replacement of abstract objects and facts with concepts, which have visual, audio or kinesthetic representation, associating objects with information that exists in different kinds of memory for the purpose memorizing.
Modeling / Модельдеу / Моделирование (симуляция) – 1. Investigation of cognition objects using their conditional models. 2. Designing and studying models of real objects, processes or events with the aim of explaining these events, as well as to predict the outcomes, of interest to researchers. 3. Modeling is used to express the relationship between human knowledge of the object and the object itself; it is one of the visual aids in teaching.
Motivation / Уәж / Мотивация - a process of stimulating students to take action towards the desired educational goals.
• Extrinsic motivation / Сыртқы уәж / Мотивация внешняя – motivation that is driven by the factors of environment, expressed in different forms of awards (marks, letters of recognition, etc.). • Intrinsic motivation / Ішкі уәж / Мотивация внутренняя – motivation that is driven by personal wishes and needs. Moving­on map / Бағдар картасы / Маршрутная карта ­ a stepped guide, designed for students and aimed to achieve the inal objective, in terms of particular task and the whole lesson; it develops students’ independency, directs them towards creative thinking and evolves creative approach to problem-solving.
Multimedia presentation / Мультимедиялық таныстырылым / Презентация мультимедийная - a presentation with the use of multimedia technologies, including constructors of multimedia presentations, such as Microsoft PowerPoint, OpenOfice.
org Impress, SoftMaker Presentations, Multimedia Builder, ProPresenter or Prezi. Network of schools / Мектептердің желілік қоғамдастығы / Сетевое сообщество школ – a group of schools united with aim of planning, implementation and monitoring of a wide range of activities focused on improving the teaching and learning practices within one’s school and between schools in order to achieve high attainments by students. An example of such society is HertsCam Network.
Networking / Желілік қоғамдастық / Нетворкинг – building the network of business contacts, connecting, professional information sharing.
Observation / Қадағалау / Наблюдение — 1. a systematic examination, which provides a possibility to follow the dynamics of a phenomenon or the changes that occur in objects being perceived. 2. Observation - the active form of sensory perception, which aims at accumulation of facts, the formation of the initial idea about the objects of the world. Observation provides the ability to group related facts, properties or phenomena, to notice the similarities and differences, to classify and, if possible, to determine the dependence of the process or phenomenon on certain conditions in natural conditions. Observation implies interpretation of data related to the object being observed. The result of the observation manifests itself in formulated conclusions (indings).
• Object of observation / Қадағалау объектісі / Наблюдения объект – an individual, process, phenomenon, subject, etc, being observed.
• Interpretation / Интерпретация / Интерпретация ( Lat. interpretatio — explanation, clariication) — an intellectual work that reveals the meaning, deciphers the meaning, clariies and explains a phenomenon, event, process or text. • Conclusion / Қорытынды / Заключение — a judgment, thought, statement which is a conclusion or result, drawn by virtue of something. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) / Эконо­
микалық ынтымақтастық және даму ұйымы (ЭЫДҰ) / Организация Экономического Сотрудничества и Развития (сокр. ОЭСР) - an international economic organization of developed countries, admitting the principles of representative democracy and free market economy.
OECD was founded in 1948 to coordinate the economic projects of the European reconstruction within the Marshall Plan. The general headquarters of OECD is situated in Chateau de la Moet. The directing board of OECD is a board of representatives of member countries. All the decisions are taken on the basis of consensus.Currently 34 states are members of OECD. As for the CIS and Baltic countries only Estonia is a member of OECD. 27
«Pupil Voice» / «Оқушы үні» / «Голос ученика» – a project initiated by the researchers of the University of Cambridge in 2004 under the direction of Jean Rudduck which focused on students’ views on the processes of teaching and learning. The objectives of the “Pupils Voice” project were to understand the pupils’ views on teaching and learning, to develop guidelines for teachers on methods of counseling students, to identify the problems and opportunities to create an open and secure dialogue culture between staff, teachers, students and school leaders. Under the “Pupil Voice” project students were consulted on a wide range of school issues, for instance on the changes in the system of rewards and punishments, planning and indentifying the factors in the classroom that hinder or promote learning. The key ideas of the “Pupil voice” project were outlined in a theory of the same name. According to this theory communication with students is a fundamental component of the process of inding ways to improve the practice of teaching and learning in the whole school. Paradigm / Парадигма / Парадигма (from Greek παράδειγμα, example, model, pattern) - a combination of fundamental scientiic attitudes, notations and terms, which are taken and shared by an academic community and uniting the majority of its members. Pedagogical knowledge / Білімнің педагогикалық аспектісі (БПА) / Педагогический аспект знаний (ПАЗ) /– in the context of education it is a set of the most effective optimal forms of application of scientiic ideas in learning, combined with methods of analogy, illustration, examples, explanations and demonstrations which provide competence / proiciency. For example, a competent teacher of natural sciences should be able to divide abstract scientiic ideas and processes into their elements in order to present them to the particular group of students, giving them an opportunity for self-
study. Plagiarism / Плагиат / Плагиат - borrowing an author’s work and presenting it as one’s own work, regardless of the purposes and volume used, without references to a source. The examples of plagiarism: copying, word by word quotation, usage of ideas, copying and pasting information from the Internet without references to a source. Planning / Жоспарлау / Планирование - an activity related to the formulation of targets and tasks, and to the selection of methods and strategies for achievement of the learning outcomes. Planning of expected learning outcomes / Оқытудың күтілетін нәтижелерін жоспарлау / Планирование ожидаемых результатов обучения
• Expected learning outcomes / Оқытудың күтілетін нәтижелері / Ожидаемые результаты обучения – statements explaining the degree of understanding, existence of a skill, an action or outcome, which students can demonstrate at the end of the lesson. During planning the learning outcomes can be expressed by verbs in the Future Simple form. For example: pupils will understand, paint, compare, etc. When planning, learning outcomes should coincide with learning aims and objectives. Planning of learning aims and objectives and tasks / Оқу мақсаттары мен міндеттерін жоспарлау / Планирование целей и задач обучения
• Learning aims and objectives / Оқу мақсаттары / Цели обучения – statements describing the inal result: what the teacher is trying to teach the pupils. The key questions in the formulation of the learning and teaching aims are: What knowledge should pupils have? Which key ideas should pupils understand? What questions should be examined and analyzed by pupils? • Learning tasks / Оқу міндеттері / Задачи обучения – statements describing the small steps made by a teacher in order to achieve the learning aim and objectives. During planning, aims and objectives must coincide with learning outcomes. Portfolio / Портфолио / Портфолио (Italian portfolio - “folder with documents”, “folder of specialist”) – a complete package of evidence supporting the performance of work, the results achieved in a variety of activities (academic, creative, methodology, research) over a period of time and demonstrating the effectiveness, progress and achievement in one or more areas. A portfolio is introduced in order to enhance the objectivity and transparency of the assessment of the teacher / student) achievement in a criteria based system.
The criteria for portfolio design:
- Systematic and regular self-monitoring;
- Structuring of materials, consistency and conciseness of written explanations;
- Accuracy and aesthetic design;
- Integrity, thematic completeness of provided materials;
- Visibility and validity of the presentation.
Poster / Постер / Постер - designed broadsheet, which is used for learning purposes.
Praxis / Праксис / Праксис (Greek praxis – action) — a coordinated action accompanied by prolonged control which can be damaged as a result of a brain lesion.
Presentation / Таныстырылым / Презента́ция (Latin praesento demonstration) — the demonstration of an activity report, based on a previously received task. The purpose of presentation is to share information with the audience about the object of the presentation in convenient form. Presentation can be a combination of text, hypertext link, computer animation, graphics, video, music and sound, arranged in a single context. Besides, presentation has a plot, a scenario and a structure, organized for convenient information acquisition. Priority / Басымдық / Приоритет (Latin prior — primary, senior) — importance of time in carrying out activities. Problem escalation / Проблеманы өрістету / Эскалация проблемы – discussion of an issue at a higher level if you can not solve it at the current level.
Procedural memory / Рәсімдік жады / Память процедурная – a memory subsystem, responsible for holding the knowledge of how to carry out special actions (e.g. how to use a spoon, how to button, jump, ride a bicycle, write with a pencil, throw a ball, etc.). Memory or knowledge about the ways of completing such actions is stored passively and is not taken to the conscious verbalization. Professional network of teachers / Мұғалімдердің кәсіби желілік қоғамдастығы / Профессиональное сетевое сообщество учителей – a tool for improving and sharing experiences with colleagues, the area for development of the effective and inventive / resourceful practice of teaching and learning based on research and innovations initiated by teacher-leaders. Programme for International Student Assessment / Оқушылардың білім жетістіктерін бағалау жөніндегі халықаралық бағдарлама PISA / Международная программа по оценке образовательных достижений учащихся PISA – a program, implemented by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The PISA research is held in three-year cycle. The main objective of the PISA research is the assessment of the progress of the 15-year olds. The key aspect of the PISA – Do the 15-year olds, who got the compulsory secondary education, have enough knowledge and skills for the meaningful existence in society? This research is not oriented to the assessment of learning of the school curriculum, but to the assessment of pupils’ ability to use knowledge and skills, gained at school, in the real-life situations. Pupil Consultation / Оқушылармен кеңесу / Консультация с учеником – an approach to the Cambridge University “Pupil voice” project (Jean Ruddock, 2004), contributing to the development of pupils’ self-esteem, a positive attitude toward school and learning, the formation of an emotionally positive attitude toward teachers, self-
regulation in learning. Eficient application of the “Counseling with students” approach is able to transform school teaching and learning practice through fundamental changes of the teacher-
student relationship based on the aspiration to gain an insight into the essence of students’ problems, the reality of their opinions; to understand the “real” character of the student, his abilities, aptitudes, talent; and integrate their views into school policy and practice for school development.
Relection / Рефлексия / Рефлексия (Latin relexio – focus backwards) drawing a person’s attention to himself, in particular to personal activities’ and outcomes with the aim to reconsider. In philosophy relection is usually deined as: 1. Intellect and thinking ability referred to oneself. 2. Knowledge analysis aimed at new knowledge acquisition. 3. Self-observation of mind and soul state. In pedagogy relection is seen as a stage of learning activity, where gained knowledge is subjected to critical analysis, is associated to available knowledge and then is constructed into understanding. Relection in action / Іс­әрекеттегі рефлексия / Рефлексия в действии – a process of intensive thinking during an action (teaching, learning), assessment and critical analysis of actions for planning and further steps completion.
Relective account / Рефлексивтік есеп / Рефлексивный отчет – a document, in which examples of a teacher’s practical activities are traced; they are conirmed with relevant knowledge of theoretical material and supported by deep analysis of the results of practical activities. A relective account proposes answers for the following questions, related to the practice: Why did something happen or not? How could “minuses” be turned into “pluses”? How can I improve my practice in the future? R
Relective mediator / Рефлексивтік делдал / Рефлексивный посредник – a person who promotes the realization of their own learning relection.
Relective teaching / Рефлексивтік оқыту / Рефлексивное преподавание – a teaching practice based on systematic analysis of a teacher’s own experience for the purpose of improving the process of teaching and learning. Relexive practitioner / Рефлексивті практик (мұғалім) / Рефлексивный практик (учитель) – a teacher who thoroughly and continuously considers methods and paths of development, modiication and improvement of his teaching and learning practices. Research lesson / Зерттеу сабағы / Урок­исследование ­ a special approach to the improvement of teaching in stages: problem, discussion of conditions and methods of solving it, planning and carrying out an experiment, analysis and generalization of the results, conclusions and information exchange.
Rotation / Орын ауыстыру / Ротация (Latin rotatio — circular motion, turning — a circular motion, movement from one place to another. Scaffolder / Скаффолдер / Скаффолдер – a teacher who practices scaffolding in the classroom. Scaffolding / Скаффолдинг (көпірше тұрғызу) / Скаффолдинг (сооружение подмостков) – in pedagogy interactive support, presented by a teacher in order to guide a student in his zone of proximal development and to encourage him to complete the task, when he is not capable of completing it independently. Screening / Скрининг / Скрининг (selection, sorting) In pedagogy it is a method of special surveys, testing, and selection to identify students with extraordinary abilities, including the gifted and talented students, whose ability was not disclosed initially.
Self-conception / «Мен» тұжырымдамасы / Концепция «Я» – a conception, developed by Carl Rogers. A combination of cognitive and emotive components with various individual characteristics that encourages a person to progress, guides his behavior, and hence is considered a social incentive for self-modiication. According to S
Carl Rogers, learning process involves logics and intuition, intelligence and feelings.
Self-regulated learning / Өзіндік реттеуге негізделген оқу / Саморегулируемое обучение – learning which is carried out on the basis of metacognition. It is characterized by the student’s self-orientation during activity; by independently deining the problem and the purpose of learning; and by independent selection of strategies for goals achievement and problem solving. Sequence of lessons / Тізбектелген сабақтар топтамасы / Серия последова­
тельных уроков ­ a combination of logically interrelated lessons (no less than four), which are joined with a single theme, aims, objectives and learning outcomes. Session / Сессия / Сессия (Latin sessio meeting) – a working period within the training course, limited by a certain time interval. Short-term memory / Қысқа мерзімді жады (жұмыс жадысы) / Память кратковременная (рабочая память) – a memory subsystem, the main aim of which is an activation of the information from the long-term memory for concrete use (e.g. during task completion, problem solving, communication or inner relection). Short-
term memory is dynamic, and of short duration: usually from several seconds to several minutes. SMART objectives / SMART мақсаттары мен міндеттері (ақылды міндеттер) / SMART цели и задачи (умные задачи) – an abbreviation used for setting the learning aims and objectives. It was introduced by George T. Doran in 1981. The abbreviation SMART is based on the combination of adjectives, which, in the author’s opinion, must characterize learning aims and objectives:
- Speciic - Measurable - Attainable - Realistic - Timely Social constructivist teaching and learning / Әлеуметтік­сындарлы оқу / Социально­конструктивное обучение – learning through opinions and skills development, using different forms of dialogue: discussion, debates, collaboration, cooperative knowledge building. 33
Social constructivist theory of education / Оқудың әлеуметтік­сындарлылық теориясы / Социоконструктивистская теория обучения – a social theory about knowledge acquisition, based on the philosophy of the constructivist theory of education. The main idea is that students gain knowledge though interactions with each other. A fundamental of the social constructivist theory of education is that the concept of knowledge involves the ability to build an harmonic relationship with society.
Socratic dialogue (Greek Μαιευτικήthe art of midwifery) / Әңгіме жүргізудің Сократтық әдісі (майевтика) / Сократический метод ведения беседы (майевтика) - a method of recognizing person’s implicit knowledge by elaborately formulated questions. In pedagogy Socratic dialogue is deined as a form of learning, the central part of which is elaborative questions and discussion. Socrates as a teacher asked his students question after question, in order to break down his students’ understanding of facts, and then to help them reformulate the truth through argumentation and explanation of their own attitudes. The core of Socratic dialogue is to convince a talker that despite his conidence–he does not know a lot. “Life without examination is not worth living. I cannot teach anyone/everyone about anything/everything, I can only make them think”– is a key phrase to understand Socratic dialogue.
Standard / Дескриптор / Дескриптор - a statement describing the level or quality of work performed by the students for the task.
Strategy / Стратегия / Стратегия (Greek στρατηγία —a captain’s art») – 1. A general plan of any activity over a long period of time. 2. A method of the goal achievement.
Structured group work / Құрылымдалып бөлінген топтардағы топтық жұмыс / Групповая работа со структурированным делением на группы - a form of group work, where those who teach plans the process of dividing learners into groups considering the abilities of both the class as a whole and individual students (e.g., performance results, ability to learn particular subject, leadership qualities, level of communication skills, etc.).
Student’s comfort zone / Оқушының «жайлы» аймағы / «Комфортная» зона учащегося – a range of real-life situations, where a student feels comfortable. For instance, in a classroom context it is an amount of assignments, which causes less discomfort to the student. Typically, student’s comfort zone is associated with emotive factors rather than intellectual or physical factors. Tactical education / Тактикалық оқыту / Тактическое обучение - measures student achievement by only preparing them for successful passing of the examination rather than learning to think also. Teacher-Led Development Work (TLDW) / Мұғалімнің көшбасшылығын дамыту жұмысы / Работа по развитию лидерства учителя (РРЛУ) – an approach for improvement of teaching and learning in schools. According to this approach, teachers, both individually and collaboratively, determine questions and problems for investigations with the aim to improve their practices, as well as practice of the school, where they work. TLDW is not equivalent to action research. The TLDW program is not based on positioning a teacher as a researcher, but on positioning «a teacher as a leader in teaching and learning practices improvement. Teaching strategy / Педагогикалық стратегия / Стратегия педагогическая ­ a planned, systematic set of methods and techniques used in class to achieve educational objectives and goals. Teaching technique / Педагогикалық техника / Техника педагогическая - a combination of knowledge and skills a teacher needs to effectively apply selected methods of teaching to individual students and to a class as a whole. Possessing a teaching technique is a part of pedagogical mastery and requires deep expertise in pedagogy and psychology and special practical training.
Technological Content Knowledge / Білімнің технологиялық аспектісі / Технологический аспект знаний ­ a way of interaction of technological knowledge (TCK) and subject knowledge (SK). Technological content knowledge implies that a teacher’s knowledge does not only include a teaching subject, but also ways to improve it by using new technologies.
Technological Knowledge, TK / Технологиялық білім (ТБ) / Технологические знания (ТЗ) ­ being familiar with additional teaching resources (video, network material, digital media, etc.). TK presupposes both adequate awareness in the ield of technological devices, and the skills necessary to manage them. T
The Assessment Reform Group / Бағалауды Реформалау Тобы / Группа Реформы Оценивания / – a group of researchers-volunteers organized in 1989 by the British Educational Research Association (BERA) to ensure compliance with assessment procedures and practice of teaching and learning with the results of relevant research in education. The group also worked in close collaboration with teachers, communities of teachers and educational organizations to clarify the goals, objectives, procedures and expected results of the assessment procedure. The group ceased their activity in 2010.
The Black Box / «Қара жәшік» / «Черный ящик» ­ a metaphor borrowed from the ield of science and technology where the “black box” is a device, system or object which can be seen only in terms of the characteristics of processes of input, output and transmission, with no idea of its internal structure, i.e. its application is opaque. Any object (phenomenon) can be called a black box: a transistor or the human mind. In pedagogy the “work within the “black box” metaphor is used in the context of a classroom and requires an environment limited by a structure of an educational organization. Theories of Mind / «Зерде теориясы» (ЗТ) / «Теория разума» (ТР) – a special cognitive ability to perceive others as conscious intermediaries because of the need of interpretation of their point of view in the context of such categories of theoretical concepts as beliefs and desires. Theories of Mind offer a wide range of mental states (beliefs, desires, intentions, ideas, emotions, etc.) that promote actions. Summarizing we can say that accepting the “theory of mind” means the ability to relect on the content of one’s own consciousness and the consciousness of others.
Theory of multiple intelligences / Көптік зият (зияттың қырлары) теориясы / Теория множественного интеллекта — a theory proposed by Howard Gardner in 1983 considering the intelligence in various speciic circumstances eliminating the domination of one general ability to do anything. Gardner notes that intelligence is not a “thing”, not a device that is in the head of a person, but the potential for the individual to use forms of thinking, appropriate to speciic types of context. Gardner identiied six types of intelligence, independent from each other and operating as independent systems (or modules) following their own rules. These include: linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, and personal modules.
Three apprenticeships / «Мұғалімнің үш көмекшісі» / «Три по мощника учителя» - Shulman’s theory (Shulman, 2007) suggests that a teacher can become competent with the help of three apprentices - Hands, Head, Heart. Hand - symbolizes the presence of technical and practical skills and acquisition with ways of working, ability to explain ideas through a range of existing approaches during the process of implementation, adjustment and evaluation of education. Head – symbolizes the presence of methodological knowledge about teaching and learning, as well as about the personality of students. Heart - emotional and positive attitude to the profession, recognition of the value of teaching and irm convictions, which ind support among other representatives of the profession.
TIMSS Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study / Математика және жаратылыстану ғылымы бойынша білім сапасын бағалау жөніндегі халықаралық зерттеу TIMSS / Международное исследование по оценке качества математического и естественнонаучного образования TIMSS – of the 4
grade pupils, considering the educational content of the participating countries. The irst TIMSS in1995 gave a stable foundation for carrying out the cyclical investigations in mathematics, science study and reading; and every four years it reports on the educational progress of the pupils from 4
and 8
grades. As a foundation for the development of the research toolkits of TIMSS, a special template document TIMSS Assessment Frameworks and Speciications is used, when the general approaches for the assessment of the progress in mathematics and science study and approaches for test development are determined; where the expected content of mathematics and science study are described; where the main factors, characterizing students, teachers and educational institutions, are enumerated; the analysis of which information is to be used during the questionnaire. Training / Тренинг / Тренинг — a method of active teaching designed to develop knowledge, skills and social attitude. Training is often used when the desired result is not only the acquisition of new information, but also the application of the knowledge in practice.
Triarchic Theory / Үштік зият теориясы / Теория «Тройственного интеллекта» - aholistic theory of intelligence describing its three aspects - internal components related to information processing (component intelligence), eficiency of mastering a new situation (empirical intelligence) and manifestation of intelligence in social situation (situational intelligence). The author of the theory is an American researcher Robert Sternberg, who believed that human intelligence is a mental activity aimed at adaptation, selection, and development of the real environment related to the individual’s life (Sternberg, 1985), i.e. intelligence shows how individuals cope with changes of the environment throughout life. 37
UNESCO / ЮНЕСКО / ЮНЕСКО — United Nations Educational, Scientiic and Cultural Organization — an Organization of United Nations dealing with the questions of education, science and culture. The main objective declared by the organization - to contribute peace and security by promoting international collaboration through education, science, and culture in order to further universal respect for justice, the rule of law, and human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the UN Charter, for all people without distinction by race, sex, language or religion.
UNESCO deals with publication of books, monographs and reference materials for education. Among periodically published materials there are: “Statistical UNESCO Yearbook”, “Study Abroad”, “World Education Reference Book”, and “Prospects”.
“Global Report on Education”, published every two years since 1991, contains statistical data, reviews and analyses of global trends in education. Every two years, UNESCO organizes international conferences on education.
Unstructured group work / Құрылымдалмай бөлінген топтардағы топтық жұмыс / Групповая работа с неструктурированным делением на группы - a form of group work where those who teach divides those who learn into groups by random selection, not considering the students’ abilities, leadership skills, etc.
Virtual learning environment / Білім беру порталы / Образовательный портал ­ a computer system in the telecommunication Internet network aimed at provision of on-line access to educational information resources for educational institutions and creation of new communication and information ield of educational community’s participants by means of the Internet.
Vision / Көзқарас / Ви́дение – an ability to perceive and evaluate an environment, standpoint, view on something (eg. vision of one’s future, prospects of professional development.), that is achievable under favorable circumstances, with consideration of the potential risks.
Volunteer / Волонтер / Волонтер – a person, willingly offering his help, unpaid worker.
Web-forum / Форум (веб­фо́рум) / Форум (веб­форум) — a class of web applications for communication of website visitors. A web forum offers a range of subsections for discussion. The forum works by users creating topics in the subsections and by providing opportunity for subsequent discussion within these topics. Webinar / Вебинар (онлайн­семинар) / Вебинар (онлайн­
семинар) – a type of web conferences, online meetings or presentations realized with the help of Internet networks in real time mode. During webinars each participant is located at his own computer and the connection between them is supported by Internet network through an application installed on the computer of each participant, or through a web-
based application.
Word map/mind map / Тұжырымдамалық карта/ассоциациялық карта / Концептуальная карта/ассоциативная карта – an effective method of graphic presentation of thinking process by which you can visualize the relationships between the various concepts, notions, ideas and viewpoints. Word map/mind map can trace the consistency of ideas, identify the development of concepts, detect non-obvious connections and generate ideas and solutions.
Workshop / Воркшоп / Воркшоп – an intensive educational activity where participants acquire knowledge irst of all through their own active work. U
Zone of Proximal development / Жақын арадағы даму аймағы (ЖАДА) / Зона ближайшего развития (ЗБР) ­ a concept introduced by L.S. Vygotsky characterizing the period of student’s learning between the formed skills and abilities and forming skills and abilities in the range of tasks that the student is currently unable to perform independently and requires scaffolding. This role can be played both by a teacher, and by more successful classmates.
ronson, Elliot (born in 1932) is a leading American social psychologist, PhD in psychology from the University of Stanford. As a populizer of social psychology he has gained special prominence. E.Aronson is an author of various monographs as: interindividual attraction, group interaction, cognitive theories, experimental methods, guidelines change techniques. He developed the Jigsaw teaching method, applied to decrease a level of conlicts among pupils on a racial basis and to improve the educational process. Besides, one of the trends of his scientiic activity was a study in the sphere of the theory of cognitive dissonance. Aronson’s activity in the sphere of teaching was distinguished by many pedagogic awards, such as American Association of Psychology award, which he soley received three times: as a distinguished teacher, distinguished researcher, and distinguished publicist.
loom, Benjamin (1913-1999) – an American psychologist of educational methods, a founder of the system called “Bloom’s Taxonomy”. In 1942 he defended his Ph.D. at the University of Chicago. In 1965-66 he was a president of the education research-
ers association.
In the 1960-s Bloom issued two monographs, being the essence of his concept, further named Bloom’s Taxonomy: “Stability and change of human characteristics” and “Classiication of educational purposes”. In 1960- 1970s Bloom’s concept was accepted by many educational institutions inthe USA, further however, as a result of various criticism of tscientists and practitioners, the use of them signiicantly decreased.
runer, Jerome Seymour (born in 1915) – an American psychologist and teacher,a well known specialist in the area of cognitive processes research, presently, a senior scientist of law faculty of the University of NewYork.
Bruner has signiicantly contributed to the development of hu-
man cognitive psychology and cognitive theory of education in pedagogical psychology, as well as in the history and in common philosophy of education. Jerome Bruner’s ideas are based on classiication theory (World interpretation from the point of views of similarities and differences); he developed a research method of forming artiicial notions (A study of Thinking) jointly with J. J. Goodnow and G. A. Austin 1956.
Bruner is an author of the following works: Education process (1960); Research on a cognitive development (1966, jointly with Olver and Greenield); Infancy: development of cogniive acivity» (1968); Actual minds, possible worlds (1986) etc.
sikszentmihalyi, Mihaly (born in 1934) – a professor of psychology, former dean of the University of Chicago, known for his study of happiness, creativity, subjective well-being. He is most famous for his idea of “low” – lowing condition, studied by him during several decades, according to which people are happy if they are in a special lowing condition, reminding a condition of total unity with activity and situation. A low is a condition where attention and motivation are united, causing productive harmony or feedback. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi was an author of several bestsellers and over 120 articles for journals and books, one of the most cited contemporary psychologists in several areas, referring to psychology and business. 43
ewey, John (1859–1952) – an American philosopher and teacher, a representative of philosophical pragmatism. As evidence of his worldwide recognition J.Dewey is a well-known UNESCO educator (1988). Four teacherdeine the pedagogical thinking of the 20
century: John Dewey, George Kerschensteiner, Maria Montessori, Anton Makarenko. Dewey developed a pragmatic methodology in the area of logic and theory of cognition.
Pedagogical theories, developed by Dewey are: pragmatism in pedagogy and instrumental pedagogy. John Dewey is an author of over 30 monographs, about one thousand scientiic articles, regarding philosophical trends, pedagogy and interdisciplinary issues. F
lavell, John (born 1928) - American psychologist, Emeritus Professor of Psychology at Stanford University, whose research is focused on the cognitive development of children. A distinctive feature of the Flavell’s research is to identify important cognitive skills, not studied by other researchers, and analyse their development through childhood.
In 1963 John Flavell published “Developmental Psychology of Jean Piaget ”, about the cognitive development of children. In 1984, J. Flavell was honored for his outstanding contribution to the American Association of Psychological Science. In 1994 he was elected to the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. In 1963 John Flavell published a book, “Developmental Psychology of Jean Piaget ”, about the cognitive development of children. In 1984 J. Flavell was honored for his outstanding contribution to the American Association of Psychological Science. In 1994 he was elected to the U.S. National Academy of Sciences.
He is the author of over 120 books.
ardner, Howard (born in 1943) – an American psychologist, specialist in the sphere of clinical psychology and neuropsychology, an author of wide notoriety in psychology for the notion of “Multiple Intelligences”. Gardner is one of the most inluential representatives of constructivism. In the seventh book of H.Gardner “Limits of thinking: a theory of Multiple Intelligences” only two pages are devoted to the study of use of Multiple Intelligence in educational practice, however this book is presently issued in over ten languages and provided Gardner with the status of one of the most inluential scientists in educational theory and practice in the USA and international fame.
Howard Gardner is an author of six monographs and over a hundred scientiic articles on the issues of cognitive development and neuropsychology. H
attie, John Allan Clinton (born in 1950) – a professor of pedagogy, director of scientiic-research institute at the University of Melbourne, Australia.
John Hattie is an author of the following scientiic projects: “Development of evaluation models”, “Visible educational laboratories”. His scientiic preferences are measuring models and their application in solving problems of education, as well as theory of measurement and meta-analysis. The main areas of John Hattie’s researches are the educational skills, indicators and evaluation, self-evaluation, education and teaching models, age-related and pedagogic psychology.
arris, Judith Rich (born in 1938) – an independent scientist and theorist, psychologist from New-Jersey (USA). The area of scientiic interests is evolutional psychology, social psychology, psychology of development and behavioral genetics.
In 1994 Judith Harris developed the theory of group socialization, according to which the behavior of a child’s contemporaries prevails over role models that are imposed by parents and teachers. Judith Harris’ theory outlined in her article, published in leading American journal Psychological Review in 1995, after which American Psychology Association awarded her with their annual George Miller Prize for her contribution to the development of psychology.
Judith Harris is an author of the book “The Nurture Assumption”, published in 1998. This work poses that mental abilities, communicability, susceptibility, propensity to ag-
gression, tendency to alcoholism are laid long before a human birth.
ewin, Kurt (1890-1947) – a German born American psy-
chologist whose ideas had a deining inluence on social psychol-
ogy and on the work of Vygotsky. He introduced new parameters to the study of the needs and motivations for human behavior and stated that behavior is a function of the person in their environ-
ment. Many of the concepts that were researched by Kurt Lewin became cornerstones of psychology, namely, the organisational development, action research group dynamics, social perception, role play, striving for success and overcoming setbacks, time perspective. It was his idea to introduce group training to change certain features of the behaviour of the subject.
Unlike other members of the Gestalt School of Psychology who developed the con-
cepts of perception (Koffka, Rubin), thinking (Koehler, Wertheimer, Dunker) and mental development (Koffka), Lewin extended the principles of Gestalt psychology to the exper-
imental study of personality - needs, passion and will (“The Intention, ill, needs”, 1926, - “A dynamic theory of personality”, 1935,”Principles of topological psychology”, 1936).
aslow, Abraham Harold (1908-1970) – a prominent American Psychologist, a founder of humanist psychology. The most popular work of Abraham Maslow is an analysis of human necessities and putting them in a shape of a hierarchical stages, named “Maslow’s Pyramid of Needs”. The most detailed description of Maslow’s concept is represented in the book “Motivation and Personality”.
Hierarchy of needs, shaped in the form of a pyramid, became quite popular model of personal motivation in the USA, Europe and Russia. It is mostly used by the managers and marketers.
cIntyre, Donald (1937 - 2007) - M.Ed., University of Edinburgh, Professor. Donald Macintyre’s main research interest was the study of issues in the continuous professional development of school teachers and the “school - university“ partnership. He was involved in the development of universally recognized teaching and learning projects such as “Teacher Status Project “, “Learning without Limits ESRC Seminar Series”, “ TLRP Pupil Consultation Project”, “Cambridge Bursary Evaluation Project”, “School-University Partnership for Educational Research”.
ercer, Neil Mckay (born in 1948) – a professor of pedagogy at Cambridge University. Being a psychologist, Neil Mercer is a specialist in problems of the roles of communication in the classroom and thinking development of children. One of his main achievements is an approach in education, presently known as “Thinking together” and which is used in order to improve communicative skills, education and reasoning for children. Neil Mercer’s research “Thinking together” is included into the system of national strategies for elementary and middle school education.
Neil Mercer is presently an editor of “International research journal in the area of education”.
ontessori, Maria (1870-1952) – the irst woman-doctor in Italy, a scientist, thinker, humanist teacher, and psychologist. In 1907 M.Montessori offered a system of child independent development system in didactically prepared atmosphere, presently known as Montessori system. M.Montessori’s methodology is over 100 years old and it still remains up to date. Montessori’s scientiic school is chronicled in the Guinness’ Book of Records as the largest with regard to the number or researches. Maria Montessori was nominated twice for a Nobel Prize. The following works of M.Montessori gained special prominence: Scientiic pedagogy method, Imagination in the creative works of children and great artists, Child self-education and self-study, Role of surrounding in education, Child’s mind.
In 1988, upon the decision of UNESCO, the name of MariaMontessori was enlisted among four teachers, who deined a way of pedagogic thinking of the 20th century: John Dewey, George Kerschensteiner, Maria Montessori, Anton Makarenko
ogers, Carl Ransom (1902–1987) – an American psychologist, one of the founders and leaders of humanist psychology (alongside with Abraham Maslow), a president of the American Association of Psychology (AAP) in 1947. He greatly contributed to development of non-directive psychotherapy, which was named “personally oriented psychology”. Rogers set “Self-
concept” as a fundamental component of the personal structure, which formed during the process of entity interaction with surrounding society and being an integral mechanism of self-regulation of entity behavior. A special recognition was received by Rogers after publication of the deliberate essays in the book: “On Becoming a Person: A Therapist’s View of Psychotherapy” (1961), when the scientist’s works attracted attention of a wide range of non-specialist readers. In 1960s Rogers became a leader of movement, named “Groups of Meetings” (group psychotherapy).
udduck, Jean (1937 - 2007) was the irst female Professor at the University of Cambridge. In 1970 she was one of the four founding members of the Centre for Applied Research in Education at the University of East Anglia. During the 1970s CARE became one of the most inluential educational research centres in the English-speaking world. She was the Director of Research at Homerton College (1994), President of the British Educational Research Association (1994) and the author and initiator of the “Pupil Voice” project developed in a humanitarian context at the end of the 1960s. Her research included the study gender issues in schools. P
iaget, Jean (1896-1980) – a Swiss psychologist and philosopher, known for the works devoted to study of child psychology; he was an author of cognitive development theory and philosophical and psychological school of genetic psychology (Genetic Epistemology). A principal statement of Piaget’s theory of education and thinking is a statement of necessity of active participation of a student in the educational process, constructing the knowledge by the student himself. Piaget’s approach to education is called “readiness approach” in psychology, referring to the development process.
Piaget’s bibliography amounts to 60 books and several hundred articles.
chon, Donald S (1930 – 1997) – a famous guru from Boston (USA) in the sphere of development of educational models, ways of memorizing, and consulting a stable country via social education. In the middle of 1960s Schon became one of the founders and a future Director of the Organization of Social and Technical Innovations. Donald Schon was one of the founders of the theory known as “science of action”, developed as an alternative to a “normal science”, includingthe notion of “double loop feedback”, providing possibilities for education and correction of the mistakes. Научная D.Schon’s scientiic activity is dedicated to the study of the process of organizational study. The work of Donald Schon Beyond the Stable State issued in 1971 rapidly won attention in many countries in the world. The following are independent works of Donald Schon The Relective Practitioner: How professionals think in action and Education of relective practitioner are considered classical.
hulman, Lee – a teacher-psychologist, honored professor of Stanford University, former president of Carnegie Fund on teaching improvement, formerly a president of American Educational Research Association, laureate of several educational awards. Shulman has greatly contributed to the study of pedagogy, evaluation of teaching and education in medicine, natural sciences and mathematics. Shulman (1986) stated the necessity of the union of two knowledge bases (subject knowledge and pedagogical knowledge) for teachers’ effective training and introduced the notion of Pedagogical Content Knowledge.
Lee Shulman is an author of the following Monographs: “Research on teaching in the natural sciences.”, “Studies of problem solving, judgment and decision-making: Implications for educational research.”, Educational psychology returns to school, “Handbook of Teaching and Policy” etc.
ocrates (Greek Σωκράτης) (469-399 BC) – an ancient Greek philosopher, one of the founders of dialectics, whose studies marked a new development in philosophy: from viewing the world’s nature to viewing human nature. In search of truth he used a method called “the method of asking leading questions” (known as the Socratic method, maieutic), implying a critical comprehension of dogmatic assertions. Socrates did not write down his thoughts, considering writing to be prostrating for the memory, thus led his disciples to true judgment via dialogue, where he asked a common question, and having received a reply, asked the next postulating question, and so on, in search of the truth.
tenhouse, Lawrence (1926-1982) was a British education-
al thinker, a founder member of the Centre for Applied Research in Education (CARE) at the University of East Anglia. During the 1960s and 1970s he was the President of the British Educational Research Association (BERA). He was a founder of the theory which lead to the “teacher as researcher” culture that promotes an active role for teachers in educational research.
ygotsky, Lev Semenovitch (1896-1934) – a soviet psychologist, an author of cultural-historical theory on psychology, the irst psychologist, who viewed a psychological crisis as a necessary stage of human psyche development, by disclosing its positive sense. An introduction to the notion of of the “zone of proximal development” was his signiicant contribution to the pedagogical psychology. During the last years of his life, L.S.Vygotsky focused on studying the structure of consciousness. His Cultural-Historical theory gave birth to the largest school in soviet psychology, whose representatives were A.N.Leontyev, A.R.Luriya, P.Y.Galperin, L.V.Zankov, etc. Starting from the 1970s of the 20
century all of the main works of L.S.Vygotsky were translated and along with J.Piaget’s theory formed the basis of the contemporary educational psychology of the USA. A theory of social constructivism is referred to L.S.Vygotsky.
Bibliography of V. Amounts to over 275 titles, as well as the following monographs: Psychology of art (Ïсèõологèя èсêусстâа), Consciousness as an issue of behavioral psychology (Ñознанèе, êаê ïроáлема ïсèõологèè ïоâеäенèя), A history of higher mental functions development (Èсторèя разâèтèя âысшèõ ïсèõèчесêèõ фунêöèй), Thinking and talking (Ìышленèе è речü), etc.
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