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 Федеральное агентство по образованию Омский государственный университет им. Ф.М. Достоевского СБОРНИК ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИХ УПРАЖНЕНИЙ ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ для студентов I и II курсов дневного и заочного отделений юридического факультета Изд-во ОмГУ Омск 2005 С23 Рекомендовано к изданию редакционно-издательским советом ОмГУ Рецензенты: О.В. Гоголь, О.К. Сургутская Cоставители: Э.В. Акаева. О.Н. Глазер, С.Н. Голерова, Т.Н. Дорофеева, Ю.Б. Дроботенко, Р.Р. Мавлиева, Б.А. Мартынов, И.Г. Оконешникова, С.Д. Оськина, М.Х. Рахимбергенова, Э.К. Сопелева С23 Сборник грамматических упражнений по английскому язы-
ку: для студентов I и II курсов дневного и заочного отделений юри-
дического факультета / сост: Э.В. Акаева. О.Н. Глазер, С.Н. Голерова и др. / под ред. С.Д. Оськиной. – Омск: Изд-во ОмГУ, 2005. – 276 с. ISBN 5-7779-0595-1 В краткой и доступной форме изложены основные структуры английской
грамматики с целью развития у студентов умений и на-
выков чтения, перевода, письма и говорения на основе юридической лексики. Сборник может быть использован для аудиторных и внеау-
диторных занятий. Для студентов и аспирантов юридических факультетов, изучаю-
щих английский язык. ISBN 5-7779-0595-1 © Омский госуниверситет, 2005 3 ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ Сборник упражнений представляет собой практикум по основ-
ным формам и структурам грамматики английского языка и включает в себя разнообразные упражнения и задания аналитического, трени-
ровочного и коммуникативного характера. Упражнения помогают не только закрепить и активизировать полученные знания по грамматике английского языка, но и овладеть определенной юридической лекси-
кой. Сборник состоит из
двух частей. В I часть включены упражнения и задания по следующим раз-
делам: Артикли Имя существительное Прилагательные и наречия Глагол Действительный залог Страдательный залог Модальные глаголы Косвенная речь II часть содержит: Неличные формы глагола Инфинитив Герундий Причастия Условные предложения
Относительные предложения В начале каждого раздела даются объяснения на английском языке, а для студентов с базовым уровнем знания языка в конце посо-
бия даются объяснения грамматических форм и структур на русском языке. Каждый раздел заканчивается итоговым тестом для осуществ-
ления контроля за освоением данного лексико-грамматического мате-
риала. При составлении сборника учтены уровни знания учащихся. За-
дания отличаются по степени трудности. 4
Part I The Article The article is a structural part of speech used with nouns. There are two articles in Modern English: - the indefinite a/an used only with nouns in the singular (a person, an outstanding detective), and the definite the used with nouns both in the singular and in the plural (the right, the words). The Indefinite article is used: 1. with countable nouns in the singular Have you got a car? 2. with a countable nouns mentioned for the first time He was a witness at that trial 3. to talk about someone’s job He works as a solicitor 4. with a noun in general case (has the meaning of every, any) A drawing man catches at a straw 5. in the meaning of one Wait a minute! 6. after the construction: there is…/ was; it is… This is… There is a letter on the table It is a problem This is a document 7. after the words: such, rather, quite What…..! (exclamations) This is such a dangerous case What a strange person! 8. with a noun modified by the adjective in the positive degree Are you a good barrister? 9. a/an + ordinal numeral has the meaning “еще один” There was a second part of a legal problem 10. also with a dozen, a hundred, a thousand, a million, a pound, a week, an hour, a mile – in the meaning “one” We have trials twice a week. 11. in some expressions: a lot of, as a result, as a matter of fact, as a rule, it’s a pity, it’s a pleas-
ure, in a hurry, to go for a walk, to have a good time/rest, to take a shower, to have a smoke, to give a call, for a while, to tell a lie, what a shame, in a week, a knife and fork, to catch (a) cold.
5 The definite article is used:
1. with a noun when it is clear in the situation which thing or person is meant, or with the noun mentioned before. Will you pass me the paper, please? The policeman stopped at a village. The village was old but nice. 2. also the police, the army, the fire brigade, the bank, the post office, the doctor, the dentist. The police are looking for the thief. 3. when the noun denotes a thing unique (the sun, the earth, the moon). The earth goes round the sun. 4. with the adjectives: following, next, last, same, very. Where is the next witness? 5. also: the sky, the sea, the ground, the world, the government, the ra-
dio (but television) I’ve heard this news on the radio. 6. the + adjective: the rich = rich people in general. These expressions are always plural! The unemployed, the young, the blind 7. the + nationality words: the French = the French people, the English, the Irish. 8. with the names of the oceans, seas, rivers, canals, mountains, deserts. The Atlantic Ocean, The British Isles, The Ontario. 9. We say the
with the names of the countries which include words like republic, union, state, kingdom. The United Kingdom, The United States 10. also: the Crimea, the Caucasus, the Congo; The Hague, the High Street. 11. We say the
before the names of the hotels, theatres, museums, cine-
mas, newspaper, ships, also before the names with of: The Hilton (Hotel), the British Museum, the Washington Post, ships: Queen Elizabeth, the Houses of Parliament. – with the names denoting the whole family: The Simons, The Smiths. – With the date (in speech): On the fifth of May On May the fifth – with the organizations, official title, documents The United Nations, The President, The Constitution – in some expressions: at the same time 6
in the original on the whole the other day (refers to the past) the day after tomorrow the day before yesterday in the morning/ afternoon, evening at the seaside on the train in the rain at the weekend in the 1990s at the end of in the singular/ plural in the past / future by the way just the same to tell the truth out of the question in the dark in the sun There is no article: 1. before the nouns modified by the pronoun: = possessive: my, his, her, our… = demonstrative: this, that, these… = interrogative: what, which, whose and indefinite: some, any, each, every. My friend, our holidays, this book. What question have you discussed? 2. before the names of a person, streets, towns, sciences, subjects, sta-
tions, planets, etc. Oxford Street, Hyde Park. He is fond of criminalistics. 3. with the names of countries and continents: Europe, Asia, Poland 4. with the names of meals: breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper. I have breakfast at 8. 7 5. with the nouns – school, college, bed, joil, prison, church. To be in prison = to be a prisoner 6. in some expressions: for ages, at first at home, to go home at school at table by chance by heart by name by mistake to go to bed to go by bus/ train etc. to ask permission at night by day early morning from morning till night at Christmas at Easter. TASKS I. Match the words on the left with the correct definition on the right: Explain the articles usage in the definitions. Jurisprudence law dealing with private rights of citizens, not with crime Criminal law punishment for wrongdoing Civil law the branch of law dealing with crimes and their punishment Felony recognized and permitted by the law Misdemeanor accuse Murder violent and sudden attack Penalty the study of law and legal philosophy Assault major serious crime, e.g. murder, armed robbery, arson Responsibility legal offence less serious than a felony Charge prosecution of a claim in a law court Lawsuit unlawful killing of a human being on purpose Legal duty 8
II. Put a/an/the in each space, or leave the space blank. Trial by Jury ……. jury is …… selected group of laymen that hears …….. witnesses in …….. legal disputes and decides ………. facts. ………. courtroom trial in which ……… jury decides ………. facts is called ……… trial by jury. Before each court term, ……… jury commissioner or another public of-
ficer prepares ………… panel, or large initial list, of qualified jurors. For each trial, jurors are selected by ………… lot from this panel. Before ………… trial begins, ………. Jurors swear to decide …………facts fairly. They hear ………… testimony given by ……….. wit-
nesses for both sides, including cross-examinations. Then counsel for each side sum up, or summarize case, and …………. judge explains ………….. applica-
ble law in his instructions to ……….. jury. In civil suits for financial damages, ………… jury must decide who is at …………. fault and must determine …………. amount of money to be paid. In criminal cases, …………... jury must decide whether or not …………. ac-
cused is guilty “beyond a reasonable doubt”, and then either return …………. verdict of guilty, or acquit ………….. defendant by ………….. verdict of not guilty. If verdict is guilty, …………. judge imposes …………. sentence, or punishment, within limits that have been fixed by ………….. legislature. III. Translate the sentences from Russian into English paying atten-
tion to the usage of articles. 1. Если вы являетесь подозреваемым, то давать показания – это ваше право, но не обязанность. 2. Свидетель имеет право на защитника. 3. Апелляционный суд оставил в силе решение суда присяжных. 4. Ежегодно в Москве десятки водителей штрафуют за вождение
в нетрезвом виде. Часто это заканчивается лишением прав. 5. Свидетелю вменили в вину, что он лгал под присягой. 6. Чтение обвинительного заключения заняло несколько часов. 7. В случаях правонарушений, не столь опасных для общества, применяется условный приговор. 8. Малолетние преступники обычно предстают перед специальны-
ми судами по делам несовершеннолетних. 9. В результате удачной
операции полиции был задержан опасный рецидивист. 10. Если у подозреваемого нет средств на оплату услуг защитника, они могут быть предоставлены государством. 11. Апелляционный суд оставил в силе решение суда присяжных. 9 IV. Supply the articles where necessary. 1. Accused was sentenced to five years in prison. 2. Prosecution will be opposing bail. 3. Best lawyer in country won case for her. 4. Jury found him innocent. 5. Vandalism is problem of society throughout Europe. 6. Ignorance of law is no excuse. 7. Court ordered him to pay fine of £100. 8. Victim had been killed with bread knife. V. Translate the sentences explaining the usage of the definite arti-
cle. 1. The gang were chasing him again. 2. The police received a bomb-threat at 6.15 p.m., and arrived at the scene six minutes later. The cinema had already been evacuated and the adjoin-
ing streets cordoned off. 3. The factory was closed because of staff strike. 4. The police caught the thief red-handed. 5. The detective stood motionless behind the door waiting for the assail-
ant. 6. The politician didn’t answer the reporter’s question as it was too per-
sonal. 7. There have been two main theories in the study of international law: the natural law approach and the positivist movement. 8. The witness claimed he hadn’t seen the accused before. 9. At the very moment the suspect is being interviewed by the police. VI. Articles have been removed from the following text. Supply the articles where necessary. Crime Crime violates laws of community, state or nation. It is punishable in accordance with these laws. Definition of crime varies according to time and place, but laws of most countries consider as crimes such offences as arson, bigamy, burglary, forgery, murder and treason. Not all offences against law are crimes, laws that set down punishment for crimes form criminal law. This law defines as crimes those offences con-
sidered most harmful to community. On other hand, person may wrong some-
one else in some other way that offends civil law. Common law recognizes three classes of crime: treason, felony, and misdemeanour. Death or life imprisonment is usual penalty for treason. Laws in United States, for example, define felony as crime that is punishable by term 10
of one year or more in state of federal prison. Person who commits misde-
meanour may be punished by fine or jail term of less than one year. VII. Correct the erros in these sentences by adding or removing a/an/the. 1. Military jury was created according to a Resolution 2. New law comes into the force on May 15 3. At an end of trial he was convicted of murder 4. All prospective barristers are expected to study at Inns of Court 5. Judge will hear next case after lunch 6. A driver admitted that accident was partly his own the fault 7. A judge sentenced an accused to 15 year in the prison 8. To protect the victims of the blackmail their names are often not given in a court 9. A judge was very hard on the pickpockets 10. If you break law, you will be in the trouble 11. High court judge will pass sentence the next week 12. Youth involved in disturbance at a demonstration made statement to police. VIII. Translate from Russian into English. Вопрос “Что такое право?” волновал людей издавна. Ответить на него помогает юриспруденция (исследование закона права и философии права). Существует много определений понятия права. Всякое общество, которое когда-либо существовало, признавало необходимость законов. На формирование системы законов влияют
традиционные взгляды общества на добро и зло. Законы опираются на моральные, экономические, полити-
ческие и социальные ценности. Многие законы отражают одновременно различные ценности общества. При составлении законов необходимо со-
блюдать равновесие между правами и обязанностями, волей большинства и правами меньшинства, необходимостью порядка и соблюдением основ-
ных свобод. С течением времени социальные ценности могут меняться, вслед за этим происходит и смена законов. Test yourself IX. Fill in the blanks with articles where necessary: 1. They fitted ….….. security locks to make it more difficult for ……… burglar to break in. 2. She was caught trying to buy ……….. video recorder with forged money. 11 3. If more offenders did ……….. community service, this would benefit …….. local people and reduce overcrowding in prisons. 4. He was put on …………. probation as it was his first offence. 5. ……… box had been vandalized so I looked for another one. 6. One witness was able to give ………….. good description of thief 7. In area of high unemployment, ………… shoplifting can be ……… problem, especially from ………… supermarkets. 8. He was fined £400 and banned from driving for …………… year. 9. If you plead guilty, …………. judge might give you ……… lighter sentence. 10. They finally got her to admit that she had forged her ……… em-
ployer’s signature on ………. form. 11. This is ………… complex case so ………. jury may take ……… time to reach ………… verdict. 12. In some countries you can be executed for smuggling ……… drugs like ……… cocaine. 13. There isn’t enough ………… evidence to prove that he committed ………. crime although we’re sure it must have been him 14. …………. Police appeared and started to arrest …………. demon-
strators. 15. There’s no …………. death penalty in this country so he’ll probably be sentenced to ………. life imprisonment. 16. He may be ……….. terrorist to you but to ……… other people he’s ……… freedom fighter. The Noun The noun is a word expressing substance in the widest sense of the word. Nouns fall under two classes: 1. Proper nouns: Mary, London, Nelson, France, Mr. Manson, Mrs. Bush. 2. Common nouns: dog, woman, man, wind, table, snow, beauty, etc. There are three groups of common nouns: Class nouns:
a shop – shops, a forest – forests, a house – houses, a boy – boys. Collective nouns:
money, police, crowd, linen, furniture, team, staff, etc. 12
Nouns of material and abstract nouns:
gold, water, courage, fear, etc. Nouns can be countable and uncountable. Countable nouns (that can be counted) have two numbers: the singular
and the plural
: a girl – girls, a river – rivers, a son – sons, etc. Before countable nouns we can say a / an / the / some / any / a lot of / few / a few / this / my / his, etc. He decided to take his way to Paris for their anniversary. He get on a train and found a seat and stared out of the window. Uncountable
nouns (that, we, cannot count) are always singular and are not used with a / an (music, blood). Before uncountable nouns we can say: some / any / no / much / a lot of / little / a little / this / his, etc. Also: a bit of / a slice of / a piece of, etc. A bit of news A piece of advice A cake of soap A sheet of paper A bar of chocolate A slice of bread I don’t want (any) advice or help. Music enriches our life. Many nouns can be used as countable or uncountable nouns. She had beautiful hair. There is a hair in my soup. I bought some paper. I bought a paper. We drink wine. But: We enjoy a good wine. The Singular and the Plural The general rule for forming the plural is by adding the ending -s (es) to the singular. a flower – flowers [z], a hat – hats [s], a bridge – bridges [iz] If the noun ends in -s, -ss, -x, -sh, -ch, -tch, the plural is formed by add-
ing -es to the singular. bus – buses box – boxes bench – benches glass – glasses brush – brushes match – matches If the noun ends in -o preceded by a consonant, the plural is generally formed by adding -es. hero – heroes pino – pianos potato – potatoes But: photo – photos volcano – volcanoes stereo – stereos tomato – tomatoes kilo – kilos echo – echoes radio - radios 13 If the noun ands in -y preceded by a consonant, -y is changed into i be-
fore -es. army – armies day – days lady – ladies but: boy – boys in proper names: Mary – Marys The noun ending in -f (in some cases followed by a mute e) change it into -ves. thief – thieves wife – wives roof – roofs Serf – serfs leaf – leaves shelf - shelves but: belief – beliefs Safe – safes knife – knives wolf – wolves chief – chiefs handkerchief –
handkerchief life – lives half – halves proof - proofs NOTE:
The noun scarf, hoof, wharf take either -s or -ves in the plural. Some words borrowed from Latin or Greek keep their original plural forms: datum – data Phenomenon – phenomena basis – bases formula – formulae – formulas crisis – crises Memorandum – memoranda – memorandums thesis – theses criterion – criteria There are seven nouns which form the plural by changing the root vowel and two nouns in the plural end in -en. man – men goose – geese ox – oxen woman – women mouse – mice child – children foot – feet louse – lice tooth – teeth In some nouns the plural form does not differ from the singular. deer - deer fruit – fruit (fruits = kinds of fruit) sheep - sheep fish – fish (fishes – kinds of fish) swine - swine salmon – salmon aircraft - aircraft cod – cod Other nouns add -s: crabs, herrings, sardines, sharks, lobsters, eels. We can say: one fish, two fish; one deer, two deer. Also: All the fishes in the sea. (= the different varieties of fish). This is a fine cheese. (= a fine variety or type). These cheeses are produced in Italy. (= these types) 14
Some uncountable are used only in the singular: linen money progress Food chaos furniture business traffic Sugar machinery knowledge information hair feet behavior advice trouble scenery Music failure luggage accommodation wood Bread fear permission luck weather Spaghetti death equipment sand Macaroni The following nouns ending in –s are usually treated as singular: the word: news; the subjects: economics, mathematics / maths, physics, statistics; the games: billiards, dominoes, darts, bowls; the activities: gymnastics, athletics; the words: politics, tactics, optics; the illness: measles, mumps, rickets, shingles. Mathematics is an exact science. The news is interesting. Words for drinks are usually uncountable. This means we use no article or we use some / any. Is there any coffee? Will you have some tea? However, when we are ordering or offering drinks we normally treat them as countable nouns. I’d like a coffee, please. or I’d like a cup of coffee. Two teas, please. Two teas and a glass of milk, please. Some nouns are uncountable when they refer to single items or to an ob-
ject made from that material. Would you like some chicken? We ate a whole chicken? Glass is made from sand and lime. I’ve broken a glass. The following collective nouns are usually singular: family crowd congress Majority* team jury government Minority group public committee Audience staff army media Company But in some cases these nouns are plural if the sentence indicates that the individual members are acting separetly (when we think of them as mem-
bers of a group (“they”), not as a single unit (“it”). = The government wants (want is also possible) to reduce taxes. 15 *If the word majority
is used alone it is usually singular. If it is followed by a plural noun, it is plural. Majority believes that we are in no danger. The majority of the students have passed the exams well. Some nouns are used only in plural:
sights contents spectacles goods customs opera-glasses Congratulations sweet savings binoculars Surroundings arms outskirts lodgings Clothes holidays shims poultry Trousers riches wages gentry Jeans people stairs cattle Shorts police scissors Tights These clothes are expensive. Where are the seisors? – They are on the table. NOTE:
We cannot use a/an
or a number
with a pair noun (a thing made of two parts). We use some or a pair of …
I need some jeans. or I need a pair of jeans. She bought a pair of jeans and two pairs of tights. In the expression a pair of + a pair noun the verb is singular if it is in the same clause; and plural if it is in a relative clause. This pair of trousers is expensive. I’ll buy a pair of trousers which are cheaper? As singular and plural may be used the nouns: means a means of transport – various means of transport series a television series – many television series species a species of birds – different species of birds works / factory The steel works has / have closed down. Sometime we use a plural noun with a singular verb. We often do it when we talk about a sum of money, a period of time, a distance, etc. Five thousand pounds form their plural in different ways. As a rule a compound noun forms the plural by adding -s to the headword. If there is no noun-stem in the compound, -s is added to the last element. brother – in – law brothers – in – law forget – me – not forget – me – nots merry – go – round merry – go – rounds But: man (woman) – driver men (women) – drivers 16
Case Nouns denoting living beings: people and animals (and some nouns de-
noting lifeless things), have two cases: an uninflected form called the common case
(pen, student, etc.) and the possessive case
… ‘s (apostrophe ’s). the singular
the plural
man’s dream the children’s toys the girl’s name the girls’ names the butcher’s (shop) The eagles’ nests Dickens’s novels or Dickens’ novels After a singular noun we use ‘s. After a plural noun we use only an apostrophe (‘). The possessive case expresses possession and answers the question whose
? The syntactic function of the nouns used in the possessive case is that of an attribute. Besides nouns denoting living beings we can use ‘s when a first noun is: 1) an organization
(=a group of people), ships and boats names of peo-
ple to mean’ house: the government’s decision the ship’s captain the company’s success we met at Bill’s 2) the place
: town, city, country, river, ocean, world, names of the countries: the city’s new center the world’s population Britain’s government Russia’s exports 3) time and distance
: an hour’s rest month’s holiday two hours’ drive night’s sleep five minutes’ walk in two years’ time 4) time words:
tomorrow’s meeting yesterday’s talks today’s newspaper sunday’s dinner We can say: ten minutes’ break or a ten-minute break. Also with the nouns: the sun, the moon, the earth, the ship; and ‘s can be used after more than one noun. The possessive sign is put to the latter. Jack and Jill’s wedding. William and Mary’s reign. 17 Proper names are generally used in the possessive case: Jane’s hobby is drawing. This is Tim’s car. NOTE
: You can use ‘s without the following noun: a / the baker’s / butcher’s / chemist’s, etc. It means a / the baker’s shop, etc. Tom’s report is much more interesting than Ann’s. It can also be used after the initials and the names of the owners of some busi-
ness: the PM’s secretary, the MP’s briefcase, selfridge’s, Claridge’s, Sotheby’s (some names drop the apostrophe: Harrods, Foybes). In compounds and names consisting of several words the last word takes apostrophe ‘s: My sister-in-law’s guitar Henry the Eight’s wives My father-in-law’s son The Prince of Wale’s plane NOTE:
When the possessive case is used the article before the person or thing “possessed” disappears: the question of the teacher = the teacher’s question. of + noun
is used for: 1) things, ideas etc.: the roof of the house, the title of the book, the owner of the cafe. We can say the daughter of the politician or the politician’s daughter, the plays of Shakespeare or Shakespeare’s plays. We normally use of with the beginning
/ end / top / bottom / front / back, etc. The back of the car The beginning of the year In the middle of the room. 2) We can use of or ‘s
after an organization: the decision of the government or government’s decision 3) of
is used: when the possessor noun is followed by a) phrase or clause I took the advice of the policemen I met at the station b) with the words denoting quantity: part, piece, slice, bit, etc. a piece of cake a slice of bread a pound of butter a bit of news 18
a) However, we often prefer to use a compound noun
instead of of-
: the river bank, the car keys, the town parks, etc. b) British nouns render the meaning of Russian cases by means of the prepositions of
, to
, for
, by
, with
, about
with the nouns in the common case and the word order in the sentence: What caused the explosion at
the station? What was the cause of
the explosion? Live these papers to
the secretary, please. Mrs. Green often makes cakes for her children. The program was watched by
millions of people. The door was opened with
a key. We talked about
the entrance examination. Gender In Modern English there is no grammatical category of gender. But ac-
cording to their lexical meaning all nouns denoting living beings are of either the male or female sex: man – woman, poet – poetess, etc. The nouns that denote female beings are considered of the masculine gender. The nouns that denote male beings are considered to be of neuter gen-
der. Names of lifeless things and abstract notions are of the neuter gender: a book, a pen, a room, kidness, friendship. A ship
is always spoken as she
. Collective nouns are also considered to be of neuter gender. There are three ways of forming the feminine of nouns: 1) by using an entirely different words, as father – mother, sister – brother, bull – cow, king – queen, etc. 2) by ending the syllable (-ess, -ine, -a, etc.): actor – actress, hero – heroine, heir – heiress, signor – signora, tzar – tzarina, etc. 3) by placing a word before or after, a: man – servant – maid – ser-
vant; land lord – lady. Functions: The main syntactical functions of the noun in the sentence are those of the subject and the object: they may be also used in the functions of a predica-
tive, an attribute and a adverbial modifier. Grammar is the art of putting the right words in the right places. King George VI was the ruler of Great Britain before Queen Elizabeth II. According to the morphological composition we distinguish simple (room, house), derivative nouns (which have prefixes or suffixes: misunder-
19 standing, inexperience) and compound nouns (built from one or more stems or words: noun + noun: sunglasses, time – table, bus – stop). adjective + noun: fast food, first aid, youth hostel verb + preposition: checkout, breakup three words: ready – made meal, air traffic control gerund + noun: swimming pool, driving license noun + gerund: coal mining, weight lifting NOTE:
There are no exact rules about whether we join the words or not (if you are not sure, it is usually safe to write two separate words). Noun-forming suffixes and prefixes: a) -er, -or teacher, actor -ist scientist, artist -ess actress, hostess -ment movement -ance importance, distance -(t)ion translation -ity majority, complexity -y difficulty, energy -ian musician, politician -hood childhood -ship friendship, leadership -age marriage, passage -ism heroism -ant assistant -ence conference -ty cruelty -ing building -dom freedom -ion discussion -sion revision -ness happiness -ure pressure -ness backwardness b) re- reconstruction co- coexistence dis- disarmament mis- misunderstanding in- information im- impossibility un- unemployment il- illiteracy 20
TASKS I. Form nouns from the following words: to forge (подделывать) + er forger useful (полезный) + ness usefulness action (действие) in + inaction (бездействие) polite (вежливый) to dispute (оспорить) to arrest (арестовать) to challenge (бросать вызов) to hear (слышать) compliance (соблюдение) representation (представление) hearing (слушание) II. Match the English and Russian equivalents:
1. justification 1. справедливость 2. just 2. обоснование 3. legality 3. признание законной силы 4. legalization 4. незаконность 5. illegality 5. законность
III. Translate into Russian: lawyer legatee legislator legislation IV. Translate into English: закон законодаельсво законодатель законник законность V. Form abstract nouns from the following: a) adjectives: b) verbs: c) common nouns: true live author free know hero young hate agent poor punish patriot just protect man advise 21 VI. Write down with what suffixes how the following English nouns are formed: opposition (противодействие) to oppose + tion accusation (обвинение) _____________ infringement (нарушение) _____________ persecutor (преследователь) _____________ employer (работодатель) _____________ employee (работник) _____________ complaintant (истец, жалобщик) _____________ VII. State the number of the following nouns and write down the corresponding singular or plural, if any: money man editor in chief news woman phenomenon advice child evidence police foot proof riches family VIII. Choose the correct form, singular or plural: - The police want/wants
to interview me about robbery. - Fortunately the news wasn’t/weren’t
as bad as we had expected. - Does/do
the police know about the stolen money? - The fear of the murder and robbery has/have
caused many people to leave big cities. - The barrister accompanied by his wife and daughter is/are
arriving tonight. - The solicitor and his assistant have/has
already finished their work today. - The majority of the people believe/believes
him to be innocent. - The mass media, TV and the press have/has
enormous power in any society. - The police have/has
weighed all the evidence and have/has
found the accused guilty. - The Bill of Rights contains much/many
useful informa-
. - Statistics is/are
an easy subject, but economics give/gives
me prob-
lems. IX. Explain the meaning of the following nouns: 1. Crime – criminal – criminalist 2. fine 22
3. offence 4. killer – killing 5. murder – murderer – murderess 6. burglar – burglary 7. thief – theft 8. prison – prisoner – imprisonment 9. suspect – suspicion 10. robber – robbery 11. shoplifter – shoplifting 12. kidnapper 13. hacker 14. pickpocket 15. hijacker 16. blackmail TEST YOURSELF X. Use the nouns in singular or plural form: (Thief) have been around for (century), probably for as long as (human), but armed (robbery) is a more recent (phenomenon). Unfortunately (woman) always have been (victim) of rape and domestic violence. (Forgery) has been around ever since printing has been used to make (money) or produce (document). Rich people or their (child) are sometimes kidnapped and are not set free until a ransom has been paid. The twentieth (century) saw the appearance of many organized (crime) such as hijacking and drug-smuggling or drug-trafficking. Statistics show an allowing rise in the rate of violent (crime) and (crime) to do with the illegal sale of arms across the world. Perhaps the most recent Crime of all is hacking (computer) to access (information) that helps (competitor) in industry. This increase the international (crime) makes one wonder whether it is still true to say “(Crime) doesn’t pay!” XI. Live Russian equivalents to the following English proverbs. - No news is good news. - Caesar’s wife must be above suspicion. - Time is money. - Business is business. - Business is first, pleasure afterwards. - Misfortunes never come singly. 23 XII. Translate the following words: - самозащита - наказание - законная, правомерная деятельность - вор - гражданское дело - брак - законодатель - юридическое лицо XIII. Find the meanings of the following words in the dictionary. Fill in the blanks with the proper words: - judge - justice - witness - plaintiff - accomplice - prosecutor - criminal - victim - the accused - suspect - fury - dependent - prisoner - smuggler - robber - killer A person who = conducts a trial and passes the sentence is called … = has a first-hand knowledge of the event and gives evidence under oath in court … = brings a suit against another person … = helps in a crime or who keeps a crime secret … = acts for the state in prosecuting criminals … = breaks laws … 24
Adjectives and adverbs Adjectives describe nouns. Adjectives have the same form for singular and plural. They do not change for male and female. Most adjectives are used in front of nouns. A difficult case, a guilty person. Adjectives can be used on their own after these verbs: be, become, feel, look, appear, seem, taste, smell, sound. I feel terrible! She has become happy. Our wants are very complex. Adverbs describe actions. Most adverbs are formed from adjectives by adding -ly: slow – slowly, quick – quickly, careful – carefully. Some adverbs have the same form as adjectives. The trial was very fast (adj.) The judge decided the case fast (adv.) Some adverbs have the same form as adjectives and a different meaning for the -ly form. hard – hardly near – nearly late – lately free – freely We worked hard
(adv.) I could hardly
stand up (= almost not) She gave her time free
(= for no money) She gave her time freely
(= willingly) I arrived late
for the trial. I haven’t seen John lately
(= recently) He was standing near the court (= next to) It is not nearly as late as I thought (= almost) 25 The Degrees of Comparison The Positive Degree The Comparative Degree The Superlative Degree long fine busy serious good well little much many bad badly far late old longer finer busier more serious better better less more more worse worse further, farther later older, elder longest finest busiest most serious best best least most most worst worst furthest, farthest last (final), latest (most recent) oldest, eldest We usually add the ending -er to one syllable adjectives and adverbs to make their comparative forms and -est to make their superlative form: hard – harder – hardest. For adjectives with three or more syllables we usually add more /less and most /least. Two-syllable adjectives some adding in -er, -y, -ly, -w, -ple, -tle. add -er or -est to the base form: clever – cleverer - cleverest. Two syllable or compound adverbs take more /most: effectively – more effectively – most effectively. We use the comparative to compare one person or thing with another. She is taller than me. After a comparative we often use than. In an informal style we use ob-
ject pronouns: me, him, after. You are a wiser consumer than me. In a more formal style we use a subject pronoun: I, he + verb. You are a wiser consumer than I am. If we compare two objects we use the + comparative. He is the cleverer of the two lawyers. 26
Types of Comparisons Special Points as …(positive degree) …as She’s as clever as her sister Not so /as … (positive degree) … as She is not as patient as Beth twice /three times etc. /half as …(positive degree) …as She’s got twice as much money as I have the + comparative …, the + comparative The sooner, the better very + adj /adv of positive degree He is very practical. It is very early. (very) much, a lot, a little, rather, even, far, a bit + adj /adv of comparative degree. It is even /much /far /a bit hotter than it was on Monday. Most + adj /adv of positive degree = very She is most helpful with the customers Any + adj /adv of comparative degree (used in negations and questions). Is he working any harder? comparative + and + comparative Computers are becoming more and more important in our lives. By far, easily + adj /adv of superlative degree By far the cheapest, easily the most attractive. = Note that further (but not farther) can mean “more” or “in” addition. Stop doing it if you have any further complaints (= any more complaints) = We use older /oldest but not elder /eldest in comparisons. My sister is older than me. We use elder /eldest (often before a noun, e.g. sister, son … etc.) mostly to talk about members of a family. my elder sister Before a superlative we use the the most reasonable act. The superlative is used in the following structures: - With prepositions. This act is the most reasonable of
all He is the best
lawyer in
our city. - With clauses. This agency is the best I’m likely to find
. Note: most of all, best of all, least of all, etc. - Without the. 27 TASKS I. Answer the questions using the list of punishments for crimes: 1. What are the least serious punishment? 2. What are the most serious punishment? (capital punishment – life imprisonment – community service order – probation – fine – suspended sentence – corporal punishment – imprisonment) 3. What are the most serious crimes? 4. What are, the least serious crimes? (murder, theft, burglary, drunk-driving, hijacking, drug dealing, battery, robbery, bribery, smuggling) 5. What is the highest judicial organ in Great Britain? 6. Does the Supreme Court consider the most serious cases? II. Choose an adjective or an adverb: 1. He seems to be (honest /honestly). 2. Tell me all (honest /honestly). 3. The question is quite (simple /simply). 4. She explained it quite (simple /simply). 5. Do you (seriously /serious) want to go the trial as a witness? 6. It is a very (serious /seriously) thing. 7. His answer was quite (clear /clearly). 8. These figures (clear /clearly) show the development of our country. 9. I don’t know (exact /exactly) where a police station is. 10. I don’t know the (exact /exactly) time of the trial. 11. The audience was (happy /happily) to hear a fair sentence. 12. He had an accident because he was driving too (fast /fastly). III. Choose the correct word: 1. Of the four articles I like the first one (better /best). 2. Does the judge feel (weller /better) today than he did yesterday? 3. Jane is the (less /least) careful of all the drivers. 4. Your heritage is (different from /different than) mine. 5. The more evidence we have, (easier /the easier) we win a case. 6. This juror is (far /more) friendly than that one, but that juror is (much /very) more patient than the former. 7. Taxi fares are (far /very) expensive in Rome, but they are (any /even more) expensive in London. 8. As she gets older, she becomes (the /more) experienced. 9. Nothing is (worse /worst) than being stuck in a traffic jam. 10. That test wasn’t (as hard as /hard as) I thought. 28
11. You’re not a safe driver! You should drive (more /most) slowly. IV. Complete these sentence in any appropriate way using the pat-
tern the more … the better. Translate these sentences: 1. The later the general election, … the … (good) it will be for the Gov-
ernment. 2. The … (well) we study, the better we know laws. 3. The … (long) I listened to the speech of the barrister, the … (much) I liked it. 4. The general rule is that the … (high) is the status of the judge, the … (much) serious cases he tries. 5. The … (hard) we study, the … (successfully) we take exams. 6. The … (much) important the purpose of the activity complained about, the … (great) the tendency to grant effective authorization of the nui-
sance by legislative fiat. 7. The … (much) we discuss this case , the … (little) I understand it. 8. The … (long) I sit here, the … (little) I feel like leaving the court-
room. 9. The … (many) he did, the … (much) was expected of him by the vil-
lage community. 10. The … (long) I study English, the … (much) I realise what an inter-
esting language it is. 11. The … (soon) he comes to the lawyer … the … (quick) he gets the necessary information. 12. The … (long) the lawyer made his speech, the … (difficult) was to understand him. V. Define the degrees of comparison of adjectives and adverbs and translate the following words and word combinations: high crimes, worse, less archaic laws, civil officers, badly, more com-
plicated, the least serious crime, criminal proceedings, a corrupt President, eas-
ier, the latest report, constitutional duties; the most dangerous criminal statu-
tory crime, better, most essential, more attentive. VI. Fill in the comparative and superlative form of each adjective as in the example: High – higher – the highest Legal – more legal – the most legal 29 Positive Comparative Superlative tall good intelligent far heavy much little hungry loud bad essential attentive lawful privy late competent just VII. Fill in the gaps: as … as; not as … as; (not) so … as; the same (as); as; than 1. He is … clever … he seems. 2. It’s rather more complicated case …that. 3. This witness looked … he did yesterday. 4. Tom works … a slave. He is regarded … the hardest-working em-
ployee in the company. 5. Ben’s car is faster … mine. 6. My brother spent half … much on his trial … I did. 7. Her CV was more impressive … the other applicant’s. 8. This criminal case is not … serious … that one. 9. Probation is not … severe … imprisonment. 10. This investigator is more experienced … that one. 11. The speech of his barrister was not … long … I expected it to be. 12. This lawyer is not … old … he looks. 13. Yes, don’t worry about a thing. I’ve got a lawyer who’s …… clever ……. a fox. 30
VIII. Match the English and Russian equivelents: most powerful печально известный most famously самый сильный safely возможный notorious наиболее изветно putative спокойно worse в начальной стадии mutual самый сильный unsuspecting ничего не подозревающий more prudent недавно lately более благоразумный the latest самый подготовленный the most efficient недавний badly самый справедливый further плохо the justest дальнейший initially хуже IX. Put the words in brackets in the right forms. Alternatives are possible. THE CHAMP The two men were sitting at the bar. The one (near) … to me was the (big) … and (strong) … man I have ever seen. The one (far) … from me was the (small /little) … and (weak) … . They were having the (violent) … argu-
ment I had ever heard. Suddenly the little man said, “It’s a case of the (small) … brain in the world fitted into the (big) … head!” They were his (last /latest) … words. The little man didn’t know what hit him as he fell to the floor. “When Shortie wakes up, tell him that was my (better /best) … Karate chop,” the big man told the barman as he left. The next evening, King Karate was at the bar as usual when Shortie crept quietly, swung his arm and the champ fell to the floor. “When Karate wakes up,” Shortie said, “tell him it was my (oldest /eldest) … Land Rover starting handle.” X. Read the sentences, find adjectives and adverbs and define their degrees of comparison: 1. The evidence of the witness should be examined carefully. 2. We should have less delinquency if people married more wisely, if parents knew better how to deal with their children’s personal problems. 3. The judge said that the witness would be interviewed as soon as pos-
sible. 31 4. This article is directly related to the information we are looking for. 5. The more correct information is stored in a computer, the more pre-
cise data we get. 6. I bought the latest edition of today’s paper and read about these most terrible crimes. 7. Her illness was more serious than we at first thought. 8. He is the cleverest lawyer I know. 9. Here it is, the latest news from the middle East. The situation there hasn’t got much better, has it? 10. The day that Christopher Roberts entered prison for a crime he had never committed was the worst day of his long and eventful life. Fortunately, he was eventually found innocent and set free. 11. The pollution in our town isn’t bad as it used to be, and crime and corruption have become less serious problems; things are getting better. 12. People are not always so good as they appear – isn’t that true, Mr. Nero? 13. The police are not always the most honest people in town, are they? 14. With taxes the way they are these days, it seems the more money I make, the less I have. XI. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. Ее голос становился все громче и громче. 2. Эта проблема не такая серьезная, как вы думаете. 3. Покажите мне, пожалуйста, кратчайший путь к полицейскому участку. 4. Он совершил аварию, потому что ехал слишком быстро. 5. Жизнь становится тяжелее и сложнее с каждым
днем. 6. Это был самый печальный опыт в моей жизни. 7. Чем больше я читаю о налоговой реформе, тем меньше я ее по-
нимаю. 8. Они принялись за работу без дальнейших комментариев. 9. Он считает, что чем старше он становится, тем меньше он в чем-
либо уверен. 10. Свидетель, говорите немного тише и
менее агрессивно. 11. Если эти средства будут признаны незаконными, они будут конфискованы. 12. Этот человек незаконно прошел в здание. 13. Приговор магистратского суда не такой суровый, как приговор уголовного суда. 14. Защитник обвиняемого был менее опытным, чем судья. 32
15. Чем больше он изучал доказательства, тем лучше он понимал обстоятельства дела. 16. Это дело не такое серьезное, как то. 17. Показания свидетеля обвинения были не такими важными, как показания свидетеля защиты. 18. Думаю, что это наиболее подходящее для нас предложение. XII. Translate these sentences into Russian, paying attention to the comparative constructions: 1. Let’s take this way, it’s a mile shorter than that one. 2. Now the road seemed many times as long, which always happens when you are dead tired. 3. Jane was as nervous as I once had been before the interview. 4. Kate works reasonably hard but she used to work much harder. 5. The more we know about law the more control we get over it. 6. This code costs twice as much as the other one. 7. The biggest Cali bosses appear to be safely behind bars. 8. The agents were further charged with conspiracy to commit arson. 9. A very large majority recognized the need for an effective punish-
ment, called for the return of corporal punishment and asked for firmer disci-
pline in schools. 10. It is now clear that, since the 1970s, drugs trafficking has become the most organized, most professional and most profitable of all illegal activi-
ties. 11. We were dealing with a larger number of criminals and prisoners were very often violent. 12. Although Mr. Pickering received a retirement pension based on his contributions over more than 20 years, it was considerably less than the enti-
tlement of an officer disabled at work. 13. The decisions will lead to higher pension. 14. Prosecutors were certain they had more than enough witnesses to back up the charge. 15. One of the most effective ways of tracing missing people is publicity. 16. Jane was as nervous as I once had been before the interview. 17. The solution of this problem is twice as simple as they think. 18. The longer I listened to the speech of the barrister, the more I liked it. XIII. Use an adjective or an adverb in an appropriate degree of comparison. Translate these sentences into Russian: 1. John is a good lawyer, but I don’t know a (good) lawyer than Nick. 2. She is the (clever) person in our family. 33 3. I have (little /few) interest in politics. 4. Jim isn’t as (good) advocate as Mark. 5. The (difficult) thing about learning English is grammar. 6. She is much (good) at civil law than her friend. 7. This is a (difficult) problem than we have seen. 8. Your reporter must be as (short) as possible. 9. He works the (hard) but earns the (little). 10. I’ve never come across a (annoying) person than James. 11. What is the (late) news? 12. He finds it (easy) to talk about work than to do it? 13. Where is (near) police station? 14. His job is (important) than his friend’s. 15. The Browns felt (bad) than the Smiths about losing the case. XIV. Choose a correct variant: 1. You must be ___________ when crossing the street. a) careful b) late c) careless d) latest 2. He should spend as ___________ time as possible to study this case. a) more b) most c) much d) the most 3. Honesty is ____________ policy. a) the best b) better с) more better 4. Of two evils choose the ___________ . a) less b) little c) least 5. We must act ____________ in critical situations. a) quicker b) quickest c) quickly d) the quickest 6. What’s ____________ news of today? a) later b) the latest c) last 7. If you require ____________ information or assistance, ask at your local police. a) further b) farther c) furthest 8. You must be ___________ if you don’t want to lose your things. a) careful b) most careful c) more careful 9. Actions speak ____________ than words. a) more louder b) the loudest c) louder 10. The court costs are becoming ____________ nowdays. a) more expensive b) the most expensive c) expensiver 34
11. The damage to the car could be ____________ than we expected. a) the worst b) bad c) worse 12. That was _____________ case in his practice. a) the least difficult b) the less difficult c) the difficulter 13. Is there _____________ work for you to do every day? a) many b) little c) few 14. Sometimes _____________ gain is to be a loser. a) the greater b) the greatest c) the most greatest 15. Don’t worry, he is ____________ on the danger list. a) no more b) not longer c) no longer 16. There is not a passion ____________ strongly rooted in the human heart __________ envy. a) so … as b) not so … as c) as … than 17. The witness gave the _____________ answer. a) brief b) briefer c) briefest 18. This trial is twice as ___________ . a) long b) longer c) longest 19. The people needed business skills so that they could manage them-
selves _____________ . a) more efficiently b) most efficiently c) much efficiently. 20. The Parliament is ______________ influential than the President. a) less b) least c) more 21. A lawyer waited enough, ______________ than he had promised. a) longest b) long c) longer 22. “ The ______________ you go, the better!” – he shouted in a rage. a) soon b) sooner c) soonest. 35 The Verb The Active Present Simple Form:
I We You They live do not live “+” “- “ He She It lives does not live near here I we Do you they live he Does she It live near here? Where do I we you they live? “?” Where does she it live? Short answer: “Do you like Peter?” – “Yes, I do.”/ “No, I don’t.” “Does she speak Spanish?” – “Yes, she does.”/”No, she doesn’t.” Use: The Present Simple is used 1. to express a habit or when we talk about things that happen on a regular basis.
I leave work at 5.30 most days. Usually muggers attack people in the streets. 2. to express a fact which is always true.
Poverty drives people to crime. Burglars think that the bigger the house, the richer the owners. Criminals don’t obey laws. 36
3. to express a fact which is true for a long time (permanent situation
). She works in a bank. I live in Oxford. 4. to express an action with a future meaning (timetables, pro-
Tomorrow is Wednesday. The plane for Glasgow leaves at 10.05 on Tuesday morning. Indicators of time: Never; rarely; not often; sometimes; often; usually; always; every night/ week/ month/etc. e.g. Burglars usually break in so-called “burglar-friendly” houses. TASKS I. Complete the sentences with the verbs given, using the Present Simple: a. The police … (to investigate) crimes. b. The judge … (to sentence) people. c. Prisoners … (to live) in cells. d. The jury … (to decide) if someone is innocent or guilty. e. Barristers … (to defend) people and … (to present) evidence. f. Criminals … (to commit) crimes. g. When someone … (to break) the law the police … (to try) to find out who is responsible. h. The defendant … (to provide) facts to show something is true. i. Shoplifters … (to steal) things from shops. j. The manslaughter is that who … (to kill) somebody by accident. k. Policemen … (to carry) guns. l. People … (to install) a burglar alarm so that to protect their property. II. Make up questions to the following sentences and answer them correcting the statements: a. An arsonist steals from shops while acting as an ordinary cus-
tomer. b. Offenders always break the law. c. A shoplifter sets fire to property illegally. d. Stowaways buy and sell drugs illegally. 37 e. A bigamist takes control of a plane by force and makes the pilot change course. f. A traitor gets secret information from another country, organiza-
tion or person. g. A drug – dealer hides on a ship or plane to get a free journey. h. Hijackers marry illegally, being married already. i. Accomplices help a criminal in a criminal act. j. A forger runs away from the army. k. Spies betray his or her country to another state. l. A deserter makes counterfeit money or signatures. III. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Simple and translate the sentences from English into Russian: a. Unlike the police in most of the world, British police … (not to carry) guns. b. The ordinary policemen still … (to wear) helmets though officers … (to have) caps, but the popularity of the police with general public has declined. c. Surveys … (to show) that people … (to prefer) this kind of polic-
ing, even if it … (not to catch) so many serious criminals. d. This problem … (to concern) the conduct of all our courts. e. Magistrates are volunteers who … (to work) at other jobs and … (to sit) in the courts for, say, two days. f. Nevertheless more thefts, more violence, more vandalism, more fraud … (to exist) than did the years ago. g. Also some crime … (to become) suddenly fashionable. h. Not anybody … (to know) whether it really happened rarely or whether people who had been robbed hesitated to come to the police station. i. It is generally considered to be an activity which … (to make) money for lawyers rather than anything else. j. On the other hand, the British unlike the Americans … (not to spend) their time suing each other. k. It … (to decide) how you may distribute your goods when you die, … (to impose) limits on how fast you may drive your car, … (to say) what breeds of dogs you may own. l. Ministers … (to change) their minds, of course, about emergency regulations. It … (not to affect) law. m. Secondly, it … (to stop) “law by decree” in which someone with power, either political or administrative … (to claim) that this or that is a good idea and should therefore be enacted. 38
n. When Parliament … (to pass) a new law, it has to be examined very carefully to make sure that it … (not to contradict) previous law unless there is full and clear intention to do so. o. The law … (to set out) the arrangements for marriage, divorce and custody of the children of divorced couples. p. Often we … (to feel) irritated or embittered by obvious stupidi-
ties in the law which … (not to take) proper account of a modern situation. IV. Fill in the gaps with the most appropriate verbs in the Present Simple (each verb should be used only once) and translate the text from English into Russian: The instance in which speech may be punished 1)… where the speech 2)… the ability of the judicial system to operate. The administration of law 3)… the ability of a court system to operate impartially. The publisher of a newspaper which 4)… to influence the judge or jury in a particular case may be punished for contempt of court. This 5)… that a judge is free from criticism. Newspapers in the United States 6)… great freedom to comment on a pending trial. A majority of the Supreme Court 7)… the view that a newspaper is free to attack a court so long as that attack 8)… an “imminent threat to the administra-
tion of justice”. A court’s decision may be called “outrageous”. And a newspa-
per which 9)… an unfair report of a pending case and 10)… a judge with being “high handed” and committing a “travesty on justice” was unanimously held by the Supreme Court to be immune from punishment for having said so. to be to have to support not to constitute to depend upon to seek not to mean to make to injure to charge V. Translate from Russian into English, using the Present Simple and its indicators: a. Он старается никогда не нарушать правила при управлении автомобилем: пользуется ремнём безопасности (to wear seat belt) и не превышает скорость. b. Карманники крадут деньги и вещи из карманов и сумок лю-
дей, как правило, в переполненных общественных местах. Следите за своими вещами. c. Контрабандисты переправляют через границу запрещённые товары, наркотики и оружие. Они постоянно придумывают самые изощрённые (bewildering) способы перевозки. Тамо-
женной службе не всегда удаётся помешать им. 39 d. Люди устанавливают сигнализацию в своих домах, кварти-
рах и машинах для того, чтобы уберечь их от взломов и краж. По статистике существуют так называемые “привле-
кательные для воров” дома и машины. В них воры проника-
ют до пяти раз. Часто люди жалуются на своих шумливых соседей, но нет лучшего способа
остановить “домушника” как иметь внимательных и хорошо расположенных к вам со-
седей. e. Детективы расследуют преступления и ловят преступников. Они редко отдыхают и поэтому не всегда удачны в личной жизни. Они полностью посвящают себя работе. f. Закон пронизывает все сферы нашей жизни. Парламентарии стараются совершенствовать законы. Согласно имеющимся данным, британцы считают себя очень законопослушными гражданами. g. Кроме адвоката обвиняемый имеет ещё одного защитника – суд присяжных. Суд присяжных состоит обычно из 12 чело-
век, и только он решает, виновен обвиняемый или нет. Хотя, конечно, иногда суд присяжных допускает ошибки. VI. Find out the mistakes and correct them: Ian Stephen, who work with the Scottish prison service, believe that you’re more at risk if your house look nice. “Window – boxes, nice curtains and beautifully painted walls all tells the burglar that you is proud of your home and cares about your possessions and is more likely to have nice things in your house,” he say. He advise people to try to make their homes looks as plain as possible and not to draw attention to any new things they buys by leav-
ing the empty boxes next to the dustbin. 40
Present Continuous Form: I am am not He She It is is not “+” “-“ We You They are are not working Am I Is he she it Are we you they am I is he she it “?” Where are we you they working now? Short answer: “Are you reading now?” – “Yes, I am. // No, I’m not.” “Are we/ they reading now?” – “Yes, we/ they are. // No, we/ they aren’t.” “Is he/ she / it reading now?” – “Yes, he/ she/ it is. // No, he/ she/ it isn’t.” Note: I’m reading now, am I? I’m reading now, aren’t I? (= am I not) Use: The Present Continuous is used 1. to express an activity happening now.
They are following the criminal now. She can’t answer the phone because she is interrogating the criminal. 41 2. to express an activity happening around now, but perhaps not at the moment of speaking.
He is studying Law at the University. I’m reading a good book by Sidney Sheldon “Rage of Angels”. 3. to express a temporary or repeated activity.
Peter White is a student, but he’s working as a barman during the holidays. I’m living with friends until I find a place of my own. 4. to express a changing situation (verbs describing change and devel-
Things are getting worse. More and more people are giving up smoking. The population of the world is rising very fast. 5. to express complaints about bad habits or to criticize smb.
(usually with: constantly, always, continually, forever) She is constantly finding fault with me. Please be quite! You are continually interrupting. 6. to express a planned future arrangement.
We’re meeting at 1.00 outside the restaurant. They are seeing tomorrow to discuss the further steps of the operation. Indicators of time: Now; at the moment; at this period; etc. e.g. I’m learning to drive a car now. TASKS I. Complete the sentences with the verbs given, using the Present Continuous: a. It’s 5.00 already. Now they … (to enter) the bank. b. Don’t you know? At the moment she … (to testify) against her husband in court. c. Now they … (to consult) with other jurors. d. The judge … (to instruct) the members of the jury. e. As a juror, you should never go to the scene of any event that is part of the case you … (to hear). f. The foreman … (to conduct) the deliberations on the verdict now. g. At the moment the lawyers … (to give) closing arguments. h. The lawyer … (to try) to convince the jury in her guiltiness. i. Tom Watson, himself, … (to investigate) this case. 42
j. However, in most industrialized countries, the legal differences between the married and unmarried … (to decrease). k. More and more criminals … (to become) high – proficient. l. He … (to divorce) his wife next month. m. She … (not to plan) to live in this house. n. At this moment the investigator … (to inspect) the scene of the crime. o. They … (to discuss) the information they have just received. p. He … (to participate) in elections and may be elected deputy of the State Duma. II. Expand one of the sets of notes below to complete each dialogue: * constantly / to increase * always / to miss / him * forever / to criticize/ driving * continually / to change mind * apparently / to get worse and worse * more and more people / to own cars e.g. A: I can’t read this! B: You’re always complaining about my reports. a. A: Have you heard that the criminal escaped from the prison? B: They’re … b. A: What can you say about the crime rate for the last three months? B: It’s … c. A: That was a dangerous thing to do! B: You’re… d. A: He doubts about their didactic abilities! B: He’s … e. A: John is so rude! B: His behaviour’s … f. A: Don’t you think that there’s a lot of traffic at this time of day? B: Yes, it’s because … III. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Continuous and translate the sentences from English into Russian: a. They … (to resort) to Cold War espionage techniques and sci-
ence to fight drug and alcohol abuse, which many turned into a way of life during their hippy days a generation ago. b. Terrorism … (to become) more menacing than ever before. c. I … (to write) to you to report the loss of my sun – glasses and case. 43 d. The black Canadian, born in Jamaica, Ben Johnson … (to try) to have a life ban overturned in the courts. He … (to sue) the Ca-
nadian Centre for Ethics in Sport. e. Over the past 10 years, the number of arrests of girls for vio-
lence has more than doubled and juvenile crime … (to increase) at a faster rate among girls than boys. f. Girls … (to turn) to violent crime. g. American parents … (to bug) their children’s telephones, … (to install) secret cameras in clock radios and … (to send) strands of hair retrieved from pillows for analysis at drug laboratories. h. Parents … (to hire) companies with sniffer dogs to track down traces of dope in their homes. i. The District Attorney … (to attempt) to lead the witness. j. He … (to claim) that Mr. Irvine threw acid on Mr. Taska’s truck. k. “All students know we are an anti – smoking establishment and what we … (to say) is that when we say something we mean it. So, anybody has to face the consequences”, added Mr. Brown. l. Mr. Milosevic … (to conduct) his own defence. IV. Fill in the gaps with the verbs below, using them in the Present Continuous and translate the text from English into Russian: Terrorism can take many different forms and terrorists 1) … new ways to terrorize people. The most common methods have been bombing, assassination, kidnapping and hijacking, but terrorists 2) … along with technology. They 3) … more sophisticated and 4) … use of techno-
logical advances. Even the most common methods, such as bombing, 5) … due to the latest developments like remote control and undetectable plastic explo-
sives. The growth in the use of poisonous substances and gases, and the possi-
bility of terrorists obtaining a nuclear bomb are horrifying. to become to evolve to make to change to think of (constantly) V. Translate from Russian into English: a. Сейчас Майкл знакомится с материалами дела, которое ве-
дёт Том. Том считает, что Майкл постоянно к нему придира-
ется. Их отношения становятся всё хуже и хуже. b. В данный момент криминалисты осматривают место пре-
ступления и делают необходимые замеры. Следователь оп-
рашивает свидетелей и пока отказывается комментировать 44
или делать какие-либо заявления относительно этого про-
исшествия. c. Мы слышим, как пресс-секретарь делает заявление. По только что полученной информации, угонщики удерживают заложников внутри самолёта и угрожают взорвать его, если не будут выполнены их требования. d. Согласно статистическим данным, все больше и больше де-
вушек становятся соучастницами жестоких преступлений
. В целом растёт и число преступлений среди несовершенно-
летних. В момент совершения преступлений почти 2/3 из них находятся под действием алкоголя или наркотиков. e. Сейчас адвокат пытается убедить суд присяжных в виновно-
сти обвиняемого и намеривается подвергнуть перекрёстному допросу главного свидетеля. Мы знаем, что подсудимый не признаёт себя виновным. f. Мы планируем встретиться завтра и обсудить показания очевидцев. Все они очень противоречивые, более того, неко-
торые свидетели постоянно их меняют. g. Я сам защищаю себя в суде, т.к. не нашёл подходящего ад-
воката. h. Террористы становятся всё более “профессиональными” и используют последние достижения техники. i. Полиция всегда упускает этого преступника. Вот
и сейчас он сбежал из тюрьмы. j. В данный момент он даёт показания против своей жены. k. Его родители находятся сейчас в полном отчаянии! Они следят за ним и прослушивают телефон! VI. Correct the mistakes in the usage of the Present Continuous if it is necessary and explain them: Alistair
: Have you ever done any jury service? Elena
: No, I haven’t. Why do you asking? Alistair
: Oh, nothing … just that I am make a report about how more and more people trying to get out of it if they can. Elena:
Really? I’d have thought it’d be quite interesting. Alistair
: Yes, so would I, but it seems that there’s a problem when you is taking time off work. Elena
: Yes? What, like their bosses won’t give them time off? Alistair
: No, no, that’s not the problem, I mean your employer has to let you off, but they don’t actually have to pay your wages when you are partici-
pate in jury service … 45 Stative Verbs Classification: Stative verbs express a permanent state rather than an action and don’t have continuous forms. These are: So, it is necessary to make a conclusion: when the verbs express a state, they are used in the form of Present Simple; when they express an event, they are used in Present Continuous. Verbs of senses Verbs of feelings and emotions Verbs of opinion Other verbs appear; hear; see; look(=seem); seem; smell; sound; taste; resemble; etc. adore; detest; dislike; enjoy; forgive; hate; like; love; pre-
fer; want; wish; etc. agree; believe; understand; doubt; guess; know; mean; realize; remember; sup-
pose; recognize; imagine; etc. belong; depend; fit; include; need; own; possess; re-
quire; concern; consist; contain; depend on; de-
serve; involve; lack; matter; owe; have; etc. Peculiarities: Some stative verbs can have continuous forms but there is a difference in meaning. Compare the following sets of sentences: to think – * “думать; полагать” I think it is a serious crime. * “обдумывать” What are you thinking about? to see – * “видеть; понимать” I see what you mean. I see there is a problem in representing facts. * “встречаться” We’re seeing Jenny tonight to decide the case in an impartial way. to hear – * “слышать” They hear him giving evidence in the courtroom. * “получать известие” The witness is hearing from anyone who might have seen the accident. 46
to feel – * “понимать; чувствовать” I feel that something goes wrong. * “ощущать; чувствовать себя …” “What’s the matter with you? Are you feeling well?” to look – * “выглядеть” The policeman has worked all the night long. He looks very tired. * “смотреть” The investigator is looking at the suspects’ photos. to smell – * “иметь запах” It smells of burnt paper here. * “нюхать” “Why is he smelling the bottle of perfume? Is it the same scent we felt at the place of crime?” to taste – * “иметь вкус” The meal tastes wonderful. * “пробовать” They are tasting the meal. TASKS I. Examine the other examples of stative verbs and the differences in their meaning depending on their use in Present Simple or Present Con-
tinuous. Classify the sentences into two groups and explain your choice: State Event …… …… a. I really admire Mary. She’s an excellent police officer. b. “What are you doing here?” – “I am just admiring this unusual graffiti. I can’t call it a mess.” c. This bag weighs a ton! d. We are weighing this bag. e. “What’s that terrible noise? I’m going to call the police!” – “It’s not necessary! Our neighbours are only having a party!” f. The suspect has a cottage in Brighton and it is a fifteen - minute ride from that place. 47 II. Choose the most appropriate variant from the given choice and translate the sentences from English into Russian: a. The UK Government thinks / is thinking
about a proposal to al-
low thousands of prisoners to have televisions in their cells. b. The woman who has been badly hurt in the accident is feeling / feels
worse and worse. c. In England and Wales there is a jurisdiction system where defen-
dants have / are having
the rights to choose their courts. d. Mr. Straw is hearing / hears
the jurors discussing the verdict. e. The prosecuting attorney feels / is feeling
that the witness for the defence is telling a lie. f. So that to identify this person the officers look through / are looking through
the files of the criminals caught for the last two months. g. The dog is smelling / smells
out drugs in the container. h. The man walking south along the street is looking / looks
like a wanted gangster. i. It is smelling / smells
danger. j. This drink tastes / is tasting
like sherry we had in the evening of murder. k. Most of juveniles are feeling / feel
depressed because they de-
pend / are depending
on their parents. l. They are seeing / see
what the detective is driving at. m. The experts see / are seeing
in some days to decide whether it is an important amendment to the Rules or not. n. The judge is thinking / thinks
that violent crimes committed by electronically monitored offenders are rare. III. Fill in the blanks in the text using the verbs from the table in the most appropriate form: to see to feel to smell to appear to hear from to think about to have to look Many countries with very high prison populations … very high crime rates. So, the Governments … the alternatives to prison. The public is looking forward to … the group of experts who … in three weeks at a four-day confer-
ence on “The Problem of Alternative Ways to Imprisonment” in Glasgow. It … like an attempt to present the newest community – based sanctions such as 48
“electronic monitoring”. The experts … that it will yield some benefits to the society. It … a sensation. The overriding rationale in favour of electronic moni-
toring … to centre on its potential to alleviate both prison overcrowding and the financial burden of incarceration. IV. Translate the sentences from Russian into English using the cor-
rect form of the stative verbs: o. Алан обдумывает перспективы защиты обвиняемого в суде. Он полагает, что его подзащитный невиновен. Сейчас он просматривает материалы дела, а вечером встречается со следователем, чтобы уточнить детали. p. Все с нетерпением ждут результатов экспертизы, т.к. увере-
ны, что отпечатки пальцев принадлежат подозреваемому. Хотя у полицейских мало улик, они, кажется, не сомневают-
ся в личности преступника. q. Офицер выглядит усталым после ночного дежурства. Опе-
рация по задержанию налетчика закончилась удачно и поли-
цейские заслуживают награды. r. Поджигателем оказался несовершеннолетний. Он полностью зависит от своих родителей, и они будут возмещать ущерб. s. Сейчас эксперты обследуют место пожара. Здесь пахнет
рью. t. Детектив пробует вино. Оно той же марки, что было обна-
ружено на месте преступления. V. Correct the mistakes in the usage of the stative verbs if it is nec-
essary and explain them. CNN NEWS: … Hello, I’m Jane Utterson with some breaking news for you. I’m standing in front of the Midwest bank and as far as I’m hear two men are de-
manding a cashier to open the safe and put all money in a bag. The policemen is consider them to be quite nervous because three hostages have been already wounded by them. One of the wounded woman feel worse and worse. The of-
ficers is think about the further steps. They are looking very tired after some hours of unbearable tension. Stick around and follow our forthcoming news! … 49 TEST YOURSELF I. Check your knowledge and decide which answer a, b, c or d best fits each blank: 1. I’m sure the police … the suspects at the moment. a) is questioning b) are questioning c) questions d) question 2. Dave … his further promotion. a) are thinking about b) thinks of c) is thinking about d) think over 3. We … to punish an innocent person. a) wants b) don’t want c) are want d) aren’t want 4. She always … walking along the dark streets. a) avoid b) is avoiding c) to avoid d) avoids 5. Tom … trouble at work! It is so disturbing! a) always causes b) is always causing c) don’t cause d) doesn’t always causes 6. They … the scene of the crime for clues. a) are searching b) search c) doesn’t search d) isn’t searching 7. We … a “Law Rights” seminar on Monday. a) attends b) attend c) are attending d) don’t attends 8. The criminals have been announced to drive in the direction of the airport. We must be in a hurry, their flight to Paris … at 8.10, as I know. a) is taking off b) takes off c) take off d) taking off 9. “… within the speed limit?” – “As far as I can judge, oh…” a) Do you driving b) Does he drives c) Is he driving d) Are they drive 10. The crime rate … steadily. a) growes b) are growing c) is growing d) begin to grow 11. The officer of the Scotland Yard … this case. a) investigates b) has investigating c) is investigating d) investi-
gate 12. The suspect … staying in prison until the facts about his innocence are found. a) is keeping b) keeps c) are kept d) are keeping 13. Mary and Jack … in police. a) are working b) work c) decides to work d) are worked 14. … they wear seat belts while driving? a) Does b) Are c) Have d) Do 50
15. … believe he is involved in smuggling. a) He don’t b) I don’t c) They aren’t d) She isn’t 16. I … Mr. Guntry. He is a hard-working and dedicated policeman. a) am admiring b) am admire c) admire d) am not admiring 17. She … the state in court. a) is represent b) don’t represent c) represent d) doesn’t represent 18. Unemployment … many people to crime as an easy way of getting money. a) turns b) is turning c) turn d) doesn’t turns 19. He … a special talent to solve complicated cases. a) is having b) has having c) has d) have 20. The clothes … the perfume found in the suitcase of the suspect. a) is smelling b) smell of c) smells of d) are smelling of II. Give at least one example from the test to illustrate the following points: 1. temporary situation; 2. permanent state; 3. repeated / habitual actions; 4. timetables / programmes with future meaning; 5. truths or laws of natures; 6. changing or developing situation; 7. complaints about bad habits; 8. planned future arrangement(s); 9. action(s) happening now; 10. action(s) happening around the time of speaking. 51 Present Perfect Form: I We You They have (‘ve) have not (haven’t) “+” “-“ He She It has (‘s) has not (hasn’t) recognized the criminal. caught the criminal. Have I We You They “?” Has He She It recognized the criminal. caught the criminal. Short answer:
“Has she ever worked in police?” – “Yes, she has. / No, she hasn’t.” “Have you ever been to Egypt?” – “Yes, I have. / No, I haven’t.” Use: The Present Perfect is used 1. to express an action in the past. We are interested in the experience as part of someone’s life. They have lived all over the world. She has travelled a lot in America. 2. to express an action or state which began in the past and continues to the present. I have known Mike for six years. How long have you worked as a policeman? 3. to express a past action with a result in the present. I have lost my wallet. She has just passed her driving test. Indicators of time: For; since; already; so far; yet (“-“, “?”); just; etc. They have already caught the criminal. He hasn’t got any information yet. 52
TASKS I. Complete the sentences with the verbs given in the brackets and translate them from English into Russian: a. During the past few years, I … (to see) legal medicine grow consid-
erably in stature, and there …(to be) an increasing understanding of its importance on the part of the public. b. Collins, best known for playing the sceming alexis Carrington in the television series Dynasty, … (to countersue) Random House for $3.6 million she claims the publishing house still owes her. c. The defendant … (to plead) not guilty and you should presume the defendant’s innocence throughout the entire court. d. So many times I … (to find) it to be true that the wife and family of a forensic pathologist forego social life, become accustomed to tele-
phones ringing at all hours of night, and can only “look forward” to Saturdays and Sundays as no different from any other day except that the death toll is heavier on those days. e. But getting back to Dr. Jachimczyk, perhaps of the cases he … (to handle) would serve as a better illustration of what I mean than any amount of general discussion. f. The court initially heavily criticised for incompetence, … now … (to pass) three jail sentences against genocide convicts. g. Embassies in Moscow … (to receive) ominous emails from a skin-
head group, warning non-Russians to leave the country or face the consequences. h. Mr. Steele … (to commit) no crime and poses no danger to the pub-
lic. i. The bomber … (to breach) security by hurling his dynamite from a roof overlooking the building. j. The Board … (to ban) the film on the ground that it contravenes criminal libel laws. II. Fill in the gaps with the most appropriate verbs in the Present Perfect (each verb should be used only once): have made have ended has made have gone has ransacked have picked up has hurt a. It is difficult for people to forgive someone who … them. b. Some people who are not guilty … to prison by mistake. c. The victims of murder are gone forever. Their hopes and plans … . 53 d. Sometimes people kill because of anger, misunderstanding, or fear. All people … mistakes because of such feelings. e. Police … a suspect, at least for questioning, in connection with a murder which took place last night. f. Somebody … her apartment over the weekend. g. He is such a kind of men who … big money out of gambling, book-
making, numbers, and perhaps a little smuggling. III. Look at the diaries and ask Fiona what she has managed to do today and what she has not: Monday 19 January
Go shopping with Helen at 12.00 (+) Go to dentist at 15.00 (+) Have dinner with Whites at 18.00 (+) Go to the theatre with May (-) Tuesday 20 January
Pick up car from garage (+) Take dog to vet (-) Take the children to the zoo (+) Phone to the tour agency (+) IV. Find out the mistakes in the use of the Present Perfect and cor-
rect them: 1. “Did you seen the morning papers?” “No.” “There’s a photograph of the victim in the morning paper,” Mason said. ‘They has photographed the features and retouch the eyes so as to give the corpse a lifelike appearance. They feel that someone is certain to recognize him.” 2. “Have you meet him before?” “No.” “Have you thinks of anything, any clue which would enable us to locate him?” “No. I have been trying. There was nothing I could put my finger on. I can’t remember anything except what I has told you already.” 3. Mason nodded. “I’m inclined to think they do. However, the police haven’t announce it. They’re acting on the assumption that the identity of the murder victim is a mystery. Now, there’s another thing. They has found the murder weapon was the .22 rifle that was lying on the floor of the bedroom. Have you pick up that ri-
fle?” “Yes. Things were all pretty much of a whirl in my mind, but I’m quite certain I picked it up.” V. Translate from Russian into English, using the Present Perfect and its indicators: a. Французкие учёные приступили к разработке детектора запаха – прибора, который позволит обнаруживать преступников с такой же точностью, как по отпечаткам пальцев. Криминали-
сты выразили мнение, что это “подпись”, которую невозмож-
но подделать, она уникальна для каждого человека. b. Мистер Брейк явился свидетелем аварии, в результате кото-
рой пострадали люди. Сейчас он даёт показания полицейским. c. Полиция задержала давно разыскиваемого преступника. Он побывал во многих странах, скрываясь от преследования. Он только что признался в ограблении нескольких банков. d. В мире существует много нелепых законов. Так, например, киргизкие законотворцы приняли закон, по которому все до-
рожные полицейские обязаны сообщать начальству
о полу-
ченных за день взятках. e. Детектив Ирвинг раскрыл преступление и установил убийцу. Чарльз Ирвинг провёл много часов в полицейских архивах, просматривая похожие случаи. 55 Past Simple Form: The form of the Past Simple is the same for all persons “+” I He She It We You They escaped. went away. disappeared. “-“ I He She It We You They didn’t (did not) escape. go away. disappear. “?” Did When did How did Etc. I He She It We You They escape? go away? disappear? Short answer: “Did it disappear yesterday?” – “Yes, it did.” “Did he escape a week ago?” – “No, he didn’t.” Use: Past Simple is used: 1. to express a finished action in the past.
I worked in London police from 1984 to 1997. Eric left two minutes ago. 2. to express actions which follow each other in a story.
… The elevator eased to a crawl for the last few feet of its climb, then came to a stop. The door slid back, Mason entered a small vestibule. On one side was a door bearing the sign “Roof”. On the other side a door had the number 46A. 56
Mason pressed the mother-of-pearl button and heard chimes on the inside of the apartment. … 3. for a past habit or state. Susan spent holidays in these parts when her grandmother lived here. He felt happy when his wife was alive. 4. In news reports and conversations you will often read or hear events introduced with the Present Perfect, and then the Past Simple is used to give the details
: …Switzerland and Russia have signalled their readiness to co-operate in the money-laundering investigations. The Russian mafia said to have illegally channelled billions of dollars through accounts at Bank of New York… Indicators of time: Last year, last month, etc.; five years ago; yesterday; in 1975; al-
ways; etc. She always went there alone without fear. They graduated from the University in 2001. TASKS I. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple and translate the sentences from English into Russian: a. Suddenly and without notice she … (to have) a convulsive seizure and … (to die) shortly afterward. b. Still he … (to give) the impression of a man who could handle most issues in life. c. “ I … (to discover) detective stories in the Seventies,” suddenly his voice (to break down) and I … (to see) him cradle his face in his hands. d. Even the murderers … (to have) a sense of honor those days. There (to be) no mindless psychopaths killing people for just a few dollars. e. Caryl Chessman is an example of someone who … (to become) a better person in prison. He … (to teach) other prisoners to read, and he … (to write) several books. f. The three-judge panel at the tribunal in Tanzania … (to rule) that they … (to have) no power to hand the man over for trial. 57 g. Commenting on the decision, the judge … (to be) instrumental in setting the tribunal, … (to deny) that the outcome of the proceedings suggested inefficiency. h. The ordeal … (to persist) throughout history. In those cases, the or-
deal … (not to be) a contest but rather a test of the guilt or innocence of the accused. i. In some areas the kings or lesser rulers … (to decide) disputes them-
selves. A Grievance Day was sometimes established, when anyone interested … (to apply to) the king with a petition or complaint, but this system rarely … (to function) on a regular basis.
j. The men and women who … (to skyjack) the planes to the Middle East … (to be) professionals. Airline pilots who … (to be) through a hijacking … (to say) it was easier to deal with professionals rather than amateurs.
II. Fill in the gaps with the verbs from the box, using them in the Past Simple: a) to sound b) to let c) to remain d) to manage e) to put f) to sound g) to contrive h) to do
Della Street 1) … through the call and after a moment said, “Drake is on his way down.” The drake Detective Agency, with offices on the same floor as Mason”s offices, 2) … open twenty-four hours a day. Paul Drake, who 3) … all of Mason”s investigative work, some-
times 4) … back and forth between his office and Mason’s as many as a dozen times a day. Within the matter of seconds after Della Street had hung up the telephone, Drake’s code knock 5) … on the door of Perry Mason”s private office and Della Street 6) … him in. Paul Drake, tall, loose-jointed, easy-moving, 7) … some-
how to give the impression of being indifferent to his sur-
roundings, yet 8) … to see everything.
III. Read a short report about the bank robbery given below and complete the interrogation of a bank customer using the Past Simple:
…Police has caught two suspects who are supposed to be bank robbers. The bank robbery was in Manchester last Saturday. It was a quarter past seven when two men dressed in all black, entered the bank and drew the pistols. There were only a few customers in the bank at the time. They made the cus-
tomers lie on the floor and forced the cashier to put the money in a sack. Then one of the robbers pulled a knife from his jacket and said to the customers lying on the floor: “Give me your purses or you’re stuck!” and they handed the 58
purses over one by one to him. At that moment the bank alarm began ringing due to the security guard who had pushed the button and the robbers fled the scene of the crime… Interrogation: Police Officer: - Have you heard about robbery last Sat-
urday? Customer: - Yes, of course, I was there. Police Officer: … Customer: … Etc. IV. Make up your own short report about any criminal case you know using the Past Simple. V. Make up the autobiography of the criminal from the report us-
ing the Past Simple. VI. Complete the sentences with appropriate verb forms in the Past Simple or in the Present Perfect: 1. to burgle - Jack Simple … 10 houses and now he is in prison. - Lee Shyan … 25 houses and offices but was killed during his last attempt. 2. to investigate - Roger is known to be the best detective in our town. He … so many difficult cases. - Bill … one of the most famous bank robbery known as “a rob-
bery of the century” and then retired from the police. 3. to belong to - We … one and the same police station since we were released from the prison. - We … one and the same police station when we lived in that house. 4. to advance - Since the 18-th century, different scientists … theories trying to explain crime. - The French philosopher Montesquieu … a theory tending to show a correlation between criminal behaviuor and natural envi-
ronment. 59 5. to receive - Her father … so many complaints about the noise that he de-
cided not to allow his daughter to organize any party at all. - The police … 60 complaints about silence breaks in the last 15 days. 6. to ask - A police officer … me several questions about my stolen car and now he is looking through the police files. - The police … me several questions about my car and they let me go. 7. to steal - Somebody … my umbrella at the cinema yesterday. - It turns out that a shoplifter … a handbag, a lipstick and a block of cigarettes. VII. Translate the sentences from Russian into English using the Past Simple:
1. Ричард Мичан, 36-летний компьютерный эксперт, обвинил Марка Симсона в убийстве своего брата. Суд присяжных при-
говорил Симсона к 15 годам тюрьмы. Но Симсон зарекомен-
довал себя как примерный арестант и освободился из тюрьмы на 5 лет раньше. Мичан подал протест в Апелляционный Суд, но он его отклонил. 2. В 2000 году московский суд
слушал дело о шпионаже. Аме-
риканский гражданин Эдмуд Поуп отрицал свою вину и гово-
рил, что он не имеет к этому отношения. 3. Три дня назад полиция арестовала двух мужчин по подозре-
нию в подготовке террористического акта. На месте обыска они нашли чертежи аэропорта и фальшивые документы. 4. Неделю назад Джейн прибыла в аэропорт Кеннеди. Она ре-
шила дождаться подругу, обещавшую встретить её, но вскоре поняла, что та не приедет. Она позвонила к ней на работу и узнала, что та находиться в больнице, куда попала в результа-
те аварии. Джейн отправилась прямо в больницу. 5. Том Кард находился в тюрьме с
1995 по 1998 год. В 1998 году он вышел на свободу. В 2000 году он совершил 20 краж из ма-
газина и участвовал в ограблении банка. Месяц назад полиция 60
арестовала его за драку на улице, и он признался во всех пре-
ступлениях. VIII. a) Find out the mistakes in the use of the Past Simple and cor-
rect them: …There was two lawyers, Alfred and Bertram. Alfred once borrow a great deal of money from Bertram. He promises to pay him back on the day he wins his first case in court. But Alfred were lazy and never took on a case. At first Bertram don’t mind, but after five years he got tired of waiting for his money. He decide to take Alfred to court to get the money back. On the day of the trial they both come to the court feeling happy and confident. They shake each other’s hand as if nothing were wrong. Alfred were sure that whether he wins or loses in court he wouldn’t need to pay Bertram the money back. Bertram, on the other hand, was sure he’d get his money back… b) Complete the story above using the Past Simple. 61 Used to Form: “Used to” is the same in all persons. “+” I He She It We You They used to smoke a lot. discuss criminal cases with the teacher. “-“ I He She It We You They did not (didn’t) use to smoke a lot. discuss criminal cases with the teacher. “?” Did When did How did Etc. I He She It We You They use to smoke a lot? discuss criminal cases with the teacher? Short answer: “Did you use to smoke a lot?” – “Yes, I did./ No, I didn’t.” Use: “Used to” is used 1. to express a past habit.
e.g. He used to blackmail people with counterfeit documents but now he is in prison. e.g. Being an in-house lawyer of this firm, Jane used to deal with very complicated problems. 2. to express a past state.
e.g. They used to be happy together before their official divorce. e.g. She used to like taking care of other people. 62
TASKS I. Make negative and interrogative sentences to the given state-
ments: a. Jack used to be a member of a jury. b. This gang used to terrorize the entire community. c. The thought of war used to frighten me when I was young. d. Her farther used to warn her about not going out late at night. e. Police used to announce all women in this area to be on their guard. f. Travel agents used to tell tourists about the dangers of crime at holiday resorts. g. Muggers used to attack people in this park before a police station was established nearby. h. Mary and Dick used to break into the houses to steal valuable things so that not to die from poverty. II. a) Make up your own sentences with “used to+Infinitive” and translate them: b) Write down a situation with “used to” and expressions below: a. to deal with difficult matters whereas … b. to make decisions quickly because … c. to be patient with people due to the fact that … d. to do a lot of paperwork when … e. to work late during … f. to speak on the phone so that to … g. to take care of … and… h. to smoke marijuana and it turns out … i. to fine offenders to avoid … j. to be a splendid detective but now … III. Rewrite the following sentences with “used to”: a. In those times, I was always present at the trials. b. We investigated assaults and batteries while working in the de-
partment. c. Susan witnessed many accidents living in that district. d. Police officers found a huge of proofs at the scene of crimes and now criminals have become cleverer and changed their manners. e. She got secret information about new weapons of mass destruc-
tion during the war. 63 f. Hooligans caused damage and disturbance during their demon-
strations. g. Punishments were very severe and painful in ancient times. h. The police officers tried different methods to identify the crimi-
nal but failed. i. Scotland Yard had no trust of the London public and encountered little cooperation from it. j. Governments denied prisoners’ rights. IV. Complete the sentences: a. When I was young, I used to … b. Being a schoolboy, he used to … c. While studying at the University my mother used to … d. I remember our school teacher used to … e. Mary never used to … f. My friend didn’t use to … g. Jack is in prison now but he used to … h. Mr. Manly is a detective in the local Detective Agency whereas earlier he used to … Would can express typical behaviour. Whereas “used to” is quite fac-
tual, “would” looks at past habits rather nostalgically. “Would” cannot be used to express past states. (We cannot say: They would be happy together.) We don’t use either “used to” and “would” when we say exactly how many times something happened, how long something took, or that something happened at a particular time. Therefore, the Past Simple must be used. “Would” cannot be matched with “to be”. We can represent it in a form of a table: Options Past Simple Used to Would expressing a habit + + + expressing a state + + - matching with “to be” + + - expressing critical attitude - - + Saying exactly how many times, at what particular time and how long smth. happened + - - 64
V. Which of the verb forms can complete the sentences below? Tick all possible answers and explain them: a. The man now known as Mr. Brown … called “Grey” in the crimi-
nal circles. 1. used to be 2. would be 3. was 4. have to be b. The burglar is identified now. She has blonde wavy hair but she … dark-haired when she was first detained and remanded in police custody. 1. would have 2. had 3. used to have 4. was having c. He … armed robberies but then he was seized by the police. 1. used to assist 2. would assist 3. was assisting 4. assisted d. When I was a newly-trained officer, I … till late every night look-
ing through the police archives. 1. worked 2. used to work 3. was worked 4. would work e. According to his previous criminal record, he … other people. 1. used to blackmailing 2. used to blackmail 3. would blackmail 4. blackmailed f. Police … measures against antiglobalists’ demonstrations and then began using tear gas to disperse the demonstrators. 1. would undertake 2. used to undertake 3. undertook 4. were undertaking g. She never … mace spray in her handbag before. 1. brought 2. would bring 3. used to bring 4. was bringing h. … act as one gang? 1. Did they use to 2. Did they 3. Would they 4. Were they i. Steven … smoke pot and hash and now he is a hash addict. 1. would not 2. didn’t use to 3. didn’t 4. was not used to j. French President Jacques Chirac … Holland for its drug troubles. 1. blamed 2. used to blame 3. was to blame 4. would blame 65 k. Julia … people upon legal affairs and then she became an advo-
cate. 1. consulted 2. used to consult 3. would consult 4. consults l. “You know, it … an old police trick”- said George Harrison. 1. would be 2. was 3. used to be 4. was being VI. Use “would”, “used to” or Past Simple in the gapped text and explain your choice (variations are acceptable). In 1976, Holland … (to decide) that the crime around selling drugs … (to be) a greater threat than the health problem caused to the drug user. The journalists of the leading newspapers … (to ask) the mayor of Amsterdam how much a gram of marijuana costs in his city. He … (to answer) without any doubts, because the man shaping an intelligent drug policy knows the facts. Earlier, Holland … (to have) drug troubles but nowadays it has fewer addicts per thousand than France and supplies fewer drugs to France than Spain, Pakistan and Morocco. VII. Translate the text from Russian into English, using “would”, “used to” and Past Simple. …Когда-то Фламбо (Flambeau) был известен как гений воровства, и полиции трёх стран выслеживали его. Бывало, о его великаньих шутках рассказывали легенды: однажды он поставил на голову следователя, что-
бы “прочистить ему мозги”, другой раз пробежал по Рю де Риволи (the Rue de Rivoli) с двумя полицейскими под мышкой (under each arm). К его чести (It is due to him), он пользовался своей силой только для таких бес-
кровных, хотя и унижающих жертву дел. Он никогда не убивал – он толь-
ко крал, изобретательно и с размахом (wholesale). Каждую из его краж можно было счесть новым грехом и сделать темой рассказа. Это он осно-
вал в Лондоне знаменитую фирму “Тирольское молоко” (Tyrolean Dairy Company), у которой не было ни коров, ни молочных (dairies), ни молока, зато были тысячи клиентов. Обслуживал Фламбо их очень просто – пере-
ставлял к их дверям чужие бидоны. Большей частью афёры его были обезоруживающе просты. Чуть не каждое утро газеты сообщали, что он избежал расплаты за преступление, совершив новое, ещё похлеще … (G.K. Chesterton “The Blue Cross”) 66
Past Continuous Form: I He She It was was not (wasn’t) “+” “-“ We You They were were not (weren’t) looking at him as if trying to remem-
ber something. Was I He She It “?” Were We You They looking at him as if trying to remem-
ber something? Short answer:
“Were you working yesterday?” – “Yes, I was. / No, I wasn’t.” “Was she talking to her friend when you arrived?” – “Yes, she was. / No, she wasn’t.” Use: The Past Continuous is used 1. to express an action, event or situation that was in progress at a specified time in the past: “What were you doing at 9.00 last night?” 2. in sentences together with the Past Simple. When this happens, the Past Continuous refers to longer, “background” activities, whilst the Past Simple refers to shorter actions that happened in the middle of the longer ones. As soon as Jack woke up last night, he heard somebody was knocking at the door. 3. to express two actions or events that went on over the same pe-
riod of time, we use the Past Continuous for both. Sally was interrogating the alleged man while John was looking carefully through all his documents. 67 Indicators of time: at the time; at that period of time; while; adverbials beginning with all e.g all night, all morning, all day (to show an action in progress) I didn’t go out yesterday evening, I was watching television all evening. My husband was cooking the dinner while I was talking with our neighbours. TASKS I. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Continuous or Past Simple and translate them: a. Gregory … (to follow) the suspects, while Mary … (to try) to find any information about the gang. b. He … (to search the desk-drawers for something) when Mrs. Smith … (to come in). c. The passengers … (to be going) to fasten the belts when they suddenly … (to hear) the voice of hijacker. d. “Can you remember the events happened last night?” – “Of course, I … (to watch) TV all the evening and … (not to go out) even for a while.” e. When my husband … (to switch on) the lights, he saw the bur-
glar who … (to break into) the house through the window. f. It … (to happen) in October when a policeman … (to spot) one of the culprits who … (to wear) a flack jacket that … (to match) the description of outfits used during the post office hold-up. g. Former Detective Sergeant Tom Lewis, who … (to lead) the in-
vestigation, … (to interview) the would-be assassin and … (to explain) how it had been done. h. During all that year, he … (to live) in Christ-church and … (to lead) a full and busy life: he … (to run) an arts school and … (to rob) banks in his spare time. i. It was reported that car hijackings ... (to run) at a rate of nearly 50 a day. j. The sky was clear and the stars … (to blaze) steadily down through the pure mountain air. Jack … (to notice) a woman, who … (to hide) behind the tree. k. Mr. Blair … (to say) that he … (to plan) his visit in great se-
crecy. l. A charter plane carrying 148 people … (to crash) into the Red Sea close to where the Prime Minister and his family … (to stay). m. Officials from MI 5 … (to believe) that two Islamist terrorists … (to intend) to detonate a bomb in an aircraft. 68
n. The police car … (to appear) at the moment when Ben … (to ig-
nore) a “no right turn” sign. o. Police … (to liaise) with their counterparts during the operation organized to arrest American-born David Francis Bieber, 35. He … (to murder) a British policeman and … (to attempt) to kill two others. II. Fill in the gaps with the verbs from the box using them in the Past Continuous or Past Simple: to lock to leave to blindfold to see to deserve to open to talk to shout to wait to mean to get back to tie to go on to come not to tell to be to say to happen to gag When Davey … the stage, he … exhausted but exhilarated. But when he … to the dressing room, he … the door and … that two men … for him. They … the door behind Davey. He … for his bodyguard Bernard, but no-one … . The two men … his hands behind his back, … and … him. Davey could hear Bernard in the next room. Bernard … to someone and he … terrible things about Davey. He said that Davey … it. What … ? Why nobody … him what … ? III. Correct the mistakes in the use of the Past Continuous if it is necessary and explain them: a. Then we entered the smoking-room. Muller and Flannigan were there. They was both drinking, and a pile of cards were lay on the table. They playing cards as we entered. The conspirators paid no attention to us at all. We sat down and watched them. b. As I turned my head, I saw two figures, now well known to me, at the other side of the deck. They were talk, but I could not hear a word. I de-
cided to hide in one of the lifeboats. It was dark now, so dark that I could hardly see the figures of Muller and Flannigan. A few passengers was still sitting on deck, but many had gone below. c. It was a little square box. I looked over again. Flannigan were shak-
ing something out of a paper into his hand. I saw the white granules – the same I had seen in the morning. I was sure they was going to use them as a fuse… Next moment I struggling with Flannigan. It was useless… I was a child in his hands. (A. Conan Doyle “That Little Square Box”) 69 TEST YOURSELF (PAST SIMPLE, USED TO, WOULD, PAST CONTINUOUS) Check your knowledge and decide which answer a, b, c or d best fits each blank: 1. The Government … a controversial law under which it could take any land it wanted. a) were brining b) used to bring c) brought d) was brought 2. At that time he … jury trial in a military court on charges of plotting against the state. a) awaited b) was awaiting c) were awaiting d) awaits 3. When I lived in New York, I remember police cars … after the of-
fenders with their siren blaring. a) sped b) speeded c) used to speed d) was speeding 4. The driver of the car that killed Brown … a $ 500 fine and five pen-
alty points on his licence. a) got b) would get c) used to get d) was getting 5. Earlier he … people by using strong swearwords. a) was used to offend b) offends c) would offend d) was offending 6. I didn’t know whether she … or telling the truth. a) would bluffing b) used to bluff c) bluffs d) was bluffing 7. Detectives … with Derbyshire police following the bomb explosion. a) were liaising b) were liaised c) would liaise d) used to liaise 8. He was so desperate for money to pay off his debts that he … to em-
bezzlement. a) resorts b) resorted c) was used to resort d) would to resort 9. … Jill a lot of information when she worked in police? a) Did she gave b) Did she use to give c)Was she give d) Would she gave 70
10. They … to find any extra evidence concerning the case. a) managed b) didn’t manage c) didn’t use d) was managing 11. They … ; I could hear them down the road. a) were still arguing b) didn’t argue c) used to argue d) was still arguing 12. She … the manager, and the manager … things over and then … the police a ring. a) notified, thinks, gave c) would notify, think, give b) notifies, thought, gave d) notified, thought, gave 13. When Sally … , he … evidence against his mother-in-law. a) arrives, was still giving c) arrived, was already giving b) arrived, gave d) used to arrive, were giv-
ing 14. My grandmother … the police department every time she saw some-
thing suspicious in the street. a) used to telephone b) telephones c) would telephone d) was telephoning 15. The number … with the other cleaning marks; she might have bor-
rowed some clothes from someone on account of bloodstains on her garments. a) used to agree b) didn’t agree c) was agree d) would agree 71 Present Perfect Continuous Form: I We You They have (‘ve) have not (haven’t) “+” “-“ He She It has (‘s) has not (hasn’t) been questioning the alleged man for two hours already. Have I We You They “?” Has He She It been questioning the alleged man for two hours already? Short answer: “Has she been working in police?” - “Yes, she has. / No, she hasn’t.” “Have you been pursuing the criminal?” – “Yes, I have. / - No, I haven’t.” Use: The Present Perfect Continuous is used 1. to express an activity which continues to the present. We have been waiting for a police officer since 11 o’clock. The car-thefts rate has been running at about 20 a week. 2. to refer to an activity with a result in the present. I’m hot because I have been running. He looks so tired. He has been patrolling the district all the night. 3. to express an incomplete activity: He has been searching for the facts of the crime but he still hasn’t found. 72
Indicators of time: Since; for; already; recently; lately. Police have already been investigating the case for three months already. Helen has been working really hard lately. 1. Sometimes there is a little or no dif-
ference in meaning between the Present Perfect and Present Perfect Continuous. – How long have you worked here? - How long have you been working here? 2. The verbs that have the idea of a long time can be found in the Present Perfect Continuous: (wait, work, study, travel, play, etc.) - I have been studying law for many years. The verbs that contain the idea of a completed action can be found in the Present Perfect: (find, start, buy, die, lose, break, stop, etc.) - I’ve bought a new dress. – My cat has died. - My radio has broken. 3. The Present Per-
fect looks at the completed action. This is why if a sen-
tence gives a number or a quantity, the Present Perfect is used. – I’ve written three letters today. TASKS I. Complete the sentences with the verbs given in the brackets; mind the word order and the place of the adverbs; translate the sentences from English into Russian: a. “How long she … (to go on) like this?” – “Since the time she was badly hurt in the car accident.” b. “I want you to understand that everything he … just (to say) to you is purely a kind of disinformation. c. The inspection has shown that you … (to embezzle) money pretty freely. d. I … (to think of) the things found on the place of the crime. I’m sure it is the evidence of the connection to bombing. e. “Our neighbours … (to argue) for some days. Don’t you think I should call the police?” f. “She … (to pretend) not to know the suspect, but I saw them to-
gether last Sunday.” 73 g. They … (to hire) lawyers in hope for the best and in attempt to improve their business affairs. h. According to the police, someone has rented the cabin, but no one … really (to live) here. i. “He tells rather an interesting story which may have some bearing on an investigation I … (to conduct).” j. “That clerk at the desk … (to watch) police go by all afternoon and evening. You know the policy of the police from our own en-
counters with our friend Lieutenant Tragg.” k. “Good heavens, the stuff is evidence and we‘ve taken it into our possessions. We … (to conceal) it from the police.” l. And I think that’s why she … (to talk) about it on publicity inter-
views. She is afraid to betray a true character. m. Someone … (to try) too hard to frame Miss Meade. Someone is too eager to drag her into it. The person is too persistent. n. “We … (to drive) for three hours and now it’s time to have a rest.” – “We can’t stop even for a while because those guys may overtake us any moment.” o. Jill … (to try) in vain to appeal to the courts of higher jurisdiction for the last two years. II. Use the Present Perfect or Present Perfect Continuous (some-
times both forms are acceptable) and explain your choice: a. A number of companies, such as Ford, Firestone and Beech-Nut have hired/ have been hiring
lawyers in hope for the best and in attempt to improve their business affairs. b. “You have been itching for/ have itched for
the boot of rejection since you were involved in this investigation. She does not have an alibi, though.” c. “Have you found out/ Have you been finding out
anything more about the murder of the young man?” d. During all this evening he has demonstrated/ he has been dem-
a curiosity talking to a high ranking policeman. e. The passengers have been waiting for/ have waited for
two hours already under armed guard at Heathrow because of fears of a terrorist plot to stage another September 11-style attack. f. “Has anybody seen/ Has anybody been seeing
a woman in the area that night who acted suspicious?” g. “We believe from reliable foreign intelligence sources that there are terrorists in Britain who have prepared/ have been preparing
to board planes and set off shoe bombs.” 74
h. “She looks almost breathless.” – “Has she run/ Has she been running
?” i. He has been refusing/ has refused
to discuss either his divorce or the convictions for drug abuse. j. After thorough inspection, auditors have uncovered/ have been uncovering
evidence of fraud. III. Look through the “News In Brief” column and fill in the gaps with the most appropriate form of the Present Perfect or Present Perfect Continuous: … The Government … (to con-
sider about) the relaxation of penalties for hundreds of thou-
sands of drivers caught speeding on camera. The camera-led up-
surge in speeding convictions … (to raise) concern that motor-
ists with unblemished accident could be banned for infringing the speed limit four times in 36 months. More and more people … (to receive) $60 fines. Cam-
eras … (to endorse) 4.500 of-
fenders, only those speeding with the highest fatality risk … … Detectives … (to try) to an-
swer many questions about the man named as Nick Duffer since they discovered his rented flat in Leeds unattended. Noth-
ing previously … (to draw) po-
lice attention to him but now they need to know not only where he is but also precisely why … he (to come) to Britain from the United States. At this time the officers … also (to examine) possible links between him and other alleged people ... … Iran … (to reject) American “earthquake diplomacy” turning down Washington’s offer of a high-level humanitarian mission to the devastated city of Bam. Iranian leaders … (to denounce) America as a “warmongering oppressor” and they … (to dismiss) US aid offers as a diplomatic ploy… IV. Find out the mistakes in the use of the Present Perfect Continu-
ous and correct them: … Russian men anxious to avoid compulsory national service in the un-
der-funded and sometimes brutally disciplined military forces. Human-rights organizations has been campaigning for many years to allow pacifists and oth-
ers wishing to avoid the army a way of doing so. The Government has being considering about the rules, under which conscripts can apply for alternative service such as working in a state-run orphanage or a hospital. 75 Poor organization, a lack of funds and a culture of violence have been resulted in hundreds of suicides every year. Among the better-off families in Moscow, it is rare to find a young man who have been serving in the military forces. The Russian leadership has be struggling to reform the army since the fall of communism in 1991… TEST YOURSELF (PRESENT PERFECT OR PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS) Check your knowledge and decide which answer a, b, c or d best fits each blank: 1. Our leaders … to prevent a major cut in numbers of conscripts trying to make the forces fully professional. a) has fought b) have been fighting c) have been fought d) has being fought 2. Tensions … since the election campaign began. a) have been rising b) has risen c) have been risen d) has been rising 3. They … extra security measures to avoid the wave of letter bombs delivery. a) has taken b) have been taken c) has been taking d) have been taking 4. China and the European Union … their first joint satellite, a symbol of growing closeness. a) has launched b) have launched c) has been launching d) have been launched 5. The judge … the lawyers and the people involved in the case. a) have been introducing b) has been introduced c) has introducing d) has introduced 6. A witness for the defence ... testimony against the alleged woman. a) has given b) have been giving c) has giving d) have been given 7. The jurors 1) … the evidence for three hours already and 2) … yet. 1. a) has discussed b) have discussed c) have been discussing d) discussed 2. a) hasn’t decided b) have’t decided c) haven’t been deciding d) have decided 76
8. People … reluctant to make formal complaints to the police and now we try to overcome the consequences. a) have been b) has been c) have being d) has being 9. The detectives 1) … in ambush for an hour but nobody 2) … . 1. a) has lied b) have been lying c) has been lying d) have laid 2. a) have been coming b) has been coming c) have come d) has come 10. The judge … the physical exhibits offered by the lawyers. a) has disregarded b) have been disregarding c) have disregarded d) has disregard 11. The lawyer … his closing arguments but they don’t sound very con-
vincing. a) has been presented b) has presented c) has presenting d) have presented 12. “She looks pale and tired!” – “Yes, she … the man who stole that car.” a) have been pursuing b) has been pursuing c) have pursued d) pursues 13. The percentage of recidivists … high lately due to the offenders convicted of such minor charges as vagrancy, drunkenness and peace distur-
bance. a) has been running b) have run c) have been running d) has ran 14. InVagrancy and begging … common place in London. a) have become b) has become c) have been became d) has became 15. In England, in absence of a written constitution, prisoners resorting to the courts … the general principles of administrative law. a) have relied on b) has relied c) has been relying d) have relying 77 The Past Perfect Tense Form. 1) The indefinite form of the auxiliary verb to have and Participle II of the notional verb. 2) In the interrogative form the auxiliary verb is placed before the subject. In the negative form the negative particle “not” is placed after the auxil-
iary verb. “+” I He She We You They had worked “-“ I He She We You They had not worked “?” Had I He She We You They worked? 3) The contracted affirmative forms are: I’d written We’d written The contracted negative forms are: I hadn’t written We hadn’t written Use: 1. The Past Perfect denotes an action completed before a certain moment in the past. The moment may be indicated by another past action expressed by a verb in the Past Indefinite or by an adverbial phrase. The police had arrived by 6 o’clock yesterday. The police could not arrest him unless they had evidence that he had committed a crime. 78
I knew who had murdered Charlie Fuller. The definite moment need not necessarily be expressed in the same sen-
tence as the action expressed by the Past Perfect. Everybody noticed how sad she was the whole evening. She had got an unpleasant letter. The definite moment can be understood from the situation. The Squire had laid down his knife, and was staring at his son in amazement. The Past Perfect is frequently used with the adverbs just, already, yet, never, ever. The idea of human rights secured more opportunities than humanity had ever had before. 2. The Past Perfect is used to denote an action which began before a definite moment in the past, continued up to that moment and was still going on at that moment. It is used: a) with verbs not admitting of the Continuous form. Examination convicted him that the deacon was dead – had been dead
for some time. b) with non-terminative verbs such as to work, to live, to study, to teach, to travel, to last etc. (In this case the Past Perfect Continuous is possible). The ride had lasted
about ten minutes, when the truck suddenly swerved into a halt. 1) Sometimes the Past Perfect does not denote priority but only the completion of action. He waited until she had found the latch-key and opened the door. 2) The Past Perfect (I had done) is the past of the Present Perfect (I have done). Compare these situations: Present Past I am sorry for being late. I was sorry for being late. The car has broken down on my way here. The car had broken down on my way there. 79 TASKS I. Complete the sentences with the words in brackets. Use the Pre-
sent Perfect or the Past Perfect. 1) It is eleven o’clock. Police (not to arrive, yet). 2) It was eleven o’clock. Police (not to arrive, yet). 3) By the time I went to bed last night, I (finish, already) my homework in Criminalistics. 4) I was late. The trial (start, already) by the time I got there. 5) We’re late. The trial (start, already). 6) The trial is over. The court reporter (put down, already) every spo-
ken word. 7) The trial was over. The court reporter (put down, already) every spoken word. 8) The Police were looking for witnesses, who (see) anything suspi-
cious. 9) Coke swore he ……… (see, never) them before. II. Put the verbs into the correct form, the Past Perfect or the Past Indefinite. 1) Was she in the courtroom when you came? No, she ………. (go) home. 2) She felt very depressed when she came home, so she ………. (go) straight to bed. 3) We were driving along the road when we ………. (see) a car which ………. (break) down, so we ……….. (stop) to see if we could help. 4) Jane thought that Bill ……… (graduate, already) from the Univer-
sity. 5) He wrote in his letter, that he ………. (know) who ………… (mur-
der) Charlie Fuller. 6) The Police could not arrest him unless they ……….. (have) evi-
dence that he ………… (commit) a crime. 7) I went out into the garden to fetch my bike, but ………. (find) that someone ……….. (steal) it. 8) Bently who ………. (touch, never) the gun, was over 18. 9) The higher court ………. (change, already) the judgement given by the lower court. 10) He opened his eyes, ……… (look) around and ………. (try) to remember what ………… (happen) to him. 11) It was very dark in the room. They ………. (switch on) the light. 80
III. Change the following sentences as indicated: Example
: A shot rang out and then there was silence. After a shot had rang out, there was silence. 1) The judge passed the sentence and then left the courtroom. 2) John graduated from the University and then worked as a prosecutor. 3) We discussed the suit and then tried to do something about it. 4) The constable arrested her without a warrant and then was himself sent to prison. 5) All laws went through the process of initiation and passage, then they were subjected to the process of enforcement or interpretation. 6) They chose the appropriate court and jurisdiction, then found the best judge to hear the case. 7) They didn’t find her guilty of murder and then gave six years im-
prisonment for manslaughter. 8) The prisoner killed the guard and then quickly dragged him into the bushes. 9) He called the ambulance and then confessed in his action. 10) The government abolished capital punishment and then crime rate was increased. 11) They poured whisky all over him and down his throat and then hit him over the head. 12) The defence lawyer cross-examined the witness and then asked a question. IV. Complete the following sentences using the Past Perfect. Example:
The burglar broke into a Hong Kong factory and found noth-
ing worth stealing there. They said that the burglar had broken into a Hong Kong factory and had found nothing worth stealing there. 1) She bought the pistol with the intention of committing suicide. The defence said that ………….. . 2) The agents obeyed orders. France acknowledged that ………. . 3) Tom planned the robbery. Tom explained how ………… . 4) The thief used a special key. The inspector suspected that …………. . 5) The police didn’t disclose any sightings. They said …………. . 6) Coke deposited more than 2,000 in his bank account a few weeks before. The police also found that ……….. . 7) I didn’t hear a word. I exclaimed ………... . 8) Tom didn’t commit the crime. Tom confessed ………… . 9) He sold secrets for money. It appeared ………… . 10) The foreman presented the verdict. Mr. Hamby told me that ……… . 81 11) Prisoners forfeited all of the rights enjoyed by free citizens. Early U.S. court decisions ruled that ………. . V. Use the proper form: 1) Bob tried to find a job after he (served, had served) a five-year sen-
tence. 2) We were late. The trial (started, had started) an hour before. 3) He was the smartest lawyer I (ever met, had ever met). 4) That morning she (dressed, had dressed), (phoned, had phoned) somebody, and went out. 5) The Hills were in a hurry, but they (took, had taken) a taxi and man-
aged to arrive exactly on time. 6) The Hills managed to arrive exactly on time because they (took, had taken) a taxi. 7) We asked Peter to come with us, but he refused. He (already prom-
ised, had already promised) to act as counsel for the defence. 8) She (hardly finished, had hardly finished) speaking over the phone when the telephone rang again. 9) Why are you looking so unhappy? – I (have lost, had lost) my purse. 10) I’m so happy to see you again. I (haven’t seen, hadn’t seen) you since I graduated from the University. 11) She said she (hasn’t seen, hadn’t seen) him since she graduated from the University. 12) She (didn’t take, hasn’t taken) a lot of drugs since she joined the health club. 13) Edward (made, has made) up his mind to escape from prison. 82
The Past Perfect Continuous Tense Form. 1) The Past Perfect Continuous is formed by means of the Past Perfect of the auxiliary verb to be and Participle I of the notional verb. 2) In the interrogative form the first auxiliary verb is placed before the subject. In the negative form the negative particle “not” is placed after the first auxiliary verb. “+” I He She We You They had been writing “-“ I He She We You They had not been writing “?” Had I He She We You They been writing? 3) The contracted affirmative forms are: I’d been writing She’d been writing The contracted negative forms are: I hadn’t been writing We hadn’t been writing 4) The Past Perfect Continuous (had been watching) is the past of the Present Perfect Continuous (have been watching). Compare these situations: Present Past I’m afraid of this man. I was afraid of that man. He’s been watching me for half an hour. He had been watching me for half an hour. 83 Use. 1) The Past Perfect Continuous denotes an action which began before a definite moment in the past, continued up to that moment and was still going on at that moment. Either the starting point of the action is indicated or the whole period of duration. The preposition for is used to denote the whole pe-
riod of duration. Since
is used to indicate the starting point of the action. He said he had been working as a lawyer for
two years. He said he had been working as a lawyer since 1998. 2) With certain non-terminative verbs both the Past Perfect and the Past Perfect Continuous are used. He said he had worked
for twenty years (The fact is emphasized). He said he had been working
for a long time without achieving final results. (The process is emphasized). 3) The Past Perfect Continuous denotes an action which was no longer going on at a definite moment in the past, but which had been in progress not long before. I sobbed a little still, but that was because I had been crying
(not because I was crying
then). The Past Perfect Continuous should not be confused with the Past Con-
tinuous. The Past Continuous is used to denote an action going on at a definite moment in the past, no previous duration is expressed. The Past Perfect Con-
tinuous is used when the previous duration of the action is expressed. The magnificent motor-car was waiting
at the kerb. It had been waiting
for two hours. TASKS I. Complete the sentences, translating words given in brackets. 1) We were to meet with the solicitor at 5. He hadn’t come. We /ждали его/ for forty minutes. 2) At last Danny had his own notary’s office. How long he /мечтал/ to have the notary’s office of his own! Now his dream /сбылась/. 3) Peter woke up late at night. He was frightened and couldn’t under-
stand what /случилось/. He /увидел во сне/ that he /скрывался/ from somebody for a long time as if he /совершил преступление/. 84
4) When I came in the library everybody was sitting round the table and talking. They didn’t crave for reading. They /читали/ and /прочитали/ all the material they needed for that case. 5) They were very tired. They /расследовали/ the accident for more than 20 hours. 6) He said that he /читает/ stories of Agatha Christie for two weeks al-
ready and /прочел/ 7 stories already. Yesterday he /прочел/ only one story. II. Put the verbs into the correct form, Past Perfect Continuous or Past Continuous. 1) The investigator observed the crimescene very carefully. He ………… (examine) marks, fingerprints, footprints, tyremarks, ciga-
rette stubs, bloodstains. 2) When I arrived, Ann ………….. (wait) for me. She was rather an-
noyed with me because I was late and she ………….. (wait) for a very long time. 3) I came into the courtroom and saw Alice. She ………….. (stand) at the witness stand. It seemed to me the barrister …………. (question) her for a long time. When I saw her eyes I understood, she ………….. (cry). 4) They ………… (discuss) the evidence for half an hour. 5) They charged him that he …………. (excite) the men to violence for all his life. 6) He ………….. (serve) his sentence in the Bastille for ten years. 7) I …………. (ponder) over catching a shop-lifter red-handed for sev-
eral days already. 8) The judge ………….. (announce) the sentence on the accused when you came in. 9) One evening Alf …………. (watch) the television and …………. (eat) his supper when the door suddenly opened and a burglar came in. 10) I …………. (recollect) the information about jury, offences, pre-
liminary investigations, indictments for half an hour at my exami-
nation but I only …………. (delay) my answer. I knew nothing. III. Use the proper form: 1) A man (was, had been, had being) unconscious for a few minutes when an ambulance arrived. 2) He quickly forgot everything he / learnt, had learnt, had been learn-
ing, was learning) in a law faculty. 85 3) I’ll call for an ambulance. She (gets, is getting, has been getting, got) weaker and weaker since she had breakfast. 4) The ammount of crime (increased, was increasing, had been increas-
ing, had increased) for the last ten years and we couldn’t stop this process. 5) Alice promised to come, but she’s absent. Something (has been hap-
pening, has happened) to her. 6) Tom said that Jerry (was, had been, had being) his best friend since their early childhood. 7) We (sat, had sat, had been sitting, were sitting) in the room for half an hour when police arrived. 8) The police found out that Bob Slant (lives, lived, had been living) for a year in London’s suburbs. 9) The policeman asked why he (didn’t lock, hadn’t locked, hasn’t locked, hadn’t been locking) the car door. 10) Where was Dad? I (waited, had been waiting, was waiting) for him since 6 p. m. We had to go to the Bar. IV. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct form: One summer morning Meeks (come) 1_____________ from the West to New York to find his sister. She (be) 2______________ Mrs. Mary Snyder, a widow, aged 52, who (live) 3_______________ for a year in a tenement house in a crowded district. At her address somebody (tell) 4_____________ him that Mary (move) 5______________ away longer than a month before. No one (can/tell) 6____________ him her new address. On coming out of the house Mr. Meeks (address) 7____________ a po-
liceman who (stand) 8______________ on the corner, and (explain) 9_____________ his difficulty to him. “I (recently / make) 10____________ a lot of money and I’d like to help Mary as soon as possible”, he (add) 11______________. The policeman (pull) 12____________ his moustache and (tell) 13____________ Meeks about Jug-
gins. He (say) 14___________ that Jugins (be) 15 ____________ the leader of a new school of detectives. “Juggins (solve) 16___________ some very diffi-
cult cases. I (take) 17 _____________ you to him”, the policeman said. “If I (find) 18____________ your sister, you (pay) 19____________ me two hundred dollars. I (try) 20____________ to solve your case. The disap-
pearance of people in the city is the most interesting problem I (ever, work at) 21_____________”, (say) 22____________ the famous detective, (rise) 23__________ and (put on) 24____________ his hat. 86
In fifteen minutes Juggins (return) 25___________ holding a litte piece of paper with Mary’s address. After Meeks (pay) 26___________ his bill, he (ask) 27__________ the detective to explain what he (do) 28____________. V. Translate from English into Russian: Since 1972 Americans have been very conscious of women’s determi-
nation to achieve equality with men. It was in that year that Congress proposed the ERAA – the Equal Rights Amendment. For five years each of the states debated the issue, and by 1977 thirty-five states had passed the amendment. Then the drive for passage slowed down. Times gradually changed and by the constitutional deadline of March 1979 no other states had passed the ERA since the term of President Ford. In fact, four states that had already approved the amendment later voted to change their vote! Although the time for passage was extended three years, the ERA proposal was still three votes short of the necessary thirty-eight of the fifty states by the 1982 deadline; consequently, the amendment failed to become part of the constitution. Since this defeat many women have been discouraged. However other women have been working for so many years for women’s rights that they cannot give up so easily. They have already said that they will reintroduce the ERA proposal at the next session of Congress. The country hasn’t seen the end of the battle yet. VI. Translate from Russian into English: 1. Она проработала клерком-стажером 2 года перед тем, как стала адвокатом. 2. Был 1990 год. Саймон уже 5 лет работал следователем. 3. Он открыл глаза, огляделся и попытался вспомнить, что с ним случилось. 4. Лэнни не знал, кто напал на него в
темноте. 5. Когда я повторила свой вопрос, подозреваемый сказал, что не слышал меня в первый раз, но я ясно видела, что он хорошо слышал меня оба раза. 6. Она была крайне напугана. Было ясно, что она стала жертвой преступления. 7. Вчера к 8 вечера он уже уехал в Лондон. 8. Мистер Браун ускользнул за несколько минут до того, как поя-
вилась полиция. 9. Джек убежал перед тем, как начался обыск. 10. Полиция подозревала, что Сэм разбил окно в своем доме, так как хотел, чтобы они думали, что грабитель украл его ценную коллекцию. 87 11. Они думали, что она сделала это, потому что ей нужны были деньги. TEST YOURSELF Choose the right answer. 1. Bob tried to find a job after he (serve) a five-year sentence. a. served b. had served 2. We asked Peter to come with us but he refused. He (already/promise) to play rugby with his fellow students. a. already promised b. had already promised 3. He (worked) there some time when that dreadful accident (happen). a. had worked a. happened b. had been working b. had happened 4. When we came home, we found that someone (break) into the garage and (steal) the car. a. broken a. stole b. had broken b. had stolen 5. When they opened the safe, they found that someone (already/take) the documents. a. had already taken b. already took 6. The poor woman complained she (have) trouble with her eldest son for a long time. a. had been having b. had had 7. The young girl who (look) at me ever since I had come into the room, suddenly rose and left. a. looked b. had been looking 8. He told us they (live) in this district since they (leave) Paris. a. had been living a. had been leaving b. had lived b. had left 9. I (wait) for permission to go abroad for three weeks already, but I (not receive) the visa yet. a. have been waiting a. don’t receive b. waited b. haven’t receive. 10. I went out into the garden to fetch my bike, but (find) that someone (steal) it. 88
a. found a. stole b. had found b. had stolen 11. When George met Diane for the first time, he (know) that he (meet) her somewhere before. a. knew a. had met b. was knowing b. met 12. While I (wait) at the bus stop, I (notice) a new chamber which (not be) in the street the day before. a. was waiting a. had noticed a. was not b. had waited b. noticed b. had not been 13. They didn’t know that he (be) abroad for two months. a. had been b. has been being 14. By that time the twins (already/sleep) for two hours. a. already slept b. had been already sleeping 15. It was clear that he (brood) over it day and night – he was that sort. a. had been brooding b. has been brooding 89 The Future Tenses The Future Simple (Indefinite)Tense Use. It may be used to express: 1. a single point action that will be completed in the future: We shall meet and discuss this problem. 2. an action occupying a whole period of time in the future: I hope that they will live happily for many years. 3. some recurrent actions in the future: We shall meet and talk and make plans from time to time. Typical adverbs are: tomorrow, next week (year, month, day.etc), in 2 days (weeks, etc). Form. Affirmative form Interrogative form Negative form I shall* work Shall I walk? I shall not (I shan’t) work He (she, it) will work Will he (she, it) work? He (she, it) will not (won’t) work You (they) will work Will you (they) work? You (they) will not (won’t) work * It’s possible to use WILL instead of SHALL with the first person, sin-
gular and plural. The Future Continuous (Progressive) Tense Use. It may be used to express: 1. an action in progress at a definite future moment: In an hour we will be flying over the ocean. 2. an action which the speaker expects to take place in the future in the natural course of events: I must go now or m y mother will be telling her about his life again. Typical phrases are: now, at the time, at the moment, all day long (tomorrow), from 5 till 7 next day, etc. 90
Form. Affirmative form Interrogative form Negative form I shall* be working Shall I be walking? I shall not (I shan’t) be working He (she, it) will be working Will he (she, it) be working? He (she, it) will not (won’t) be working You (they) will be working Will you (they) be work-
ing? You (they) will not (won’t) be working * It’s possible to use WILL instead of SHALL with the first person, sin-
gular and plural. The Future Perfect Tense Use. It may be used to express an action accomplished before a given future moment which is usually indicated by an adverbial modifier: She will have got my telegram by morning. She will have learned the news be-
fore this letter reaches her. Usual expressions are: by that time, by summer, by the end of the year, etc. Form. Affirmative form Interrogative form
Negative form I shall* have worked Shall I have walked? I shall not (I shan’t) have worked He (she, it) will have worked Will he (she, it) have walked He (she, it) will (won’t) have worked You (they) will have worked Will you (they) have walked You (they) will not (won’t) have worked * It’s possible to use WILL instead of SHALL with the first person, sin-
gular and plural. The Future Perfect Continuous Tense Use. It may be used to express an action which will begin before the moment of speaking and continue in future up to it : By the end of June we’ll have been working at the Bar for 2 years. The typical preposition is for. 91 Form. Affirmative form Interrogative form Negative form I shall* have been working Shall I have been walking? I shall not (shan’t) have been working He (she, it) will have been working Will he (she, it) have been working? He will not (won’t) have been working You (they) will have been working Will you (they) l have been working You (they) will not (won’t) have been working * It’s possible to use WILL instead of SHALL with the first person, sin-
gular and plural. I will and I’m going to: future actions. We use will when we decide to do something at the time of speaking. The speaker has not decided before. We use (be) going to when we have already decided to do something. Compare 2 situations: John is in hospital. He was robbed last week. I didn’t know. I’ll go and visit him. His wife has already told me. I’m going to visit him. Future happenings and situations (predicting the future): sometimes there is no much difference between will and going to: I think the weather will be nice later. I think the weather is going to be nice later. But: When we say ’something is going to happen’ we know (or think) this because of the situation now. Look at those black clouds. It’s going to be rain. (not ‘it will rain’- we can see the clouds now) I feel terrible. I think I’m going to be sick. (not ‘I think I’ll be sick’- I feel terrible now) When-sentences: Note: In subordinate clauses of time and condition after conjunctions if, when, as soon as, etc. the Future tense substitutes for the Present one of the same group. 92
The main sentence/clause: sentence/clause: Conjunction: Subordinate Future Simple Future Continuous Future Perfect Future Perfect Continuous if when as soon as till until after before while in case providing unless Present Simple
Present Continuous
Present Perfect
Present Perfect Continuous
I’ll phone you when I get home from the police station. As soon as she has read this criminal news she will wash-up. Hurry up if we don’t hurry we’ll be late. Summing up: Future Actions: Present Simple: My train leaves at 9.30. Present Simple: I’m leaving tomorrow. To be going to: I’m going to leave. To be to: I’m to leave at once. Future Simple: I’ll leave tomorrow. Future Continuous: I’ll be leaving tomorrow. Future Perfect: I’ll have left by this time tomorrow. Future Perfect Continuous: I’ll have been packing my things to leave for an hour when you come. TASKS I. Complete the sentences using will (‘ll) or going to: E.g. A: Why are you turning the television? B: I’m going to watch the criminal news. 1. A: Has George decided what to do when he leaves school? B: Oh, yes. Everything is planned … the university at the law Fac-
ulty. (He/enter). 2. A: Have you had a talk to the barrister? B: Oh, I completely forgot. … him just now (I/phone). 3. A: I’ve decided to become a notary. B: Oh, have you? What University… (You/enter)? 93 4. A: He needs somebody to take him to the court-room. B: That’s no problem … him. (I/take). 5. A: Jack phoned while you were out. B: Yes, I know … him back. (I/phone). 6. A: The jury has just rendered the verdict. B: … it (The judge/introduce) 7. A: Somebody kidnapped my sister’s son. She is in hospital now with a heart attack. B: Oh, I’m sorry. … her flowers. (I/send) 8. A: Have you heard about the murder in Baker Street? I’m a witness on the case. B. Really? … at the trial (You/be present). A: Yes, certainly. 9. A: I don/t know how to use this camera. B: It’s quite easy … you (I/show). 10. A: My brother wants to be a lawyer. B: What legal profession …. exactly (He/choose). 11. A: I’ve got a headache. B: Have you? Wait there and ….. an aspirin for you. (I/get) 12. Don’t make so much noise or …… the police (we/call). 13. …testimony at the trial (you/give)? 14. Look at the defendant! He is nervous. I think ….all the truth ( he /tell). 15. … really the police (you/call)? )I don’t think it is all necessary. II. Make the sentences interrogative and negative: E.g. The detective will ask you some questions. Will the detective ask you any question? The detective will not (won’t) ask you any questions. 1. The Magistrates will hear this case in 2 days. 2. The judge will give the instructions to the jurors in a minute. 3. The policemen will come in several minutes. 4. The jury will render the verdict only tomorrow. 5. He’ll enter the law faculty only next year. 6. The prosecutor will accuse him of a shoplifting. 7. My sister will become an investigator in 3 years. 8. The defendant will know about his punishment in a week. 9. I think it will be rain. 10. After the trial we’ll find out all the details of the case. 11. A witness will give an oath before giving evidence. 12. The accused will spend 10 years in jail. 94
13. I wonder where I will be 20 years from now. 14. They will invite her to the party. 15. The police will find the murderer of the child. III. Open the brackets and use the Future Simple Tense in the sen-
tences: E.g. The policeman (ask) you some questions about the theft. The policeman will ask you some questions about the theft. 1.The judge (instruct) the jury before giving the verdict. 2. “I (not/ tell) the truth”, cried the suspect. 3. You (help) me with the investigation? 4. The audience thinks that the court (acquit) the juvenile. 5. We are sure it (rain). 6. The thief (spend) 3 years in imprisonment. 7. I never (break) the law. 8. Wait a little he (phone) the taxi. 9. I suppose we (complete) this case in a week. 10. What time the trial on your case (begin)? 11. They (not/translate) the article soon. 12. The Browns (arrive) the next week. 13. Tomorrow it (not/be) cold and wet. 14. We hope the police (find out) the witness for the prosecution 15. How you (explain) your being at the scene crime? IV. Open the brackets and use the Future Continuous tense in the sentences: E.g. I (translate) the article about the robbery at 5 o’clock tomorrow. I’ll be translating the article about the robbery. 1. At the time tomorrow we (take) our exam on Civil Law. 2. In a week at the time the court (hear) his case in the Crown Court. 3. I’ve bought “Criminal News”. I (read) it. 4. In a few days at that moment the main witness (give) his testimony. 5. The inspector (interrogate) the suspect from 9 till 12 o’clock. 6. Don’t wait for me I (have) a chat with the Dean. 7. How long the prisoner (stay) in the cell? 8. He (not/wait) for the verdict. 9. (Use) you your car this evening? 10. Tomorrow from the very morning Mr. Black (examine) the scene crime. 11. When we come the counsel for the defence (give) his speech. 12. At10 o’clock. She’ll be in her office. She (work). 95 13. I (not/talk) to the barrister at the time tomorrow. 14. He (pass) the post office when you’re out. 15. How long the police (investigate) the robbery of the bank? V. Open the brackets and use the Future Perfect tense in the sen-
tences: E.g. The detective (investigate) this case by the next week. The investigator will have investigated this case by the next year. 1. By the end of the hour the jurors render the verdict. 2. My brother (graduate) from the Law Faculty by the end of the year. 3. By the end of the term we (study) many legal terms in English. 4. We’re late. The detective already (start) by the time we get to the cinema. 5. By next Monday the solicitor (prepare) all the necessary documents. 6. The state Courts of last resort (hear) 100 cases by the end of the year. 7. Next year they (be) married for 25 years. 8. By the fixed time the investigation of the burglary (finish). 9. Before jury deliberation the judge (give) the instruction. 10. The trial (finish) by then? 11. By the end of the year the term of imprisonment (complete). 12. The barrister (win) 2 criminal and 3 civil cases. 13. Do you think he (finish) his work by the time? 14. After 7 years of his professional career my father (not/become) a Queen’s Counsel. 15. They (read) the half of the article by the end of the lesson? VI. Translate the sentences into Russian paying attention to the Fu-
ture Perfect Continuous tense: 1. By the end of the week the police will have been keeping the man under detention for 48 hours. 2. By next July she will have been working in the Crown Court as a judge for 5 years. 3. When you call I will have been telling the inspector everything I know about this case. 4. Detective Brown will have been investigating the offence for a month soon. 5. They will have been rehearsing for an hour when we come. 6. By the end of this hour the jury will have been discussing the verdict for 20 minutes. 96
7. I’ll have been studying at the College of law for 3 months when my parents come to see me. 8. We’ll have been livin in this village for 10 years next April. 9. By the end of the process the thief will have been staying in the de-
tention room for 2 months. 10. By 12 o’clock we will have been listening to the case about fraud for 3 hours. 11. The thieves are sure that they will have been driving for 6 hours when the police discover the robbery in the morning. 12. By next year he will have been writing the novel for 3 months. 13. Tomorrow it will be a year as the police will have been searching for the criminals who robbed the bank. 14. Before becoming a Queen’s Counsel he’ll have been working as a barrister for 15 years. 15. By the end of the month the students of law faculty will have been studying Roman law for 3 weeks. VII. Open the brackets using the verbs into Future Indefinite (Sim-
ple) or Future Continuous (Progressive): E.g. The judge (enter) the court-room in a minute. The judge will enter the court-room in a minute. 1. At this time tomorrow the detective (ask) us his questions. 2. My sister (become) a notary in the future. 3. He (be) busy tomorrow. He (take) his exam on Criminology. 4. I (be) a judge after graduating from the Law College. 5. At 9 o’clock next Monday the investigator (interrogate) the suspect. 6. First, the lawyers of both sides (give) open statements. 7. The weather is warm today. We (have) a walk out in the garden. 8. How long the accused (stay) in prison? 9. The big stores (have) their summer sales soon. 10. Next year I (try) to enter the Law faculty again. 11. At 10 o’clock the day after tomorrow the magistrates (hear) the case of the larceny. 12. I’m tired today I think I (go) to bed earlier. 13. The accused (not/have) a talk to the advocate all the morning tomor-
row. 14. The inspector (talk) to the witnesses all day long. 15. After passing the exams we (have) a practical work in the investi-
gating departments, Prosecutor’s offices and other places. 97 VIII. Open the brackets and use the verbs into Future Indefinite (Simple) or Future Perfect: E.g.: By the end of the week the jury (return) the verdict. By the end of the week the jury will have returned the verdict. 1. The police (arrive) soon. 2. After studying The Law faculty we (become) legal specialists. 3. By the end of the day he (finish reading Bill of rights in the original. 4. Before you come I (do) all the work. 5. Next year my father (work) as an inspector for 10 years and he (re-
tire). 6. Next time we (find) out how to protect ourselves from any assault. 7. He passes Labour Law after he (learn) everything. 8. Before testifying witnesses (give) an oath. 9. On Friday they (finish) their translation of a foreign article. 10. When the jury deliberation begins the jury (get) the judge’s instruc-
tions. 11. By this time next year I (graduate) from the University and (be-
come) an investigator. 12. I (not/have) breakfast tomorrow because I (not/have) got any time. 13. “They (bring) an accusation against you”, she cried. 14. He (stay) here till doesn’t do everything. 15. The police (examine) the crime scene when the ambulance comes? IX. Open the brackets and use the verbs into Future Continuous or Future Perfect or Future Perfect Continuous: E.g: By the end of the trial the foreman (inform) the bailiff about the verdict. By the end of the trial the foreman will have informed the bail-
iff about the verdict. 1. Don’t disturb me between 7 and 9. I’ll have an exam next Monday. So I (study) Civil Law. 2. Phone me after 9 o’clock. We (finish) the test on Criminal Law. 3. A: Can we meet tomorrow morning? B: Not in the morning. I (lis-
ten) to the case of the murder in Magistrates’ Court. 4. A: You (be) free at 4 p.m.? B: Yes, the trial (finish) by the time. 5. I think the felony (escape) by the time the police arrives. 6. At 8 o’clock our group (have) an English lesson. 7. My mother has worked as a counsel for the prosecution for 19 years. Next year she (work) as a prosecutor for 20 years. 8. Do you think you still (do) the same job of the investigator in 5 year’s time? 98
9. He (work) at the Bar for 12 months next May. 10. A: You (use) your car in the evening? Can I take it? B: No, I’m afraid, somebody stole it. 11. How long she (sleep) when we come? 12. Before discussing of the verdict the jurors (choose) a chairman. 13. It’s awful to think I (work) at this time next week. 14. Before the jury deliberation the judge (give) the instruction to the jurors during several minutes. 15. By the next month the police (look) for the criminals committed the burglary for 10 days. X. Open the brackets and use all possible Future and Present Forms and translate the sentences: E.g. If the jurors (find) her guilty she (spend) 5 years imprisonment. If the jurors find her guilty she’ll spend 5 years imprisonment. 1. The court (decide) this case all day long tomorrow. 2. If a person (plead) his or her guilty the jury (bring) in a verdict of guilty. 3. In a year I (work) at the Bar for 10 years. 4. After the presentation of evidence the judge (summarize) everything up soon. 5. Unless he (come) from the Notary Office we (have) dinner. 6. The judge (interfere) if he (think) any of the questions are unfair. 7. If you (become) a citizen of the USA you (have) a chance to be a ju-
ror and (decide) the facts in the court. 8. The judge (tell) you about the case and (introduce) the lawyers and people involved in the case after he (choose) you a member of a “jury panel”. 9. It’s hard to say if she (find) out the lost. She is so inattentive. 10. When you (be) a student of Law you (study) Civil and Criminal Laws, Criminalistics and other subjects. 11. By the end of the term of imprisonment he (spend) 8 years in jail. 12. They (become) barristers as soon as they (receive) their legal edu-
cation at Universities or Colleges of Law. 13. Before the judge (give) instructions to the jurors the counsels for the prosecution and defence (present) their evidence. 14. After you (graduate) from the University you (work) as a legal ex-
pert 15. He (not/catch) the train unless he (leave) immediately. 16. When the ambulance (come) the witnesses still wait for the police. 17. If somebody (commit) an offence the police (take) him to the deten-
tion room to clear everything up. 99 18. After they (call) the police they (wait) for the doctor’s coming. 19. If it (be) cross-examination the barrister (ask) you some questions concerning the case. 20. If a person (betray) his or her country to another state the court (sen-
tence) him or her to life imprisonment or death penalty. XI. Correct the mistakes if any: E.g: If I will become a lawyer I’ll help people to decide their problem. If I ____ become a lawyer I’ll help people to decide their problem. 1. By the end of the studying we’ll become lawyers. 2. At this time tomorrow I’ll have learnt all the necessary legal terms. 3. Next five years I’ll be studying at the University to become an at-
torney. 4. The jurors will be discussing the verdict after they will have got the instruction. 5. If a defendant is guilty the police will take him to prison. 6. From 3 till 4 o’clock tomorrow we’ll have been having a meeting with our barrister. 7. My train will left by the time you come to the station. 8. If somebody will commit a felony or misdemeanor a victim can suit in the court. 9. The policemen will take away the convicted in some minutes. 10. After he has finished the picture he will invite his friends to look at it. 11. He will work at his research paper on Criminology during his holiday. 12. At this time next Friday the solicitor will have presented the civil case of conveyance of land. 13. When a prisoner won’t plead his guilty and if the court will acquit him the policemen will release him. 14. I will be working as a legal advisor in the enterprise for 12 years next month. 15. By 12 o’clock we’ll have been hearing to the case for 3 hours. XII. Translate the sentences using all the necessary forms of the Fu-
ture and Present Forms: 1. Полицейские арестуют вора, если они его поймают. 2. К концу моего обучения на
юридическом факультете я уже пройду практику в качестве помощника следователя в прокуратуре. 3. Если присяжные признают подростка виновным, то он прове-
дет в тюрьме 2 года. 4. Мы станем судьями, прокурорами, следователями, нотариуса-
ми, адвокатами и другими специалистами по юриспруденции. 100
5. Если это будет гражданское дело, то истец подаст иск в суд против частного лица. 6. К концу семестра наш преподаватель по семейному праву бу-
дет читать нам лекции уже в течение 4 месяцев. 7. Не звоните мне завтра с трех до пяти, я буду работать над док-
ладом по трудовому праву
. 8. Они будут смотреть детектив, как только дети лягут спать. 9. После того как моя сестра закончит обучение в Университете, она будет работать юридическим консультантом в фирме отца. 10. Полиция не обнаружит вора, если население не окажет ей по-
сильную помощь. 11. К этому времени прокуратура уже расследует дело о заказном убийстве судьи Р. 12. Если обвиняемый признает свою вину в совершении непреду-
мышленного убийства, то судья назначит ему наказание сроком 12 лет лишения свободы. 13. Судебный пристав вызовет свидетеля для дачи показаний после того как стороны представят вещественные доказательства. 14. Завтра с самого утра суд присяжных будет слушать дело о кра
же автомобиля. 15. Преступника не отправят в тюрьму, если за время условного наказания он не совершит новых деяний. TEST YUORSELF Choose the right answer: 1. Jack is in hospital; a robber wounded him while Jack was following the criminals. – Oh, I didn’t know. I … him tomorrow. a. visit b. am going to visit c. will visit 2. We’re late. The trial … by the time we get to the court-room. a. will already start b. is going to start c. will already have started 3. How can we recognize the person? He … a uniform of policemen. a. will be wearing b. is going to wear c. will wear 4. I suppose somebody … the murdered soon. a. is going to identify b. will identify c. will be identifying 5. I’ve decided to try and enter the Law Faculty. – Have you? What pro-
fession … get? a. are you going to b. will you c. you are going to 101 6. From 9 till about 10 the counsel for defence … his evidence to the ju-
rors. a. will present b. will be presenting c. will have been presenting 7. By the end of the session examination I … to pass Labour Law twice. a. will try b. will be trying c. will have tried 8. In 3 years the graduators from our University … legal specialists. a. will have become b. will become c. will be becoming 9. Before the police … the doctors … the suffered. a. a. arrives, will have helped b. will arrive, has helped c. will arrive, will have helped 10. When … anything tomorrow evening, Helen?- Yes, I … Criminol-
ogy all day long. a. will you do, will study b. are you doing, will be studying c. will you be doing, will be studying 11. When the guard … the convicted away the judge … the sentence. a. will take, will have announced b. takes, will have announced c. will take, has announced 12. In 5 months our teacher of Criminal Law … at University for 25 years. But he won’t retire. a. will be working b. will have been working c. will have worked 13. If you … your car, somebody … it. a. don’t lock, will steal b. won’t lock, steals c. not lock, will steal 14. What profession have you chosen?- I didn’t think exactly. Perhaps, I… at the Bar as an advocate. a. will be working b. am going to work c. will work 15. If you … committing the crime they … you much severe. a. don’t admit, will be interrogating b. won’t admit, will be interrogating c. don’t admit, will interrogate. 102
The Passive We use a passive verb to say what happens to the subject: Many accidents are caused by dangerous driving. We form the passive using BE in appropriate tense or form + the past participle of a transitive verb: A small sum of money was stolen from the cash box. They ought to have been punished more severely. In spoken English, we sometimes use GET instead of BE in the passive: They got told off for making so much noise. However GOT + ed is more common with an active meaning similar to “become “ in phrases like get married, get dressed, etc. Form. THE PASSIVE FORMS OF THE VERB Indefinite Continuous Perfect Perfect continuous Present am asked is asked an asked am being asked is being asked an being asked have been asked has been asked ______ Past was asked were asked was being asked were being asked
had been asked ______ Future shall be asked will be asked ____ shall have will been asked ______ We avoid passive constructions with be being or been being, although they sometimes occur in spoken English: Avoid: The road will have been being repairing for months. – They will have been repairing the road for months, or: The road will have been under repair for months. The word order in the passive sentence: a) affirmative sentence: Many accidents are caused by careless driv-
ing. b) negative sentence: Many accidents are not (aren’t) caused by careless driving. c) interrogative sentence: Are many accidents caused by careless ddriving. 103 Use. The Passive is used: 1. to describe an action when we don’t know or don’t know exactly who does, did or will do the action. My bicycle was stolen last night. (I don’t know who stole it). 2. to describe an action when it is not important to know who does, did or will do the action. These computers are made in the USA. (It isn’t important who makes them). 3. to describe what happens to people or things, often as a result of ac-
tion of other people or things. Several people were hurt in an accident last night. 4. when we are more interested in the action than the person who does it. The house next door has been broken into. Note: Verbs that don’t take an object (intransitive verbs ) cannot go into the passive e.g.: die, arrive, come, sit down, snow, ring, faint, etc. Some verbs can have two objects, e.g.: ask, give, offer, pay, promise, send, show, teach, tell, etc. Someone sent me a telegram. I was sent a telegram. A telegram was sent to me. The police were given the information. The information was given to the police. Note: It is more useful for passive sentences to begin with the person. My father was offered an interesting, well-paid job as a lawyer. We use by + doer ( agent ) of the action when it is important to say who or what does, did, or will do the action. Mary was arrested by the police. We use with + instrument or material. I was hit with an umbrella (instrument). The room was filled with smoke (material). If a verb is followed by a preposition + object , the preposition stays with the verb in a passive sentence. People shouted at the chairman during his speech. The chairman was shouted at during his speech. 104
The Passive Voice is often used to talk about what other people say, be-
lieve, etc. People say that Derek is a promising student. (The Active Voice) It is said that Derek is a promising student. (The Passive Voice) Derek is said to be a promising student. (The Complex Subject Construction) Sometimes you can use get instead of be in the passive: There was a fight at the party but nobody got hurt (= nobody was hurt ). You can use get to say that something happens to somebody or some-
thing, especially if this is unplanned or unexpected: Our dog got run over by a car. We use get mainly in informal spoken English, but be is used in all situations. We also use get in the following expressions which are not passive in meaning. get married, get dressed, get changed, get divorced. We can use Infinitive Passive if modal or auxiliaries verbs are followed by passive forms of the verb. The situation is serious. Something must be done before it’s too late. If you hadn’t left the car unlocked, it wouldn’t have been stolen. It is possible to end a sentence with a preposition in a sentence where a prepositional verb is made passive. Someone broke into our house. Our house was broken into. TASKS I. Change the following sentences from active to passive. Keep the same tense with each change: 1. The police asked each of us about his movements on the night of the crine 2. No one can do anything unless someone gives us move information 3. They will say nothing more about the matter if someone returns the stolen gun 4. A thief stole my dog and brought him back only when I offered $ 20 reward for him 5. The judge gave him two weeks to pay the fine 6. An uneasy silence succeeded the shot 7. The lawyer gave him the details of his uncles will 105 8. The suspect will give his evidence next week 9. The detective is investigating this serious criminal case now, he is still collecting evidence against criminals 10. I think the judge will pass the sentence tomorrow 11. I cannot meet you tomorrow morning. I shall be representing Jack Green before the Court 12. The jury is still discussing the verdict 13. The investigator has collected evidence on the case 14. The state and public organizations had discussed the Draft of the new Constitution before it became the law 15. If you come to the court late in the afternoon the judge will have de-
clared his decision 16. The night court has dismissed the prisoner’s appeal 17. The court was still examining all the details of the murder at the time 18. Somebody might have stolen your car if you had left the keys II. Rewrite the following newspaper report using passive forms of the verbs underlined. Daring Raid at Local Hotel Thieves (1) held the manager of the Ridgeway Hotel at guanpoint last night during a daring raid in which they (2) took
nearly 50,000 from the hotel safe. They also (3) broke
into several of the bedroom and (4) removed
articles of value. The thieves made their escape through the kitchen, where they (5) dam-
several pieces of equipment. They (6) injured
the chef when he tried to stop them and (7) left
him lying unconscious on the floor. Police (8) arrested
the thieves early this morning. 1. The manager
of the Ridgeway Hotel was held at gunpoint last night. 2. ______________ 3. ______________ 4. ______________ 5. ______________ 6. and 7. _______________ 8. ______________ III. Make these sentences into negative form and general questions. Give short answers to the questions. Example: The car is being repaired at the moment. The car isn’t (is not) being repaired at the moment. Is the car being repaired at the moment? – Yes, it is. 106
1. The driver had to be fined for excess speed 2. Nothing could be done about that 3. The executive director was killed last night 4. The thieves were being followed by a private detective 5. The criminal can be sentenced to death 6. The windows had been broken when they arrived home 7. All the documents will be signed till Wednesday 8. The kidnapped child is being looked for all over the world 9. Many accidents are caused by careless driving 10. A lot of money was stolen in the robbery 11. I have been accused of stealing money 12. The judge will have been appointed by the beginning of the trial IV. Make these sentences into general questions. Give short an-
swers. Example:
The car is being repaired at the moment . Is the car being repaired at the moment ? – Yes , it is . 1. The driver had to be fined for excess speed. 2. Nothing could be done about that. 3. The executive director was killed last night. 4. The thieves were being followed by a private detective. 5. The criminal can be sentenced to death. 6. The windows hadn’t been broken when they arrived home. 7. All the documents won’t be signed till Wednesday. 8. The kidnapped child is being looked for all over the world. 9. Many accidents are caused by careless driving. 10. A lot of money was stolen in the robbery. 11. I have been accused of stealing money. V. Make up sentences using a passive form of the verb in brackets. 1. Last night someone broke into our house. Oh, dear (anything/take)? 2. Where’s my bicycle? It’s gone. (It/steal). 3. The people next door disappeared 6 months ago. (They (not/see/since then). 4. The police have found the people they were looking for. (Two people /arrest/ last night). 5. I was mugged on my way home a few nights ago. (you/ever/mug?). 6. Have you received your salary yet? No. (I/pay/yet). 7. The police are drilling Harry down at the station. (Harry/question/po-
lice station). 107 8. They took Chris to court for dangerous driving. (Chris/prosecu- te/dangerous driving). 9. The police believe that a professional thief stole the statue. (The statue/believe/steal/professional thief). 10. They’ve stopped traffic from using the centre. (Traffic/ban/centre). 11. You had robbed several persons before we arrested you. (You/bring/in a month/to the court). 12. In the last few months newspapers have published many articles and news reports about corruption in troops. (They/discuss/should/at the lessons). VI. Read the following sentences. Then make two new sentences in the passive. Begin with the words in brackets. Example:
Newspaper reported that two prisoners had escaped. (It/Two prisoners) It was reported that two prisoners had escaped. Two prisoners were reported to have escaped. 1. Journalists reported that six people had been injured in the accident (It/Six people) 2. They believe that the thieves got in through the kitchen window 3. A policeman thought that the prisoner escaped by climbing over the wall 4. A friend of mine alleges that he kicked a policeman (It/he) 5. A newspaper reports that two people were injured in the explosion (It/two people) 6. People believe that someone murdered Jenkins (It/someone) 7. People say that Nick started the fire deliberately (It/Nick) 8. I assume that they have been murdered (It/they) 9. People think that train-robber Dave Briggs has escaped (It/train-
robber Dave Briggs) 10. People say that the Mafia murdered Marilyn Monroe (It/Marilyn Monroe) 11. Police said, that Grook had 57 previous convictions (It/Grook) VII. Find the passive form in the following sentences define the tense and translate these sentences into Russian. 1. A Court is a place where legal matters are decided by a judge and jury or by a magistrate. 2. They will be selected from the community 3. The senior judges are referred to as “My Lord” 4. The case of murder is being investigated now 108
5. The case was being prepared for trial when the investigator was given some new important evidence 6. The Constitution has been repeatedly amended to meet the changing needs of the nation but it is still the “supreme law of the land” 7. Adams was acquitted for the lack of evidence 8. The agreement is likely to be reached at this year 9. Sentences up to a maximum of 12 months may be imposed when it is decided that the sentences for more than one offence should run consecutively rather than concurrently 10. They say that capital punishment will have been abolished by the beginning of December 11. According to English law, people are innocent until they are proved quilty 12. If he breaks the rules he will be fined VIII. Translate the following sentences into Russian. 1. A person may be arrested and kept in prison either if he is caught in the act of committing a crime or if the police officer reasonably suspects that he has committed a crime. 2. The expert supposes that both crimes might have been committed by the same person. 3. The advice of your solicitor should not be ignored. 4. Such documents mustn’t be sent by post. 5. The Parliament had been dissolved before the general election. 6. The judge will have been appointed by the beginning of the trial. 7. Today his appeal has been rejected by the higher court. 8. All marks of identification had not been destroyed, the investigation was in progress. 9. When the policemen were in the room, an envelope was brought to the owner of the room. 10. If a crime is committed in the presence of a person son, whether a police officer, or not, he will be guilty of a misdemeanor if he fails to arrest the criminal. 11. The identity of the criminal may have been discovered by eyewit-
nesses testimony. 12. All the evidence at the crime scene must be found, collected and preserved. 13. The jury brought in a verdict of guilty against these parts, which were sentenced to 2 years imprisonment with hard labour in the state prison. 14. I’ve been robbed twice already and I’m afraid to leave my flat when it becomes dark. 109 15. Any person under 18 who commits an offence will usually be tried at a Youth Court, unless the offence is very serious. 16. The term “Summary offences” is used to describe an offence which can only be tried by Magistrates’Court. 17. Any person in this country is assumed to know the law, even a for-
eign visitor. 18. The indictment is a document which is read to the accused telling him what he is charged with. IX. Translate the following sentences into English. 1. Опытный юрист был приглашен защищать дело в суде. 2. Что происходит в Парламенте? Там сейчас обсуждается новый закон. 3. В тот момент, когда он увидел присяжных, он понял, что они вынесли вердикт о виновности и он будет казнен. 4. В суде ее представлял адвокат. 5. Это дело об ограблении было раскрыто в августе. 6. Я думаю, что вердикт будет вынесен завтра. 7. Вчера обвиняемый был арестован полицией. Он содержится в тюрьме. 8. Вердикт все еще обсуждается присяжными. Я думаю, он будет вынесен к 5 часам. 9. Полицией предоставлены некоторые важные улики. 10. Свидетелей обвинения ждут в зале суда. 11. Эти законопроекты обсуждались
вчера в парламенте. 12. На этой неделе дело было передано из магистратского суда в уголовный. 13. Вина обвиняемого была доказана магистратским судом на прошлой неделе. 14. Специальным предметам нас будут обучать на втором курсе. 15. Большинство мелких уголовных преступлений могут рассмат-
риваться в магистратском суде заочно. 16. В основном приказ “хабеас корпус” следует
применять по уго-
ловным делам . X. Read the following text, paying attention to the use of the Passive Voice. Prepare a brief statement supporting first the Palestinian side and then the Israeli side. It is more than forty years since the state of Israel was formed. 110
For over half this time Israel’s statehood has been supported by the ter-
ror of occupation, which has been used to keep in submission the population of Arabs in territories that have been seized and are being held. On these territories, universally recognized human rights have con-
stantly been infringed on, and the political rights and freedoms of Israeli citi-
zens of these territories – Jews as well as Arabs being encroached upon. Human rights violations can be characterized as consisting of political killings, imprisonment without trial, encroachment upon economic rights, that is forcibly changing forms of running the economy. XI. Read about one of the cases reported in the press below, make a one-sentence introduction describing the case and invite your class-
mates’questions. 1. A “Potentially Flawless” $ 600,000, pink diamond was stolen from Sotheby Parke Bernet’s New York galleries shortly before auction and replaced by one worth about $ 5,000 and coated with pink hail polish, it was learned yesterday. The “big switch” was being investigated by police and FBI agents. It appeared that despite tight security, the 9,58-carat diamond was stolen during a series of presale examinations in a specially – lighted viewing booth. Carefully screened clients were allowed to examine the diamond and other jewels in a 300-piece jewellery collection that was up for auction. The room was filled with Sotheby’s employees and armed guards and monitored by videotape cameras. The theft was discovered after a potential bidder had asked to examine a diamond ring that was being exhibited in the case holding the diamond. As a Sotheby’s employee reached for the ring, she noticed a flaw in the diamond and that its pink colour appeared to be painted on. 2. Scotland Yard was last night investigating the removal of A-level ex-
amination papers from the University of London Exam Centre, and allegations that stolen papers were being sold for $100 each. About 3,500 pupils who sat A-level French yesterday in London and at schools in the South-east may be asked to re-sit the examination with a new paper, and a history A-level test scheduled for next Thursday may be cancelled, depending on the outcome of police investigations. Police were called in by “The Standard” the London evening newspa-
per, after it had been handed the papers by a man who said he worked in the university. The newspaper said its informant, whose name has not been given to the police or university authorities, did not ask for any payment for the documents. 111 He was “sething with indignation” about the lax security, which made it so easy for him to remove them. XII. Choose the most suitable tense. 1. The robbers were arrested / have been arrested as soon as the left the bank. 2. If there is not enough evidence, the trial has been cancelled / will be cancelled. 3. When were you told / have you been told about the new rules? 4. I looked again for the old man, but he was vanished / had vanished. 5. I don’t think that you will be asked / are being asked to show your passport. 6. Police confirmed that the murder weapon had since been discovered / has since been discovered. 7. It was announced / had been announced yesterday that the govern-
ment has decided not to raise income tax. 8. The suspects were being followed / were followed by the police. 9. The anti-pollution laws have been broken / are broken by many facto-
ries. 10. I’m glad I missed my plane! I’ve just heard that it was hijacked / has been hijacked. 11. After police found drugs there, the disco was closed down / has been closed down. 12. The two men are arrested / will be arrested before they can commit one more crime. XIII. Use the world in capitals in each line making it passive in the correct tense form. Arthur’s life of crime
At his last trial, nobody believed in Arthur’s innencence. He ___________ of the theft of a valuable Chinese vase, ACCUSE
and ___________ also with ten other offences. CHARGE
The value of the stolen good __________ to be over 10,000. SAY
Arthur said in his own defence that the vase __________ into PUT
his car accidentally. It __________ by him that the Chinese vase was a fake, and POINT OUT
was almost worthless. The judge didn’t belive Arthur’s story. Arthur __________ he TELL
was a hardened criminal and that he deserved a severe punishment. Then Arthur _________ by the judge to five years imprisonment. SENTENCE
Arthur just smiled. He had spent most of his life in prison and so he ___________ to it. USE
XIV. Choose the correct tense form. 1. My car has been stolen / was stolen. 2. The robbers were arrested / have been arrested as soon as they left the bank. 3. When were you told / have you been told about the new rules? 4. I don’t think that you will be asked / are being asked to show your passport. 5. Police confirmed that the murder weapon had been discovered / was discovered in a nearly lake. 6. It was announced / was being announced yesterday that the govern-
ment has decided not to raise income tax. 7. The suspect were being followed / was followed by the police at the time. 8. Parking in this street has been banned / was banned by the police. 9. Carlos was arrested / is arrested because he had entered. 10. The two men were arrested / are arrested before they could commit any more crimes. 11. She had been accused / was accused murdering her husband in the eighteenth century. 12. Pat was caught / is caught by the police, but Martin got away. 13. – Why did you worry about me? I didn’t take any risks. You could have been injured / be injured. 14. Jones could be president / could have been if Smith has to resign. 15. Of course, some people are involved / will be involved in more ac-
cidents than others. 16. The bag in which the robbers put the money was found / is put out-
side the bank. 17. A woman’s jewels were stolen / has been stolen a police officer was staying in the same hotel. The woman was interviewed / was being inter-
viewed by him. 18. My wallet contained over 100. It was found / will be found in the street by a schoolboy. 19. The kidnappers have been caught / had been caught and the child is no longer in danger. 20. Tony was caught / is caught by a policeman who was off duty and cycling to work. 113 XV. Decide which answer A, B, C, D best fits each space. The stolen bike One morning last week I realized that my bike 1)______ stolen from my garden. I phoned the police and two officers called at my house the next day. They 2)_____ me if I had seen or heard anything. I told 3)_____ I had been out that evening, and hadn’t noticed anything suspicious when I came home. “If I had seen anything, I 4)____you,” I replied. “It was raining hard too. If the weather 5)____ so bad, I would have ridden my bike.” The officers told me that lots of people 6)_____ their bikes stolen lately. “The thieves 7)____ to have put the bikes in a van,” said one of the officers.” “I 8)____ I had known about that,” I said. “I saw a black van that evening. In fact, it 9)____ opposite my house.” The officers asked me what the van’s number 10)____, but I couldn’t remember.”11)____ you saw the van again, 12)____you recognize it ?” one of them asked. “It 13)____ painting. I remember that,” I replied. However, there was a happy ending to this story. After the officers had left, I 14)____by a friend of mine. “By the way,” she said, “15)____ you want your bike, I’ll bring it back this afternoon, I borrowed it a couple of days ago.” 1. A) had B) had been C) had had itself D) had not 2. A) reminded B) questioned C) told D) asked 3. A) them B) that C) if D) later 4. A) called B) would C) had called D)would 5. A) wasn’t B) wouldn’t be C) hadn’t been D) wouldn’t have been 6. A) had B) had had C)had to have D) hadn’t 7. A) think B) are thought C) have thought D) are thinking 8. A) would B) realize C) wish D) thought 9. A) was parked B) had parking C) is parked D) has parked 10. A) is B) was C) had D) wrote 11. A) if B) when C) remember D) suppose 12. A) do B) can C) would D) if 13. A) needed B) had been C) looked like D) seemed 14. A) called up B) was phoned C) had a phone call D)heard some news 15. A) unless B) if only C) if D) as long as XVI. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form of passive in an appropriate tense 1. I’ve collected all the documents that ____(need) for the house sale. Can you take them to the lawyer’s office to ____(sign)? 2. Look, this is a secret. Come into the garden where we ____(not/overhear). 114
3. Can you come to the police station ? The man who ____(suspect) of stealing your wallet ____(arrest), and ____(question) at the moment. The po-
lice hope he ____(identify), either by you or another witness. 4. Perhaps they ____(throw) out at the next election. 5. Nothing ____(see) of Pauline since her car ____(find) abandoned near Newbury last week. 6. Helen ____(hurt) in an accident and a passer-by called an ambu-
lance. 7. The robbers ____(arrest) as soon as they left the bank? 8. When ____(tell) about the new rules? 9. Police confirmed that the murder weapon _____(since discover) in a nearby lake. 10. The reporter says that prisoners of conscience ____(hold) in at least 70 countries. 11. A police car came when the injured man ____(carry) off the road. 12. The witness (question) by the police-inspector now. 13. The bill must ____(sign) by the president, who has the right to veto it. 14. – Don’t worry! The burglars ____(catch) by the police. – Hm, but they are sure they ____(not/catch). 15. Our luggage ____(examine) at the Customs now, any luggage going abroad ____(check) usually here. 16. The policeman noticed that the suitcase ____(carry) by the porter in a most strange way. 17. Don’t leave your bicycle outside. It ____(may/steal). 18. The whole nation hoped he____(elect) Prime Minister. XVII. Change the following sentences from active to passive. Keep the same tense with each change. 1. The police asked each of us about his movements on the night of the crine 2. No one can do anything unless someone gives us move information 3. They will say nothing move about the matter if someone returns the stolen gun 4. A thief stole my dog and brought him back only when i offered $ 20 reward for him 5. The judge gave him two weeks to pay the fine. 6. An uneasy silence succeeded the shot 7. The lawyer gave him the details of his uncles will 8. He was delivering the documents to the department . 9. The suspect will give his evidence next week 115 10. The detective is investigating this serious criminal case mow , the is still collecting evidence against criminals. 11. I think the judge will pass the sentence tomorrow . 12. I cannot meet you tomorrow morning. I shall be representing jack Green gefore the Count. 13. The jury still discussing the verdict . 14. The count was still examining all the details of the merrder at the hime. 15. The investigator has collected evidence on the case. 16. The state and public organizations had discussed the Draft of the new Constitution before it became the law. 17. If you come to the count late in the afternoon the judge will have declared his dectsion . 18. The night count has dismissing the prisoner’s appeal . XVIII. Change the following sentences from passive into active form. Keep the same tense with each change. 1. The police were called by the watch man and the man was arrested. 2. All sorts of things are left in buses . They are collected and sent to the Lost Property Office. 3. The warehouse is guarded by dogs . A thief who fried to get in was seen by a dog and chased. 4. The man was tried, found guilty and sent to prison. 5. Trespassers will be prosecuted. 6. My car has been stolen and abandoned . 7. My house was searched and a number of stolen articles were found . 8. His house was broken into and a lot of things were stolen. 9. Hurry up ! We are being followed. 10. These problems were being discussed by lawyers for many months. 11. A lot of young lawyers are trained at our University every year. 12. Such criminal cases are usually tried by district courts. 13. Appeals and protests against sentences and decisions of Courts of First Instance are examined by Counts of Second Instance. 14. The criminal case was decided according to the laws of the state. 15. The accused is guaranteed the right to defence. 16. The hearing of the case will be postponed. 17. The verdict must be passed by the jury and the sentence must be passed by the judge. 18. The unlawful decision was appealed against by the procurator last week. 19. Penalties are imposed on guilty persons according to the law. 116
XIX. These sentences contain one mistake. Correct it. 1. I’m sorry I’m late. I got held up in the traffic. 2. When did you discover that the money had been disappeared? 3. My neighbour is very proud of her new grandson who born last week. 4. A lot of homes in the area have been being broken into by burglars. 5. As I drove south, I could see that the old road was rebuilding. 6. Jim was been given the sack from his new job. 7. Somehow without my noticing my wallet had been disappeared. 8. Harry is been questioned by the police about the accident. 9. The robber unlocked the door by a false key. 10. My car has being stolen. 11. The outgoing chairman was call a liar and a thief by the newspapers. 12. That window has been breaking again. 13. They ought to been punished more severely. 14. He failed to elected for the third time in a row. 15. The only reason the child hasn’t been prosecute is the fact that he’s only twelve. 16. The silver was alleged to have been stealed from the palace. 17. The bank was robbed with three men in masks. 18. After ten years in prison, Stephen was pardon and set free. 19. The justice is administered with the courts of different instances. XX. Rewrite these sentences. Begin with the words provided, so that the meaning stays the same. 1. The police aren’t questioning James. James __________. 2. I can’t give you a lift to work. Somebody damaged my car last night. My car __________. 3. When I got back to the car park, my car wasn’t there. Somebody had stolen it. It _______________. 4. They are going to announce the news tomorrow. The news _________. 5. Somebody broke into the museum this morning. The museum _______. 6. Someone used a knife to open this window. This window __________ a knife. 7. A burglar broke into our house last week. Our house _________. 117 8. Lots of people had parked their cars on the pavement. The cars __________. 9. The government agreed with the report and so they changed the law. The law __________. 10. The police have issued a description of the wanted man. A description ______.I have ________. 11. Someone stole Mary’s motorbike last week. Mary’s motorbike _______. 12. People think the jewels were stolen by one of the guests. One of the guests _______. 13. There is a rumour that the escaped prisoner is living in Spain. The escaped prisoner ________. 14. My legal advisers have told me not to say any more at this time. I have ______. 15. It is thought that the two injured men were repairing high-tension cables. The two injured men ______. 16. The Police in New York have arrested three terrorists. Three terrorists _____. 17. The falling roof tiles injured several passers-by, though not seri-
ously. Several passers-by ______. 18. Nobody informed the police that there had been a mistake. The police ______. 19. All visitors must wear identity badges. Identity badges _____. 20. The children shouldn’t have opened that parcel. That parcel _______. XXI. Complete the sentences with BY or WITH. Example:
Three climbers were killed by an avalanche. 1. The safe was blown open _____ the robbers. 2. He was killed _____ a falling stone. 3. The policeman was attacked ____ a gang of criminals. 4. The safe was blown open ____ dynamite. 5. The bank was quickly surrounded ____ armed police. 6. The victim was struck from behind ____ a heavy object. 7. When the accident happened, Sue was struck ____ flying glass. 8. He has been attacked ____ a knife. 9. This woman was adducted ____ a youth and her gold ring was taken off. 118
10. Last night I got stopped ____ the police as I was driving home. 11. Marion was the young girl kidnapped ____ aliens in 2002. 12. Harry is being questioned ____ the police about the committed crime. 13. The identity of the criminal may have been discovered ____ eyewitnesses testimony. 14. The term “Summary offence” is used to describe an offence which can only be tried by Magistrates’ Court. 15. Somebody might have stolen your car ____ the keys you had left. XXII. Read these newspaper reports and put the verbs into the most suitable form. Shop Robbery In Paxham yesterday a shop assistant (1) ________ (force) to hand over 500 after (2) ____________ (threaten) by a man with a knife. The man escaped in a car which (3) ________ (steal) earlier in the day. The car (4) ________ (later/find) in a car park with it (5) __________ (abandon) by the thief. A man (6) _________ (arrest) in connection with the robbery and (7) ____________ (still/question) by the police. Accident A woman (1) ________ (take) to hospital after her car collided with a lorry near Norstock yesterday. She (2) ________ (allow) home later after treatment. The road (3) _________ (block) for an hour after the accident and traffic had to (4) _________ (divert). A police inspector said afterwards: “The woman was lucky. She could (5) _________ (kill). XXIII. Fill of the gaps in the following sentences with one of the passive verb phrases below. is deemed could soon befitted were charged has been held has finally been elected is expected being caused to be printed is auctioned being consid-
ered 1. High-tech 'leg-irons'............on violent suspects arrested by the po-
lice, under chief constables. 2. Last week, police in Scotland called for the introduction of leg-
restraints following concerns about the number of injuries............ dur-
ing struggles in the back of police cars and vans. 3. Four people............last night with public disorder offences after of-
ficers mounted dawn raids on suspected football hooligans. 119 4. Hugh Hefner, founder of Playboy, the American Society of Magazine Editors' Hall of Fame. 5. A first-edition copy of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, the first book England, raise at least £500,000 when it............ in July. 6. A British woman released early from an attempted murder sentence in the Unites States - a charge which she has always denied -............ in prison because illegal immigrant. XXIV. Add the appropriate extra information (a-e) to the passive sentences (1-5). 1. The news was leaked to the press by the minister ... 2. The minister was attacked by protesters, ... 3. I remember being sent a letter by a man in America ... 4. The winning goal was scored by Fausto Ferrini ... 5. A man was run over by a car, ... a. in his first appearance for the club. b. who had waited outside the building all day to voice their oppo-
sition to the policies. c. in a deliberate attempt to boost his popularity. d. who complained my article was prejudiced against his country. e. which witnesses said was being driven at very high speed. XXV. Where possible, rewrite each of the following sentences in two different ways, using a different subject each time. Some sentences may be rewritten only one way. 1. The police showed the victim a picture of the suspect. 2. People used to sell the tourists fake antiques. 3. Why didn't they offer the customers a refund? 4. They didn't guarantee every participant a free lunch. 5. They reported the incident to the police. 6. People suggested to us that the Internet would be a good source of information. 7. They promised us full compensation if the scheme fell through, 8. The referee declared the boxing match a draw. 9. We'll give the new members of staff all the help they need. 10. The incident earned him the reputation of being unreliable. 120
XXVI. Fill each of the numbered blanks in the following passage with one suitable word. Twenty-four hours after arriving in the country, I............ (1) told to leave. The security police, the country's largest employer, came to my hotel, politely asked me what I thought of the city and then recommended that I leave on the morning plane. I asked them why I was............ (2) expelled and they said it was not a question of my being '............(3) out', they were simply rec-
ommending that I leave. I refused and the problems started. My passport and plane ticket ............(4) stolen from my room after my key 'disappeared'. The police shrugged their shoulders and decided not to interview the leather-
jacketed youth who I............(5) been pressed up against in the lift. For three days I was............ (6) by two not very secret policemen ! everywhere I went. I visited a I fellow-journalist whose address I had............ (7) given. He lived in a beautiful old house which would I ............(8) demolished the I following year by the Government to 4 make way for a block of 'modern' I flats. Every-
body would be I ............ (9) in it as soon as it was ready but where they would live in the meantime had not been ............ (10) out. Massive taxation was............(11) imposed on the people to pay for these supposed improve-
ments. I went back to the hotel, still............(12) followed by the two police-
men, and felt very depressed. XXVII. Fill each of the blanks with a suitable word. Example:
New measures to combat crime are to be introduced at the end of the year. 1. We ............ strongly advised ............ reconsider our position. 2. He is known ........................ hidden large sums of money in his or-
chard. 3. They are understood ............ have ............ offered over £5,000 for their story. 4. I ............ always made ............ apologise to my little sister after an argument. 5. It's too late now: there's nothing more ............ be. 6. I left with the distinct feeling of ............ been ............ for granted. 7. I used to steal walnuts from my grandfather's garden and never wor-
ried about ...................... out. 8. There are ............. ............. ........... ........... any survivors from yester-
day's aircrash. 121 XXVIII. Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it is as similar as possible to the sentence before it. Example:
Many people believe that Stonehenge was built as some kind of time-keeping device. Stonehenge is believed by many people to have been built as some kind of time-keeping device. 1. They made me tell them everything I knew. I ......................................................................................... 2. Nobody ever let me study the piano at school. I .......................................................................................... 3. It is often said that Shakespeare never revised anything he wrote. Shakespeare..................................................................... 4. There were once thought to be canals on Mars. It ........................................................................................ 5. From what we understand, there was an attack last night in the vicin-
ity of the beach. There is ............................................................................ 6. It's a widespread assumption that George was wrongly accused. George.............................................................................. 7. You have to clean these football boots until they shine. These football boots are............................................... 8. Under no circumstances should you cross this line. This line is....................................................................... XXIX. For each of the sentences, write a new sentence as similar as possible in meaning to the original sentence, but using the word given. Example:
A lot of people are saying that he's working undercover. ru-
moured It's rumoured that he's working undercover. He's rumoured to be working undercover. 1. She wants it to be clear to people that she's fair. seen .................................................................................. 2. He often says to people how much of his success is down to you. heard ................................................................................ 3. The theory is that she fell overboard at night and drowned. fallen ................................................................................ 4. We certainly don't want any repetition of such a ridiculous spectacle ever again. repeated .......................................................................... 5. The plan was originally to complete the building by June. due.................................................................................... 122
6. When I was a child, I was never allowed to play with the children next door. let...................................................................................... XXX. Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it is as similar as possible to the sentence before it. Example:
He didn't remember that he had been ordered to appear be-
fore the judge. He had no recollection of being ordered to appear before the judge. 1. She vaguely remembers that she was knocked down by a motorbike. She has vague memories of........................................ 2. It's never very nice when people laugh at you. Being................................................................................. 3. Stewart was criticised for his extravagance and was more careful af-
ter that. Having.............................................................................. 4. I really wish I hadn't been pushed into giving a speech. I really regret .................................................................. 5. Because I was told it was quicker, I naturally took the mountain road. Having.............................................................................. 6. I can't tell you what it feels like because nobody's ever given me £100,000. Never................................................................................ XXXI. Rule study. Read the text and then do the rest of the exer-
cise. A DRIVER has been sent to jail for 90 days for driving with excess al-
cohol. Graham Smith, 29, of North Street, Barton, was stopped by police offi-
cers near his home last November and was found to have drunk almost twice the legal limit for drivers, Didcot magistrates heard on Thursday. Twelve months earlier Smith had been disqualified from driving for three years for drink-driving. He was disqualified for twelve months in 1986 for a similar offence. Mr Peter Jones, defending, said Smith had used the car to visit a sick friend. He said Smith was depressed after the visit, and went to a pub and drank five or six pints before driving home. He was caught by police during a routine speed check in Wantage Road, Barton. 123 The following expressions in the text have passive verbs. Would it be easy to rewrite the text with active verbs (e.g.... sent a disqualified driver to jail; police officers stopped Graham Smith)? A disqualified driver has been sent to jail Graham Smith... was stopped by police officers ... was found to have drunk almost twice the legal limit Smith had been disqualified from driving He was banned for twelve months He was caught by police Which two rules are best? 1. We use passives when we are interested in what happens, not who it happens to. 2. Passives are common when we are thinking about what is done to the person or thing that we are interested in, not about what he/she/it does. 3. Passives can help us to go on talking about the same thing, in cases where an active verb would need an unwanted new subject. 4. Passives are best in a formal style. Actives are more informal. XXXII. Choose the best way of continuing after each sentence. 1. He lives in a small house. a. Somebody built it about forty years ago. b. It was built about forty years ago. 2. English is worth learning. a. People speak it in a lot of countries. b. b. It is spoken in a lot of countries. 3. He got a sports car, but he didn't like it. a. So he sold it again. b. So it was sold again. 4. My nephew is an artist. a. He has just painted another picture. b. Another picture has just been painted by him. 5. The new Virginia Meyer film is marvellous. a. They are showing it at our local cinema. b. It is being shown at our local cinema. XXXIII. Choose the best sentence from each pair to build up a con-
tinuous text. E.g. a. How books are msde b. How people make books 1. a. First of all, the printers print big sheets of paper. b. First of all, big sheets of paper are printed. 124
2. a. Each sheet contains the text of a number of pages (e.g. 32). b.The text of a number of pages (e.g. 32) is contained in each sheet. 3. a. People fold and cut the sheets to produce sections of the book. b. The sheets are folded and cut to produce sections of the book. 4. a. These sections are called signatures. b. We call these sections signatures. 5. a. The printers put all the signatures together in the correct order. b. All the signatures are put together in the correct order. 6. a. Then they are bound together and their edges are trimmed. b. Then they bind the signatures together and trim the edges. 7. a. Finally, the cover – which has been printed separately – is attached. b. Finally, they attach the cover – which they have printed separately. 8. a. Now the publishers can publish the book. b. Now the book can be published. XXXIV. Change these sentences as in the example. Then think about why this makes them better. 1. That she had not written to her parents for over two years surprised me. I was surprised that she had not written to her parents ... 2. That nobody was prepared to take him to hospital shocked us. 3. That Mary wanted to tell everybody what to do annoyed me. 4. That George rang me up at three o'clock in the morning to tell me he was in love again didn't please me. 5. The fact that he looked completely different from the last time I had met him confused me. (I was confused by ...) TEST YOURSELF Choose the correct answer. 1. The event ________ before they arrived home. a) reported c) was being reported b) had been reported d) has been reported 2. I ___________ a letter by an unknown person yesterday. a) gave c) was given b) have been given d) have given 3. Robert Gibbs, the great plane robber __________ the police yesterday. a) was arrested by c) has arrested b) arrested d) arrested by 125 4. My suitcase __________ from the hotel room. a) stole c) was stolen b) has stolen d) was being stolen 5. Last night I __________ by the police as I was driving home. a) stopped c) was stopped b) have been stopped d) have stopped 6. We hope that an agreement ___________ . a) was arrived c) will be arrived at b) arrived d) will arrive 7. Your key must __________ before 11:30 a.m. a) return c) be returned b) be returning d) have returned 8. Because of an extremely high accident rate, restrictions on teenagers’ driving ___________ at the next City Council meeting. a) will discuss c) will be discussing b) are discussed d) will be discussed 9. Many of the early British settlers in Australia were criminals who were able not ___________ by agreeing to live on and develop the land there. a) be imprisoned c) to be imprisoned b) to imprison d) being imprisoned 10. The government has announced that taxes ___________. a) are raised c) will be raised b) will raise d) had been raised 11. I was announced that the international treaty against weather war-
fare ___________ and had gone into effect. a) would have been ratified c) had been ratified b) is ratified d) was ratified 12. The house where the dead man was found ____________ by the po-
lice to prevent it from being antered and the evidence interfered with. a) is guarded c) is been guarded b) will guard d) is being guarded 13. A police car came when the injured man ___________ the road. a) was being carried off c) has been carried off b) was been carrying off d) was carried off 14. The notorious spy ___________ from the country. a) was being deported c) deported b) was deported d) has deported 126
15. Your brother ___________ unless he pays his fine. a) will release c) is released b) will be released d) will not be released 16. The police are watching a house in London; they think the house __________ by people who sell drugs. a) is used c) is being used b) was used d) has used 17. She returned home to find her house _______________. a) has been burgled c) had been burgled b) was burgled d) is burgled 18. Accidents ____________ often by carelessness. a) cause c) are causing b) are caused d) have been caused 19. The juvenile problems ___________ still __________. a) have discussed c) were discussed b) are being discussed d) discussed 20. The criminal code ____________ by the end of the month. a) will have been published c) are publishing b) will publish d) is published 21. Criminal actions __________________ by the state. a) are nearly always started b) are nearly always being started c) are nearly always start d) are nearly always been started 22. A decision of the Supreme Court cannot ____________ to any other court. a) appeal c) be appealed b) be appealing d) be appeal 23. There’s somebody walking behind us. I think ____________. a) we are following c) we are followed b) we are being following d) we are being folowing 24. Linda _____________ by the police. a) arrested c) has arrested b) has been arrested d) had arrested 127 Modals There are the following modal verbs in English: MODALS EQUIVALENTS MUST HAVE TO; BE TO CAN (COULD ) BE ABLE TO MAY ( MIGHT ) BE ALLOWED TO SHOULD HAD BETTER OUGHT TO NEED Modals have the following peculiarities: 1. can express ability, obligation, permission, request; also the idea of probability, or how certain a situation is, but not the action; 2. modals unlike their equivalents lack the tense forms; 3. their interrogative and negative forms are built up without the auxil-
iary; 4. different meanings may be associated with different forms of the in-
finitive – simple and perfect (both in the active and passive forms), continuous and perfect continuous; 5. modals unlike their equivalents and except ought are followed by the infinitive without the particle to. The meaning of modals depends on the context. One modal verb can have several meanings depending on their function, or purpose. ABILITY Can and be able to. Be able to is used in situations where can does not have the necessary grammatical form. I’d like to be able to swim. Not being able to swim is annoying. CERTAINTY AND UNCERTAINTY 1. Must and can’t. These are used to make deductions, when we are more or less certain about something, especially with the verb to be. You must be tired after your journey. (I suppose you are) That can’t be Sue. She is in Brazil. (I’m sure it’s impossible) 2. May, might and could. These all express uncertainty or possibility. They are usually stressed in speech. Might is less likely than may. Could is not used with not in this context. It may not rain. I might go out, I don’t know. I could get wet! 128
OBLIGATION 1. Must and have to. Have to describes obligations made by someone else, while must is used to describe a personal obligation. There may be no difference. You must start working harder! You have to turn left here. Sorry, I must leave \have to leave now. 2. Mustn’t and don’t have to. Mustn’t describes something which is not allowed. Don’t have to describes something which is not necessary. You mustn’t leave any bags here. (It’s against the rule) You don’t have to apply yet. (It’s not necessary) 3. Should and ought to. These have the same meaning. They describe “what is a good idea” and can be used to give advice, or polite instructions. I think you should see a doctor. You should send in your aplication by July 18
. You ought not to continue. 4. Had better. This refers to present or future time, and gives advice about how to stop something going wrong.. I think you’d better leave now. (Before it is too late) You’d better not drive. (It might be dangerous) 5. Is\Are to (Was\ were to). This is used in formal instruction, refers to a previously arranged plan or obligation. Not is stressed. No-one is to leave the room. He was to meet her yesterday. TASKS Don’t need to /needn’t, needn’t have/ didn’t need to, should/ shouldn’t I. Write sentences saying what you needn’t/don’t need to do in your country. - carry an ID card at all times - have a work permit - be 21 before you can marry - be 21 before you can drive - call a police officer sir or madam - have a licence to own a gun 129 II. Make sentences using should have and shouldn’t have and the words in brackets. 1 I’m sure he was guilty (He /go/ to prison) 2 The fine was very high (It /be/ so high) 3 He didn’t have a licence (He /have/ the gun) 4 There was a lot of traffic (He /drive/ more slowly) 5 She didn’t have her ID (She /show/ it/ to the police) 6 He didn’t have a work permit (They /employ/ him) III. Read the newspaper article and the letter in reply to it. Who do you agree with – the judge or the writer of the letter? 1. A judge ordered an 82-year-old man to pay 4,000 damages to a burglar who was trying to break into his house. Jack Lewis was asleep in his house in Maidstone Kent when he heard noises. He picked up his shotgun and went downstairs where he found Michael Phillips in the hall with a bag full of electrical equipment. Phillips claimed that because he was unarmed, he put the goods down and raised his hands when he saw the shotgun. Lewis said Phillips had turned to run out of the open front door, so he shot him. Phillips suffered minor wounds to the legs. In the trial, the judge said despite the fact that Lewis was defending his own property, the shotgun was unlicenced and in any case, it was not acceptable for people to take the law into their own hands. 2. Sir, I am writing in disbelief at the judgement passed on Jack Lewis yesterday. In my opinion, it is absolutely unfair to make him pay for his act of self-defence. In theory he has committed an offence by firing an unlicenced shotgun, and he should be prosecuted for this. But in practice the law should be more flexible. As far as I’m concerned, for a criminal to receive compensa-
tion for an injury sustained while carrying out a crime is quite outrageous. Your faithfully Brian Forbes Work in pairs and talk about what Jack Lewis didn’t need to do, should have or shouldn’t have done. He shouldn’t have shot him. He didn’t need to use his gun. IV. Translate the following sentences into English using modals. 1. Осуществление прав и свобод человека и гражданина не должно нарушать права и свободы других лиц. 2. К уголовной ответственности может быть привлечено лишь ли-
, совершившее запрещенное законом общественно опасное деяние. 130
3. Согласно принципу “строгой ответственности” требуется уста-
новить лишь факт причинения вреда, но нет необходимости доказывать вину правонарушителя. 4. При условном осуждении могут быть назначены дополнитель-
ные виды наказаний. 5. Возможно, судьи высших судов назначались лишь из числа ад-
вокатов высшей категории – барристеров. 6. Платным магистратам и мировым судьям позволено разбирать некоторые категории
гражданских споров. 7. Деление на фелонии и мисдиминоры, должно быть, имело арха-
ичный характер до конца 18 века. V. Complete the text with the most suitable modals. Translate it. Civil procedure To start a civil case, a pleading 1) ………… be filed with the court, called a complaint, naming the party against whom the case is brought (we 2) ……….. call him the defendant). The person or organization filing the case 3) ……….. be called the plaintiff. The complaint 4)……….. state a cause of ac-
tion (there 5)………… be enough set forth that a defendant 6) ………... know what he is accused of having done). Only some civil cases 7) ……….. be veri-
fied (sworn to), and there is a court cost payable at the time of filing a civil case. Next a summons is issued, inviting defendant to come to court. The summons 8) …………. tell the defendant how many days he 9) ………… make appearance and file an answer. If he does/not, a default judgement 10) ………… be entered against him. A defendant 11) …………. to defend with-
out a lawyer. Both parties have a right to jury trial but they 12) ………… to file a pa-
per asking for a jury or they 13) ………… lose the right. There is not, gener-
ally, a right to speedy trial in civil cases. 1) must 2) may 3) is to 4) must 5) must 6) can 7) have to/must 8) should 9) has to 10) may 11) is allowed 131 12) are to 13) may VI. Complete each sentence with a suitable modals from the list. are not allowed is to could not couldn’t could needn’t should had to had to was able to = managed to 1. I …………. take the company to court to get the money they owed me. 2. The trial took a long time as the jury ………… reach a verdict. 3. It ………… be the judge who decides on the sentence. 4. You ………… to park here. 5. The two men were arrested before they ………… commit any more crimes. 6. You ………… call a lawyer, but it’s a good idea. 7. After climbing over the prison wall, Peter ………… to get away by stealing a car parked nearby. 8. Charles ………… deny having been at the scene of the crime. 9. The police ………… spent all morning searching the house for evi-
dence. 10. Today his term of imprisonment is over. It means he ……….. be re-
leased. Must (deduction); may, might (possibility) VII. Change the underlined parts of the sentences by using the mo-
dal verbs must or may/might. Translate bearing in mind whether it’s de-
duction or possibility. Example
: I think George has won
his case because he had a very good defence lawyer – George must have won his case 1. The driver of the car broken into is very nervous. There are probably
illegal drugs hidden somewhere behind the back seat. 2. Why doesn’t the detective see to it himself? I’m sure he’s got
plenty of evidence just now. 3. Perhaps your son wasn’t
sober while driving. I think it’s
the reason of the accident. 132
4. Don’t accept any offer without thinking it over carefully first, even though it’s possible that it’ll seem
very good to you at first. 5. The police have evidently banned
parking in this street. 6. The president admitted that there had, of course, been
a breakdown of law and order. 7. Maybe Carlos was arrested
because he had entered the country ille-
gally. 8. Every society that has ever existed has recognized the need for laws which perhaps have been unwritten.
9. The police say the arson has been committed, but they are not sure
. 10. I left my bike outside the house last night and this morning it isn’t there any more. I think somebody has stolen
it. VIII. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the mo-
dals. 1. The solution of the question of the burden of taxes can’t be endlessly removed. 2. Some politicians must have forgotten all the horrors of the world war II reviving fascism in new forms. 3. The ship is likely to arrive at the port tomorrow morning we might be informed of it. 4. If the suspect is hostile, the investigator should determine the reason for his hostility. 5. Either partner can institute criminal proceedings against the other. 6. The family status of early Roman jurisconsults may have been more important than their legal expertise. 7. The advocate is to fight for the rights of his clients, but only up to the point where an honourable person could fairly put the case on his own behalf. 8. He (the advocate) must not identify with his client’s possible willing-
ness to tell untruths. 9. If incidental disputes concerning procedure have to be litigated, the barrister is likely to conduct the proceedings. 10. The beginning civil-law judge can expect to start at the lowest level. 11. Legislation needs to be expressed in language readily comprehensi-
ble by judges and lawyers. 12. Small parties like the Scottish National Party, whose support is con-
centrated in a particular part of the country, are more likely to win seats. 13. Before trial takes place the examining justices must hold a prelimi-
nary inquiry, called “committal proceedings”. 14. The “ alibi warning ” notice must be given to the prosecution if an alibi defence is to be relied upon. 133 15. It must be decided whether the accused should be granted bail and legal aid for trial. 16. At the end of the prosecution case, the defence may make a submis-
sion of “no case to answer”. 17. Hearsay evidence must be excluded on grounds of unreliability. 18. Counsels should not press for conviction in any circumstances, but should proceed impartially to ensure that justice is done. 19. It is an old debate, whether an effective system of law can be im-
posed from above or must grow “organically” from below. 20. In accordance with a congressional enactment, a suit brought to a state court that could have been brought to a federal court may be removed to the federal court at the option of the defendant. TEST YOURSELF Choose the most suitable verb 1. The wittness…………..have given more information if he wasn’t frightened. a. must c. may b. should d. is allowed to 2. Such a decision……………be made very soon. a. must c. ought to b. have to d. is able to 3. We……………have sent the lawyer all the necessary information. a. must c. can b. should d. is allowed to 4. General election to choose the next Government………… held at least every four years. a. will c. have to b. is allowed to d. must 5. The verdict…………….be passed before a trial. a. mustn’t c. is to b. can’t d. can 6. The murderer will…………to escape if the police haven’t caught him. a. can c. be able b. must d. should 134
7. The judge…………be impartial when making a decision. a. should c. is able to b. will d. can’t 8. A burglar………….enter your home, grab the most valuable items and escape. a. should c. must b. can d. has to 9. Thieves………… pay damages. a. have c. can b. must d. ought to 10. Solicitor……… with papers and hire the barrister. a. can c. should b. is to d. is able 11. Crime………….be committed by a law-abiding person. a. should c. might b. could d. can’t 12. A jury……………be chosen from citizens of this town. a. are to c. have b. is to d. is allowed to 13. The car…………….have been stolen an hour ago. a. must c. could b. is to d. ought 14. The copyright law……………be adopted as soon as possible. a. can’t c. should to b. are to d. must 15. An accused……………be acquitted as he is not guilty. a. should c. mustn’t b. can’t d. is allowed 135 Reported speech 1 We often tell people what other people have told us. This is called re-
ported or indirect speech. We usually change tenses and references to people, places and times. Without tense changes Statements are often repeated immediately, and the reporting verb is in a present tense. In this case, there are no tense changes. Tom says “I’m feeling ill”. Tom says that he is feeling ill. Charlie says “I work 14 hours a day”. Charlie says that he works 14 hours a day. Tense changes after a past tense reporting verb Statements are usually reported with a past tense verb and an optional that. All tenses that follow move back into the past. This is sometimes called backshift. Present simple to past simple ‘I need some help.’ She said (that) she needed some help. Present continuous to past continuous ‘We are having our lunch.’ She said that they were having their lunch. Present perfect to past perfect ‘I have lost my keys.’ He said (that) he had lost his keys. will to would ‘I will be home at 6.00.’ She said that she would be home at 6.00.
Past simple to past perfect ‘I wrote two letters to her.’ He said (that) he had written two letters to her. be going to, to was /were going to ‘They are going to come back.’ She said (that) they were going to come back. must ‘I must finish this before I go.’ He said he must finish it before he went. Note that must does not change. He said he had to finish it before he went
. 136
Note: sentences in direct speech have speech marks (inverted commas) around the spoken words. Indirect or reported speech does not use speech marks. Note: past perfect in reported speech can be a report of either past sim-
ple or present perfect. ‘I’ve lost my keys!’ said Joe. Joe said he had lost his keys. ‘I lost them yesterday,’ he said. He said he had lost them the day before. No changes after a past tense reporting verb If the report is about something which is always true, it may not be neces-
sary to backshift. ‘I like apples more than I like oranges.’ She said that she likes apples more than she likes oranges. ‘Budapest is the capital of Hungary’. He said that Budapest is the capital of Hungary. Some speakers prefer to backshift in sentences of this kind. Speakers in reported speech Speakers can be mentioned at the beginning of the or end of the sentence in direct speech. Direct speech Jack said, ‘We’re going to miss the train’. ‘We’re going to miss the train,’ said Jack. Speakers are mentioned at the beginning of the sentence in reported speech. Reported speech Jack said (that) they were going to miss the train. Other changes In reported speech, references to people, places and times often change, be-
cause the point of view changes. ‘I’ll see you here tomorrow,’ said Sue. Sue said she would see me there the next day. ‘I bought this book yesterday,’ said Martin. Martin said he had bought the book the day before. Summarizing instead of verbatim reports Sometimes each word is reported (verbatim reporting), but we often sum-
marize what people say when we make reports. 137 ‘Look, actually, tell him a call next week, OK?’ She said she’d call you next week. Verbs easily confused: say, tell, speak
Speak describes the act of talking. Simon spoke to me in the supermarket yesterday. Say describes the words used. It is followed by optional that. ‘It is warm today,’ she said. She said (that) it was warm. Tell describes giving information It needs an object. It is followed by op-
tional that. ‘You’ve won first prize,’ she said. She told me (that) I had won first prize. Reported speech 2 Commands and requests Commands are reported with tell and the infinitive. ‘Wait! Wait!’ I told him to stop. Requests are reported with ask and the infinitive. ‘Please wait!’ I asked her to wait. Yes /no questions Questions with the answer yes or no are reported with backshift and using if. ‘Does the London train stop here?’ she asked. She asked me if the London train stopped here. Note that the question form of the direct speech is not used in reported speech, as there is no longer a direct question. There is no question mark. Whether Whether means if … or not. We use whether when we report questions linked with or. The question is reported with backshift. ‘Are you staying the night, or are you going home?’ he asked. He asked me whether I was staying the night or going home. 138
Wh-questions Questions beginning when, what, why, where, how, etc. Are reported with backshift. The question forms of direct speech are not used, so the subject in bold comes before the verb. There is no question mark. ‘Where is the bus-station?’ she asked. She asked where the bus-station was. ‘Where have you come from?’ he asked. He asked me where I had come from. Indirect questions Indirect or embedded questions are questions which have an introductory question before them. The indirect question does not have a question form. Note that there is no change of tenses (backshift). Introductory question: Could you tell me …? Do you know …? Wh-questions Where is the post office? Could you tell me where the post office is? When does the film start? Do you know when the film starts? Yes /no questions This questions use if. Is this the right street? Do you know if this is the right street? There is a question mark, because of the introductory question. Reporting verbs Reporting verbs include part of the meaning of the words reported. Here are some of the most common reporting verbs. advise ‘I wouldn’t buy that car, Janos, if I were you.’ I advised Janos not to buy the car. agree ‘Yes, Jill, I think you’re right,’ said Mike. Mike agreed with Jill. apologize ‘I’m really sorry for being so late,’ said Maria. Maria apologized for being late. ask ‘Do you think you could help me, Sue?’ I asked Sue to help me. congratulate “Well done, Tina, you’ve passed the exam!’ I congratulated Tina on passing her exam. 139 decide There are two types of decision. ‘I’m going to become a doctor!’ said Helen. This is a decision about the future, or a plan. Helen decided to become a doctor. ‘I’ll have the fish pie, please,’ said Bill. This is a decision of the moment. Bill decided to have the fish pie. invite ‘Would you like to come to the cinema on Saturday, Pam?’ I invited Pam to the cinema on Saturday. offer ‘Shall I carry your case, Dawn?’ said Peter. Peter offered to carry Dawn’s case. promise ‘I’ll definitely be home by eight,’ said Ann. Ann promised to be home by eight. ‘I’ll wait for you, Helen,’ said Peter. Peter promised Helen that he would wait for her. refuse ‘No, I won’t open the door!’ said Carol. Carol refused to open the door. remind ‘Don’t forget to send your mother a birthday card, Joe.’ I reminded Joe to send his mother a birthday card. suggest ‘How about spending the day at the beach?’ said Carlos. Carlos suggested spending the day at the beach. TASKS I. Translate into English: 1. Наш начальник говорит, что его хобби – работа. 2. Он спрашивает, сколько сейчас времени. 3. Врач спрашивает, как я себя чувствую. Я отвечаю, что неплохо. И добавляю, что никогда раньше
не болел. 4. Мои родители всегда говорят мне не есть так быстро. 5. Интересно, кем он работает? 6. Все спрашивают, как давно мы работаем вместе. 7. Она говорит, что оставила ключи дома. 8. Сообщают, что завтра будет теплее, чем сегодня. 9. Он просит не говорить, что он дома. 10. Интересно, кто изобрел велосипед? 11. Он спрашивает, какие цветы я люблю. Я отвечаю, что незабудки. 12. Она спрашивает, как часто здесь идут дожди. 13. Интересно, сколько требуется времени, чтобы написать книгу? 14. Интересно, в этом году будет жаркое лето? 140
II. Translate into English: 1. Он хотел знать, является ли конгрессмен членом сената либо палаты представителей. 2. Мы не знали, существуют ли специально установленные обя-
занности для члена Конгресса. 3. Лектор заключил, что двухпартийная система США оказала влияние на политическую жизнь страны. 4. Он интересовался, каким образом акт становился законом: пу-
тем одобрения президентом или путем преодоления вето президента. 5. Он спросил, принимает ли президент США участие в управле-
нии кабинетом из 10-12 человек. 6. Студент хотел знать, уходит ли кабинет в отставку, когда исте-
кает служебный срок президента. 7. Студенты интересовались, какая ветвь власти ответственна за соблюдение и исполнение законов. 8. Его интересовало, должен ли
президент США быть коренным гражданином. 9. Студент хотел знать, какая должность в США является высшей правительственной должностью. III. Use the Sequence of Tenses in the following sentences beginning each sentence with the words “She has just said that”, then with the words “She told me that”. Example
: “I don't like modern music.” She has just said that she doesn 't like modern music. She told me that she didn't like modern music. 1. “We haven't yet finished our work.” What has she just said? What did she tell you? 2. “I heard the news only yesterday.” What has she just said? What did she tell you? 3. “Solicitors make up the largest branch of the legal profession in England and Wales.” What has she just said? What did she tell you? 4. “Solicitors are found in every town, where they deal with all the day-to-day work of preparing legal documents.” What has she just said? What did she tell you? 5. “In court a barrister wears wig and gown.” What has she just said? What did she tell you? 141 6. “A jury consist of twelve people, who are ordinary people chosen at random from the Electoral Register.” What has she just said? What did she tell you? 7. “Barristers are called in to advise on really difficult points.” What has she just said? What did she tell you? 8. “To qualify as a barrister you have to take the examinations of the Bar Council.” What has she just said? What did she tell you? 9. “Witness is someone who sees a crime or an accident.” What has she just said? What did she tell you? 10. “Magistrates are selected by special committees in every town and district.” What has she just said? What did she tell you? IV. The following contain sentences with present tense verbs in the main clause. Change the main clause to past and adjust the dependent clause as necessary. Example:
We hope that he will be able to attend. We hoped that he would be able to attend. 1. A woman says to her solicitor that she wants to change her will again. 2. Mark thinks he is going to win a case. 3. I hear that Kate has accepted a new position at the district court. 4. The Deputy Prison Director says that his objective is not toto make life pleasant for prisoners, but to normalise it as much as possible. 5. Frankie says he has heard that his pockets were full of dope and counterfeit banknotes. 6. I realize that they are older than they look. 7. She denies that there is a connection between two accidents. 8. He adds that he knows that settlements can occur before trial. 9. He warns that a juror must not talk to the lawyers, parties, or wit-
nesses about anything. 10. He informs that the robber is armed and dangerous. V. Read the statements and the questions; then answer the ques-
tions in reported speech. Apply the rules of sequence of tenses. Begin each sentence with the words “He said that”, then with the words “He told me that”. Make all the necessary changes. A. Example:
“My train leaves at 5 sharp.” What did he say? – He said that his train left at 5 sharp. What did he tell you? – He told me that his train left at 5 sharp. 142
1. “Olga's husband is a lawyer.” What did he say? What did he tell you? 2. “We don't remember how long detention may be in this case.” What did he say? What did he tell you? 3. “An arrested person has a statutory right to consult a solicitor.” What did he say? What did he tell you? 4. “The police are waiting outside.” What did he say? What did he tell you? 5. “He never does wrong things.” What did he say? What did he tell you? B. Example:
“I represented professional interests of the police service in a trade union last year.” What did he say? – He said that he had represented professional interests of the police service in a trade union the previous year. 1. “Police officers did not carry firearms.” What did he say? What did he tell you? 2. “Police work ranged greatly in that country.” What did he say? What did he tell you? 3. “Police authorities employed over 41,500 civilians (including part-
time employees) in England and Wales last year.” What did he say? What did he tell you? 4. “The police have been obtaining the views of people in the area about the policing of it and cooperation with the community in preventing crime since 1984.” What did he say? What did he tell you? 5. “Particular efforts have been made to develop relations with young people to prevent crime.” What did he say? What did he tell you? C. Example:
“We'll release as many uniformed police officers as pos-
sible for operational duties.” What did he say? – He said that they would release as many uniformed police officers as possible for operational duties. What did he tell you? – He told me that they would release as many uniformed police offi-
cers as possible for operational duties. 1. “Special constables will perform police duties in their spare time, without pay.” What did he say? What did he tell you? 2. “They will act mainly as auxiliaries to the regular force.” What did he say? What did he tell you? 143 3. “People will be discussing issues of concern with the police in a constructive spirit very long.” What did he say? What did he tell you? 4. “Complaints from the public against the police will have been han-
dled by the end of this week.” What did he say? What did he tell you? 5. “We will have replaced police officers with civilians where posts do not require police powers and training by May.” What did he say? What did he tell you? VI. Complete the sentences with say or tell (in correct form). 1. Have you anything to …… for yourself before I pass a sentence? 2. I don’t want a lawyer to …… me what I cannot do; I hire him to …… me how to do what I want to do. 3. Don’t just stand here! ………….something! 4. I wonder where Sue is. She ……….she would be here at 8 o’clock. The hearing is starting! 5. Jack ………… that he was fed up with his job. 6. I swear to …… the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth. 7. Don’t ………..anybody what I ………….. It’s a secret just between us. 8. “Did she ………you what happened?” “No, she didn’t ………..anything to me.” 9. George couldn’t help me. He ……………me to ask Kate. 10. George couldn’t help me. He ………… ask Kate. 11. The judge instructed the witness to ……… the whole truth about the accident. 12. You’ve …… us many interesting things about English law and courts, but you didn’t …… anything about lawyers. VII. Complete the sentences by changing the direct speech to re-
ported speech. Use the sequence of tenses. Example:
Ann asked, “Are there two chambers in all legislatures? Can you give the name of a country with only one?” Ann asked me if there were two chambers in all legislatures and if I could give, the name of a country with only one. 1. Bob said, “Which, in most countries, is more important and power-
ful, the Upper House or the Lower House?” Bob asked me... 2. He said, “If, in Great Britain, the Government is defeated at a general election, who is invited to form the new Government?” 144
He asked me... 3. He said, “Is the Senate in Congress (USA) the Upper House or the Lower House?” He asked me ... 4. Jane said, “The seats in the two front rows are to be occupied only by women.” Jane said... 5. Ann said, “How do members of the legislature vote in your country?” Ann asked me... 6. Peter said, “Does the Speaker of the House of Commons ever make speeches in the House, or are his duties like those of a chairman at a meeting?” Peter asked me... 7. Ted said, “Do the Prime Minister and the Leader of the Opposition sit side by side or facing one another on opposite sides of the Clerk's table?” Ted asked me... 8. He said, “How have Americans treated the problem of death pen-
alty?” He asked me ... 9. She said, “Who was the founder of the British police?” She asked me ... 10. Bob said, “What is your attitude to the problem of crime preven-
tion?” Bob asked me ... VIII. Read the following orders or requests and the questions; then answer the questions in reported speech. Follow the given example. Example 1
: “Supervise any case involving death or serious injury.” What did she tell you to do ? – She told me to supervise any case involving death or serious injury. Example 2:
“Don't release him on hall” What did she warn you abou ? – She warned me not to release him on bail. 1. “Coordinate your efforts to produce good relations with the commu-
nity.” What did they ask you to do? 2. “Ensure the impartiality of the service in its dealings with the pub-
lic.” What did she advise him to do? 3. “Maintain public confidence.” What did he remind us to do? 4. “Discuss issues of concern with the police in a constructive spirit.” What did she want us to do? What did she warn us about? 5. “Develop relations with young people, through greater contact with schools, for example.” What did he tell police officers to do? 145 6. “Don't drive too fast.” What did she warn you about? 7. “Don't put offence relating questions to a person after he or she has been charged with that offence.” What did he tell you about? 8. “Don't employ his person.” What did he order him to do? 9. “Don't detain a person beyond 36 hours if a warrant is obtained from a magistrates' court.” What did he warn them about? 10. “Don't fail to appear in court!” What did he warn her about? IX. Make the following direct questions indirect. Begin your ques-
tions with the words “May I ask you ...”. Example:
a) Where do you work? May I ask you where you work ? b) Is there sufficient evidence to charge a person ? May I ask you if there is sufficient evidence to charge a person? 1. Must the police decide on an appropriate method of dealing with him or her? 2. Who deters charging? 3. Why do they take no further action? 4. Will they release the person with or without bail? 5. Will the person be held in custody? 6. Do you believe that detention is necessary for his own protection? 7. Is there provision for statutory time limits on the period from arrest to the beginning of trial in England and Wales? 8. In what situations can policemen carry arms? 9. What are the duties of traffic wardens? 10. Why was capital punishment imposed so frequently in ancient socie-
ties? X. Complete the following sentences making indirect questions from the questions given before each one. Example:
Where did he go? I know where he went. 1. Who will be elected president? I'm not sure………………………….. 2. Whose footprint is it? They haven't discovered ……………… ……………. 3. What are the reasons for a person to be excused from the jury ser-
vice? He told me…………………… 4. How was the murder committed? The police are still trying to de-
cide……………………………… 5. What disciplinary measures are police officers subject to? Do you know………………………..? 6. What are the most typical crimes committed by recidivists? You can't imagine……………….. 7. What is preponderance of evidence? Do you know ………… …………………….? 8. When and why are jurors sent out of the courtroom during trial? An-
gela told me……………….. 9. What is the goal of humanitarian treatment of offenders in Holland? I don't know………………… 10. Why has the jury system been criticized? The book doesn't say……………… XI. Transform the following sentences from reported speech into direct questions. 1. The judge told us what crime the accused would be guilty of, if the evidence supplied by the prosecution was true. 2. When the judge had finished his summing up, he asked the jury to consider their verdict. 3. The secretary when asked about the difference between a solicitor and a barrister said that solicitors could appear in the lower courts of justice and could speak for their clients. 4. I inquired what one had to do if he needed a barrister in the High Court. 5. He was interested to know when a barrister could ask to be made a Queen's Counsel, or Q.C. 6. My friend wondered what he was supposed to do, if he got into trou-
ble with the law in England. 7. He wondered if someone might need a barrister in the High Court. 8. This person wanted to know if it was the solicitor who collected any evidence that was needed. 9. The man asked if a solicitor could appear for his client in the higher courts of justice. 10. The student was interested to know if solicitors had the same exami-
nations to pass as barristers. 11. He'd like to know if a barrister who was made a Queen's Counsel, or Q.C. could be called upon the prosecution. 12. He asked if all barristers could make much money. 13. He inquired what were other ways for a barrister if he didn't get briefs' to earn money. 147 XII. Rewrite these short jokes transforming direct questions into reported speech. 1. An Irishman had just been found guilty of a serious crime and the judge asked him: “Can you pay anything at all towards costs which were also awarded against him?” “Not a penny, Your Honour,” said the accused. “Everything I own I've given to my lawyer and three of the jury.” 2. Judge: “When you were committing the theft, did you not spare a thought for your wife and daughter?” Defendant: “I did, Your Honour. But there were only men's clothes in the shop.” 3. First Businessman: “Did your ad get any results?” Second Businessman: “I'll say! We advertised for a night watchman and the next night we were robbed.” 4. A certain lawyer was asked what he thought about justice in his country. “If somebody were to claim my best coat as his own and threaten me with a lawsuit, in case I refused to give it up, he would certainly get it, for I should never go to law to defend my coat lest I should lose my last shirt.” 5. Judge: “You stole eggs from this man's store. Have you any excuse?” Accused: “Yes, I took them by mistake.” Judge: “How is that?” Accused: “I thought they were fresh.” 6. Judge: “Aren't you ashamed to be seen here in court so often?” Prisoner: “Why so, your Honour, I always thought it was a very respect-
able place.” 7. Judge (in traffic court): “I'll let you off with a fine this time, but an-
other day I'll send you to jail.” Driver: “Sort of a weather-forecast, eh, Judge?” “What do you mean?” “Fine today – Cooler tomorrow.” 8. “What's the worst punishment for bigamy?” “Two mothers-in-law.” 9. The presiding judge leans towards one of the other judges and says to him in his ear, “This case must be held behind closed door.” “Why?” “Because from that door there's a cursed draught.” 148
XIII. Retell the stories in reported speech. Use different verbs for reported speech: Text 1:
– Sir, do you swear this is not your signature? – said the lawyer. – Yes – Is it not your handwriting? – No – You take your solemn oath that this writing does not resemble yours in a single particular? – Yes – How can you be certain? – demanded the lawyer. – I can’t write, – smiled the man. Text 2:
A husband said to his friend: “My wife doesn’t allow me to sleep. She is afraid of thieves, she wakes me up if she hears the slightest noise, and makes me get up to see if there are burglars in the house”. “You can easily get over that difficulty. Just explain to your wife that thieves don’t make any noise; they work quietly and don’t disturb anybody”. “I’ve already done that, old man, but it only made matters worse. Now she gets me up several times every night because she hears nothing”. Text 3
: “Have you anything to say before I pass the sentence?” the judge said to the pickpocket. “What good have you ever done for mankind?” “Well, Your Honour”, said the prisoner, “I’ve kept four or five detec-
tives working regularly and I’ve helped several reporters, prison guards, and you to keep their jobs”. 149 Part II The non-finite forms of the verb The Infinitive The infinitive – has active and passive forms (voice) and tens forms: Indefinite, Continuous, Perfect and Perfect Continuous. Active Simple Continuous Perfect Perfect Continuous to write to study to be writing to be studying
to have written to have studied to have been writing to have been studying Passive to be written to be studied _____ to have been written to have been studied _____ Tense and Voice forms may be used with the particle to
: I’d like to walk.
He wants to help
you. I’m not going to stay
here. You ought to do
it. Or they may be bare infinitives after several verbs such as: can, could, may, might, must, let, make (заставлять), shall, should, will, would, see, notice, watch, observe, hear, feel; know=see, have=make; in some cases after need, dare, help; after expressions: had better, would rather, would sooner, cannot but, nothing but, cannot choose but. He can skate
. You must do
it. I heard her sing
. We watched them dance
. She made me wash
up. You’d better go
to bed now. I would rather not speak
about it. I would sooner do
it. I can’t but say
it to you. But
After the verbs hear, see, make in Passive Voice the Infinitive have to-forms. He was heard to sing
. I was made to wash up
. Various forms of the Infinitive have different meaning in a sentence. 1. Simple Inf. – simultaneous action with the predicate. I’m glad to meet
you. 150
2. Perfect Inf. – preceeding action. I’m glad to have seen
you. 3. Continuous Inf. – the action in process. He might be meeting
her at the station now. 4. Passive Inf. – the action which is fulfilled not by the subject of the sentence. He wanted to be served
at once. Passive Inf. as an attribute in a sentence may denote a future action. This is the novel to be discussed
. The teacher gave the students a few questions to be answered
. 5. Perfect Continuous Inf. expresses a process preceeding the action of the predicate. He is known to have been working
at the problem for five years. The functions of the Infinitive in a sentence 1. The subject
of a sentence is followed by the predicate. To learn English is very important nowadays. To go on
like this was dangerous. To make
a long story short is your task. 2. The predicative after several verbs such as: to be, to have, modal verbs, to decide, to promice, to want, to like, to begin, to start, to finish and others, being used both with and without the particle to
. (Details will be given below). She had to go
to the library for this book. They may be travelling
now. The justice in Great Britain should be done
, morover. The justice should be seen to be done
. 3. An object
of a sentence after such verbs as: to agree, to advise, to afford, to attempt, to aim, to arrange, to ask, to deserve, to fail, to forget, to learn, to manage, to threaten, would like. We decided to meet
at the station. Tom asked us to be
in time. Don’t forget to leave
a message. 4. An attribute of a sentence. The Infinitive in this function stands after the word it attributes. It may be Active or Passive. These are letters to be posted
. There are different ways to learn
foreign languages. I have no one to speak to
. 151 Bill was the first to win
the race. The first thing for him to do was to obtain the informa-
tion (complex attribute) 5. Adverbial modifier. The Infinitive usually stands at the beginning or at the end of a sentence. To master your English you should mix with a native speaker for a while. He is clever enough to understand the problem. We took a taxi so as not to miss the train. The coffee is too hot to drink. Infinitive Constructions 1. Complex object. The structure is: object + Infinitive after the verbs: want, ask, expect, help, beg, mean, would like, would prefer, would love, would have The teacher wanted his students to know English well We expected him to be in time. Everybody considers him to be right. There are several verbs which are followed by the bare Infinitive (with-
out to
) especially in complex object (verbs of feeling): feel, hear, see, notice, watch, observe, make (заставлять), let I haven’t ever seen you dance
. We made the children go
to bed. Let me do
it myself. We heard him lock the door. They noticed her enter
. She made her son wash up
. I wouldn’t let him leave
. 2. Complex subject structure is used after some verbs: in Passive: to say, to state, to report, to announce, to believe, to suppose, to think, to expect, to know, to understand, to consider, to see, to hear. In Active: to seem, to appear, to prove, to happen, to chance, to be likely, to be unlikely 152
The structure is: subject + V + Inf. She is said to work hard at her dissertation. The strike is expected to end soon. You are not supposed to park here. The steamer “Queen Marry” is considered to be the great-
est in the world. The ship can be expected to arrive in a week. There happened to be many people there at that time. The problem proved to be very difficult. He seems not to know the decision. Be careful with the translation
of this structure. It can be the same as: It is said that she works hard at her dissertation. It is expected that the strike will end soon. It happened that there were many people there at that time. It is supposed that it is a very good film. The film is supposed to be very good. But.
Very often the structure something is supposed to + Inf. has a dif-
ferent meaning: it means, it is expected, it is arranged, it is planned He is supposed to be meeting
her now. The train is supposed to arrive
at 5.30. You are not supposed to park
your car here. 3. Construction For-phrase + Infinitive
The structure is: For + noun (or pronoun) + Infinitive It is very important for him to know English. This is for you to decide. The coffee is too hot for me to drink. The last thing for him to do was to be late for the wedding. What to choose? 1. The structure: verb + (to) infinitive. After the verbs: agree, advise, afford, attempt, aim, ask, arrange, decide, describe, forget, have, hope, learn, manage, promice, threaten, seem, would like and others. 153 They agreed to invite their friends to the party. When did Marry learn to drive? She had to inform him about his bad results. You seem to have won the first prise. She pretended not to know Nick. Don’t forget to post the letter. 2. After some verbs you can use a question word: what, which, whether, how The structure is: verb + qu. word + to Infinitive. Could you show me how to change the film. We asked how to get to the bank. I can’t decide what to do. I don’t know whether she has come back. 3. There are two structures, where the Infinitive is an object: 1) verb + to Infinitive (simple object); 2) verb + object + to Infinitive (complex object). 1 2 We expected to be late. We expected Bill to be late. Would you like to invite Marry to the party? Would you like me to invite Marry to the party? Do you want to come to the discussion? Do you want me to come to the discus-
sion? (Not! Do you want that I come?) Can you do it? Can you help me (to) do it? Possible with or without to. 4. There are some verbs in the structure: verb + object + to Infinitive. tell, remind, force, enable, teach, order, wash, invite, persuade, get=persuade, arrange for Who taught you to ride? Will you remind him to buy some bread? Peter warned me not to open this device. I was warned not to open the device (passive). 5. There is some difference between these structures after the verbs: advise, recommend, encourage, allow, permit, forbid 154
The first with the Infinitive: I don’t recommend anybody to stay
in that hotel. They do not allow us to smoke
in the house. We aren’t allowed to smoke
in the house. The meaning of this structure is general. The second structure is with ing-form. I wouldn’t recommend staying
in that hotel. They don’t allow smoking
in the house. We don’t allow smoking
in the house. The meaning is general. TASKS I. Name the forms of the infinitives and translate: To find, to be searching, to be crossexamined, to have been acquitted, to suspect, to be investigated, to break the law, to be searched, to sum up, to be interrogated, to consider the verdict, to get married, to make a conclusion, to be late, to be pleading. II. Define the functions of the Infinitives paying attention to the place of them and translate: 1. The teacher asked us to translate the text orally. 2. The author began to translate his novel into French two years ago. 3. This crime must be investigated as soon as possible. 4. The judge asked the witness to keep to the point. 5. She was glad to hear their confession. 6. The lawyer wanted to be informed about new evidence. 7. The problem was too complicated to be settled immediately. 8. You should be extremely attentive to this dangerous person. 9. Smith was the last to be arrested. 10. The lawyer advised his client to prepare all the documents. 11. They had no intention to commit a crime. 12. To interrogate the accused is a difficult task. 13. To interrogate the accused the investigator looked through all in-
formation about the crime. 14. To make a long story short means to keep to the point and to be brief. 15. She tried to make long story short. 16. To make a long story short she tried to find the proper words. 17. Confession is the best way for you. 18. I’ll show you the painting to be hanged in the bed-room. 155 19. There is no need for him to appear in the court-room. 20. There is no reason for him to change anything in his life. III. Classify the Infinitive Constructions and translate the sen-
tenses: 1. They wanted him to be acquitted. 2. He seems to come soon. 3. He is said to have come to the city. 4. We heard Brown to be awarded with the first prise. 5. The witness happened to know about the crime. 6. She was prooved to be quilty. 7. They consider themselves to be right. 8. The judge was known to be the best in the city. 9. I have you to say such things. 10. He is likely to know the robbers’ plan. 11. They may happen to be found guilty. 12. Tom seems to have been discouraged by his failour. 13. It is too late for me to refuse. 14. That is for you to decide to be or not to be an actress. 15. It’s high time for you to pull yourself together. IV. Insert the Infinitive in the proper form: 1. I’ll go to the hospital tomorrow __________ by the doctor (to exam-
ine). 2. I would rather _________ to the Crimea (to go). 3. The judge made the witness _________ the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth (to tell). 4. I was known __________ all the evidence by the beginning of the trial (to examine). 5. We heard him ___________ at the conference (to speak). 6. Everybody knew she could __________ since morning till night (to dance). 7. Don’t help him. He is very lazy. Let him _________ it himself (to do). 8. This crime should __________ long ago (to investigate). 9. I want __________ about the trial. I would like to know everything (to inform). 10. I want you __________ me about the trial (to inform). 11. I want you _________ me about it before the trial finished (to in-
form). 156
12. We would prefer ___________ to the theatre (to go) rather than __________ the film (to see). V. Make a new sentence using the verb in brackets with Complex Subject: 1. Your mother is worried about your being late (appear). 2. Mr. Smith is absent minded (seem). 3. They have considerred the verdict (say). 4. She became a film star (know). 5. You should read all the evidence (to suppose). 6. His sons have already served in the Army (to be likely). VI. Insert the words: what, how, where, whether and complete the sentences using one of the verbs: do, park, drive, find, behave. 1. Can you show me __________ __________ the way to the postoffice? 2. We haven’t decided __________ ___________ yet. 3. Will you teach me __________ ___________ the car? 4. Don’t you know __________ __________ in this situation? 5. Who can tell me ___________ __________ the car? VII. Analyse the Infinitive. Translate (for practice and control). 1. Currently, the number of people out of work for 12 months or more stands at 750,000 and will almost certainly hit the million mark later this year, where it is very likely to stay for several years, said commission chairman Sir Richard O’Brien. 2. Generally, a witness cannot testify to hearsay, that is, what someone else has told him outside of the presence of the parties to the action. 3. Occasionally during the trial the lawyers will ask permission to ap-
proach the bench and speak to the judge or the judge may call them to the bench. 4. Like every other human undertaking, the effort to meet the often complex demands of the internal morality of law may suffer various kinds of shipwreck. 5. The more the party went halfway to meet social expectations and overcome errors the more ruthlessly it was attacked. 6. The magistrates can decide to try the charge themselves at any time during the hearing, but usually the decision is made at the outset at the sugges-
tion of the prosecution. 7. Under the law the court is required to ask a few preliminary questions of the prospective jurors, touching their qualifications to act as jurors. 157 8. Despite differences of opinion on certain of these issues they had been able to draw up with the Peace Council a comprehensive set of policies to end the threat of mutual nuclear annihilation. 9. Irrespective of what concept is adopted for the restructuring of the trade union movement, it must absolutely respect the system’s Socialist principles. 10. A crime is not committed by anyone who, because of a mental dis-
ease is unable to understand what he is doing and to control his conduct at the time he commits a harm forbidden by criminal law. 11. Shop stewards were reported to have held meetings at several major work places with a view to organizing the strike. 12. Because of the complexities of the system and the difficulties in po-
litical attitudes towards the land law, it is not possible to deal only with clear-
cut major principles of reform. 13. The cross-examining attorney may ask leading questions for the purpose of inducing the witness to testify about matters which he may other-
wise have chosen to ignore. 14. It may be necessary to refer to more than one code in order to ascer-
tain the state of the law. 15. Hobbes was convinced that the sovereign, in order to perform its functions adequately, should be omnipotent and not subject to legal restraints. 16. It is important to define law in order to establish proper methods of studying law. 17. For well over a century it has been suggested, time and again, that in order to keep the general law under constant review and bring it up to date whenever necessary, this country needs a Minister of Justice. 18. A constable also has certain privileges in order to enable him to carry out his duties more efficiently, e.g. a certain amount of protection against actions for damages, and exemption from jury service. 19. The union should also be informed about the economic issues of the enterprise so as to have realistic ground for its fight in defence of the workers social interests. 20. Webster’s definition of violence is clear: the exertion of physical force so as to injure or abuse. 21. In the spring of 1970, the Columbia Broadcasting Company took a poll of 1136 Americans to see how many of them supported the Bill of Rights. 22. The Courts of Appeals were organized to relieve the Supreme Court of pressure resulting from the accumulation of appellate cases. 23. Statute law can be used to abolish common law rules which have outlived their usefulness, or to amend the common law to cope with the chang-
ing circumstances and values of society. 158
24. Magistrate courts have been established to handle the large number of cases which arise in urban communities. 25. At the same time it must be recognized that special steps should be taken to present types of crimes that terrorize the public, or disturb their sense of safety and security, such as housebreaking and robbery. 26. The doctrine of contract has been so thoroughly remodeled to meet the needs of modern times, that there is less necessity here than elsewhere for historical research. 27. Businessman Alan Eva, who paid to have his own factory burnt down, then got more than £1m1n from an insurance company, was jailed for 4 years at the Old Bailey. 28. A number of statutes has been passed to prevent physical cruelty and neglect and to provide for children’s moral and mental welfare as well. 29. The elements of the objective aspect of a crime are taken into con-
sideration to determine how dangerous an act is to society. 30. Laws must be clearly written to define the responsibility and immu-
nities of the police officer who represents society. 31. The US intention is clear. It will talk about banning chemical weap-
ons, but only to buy time and to divert attention away from its steadily growing stockpile threatening the world. 32. Considerable social ingenuity will be required to remedy this struc-
tural defect in American society. 33. This resulted in 1959 in the appointment by the President of the Board of Trade of a committee to review the whole field of the existing law of trade marks. 34. It is obvious for instance, that in order to draw up a will, or to en-
force claims arising out of an agreement one has to know the law. 35. In order to perform its function the court needs willingness on the part of potential litigants to use the court as a conflict-resolving mechanism. 36. In order to justify a homicide, as being in self-defense, the person who is attacked must actually believe that he is in imminent danger of losing his life or of receiving serious personal injury. 37. In order to raise more money to avoid a government deficit, work-
ers’weekly national insurance contributions are likely to be upped by perhaps as much as £1. 38. In order to have the required “background” for their policy, the rul-
ing circles of the NATO countries have been putting over a period of years in increasing their military appropriations, which, as they themselves acknowl-
edge this, are very much higher than the defence expenditures of the socialist countries. 159 39. In order that a man and woman may become husband and wife, two conditions must be satisfied: first, they must both possess the capacity to con-
tract a marriage, and secondly, they must observe the necessary formalities. 40. To be declared criminally responsible a person must have reached a certain age. 41. To understand this, it is necessary to consider what was happening throughout Europe in the same period. 42. To make punishment effective the law of course fits the penalty to the offence. 43. This conflict may be too general to be dealt with, instance by in-
stance, although it is quite likely that this is the best we can do for the time being. 44. The programs mentioned in this report have been in operation too short a time to provide a firm basis for evaluating their impact. 45. Most crimes for which arrests are made are actually committed in the presence of witnesses or a policeman, and the testimony of either is usually sufficient to insure conviction without any confession. 46. The comparative method is sufficiently elastic to embrace all activi-
ties which may be concerned with the study of foreign law. 47. The foregoing discussion of the nature and functions of law is in-
tended only as the barest introduction of a subject far too big and important to be exhausted in a few pages. 48. We have enough experience to know that, however much care is taken, some accidents are inevitable. 49. There are enough nuclear missiles in the world to turn it into a ra-
dio-active desert. 50. Enough has been said to illustrate the difficulties encountered in any attempt to frame a satisfactory definition of comparative law. 51. Massive upsurges of peace action in Western Europe have become powerful enough to shake governments, modify international policy and com-
pell heads of states in the western world to separate themselves from the dan-
gerous foreign policies of the Reagan administration. 52. The investigator should record just enough of the information to en-
able him to complete his records at the conclusion of the interview. 53. When a given social arrangement has been accepted, and when peo-
ple have conformed to it long enough to have made it customary or traditional, then it is regarded as normal and just to adhere to this arrangement and unjust to deviate from it. 54. It is not yet too late for the government to change its position and stop the Pentagon testing of Cruise missiles on Canadian soil. 160
55. It may be too early for the total amount of compensation to be fi-
nally assessed and this issue might be postponed to a later date. 56. The go-ahead has already been given for a chemical weapon plant to be built in the States. 57. None of the courts went into the question whether there was suffi-
cient material before the circuit judge for him to be satisfied as required by the section. 58. For a policy of peaceful coexistence to succeed mass struggle is necessary. 59. For a marriage to be valid there must be consent by each party to take the other in marriage. 60. For natural law to be recognized as such, it must have more than di-
vine origin. The Gerund The gerund is formed by adding the suffix -ing to the stem of the verb. The gerund denotes the name of an action. It has nominal and verbal proper-
ties. The nominal characteristics are: 1. It can be a subject, an object and a predicative. 2. It can be preceded by a preposition. 3. It can be preceded by a possessive pronoun, or a noun in the posses-
sive case. The verbal characteristics are: 1. It can have a direct object. 2. It can be modified by an adverb. 3. The Gerund can have forms of tense and voice. The gerund forms: Active Passive Simple writing being written Perfect having written having been written 1. Active forms of the gerund mean the actions done by the subject of the sentence. They had no problem in transleting
poems. 2. Passive forms of the gerund mean the actions done not by the subject, but they are only directed to the subject of the sentence. He liked neither reading
, not being read
allowed. 3. Perfect forms of the gerund mean the actions done before the actions of the predicate. She denied having spoken
about you. 161 Functions of the gerund: The gerund can be as 1. a subject Swearing
the oath is obligatory for every witness. 2. a predicative (after such verbs as to be, to begin, to stop, to continue, to keep, need, to enjoy, to avoid, line, dislike, hate, intend, prefer, can’t help, to be worth, be used to, get used to, feel like, and others) He kept on interrogating
the suspect. The accused was quite against being found
guilty. He denies stealing
the money. 3. an object a) direct I enjoyed dancing
. b) indirect prepositional object. After certain word combinations such as: to accuse of, to approve of, to hear of, to be found of, to be proud of, to go in for, to succeed in, to be sur-
prised of, to be interested in, to be engaged in, to insist on, to object to, to be disappointed at, to prevent from, to persist in, to spend in, to suspect of, to think of, to be afraid of, to be capable of, to insist of, to object to, to get used to, to look forward to, to count on, to be punished for, to be used for. And in the expressions: There is no harm in … There is no sense in … He was accused of stealing
money. The boy was punished for breaking
the window. He instisted on being informed
about the case. Would you mind Richard’s being invited
? c) an attribute (with positions of, for) He was born with the gift of winning
hearts. Interrogation is an instrument for investigating. I don’t like the idea of their getting married. d) adverbial modifier (of time, manner, attendant circumstances). Preceded by the prepositions: after, before, on (upon), in, at, with, without. After arriving
in London he went to the British museum. Translate the text without using a dictionary. Upon walking
I found myself much recovered. In spite of being busy
he came to the party. 162
The gerundial constructions Gerundial constructions consist of gerund with preceding possessive pronoun, or a noun in possessive case (as a complex subject, as a predicative) and with a preceding preposition (as a complex object). His being included in the delegation was unknown. (subject) I don’t like your leaving so early. (object) They told us about their taking part in the conference. (object) All of us knew about his being accused of shop-lifting. (object) The Cayer was quite against interrogating that vitness. (object) The Infinitive or the Gerund Sometimes the both forms are possible. The gerund is used after the verbs: stop, finish, delay, postpone, fancy, imagine, consider, avoid, admit, deny, miss, risk, involve, practice, give up, put off, carry on, keep, keep on, enjoy, mind, remember, regret and others. But the infinitive is also used after the verbs: stop, finish, remember, and regret. We should remember, that if we speak about past actions it is safer to use the gerund, if we speak about future actions, we use the infinitive. 1 He stopped smoking (gave up). 2 He stopped to smoke (the function of adverbial modifier of purpose). to regret
I now regret saying
what I said. I regret to say
sad news to you. to remember
I remember seeing
him the other day but I don’t remember where. I remember to pay
for the telephone. To like, would like
I like shopping
(the occupation). I would like to shop
today. I don’t like washing up, but I like to wash up
just after the meal (prefer). The gerund is used after the verbs and expressions such as: to enjoy, to mind, can’t help, would recommend + (general action), intend + (occupation), be used to + (ing), get used to + (ing). I used to get up early in my childhood and to go to bed early too, but now I got used to getting up and going to bed late. 163 to be afraid of + gerund, when we are afraid of something bad happens (bad results). to be afraid + infinitive, when we don’t want to do something not safe. I’m afraid to go
to the dog because I’m afraid of being bitten
. to be sorry to do smth (refers to future). to be sorry for doing smth (refers to the past). I’m sorry to give
you unpleasant news. I’m sorry for my being
late. TASKS I. Define the forms of the Gerund: interrogating, being accused, searching, having found, having been in-
vestigated, being arrested, breaking the law, creating, being sworn, having im-
posed. II. Define the functions of the Gerund: 1. He stopped smoking after being warned about the danger for his health. 2. Searching the house is impossible without getting a special warrant. 3. He is quite against her being arrested. 4. I don’t mind your taking part in the discussion of the evidence. 5. You are not allowed to serve as a juror without swearing an oath. 6. They were proud of having solved this difficult problem. 7. Not knowing the laws is not the reason for excuse from. 8. He enjoyed studying English by reading detective stories in original. 9. The accused tried to avoid answering questions. 10. I don’t mind being kept waiting. 11. He had to admit stealing the diamond. 12. Old Shark scraped up a gang and suggested robbing a bank. 13. Have you ever considered being a juror. 14. The jury found Mr. Brown guilty of taking money from the com-
pany he worked for and keeping it for himself. 15. The rain prevented us from completing the work. III. Insert the gerund in the proper form, use prepositions where nesessary: 1. _____________ (to deliver) the lecture the professor invited the stu-
dents to take part in ____________ (to discuss) the problem. 2. His __________ (to send) to the congress was supported by his scien-
tific superviser. 164
3. Tom enjoyed ___________ (to read) detective stories written by the famous writer. 4. All Russia referendum is an instrument ___________ (to discuss) important problems of our home policy. 5. He managed to find the killer ___________ (not to use) the urgent measures. IV. Classify the Gerund Constructions and translate the sentences: 1. Nobody knew about his being sent into the Space after his having passed the qualification exam without special training for such a mission. 2. Her getting married to a well-known mafia christian father made her life awful. 3. The parents asked the police not to inform public about their chil-
dren’s being kidnapped. 4. Because of being worried about their children’s life the parents didn’t want anybody to know about their children’s kidnapping. 5. Instead of writing out new words by himself he asked his sister to do it. 6. They have no experience in translating special documents into Eng-
lish for the judge to understand. V. Analyse The Gerund. Translate for practice and control. 1. It may not be out of place to end these lectures by suggesting that the exploration and uses of outer space call international law back to its prime source in the law of nature. 2. If we are to examine what we have by way of a constitution we must start by considering what, exactly, a constitution is. 3. Law in its pure form, by setting barriers to the unlimited exercise of power, must be viewed as a restrictive force in social life. 4. Under the federal rule, for example, a defendant with means may automatically obtain all necessary subpoenas by simple paying a fee and desig-
nating the desired witness. 5. This country has now reached the stage where it can’t cope with youngsters except by treating them as though they are hardened villains and locking them up, wasting good money which could be used to improve the environments they come from. 6. The positivist theory, by focusing on the political element in law tends to exclude from consideration important areas and aspects of law such as international law, ecclesiastical law, and the law of primitive societies. 7. Both the conduct and the mental element differ from crime to crime and can be ascertained only by studying the definition of the particular crime. 165 8. By dismissing all the opinions about which there could be the sigh test doubt, Descartes hopes to arrive at self-evident truths. 9. Before turning to consider earlier evidence and authorities it is useful to confront one further assertion in Kelsen’s statement. 10. Before considering how technical issues can be best presented in public policy forums, it may be worth examining some of the limitations on the role that technical analysis can play in decision-making. 11. Immediately after being sentenced to a month in jail, he was allowed bail to appeal on his own surety of £100. 12 We have already noted that the phenomenon of the solemn execution of animals for having caused the death of a person appears not to be attested in the records of the early English law. 13. It is difficult to describe in a few general words the part played by provincial police authorities in administering the police and to say what exactly are their functions and powers. 14. Shop stewards were reported to have held meetings at several major work places with a view to organizing the strike. 15. Finally, we must notice that a country may have sovereignty without being independent. Take, for example, countries in the British Commonwealth in the periods before their formal independence. Possessing a legislature and a Cabinet of Ministers responsible to it, they can be described as self-governing and as having in effect internal sovereignty. However, they do not have inde-
pendence, they are not states in the international sense. 16. Our duty has been to look for means of confining the scope of pun-
ishment as narrowly as possible without impairing the efficacy attributed to it. 17. This problem needs to be resolved urgently it is a question that has been raised over many years without the educational authorities making any sign of giving way. TEST YOURSELF I. Insert to
where necessary before the Infinitive 1. He can (predict) the future. 2. The teacher made them (learn) the text by heart. 3. The investigator wanted (see) the crime-scene. 4. You ought (help) your old parents. 5. He is expected (arrive) in time. 6. Don’t let your child (go out) in such bad weather. 7. I saw the plane (crash) in the sky. 166
II. Put the verb in the correct form. 1. How old were you when you learnt (drive)? 2. He had made his decision and refused……………..his mind (change). 3. It was a really good holiday. I really enjoyed………… the sea again (be). 4. I can’t make a decision. I keep………………my mind (change). 5. “Remember……………..Tom tomorrow.” “OK. I won’t forget” (phone). 6. I don’t want……………this book. It’s so boring (read). 7. I have a friend who claims…………….able to speak four lan-
guages (be). 8. I pretended……………..interested in the conversation but really it was very boring (be). 9. The water here is not very good. I’d avoid………… if I were you (drink). 10. Did I really tell you I was unhappy? I don’t remem-
ber……………that (say). 11. Why did you change your decision and refused……………his mind (change). 12. I don’t mind……………..home but I’d rather…………..a taxi (walk, get). 13. I managed to get a visa, but I had difficulty…………..a visa (get). 14. Do you feel like…………..out this evening (go)? III. Compose sentences with the Infinitive Constructions using the given words. 1. He (see) her (dance) in the hall. 2. Tom (say) (be) the best student. 3. The conference (expect) (be held) in a week. 4. She (be likely) (graduate) from the University this year. 5. They (seem) already (pass) all the exams. 6. The only thing for him (do) is (make) he waiting for him. IV. Choose the right word (Infinitive or Gerund). 1. Put that cigarette out! You are not allowed…………… here. (smoke) 2. It’s hot in here. Would you mind………………the window? (open) 3. He found the work difficult, but he managed…………….the exami-
nation. (pass) 167 4. I never read Shakespeare now, because they made me…………….it at school (study) 5. She always travels by train or boat because she’s afraid of …… ………(fly) 6. “Let’s go out tonight.” “All right. Where do you want………………?” (go) 7. You’re overweight. You ought……………more exercise. (take) 8. This is a very beautiful village, but there’s nowhere………… the evening. (go) 9. When I first visited Britain, I couldn’t get used to……………..on the left. (drive) 10. There’s a lot of traffic. We’d better not……………the road here. (cross) 11. I don’t know why she resigned. She seemed…………….very happy here. (be) 12. I’m tired of………………television every evening. (watch) 13. Her doctor advised her……………….a specialist. (see) 14. I’ll help you, I’m sure you aren’t string enough………… on your own. (lift) 15. He spends all his time…………..comics. (read) 16. My parents were very strict. They wouldn’t let me……………out late in the evenings. (stay) 17. A kettle is used for…………..water. (boil) 18. He’s working too hard. He’s too tired…………anything when he gets home. (do) 19. The robbers forced the manager……………the safe. (open) 20. I hope…………… brother in Australia next year. (visit) 21. He’s not interested in…………, his father’s a millionaire. (earn) 22. Don’t give up yet, we must keep…………..(try) 23. I’d rather…………….happy than rich. (be) 24. He needed bodyguards because several people had threat-
ened…………..him. (kill) 25. I was very happy…………….your news. (hear) 26. Take your time. I don’t mind……………..(wait) 27. I’d rather not…………..about that. (talk) 28. We’re going to Oxford tomorrow. Would you like………….with us? (come) 29. He won’t be long. He’s just got two more phone calls…… …….(make) 30. She didn’t want to go to work, so she pretended…………..ill. (be) 168
31. I gave up…………..five years ago. (smoke) 32. I’m bored with………….the same clothes every day. (wear) 33. The book was very difficult………………(understand) 34. Neither of them could find a job, so they both decided…… ……..(emigrate) 35. She’s very confident. She expects……………the election. (win) 36. I’m not here………… time. (waste) 37. They won’t let you…………the United States without a visa. (en-
ter) 38. He joined the navy…………….the world. (see) 39. I wonder if you’d be kind enough…………….me? (help) 40. Charlie Chaplin film always make me……………(laugh) 169 The Participle Forms of Participle I and Participle II Form Active Passive Participle I Simple showing being shown Perfect having shown having been shown Participle II shown Functions of Participle I Functions Patterns Notes Predicative This film is thrilling. I advise you to see it. Participle I is usually ren-
dered into Russian by an adjective. Part of the predicate The girl was smiling. She is waiting for a bus. Participle I is usually ren-
dered into Russian by a verb. Attribute The smiling faces of the children failed to cheer him up. They heard the trembling voice of the girl. In this function it corre-
sponds to the Russian дей-
ствительное причастие. In some cases it is rendered in Russian by a clause (при-
частным оборотом). Part of a complex ob-
ject I could see the boat ap-
proaching the shore. This construction with Participle I corresponds to a subordinate object clause in Russian. Adverbial modifiers of: attendant circumstances
(manner) He was standing at the bridge admiring the beau-
tiful view. cause (reason) Not knowing English very well, he should study regularly time While crossing the street she fell and broke her leg. Having done our home work we decided to go for a walk. In this function Participle I simple corresponds to the Russian деепричастие несовершенного вида. Participle I Perfect Corre-
sponds to the Russian дее-
причастие совершенного вида. In some cases Participle I is rendered by an adverbial clause or деепричастным оборотом. parenthesis Frankly speaking, I con-
sider the plan to be unreal. Judging by what critics say, the new play is worth seeing. 170
Functions of Participle II Function Indicators Patterns Notes Predicative After the link verbs: to be, to seem, to look, to get, to remain, to grow, etc. My question to him remained unan-
. We were very sur-
when we heard the news. Attribute The engineers in-
vited to our labora-
tory work very well. The machines con-
at this plant produced many nuts. Participle II cor-
responds to the Russian страда-
тельное или действительное причастие of some verbs end-
ing in-‘ся’, or by a clause, or при-
частным оборо-
том. Part of a com-
plex object a) after the verbs denoting sense perception: to see, to hear, to feel, to find, etc. b) after the verbs denoting wish: to desire, to want, to wish, etc. с) after the verbs: to have, to get, to make. I saw him knocked
off his feet. I heard him talked
about. I want it done
by tomorrow. He had his boots mended.
I shall get this letter typed.
You must make your news known.
In the sentence this construction has the function of a complex object. It usually corresponds to a subordinate ob-
ject clause in Russian. Adverbial modifiers of: time Usually after conjunction when When asked
, he answered that he could not come. condition After if, when If asked
, answer that you are busy. When considered
from this point of view, this matter seems rather serious. In this function Participle II is generally ren-
dered in Russian by an adverbial clause or прича-
стным оборо-
том. compari-
son After as if, as though He stood as though struck
by my words. concession After though Though impressed
by the news, he didn’t show it. 171 Participle I indefinite passive is not often used as an attribute, but when it is used in this way, it should not be confused with Participle II. Though both participles express a passive action, there is still a certain difference in meaning: Participle II expresses merely a state, while Participle I indefinite passive ex-
presses rather a progressive passive action represented as a state. A participial phrase with Participle II as its head word is usually rendered in Russian with the help of Participle phrase, (причастным оборотом) while a participial phrase with Participle I indefinite corresponds to a Russian attributive clause with the verb in the form of the imperfect aspect (несовершенного вида). 1. Letters written by my sister are difficult to read. Письма, напи-
санные моей сестрой, трудно читать. 2. The letters being written by the engineer will be signed by the di-
rector. Письма, которые сейчас пишет этот инженер, будут подписаны директором. Participle I, both indefinite and perfect and participle II can be used as adverbial modifiers: - of time: 1. Seeing him on the other side of the street, I called him. Видя его на другой стороне улицы, я позвал его. 2. Having sent the invitation, I felt a sense of relief. Послав при
глашение, я почувствовал облегчение. - of reason (cause): Being an orphan at six, he was brought up by a distant relative. Так как он остался сиротой в 6 лет, его воспитывал дальний родственник. - of condition: If sent immediately, the telegram will be delivered by eight o’clock. Если телеграмму отправить сразу, ее доставят к 8 часам. - of comparison: She paced up and down the room restlessly as if trying to make some decision. Она непрерывно мерила комнату шагами, как будто старалась решить что-то. As may be judged from some of these examples, participles in the ad-
verbial function may be preceded by conjunctions. Here is the full list of such conjunctions: when, while, if, as, it, as though, though. Participle I indefinite active and Participle II may also function as pre-
dicatives after link-verbs. This story is really very exciting. While we were speaking, she grew more and more excited. If the participle is used as an attribute, it should be placed immediately after the word it modifies. In the adverbial function the participle should have logically the same subject as the predicate of the whole sentence. 172
The Objective Participle Construction The verbs of sense perception (feel, hear, notice, observe, perceive, see, watch, listen) and the verbs to have, to get are often followed by the objective participial construction, i. e. by a noun (in the common case) or a pronoun (in the objective case) and a participle, standing in predicate relation to each other. When translated into Russian, both parts of the construction correspond to the subject and predicate of a subordinate object clause. I heard him practising
his violin. The difference between the objective-with-the-infinitive construction also used after these verbs and the objective-participial one is that the construc-
tion with participles describes the action as being in progress while the infini-
tive is used to denote a complete act. After the verbs to imagine, to smell, to look (at), to keep, to catch, to set, to start, to leave, to send ones the objective participial construction is used. 1. I can smell dinner cooking. 2. Please, help me to start these mechanisms working. When the subject of the participle is represented by a lifeless thing, the second part of the construction is expressed by Participle II. I heard these words mentioned several times. After the verbs to make, to get, to like, to want the construction is used only with Participle II. 1. He soon made his presence felt. Вскоре все почувствовали его присутствие. 2. She wanted her pie heated. Она хотела, чтобы ей подогрели пирог. The objective participial construction with Participle II when used after the verb to have, has a special meaning, i. e. it expresses the idea of something done for the benefit of the person, expressed by the subject of the sentence. I had my car repaired, i. e. somebody repaired my car for me. In this case the subject of the participle is always represented by a noun expressing a lifeless thing. The Subjective Participial Construction This construction is formed only with Participle I of the active voice. This construction is used when the predicate of the sentence is expressed by one of the verb of sense perception in the passive voice. They were seen speaking to the teacher. Видели, как они разговаривали с учителем. The pilot could be heard singing. Можно было слышать, как пилот поет. 173 The Absolute Participial Construction The participle which is used as an adverbial adjunct (приложение) to any verb may be preceded by a noun (in the common case) or a pronoun (in the nominative case), functioning as its subject. The whole construction is used as one-sentence component: an adverbial modifier of time, reason, condition, manner or after dant circumstances and is called the absolute participial con-
struction. It is separated by a comma from the main part of the sentence. This construction is rendered in Russian by means of a corresponding adverbial clause. 1. Her luggage registered, she went to the platform (an adverbial modifier of time) – когда ее багаж был сдан в камеру хранения она пошла на платформу. 2. Our teacher having fallen ill, we had no English class (an adver-
bial modifier of reason). Так как наша учительница заболела, у нас не было занятия по английскому языку. 3. The show being not very long, we shall be able to get to the Pet-
rovs in good time (an adverbial modifier of condition). Если се-
анс будет не очень длинным, мы сможем попасть к Петровым вовремя. When this construction occupies the end position in the sentence it cor-
responds in Russian to the second part of a compound sentence (often intro-
duced by the Russian conjunctions причем,
а, но). We spent the summer in their cottage, they occupying the front room and we having verandah at our disposal. (an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances) Мы провели лето на даче, причем они занимали комнату,а мы имели в нашем распоряжении веранду. All forms of Participle I are used in this construction as well as Partici-
ple II. The Absolute Participial Construction is literary rather than colloquial. TASKS I. Form Participle I. To accuse, to defend, to convict, to interrogate, to search, to arrest, to cross-examine, to rob, to kidnap, to commit a crime, to try, to sum up, to pass a sentence, to plead guilty, to reach a verdict, to reveal, to pay a fine, to per-
suade, to give evidence, to call a witness, to explain, to influence, to acquit, to retire, to appeal. 174
II. Translate into English. Обвиняющий, защищающий, допрашивающий, производящий обыск, арестовывающий, производящий перекрестный допрос, грабящий, похищающий людей, совершающий преступление, судящий, подводящий итоги, выносящий приговор, оправдывающий, уходящий в отставку, по-
дающий апелляцию, объясняющий, влияющий, вызывающий свидетеля, убеждающий, выносящий вердикт, выявляющий, платящий штраф, заяв-
ляющий о невиновности. III. Translate into Russian. 1. The man standing before a judge is a criminal. 2. This is the article describing the crime of murder. 3. Standing in the witness box he was giving evidence. 4. The jury are reaching the verdict. 5. While studying in а Law faculty I gained a lot of knowledge. 6.
He stood looking at the broken window. 7. The boy running along the street was a pickpocket. 8. Being very busy he could not attend lectures. 9. Returning home he was arrested. 10. They are listening to a lecture on Law now. IV. Translate into English. 1. Что ты делаешь? – Я ловлю карманника (a pickpocket). 2. Ты видишь “зайца” (a stowaway), который прячется под шлюп-
кой на палубе (on deck). 3. Взломщик ломает стекло окна, стоя на лестнице. 4. Убегая от полиции, преступник спрятался в саду. 5. Человек в мантии, стоящий у окна, – известный адвокат. 6. Полицейский допрашивал вора, когда зазвонил телефон. 7. Гильотиной (the guillotine) пользовались во многих странах, включая Шотландию и Италию. 8. Плачущий заложник раздражал похитителя, и он ударил его. 9. Работая в полиции всю жизнь, он имел богатый опыт выявления преступлений. 10. Вчера в газете была статья, описывающая убийство, которое произошло два дня
назад. 175 V. Form Present Participle Active and Passive and translate into Russian. e.g. to invite – приглашать inviting – приглашающий being invited – приглашаемый (будучи приглашаемым или приглашенным) to accuse, to interrogate, to suspect, to convict, to seize, to search, to give evidence, to defend, to appeal, to call a witness, to cross-examine. VI. Translate the sentences which have Present Participle (Active or Passive). 1. Being accused of the crime of murder he denied it. 2. The train arriving at the station was late. 3. The speech being preparув by the Counsel for the Defence is very long. 4. The accused was led out of the court being firmly maintained by a policeman. 5. Being cross-examined the witness answered all the questions. 6. The hostages being saved were frightened very much. 7. The project being realised was proposed by a group of judges. 8. All the barristers belonging to the Bar must dine together several times a week. 9. Being shown the way he reached the station soon. 10. Hoping to find the will she searched everywhere. 11. The people sleeping in the next room were wakened by the sound of breaking glass. 12. Being exhausted by his work he threw himself on his bed. 13. The bill being passed is very important. 14. When being asked the same question he didn’t know what to answer either. 15. What is the name of the barrister cross-examining the witness. 16. The man being charged of theft is not guilty. VII. Translate the Perfect forms of Participle I (Active and Passive). 1. Having passed the sentence the judge left the court-room. 2. Having appeared before the magistrate the accused was not sure that he would be acquitted. 3. Having retained the barrister, the solicitor described the situation. 4. Having called the police the robbed man began waiting. 176
5. Having removed all the traces of his crime the criminal left the build-
ing. 6. Having found the revolver and loaded it he sat down facing the door. 7. Having escaped from prison he began looking for the place where he could get food. 8. Having found the money they began guarrelling about how to divide it. 9. Having entered the room suddenly they saw them opening the safe. 10. Having stolen the silver he looked for a place to hide it. VIII. Translate into English. 1. Полиция ищет украденный автомобиль. 2. Мальчиков поймали, когда они крали вишню. 3. Будучи свободным, он решил больше не совершать преступле-
ний. 4. Когда его допрашивали, он не знал, что ответить. 5. Мужчина, покупающий сигареты, – знаменитый адвокат. 6. Криминология – наука, рассматривающая (to deal with) природу и причины преступлений. 7. Рассматриваемое дело представляет большой интерес. 8. Обсудив широкий ряд проблем, адвокат и поверенный вырабо-
тали стратегию ведения дела в суде. 9. Читая книгу, я узнал много новых интересных для меня сведе-
ний. 10. Стоя перед полицейским, он не хотел признать свою вину. 11. Будучи
оправданным, он начал искать работу. 12. Завтракая, он слушал новости. 13. Джим Винстайн, полицейский, производящий расследование (to make an investigation), допрашивает обеих женщин. 14. Свидетель видела этих двух женщин, ходящих (to move) в ма-
газине. 15. Допросив свидетеля, адвокат обратился к судье. 16. Вынеся вердикт (to reach a verdict), присяжные вернулись в зал суда. 17. Подготовив дело, поверенный (a solicitor) передал его
ту (a barrister). 18. Уходя на работу (to leave for), он забыл взять свои документы. 19. Многоженец (a bigamist) – человек, который женится, будучи женатым. 177 IX. Form Participle II. To acquit, to commit, to accuse, to defend, to rob, to kidnap, to arrest, to convict, to reveal, to influence, to retire, to appeal, to search, to interrogate, to try, to sum up, to pass, to pay, to call, to explain. X. Translate into English. Оправданный, уплаченный, объясненный, обысканный, допрошен-
ный, похищенный, арестованный, совершенный, ограбленный, вызван-
ный, обвиненный, защищенный. XI. Translate into Russian. 1. The information provided by him is very reliable. 2. When asked about his parents the boy wouldn’t answer. 3. They reached the scene of crime deserted by the criminals. 4. The wounded man bound his cut with a piece of cloth. 5. The data saved in the police data base are very important for the de-
tective. 6. When initially detained, he was released on bail. 7. Outside London the police are local forces, employed and paid by countries. 8. When charged of murder, he was arrested. 9. An arrested person has a statutory right to consult a solicitor. 10. Detention is forseen by a warrant obtained from a magistrates’ court. 11. In Scotland the police may detain and question a suspected person for a period of up to six hours. 12. Anyone arrested must be brought before a court with the least pos-
sible delay. XII. Translate into English using Past Participle (Participle II). 1. Информация, собранная (to collect) следователем, была очень важной для уголовного дела. 2. Многие серьезные преступления, расследованные им, сделали его хорошим следователем. 3. Свидетели обвинения, приглашенные для судебного разбира-
тельства, ждут в соседней комнате. 4. Совершенное деяние было квалифицировано как преступление. 5. Опубликованная статья была переведена на английский язык. 6. Присяжные заседатели, избранные на прошлой неделе, рас-
смотрели несколько дел. 178
7. При проведении перекрестного допроса обвиняемый признался в совершенном преступлении. 8. Полицейский предупредил арестованного правонарушителя о его праве на защиту (right to defence). 9. В суде ее представлял адвокат. 10. Я думаю, что вердикт будет вынесен завтра. 11. Полицией были получены некоторые важные улики. 12. Это дело об ограблении было раскрыто в августе. XIII. The objective Participle Construction. Translate into Russian. 1. The accused heard the question repeated. 2. We saw the criminal being arrested. 3. A lot of witnesses saw the house being broken down. 4. I heard the news about the hostages being announced. 5. The judge had his robe cleaned. 6. The superintendant wants the escaped caught by tomorrow morning. 7. My neighbour had his flat robbed yesterday. 8. The investigator has had his request answered. 9. Where can I have my rights protected? 10. They had their rights restored. 11. The policemen saw four men escaping from the police-car. 12. The soldiers watched the plane being shot. 13. The residents of the city standing near the court-building noticed the police-car arriving at the court-yard. 14. People wanted the hostages saved. XIV. Change the following sentence using: a) Participle I 1. The police-officers who stood before him asked him to show them all his things. 2. When a policeman was walking up the street he met a strange young man. 3. As he left the room he was immediately arrested. 4. The solicitor came up to each witness and asked to keep quiet. 5. The street, which runs east, is called Columbus Avenue. 6. As the defendant had no enough evidence he could not prove his in-
nocence. 7. We often speak about our rights, which are written in the Constitu-
tion. 8. As I don’t know the witness I can’t believe him. 179 9. When the investigator wrote his report, he was looking at his watch. 10. When they investigated the case, they were very careful. 11. The escaped man hurried when he left the prison. 12. When we stay in the witness box we must tell the truth. 13. When the judge came in, he immediately asked to begin selecting a jury. 14. When the kidnappers crossed the bridge, they saw several police-
men who were waiting for them. 15. A person who brings good news is always welcome. b) Participle II 1. The things which are left behind by criminals, are called evidence. 2. The public who were greatly impressed by the evidence of the wit-
ness hoped for the best. 3. The new job which was offered by the solicitor seems more interest-
ing. 4. The prisoner who escaped from prison, evaded capture for 3 months, until they found his hideout. 5. Another early code is the code of Hebrew Law which was contained in the Book of Exodus in the Bible. 6. The members of the jury listened to speeches which were made by the person who had brought the case before them. 7. It was the Law which was adopted in 1969. 8. Sentences which were passed by the Crown Court are more severe than those of Magistrates’Courts. 9. The problem which was discussed at the previous conference was solved at last. 10. The offender which was punished by the court was sent to prison for a year. XV. Insert Participle I or Participle II. 1. It was an old judge (to wear) glasses. 2. I have read the Code (to describe) the laws of ancient Babylon. 3. Then another criminal (to lead) by the gangster jumped off the wall. 4. The solicitor was calming the (to sob) mother. 5. While (to cross) the street a juvenile was struck by a car. 6. I have read a book (to describe) the life of this outstanding lawyer. 7. The man (to answer) the questions of the judge is the defendant. 8. (to appoint) the Lord-Chancellon, the Queen acts on the advice of the Prime Minister. 180
9. (to commit) a burglary the accused broke into the house through the kitchen-window. 10. The party (to bring) an action is usually called a plaintiff. 11. The article on criminal law (to translate) yesterday was rather long. 12. The law (to pass) last week was very important. 13. The judge (to work) in the city court was very fair. 14. The eye-witness (to interview) by the investigator is an old lady. XVI. Develop the idea according to the model. Work in pairs. Model: My watch has gone wrong. (to fix) A: It wants (needs) fixing. B: You must have it fixed. 1. My hair has grown long (to cut, to do). 2. My shirt isn’t fresh (to wash, to iron). 3. My car is out of order (to fix, to repair). 4. My shoes are muddy (to polish, to clean). 5. I have a bad tooth (to pull out, to fill – вырвать, запломбировать). 6. The door is badly painted (to repaint). XVII. Practice sentences from the following table. Bill Richard Rebecca The Browns The passenger (s)
The tourist (s) Got Will get Had Don’t like to have
Is (are) having Couldn’t have Their things His suit Her dress The car Her clothes Their photos His shoes Washed Made Carried by the porter Pressed Taken Polished Fixed XVIII. Translate into Russian the nominative absolute Participle Construction. 1. The evidence being strong, the accused was found guilty by the jury. 2. The Senate consists of 2 members from each state, chosen for 6 years, one-third being re-elected every 2 years. 3. The trial being conducted properly, the lawyer couldn’t appeal against it. 4. The accused having been sentenced to imprisonment, his lawyer ap-
pealed against the severity of the sentence. 5. The case having been investigated, it was committed to the Crown Court. 181 6. The proposal being unconstitutional, the committee rejected it. 7. The US Congress consists of two chambers, each of them being elected by citizens of all states. 8. The student knowing English well, the examination did not last long. 9. The lawyer being very experienced, he managed to win the case in court. 10. The jurors having given the verdict, the judge passed the sentence. XIX. Make up sentences, using the following phrases as nominative absolute Participle Construction. 1. there being no time to lose 2. it being late 3. being accused of 4. having been elected 5. having agreed to bill 6. having been completed 7. being made 8. being difficult 9. being conducted 10. having been sentenced XX. Translate into English. 1. Если обстоятельства позволят, преступник будет арестован. 2. Так как вердикт был вынесен (to pass), судья зачитал приговор. 3. Когда закончили завтракать, поверенный пошел в свою
ру. 4. Так как было довольно поздно, поверенный закрыл свою конто-
ру и пошел домой. 5. Так как это правонарушение определено как незначительное преступление (misdemeanor), наказание за него – штраф. 6. Должность прокурора не является выборной, и прокуроры на-
значаются Генеральным прокурором страны. 7. Так как свидетель присутствовал на месте преступления, следо-
ватель допросил его там. 8. Так как ночь была темной, потерпевший не смог заметить, был ли грабитель вооружен. 9. Все судебные процессы проводятся в открытом суде, и стороны имеют право быть представлены адвокатами. 10. Так как следователь был опытный, следствие длилось недолго. 182
TEST YOURSELF I. Use the proper form of Participle. 1. I had heard these problems (argue) among the scientists for years. 2. While (to cross) the street a juvenile was struck by a car. 3. The number of cases (to come) to the police station is increasing. 4. My friend (to work) as a secretary at the city court wants to become a law-student. 5. The act (to do) was defined as a crime. 6. (to adopt) last year the law on the prices is widely used now. 7. (to receive) the information required the investigator arrested the suspect. 8. The motor (to be) in good order, the police could start. 9. The weather (to be) windy, the thieves did not risk crossing the bay in a small boat. 10. The policeman saw the prisoner (to escape). 11. He had his rights (to restore). 12. In England a (to convict) criminal (to exhaust) the appellate proce-
dure open to him may appeal only to the Crown. 13. The student (to know) English well, the examination did not last long. 14. The proposal (to be) unconstitutional, the committee rejected it. 15. The offender (to be) younger 14, his case was considered by the Ju-
venile Court. 16. The jurors (to give) the verdict, the judge passed the sentence. 17. While (to make) his report the speaker told us something interesting about criminals. 18. The officer must show the warrant to the person (to be arrested) and must inform him of the cause of the arrest. 19. (to examine) the causes of the crime the court sentenced the criminal to imprisonment. 20. (to established) all the elements of the crime the investigator com-
mitted the case to the court. 21. (to be discussed) at the meeting the question did not seem to be dif-
ficult. 22. (to be investigated) the case was committed to the Court. 23. The case (to consider) last week was very difficult. 24. The (to arrest) person was kept in prison. II. Translate into English. 1. Полиция сейчас ищет преступника. 2. Когда воры выходили из магазина, их арестовали. 183 3. Принятый год назад закон о прессе широко используется сей-
час. 4. Совершенное деяние было квалифицировано как преступление. 5. Опубликованная статья была переведена на английский язык. 6. Присяжные заседатели, избранные в прошлом месяце, рассмот-
рели несколько уголовных дел. 7. Читая этот текст, мы узнали много юридических терминов. 8. Человек, отвечающий на
вопросы судьи, – обвиняемый. 9. Стоящий у окна человек – очевидец дорожного происшествия. 10. Рассматривая это уголовное дело, присяжные заслушали много свидетелей. 11. Подросток, отвечающий на вопросы судьи, совершил серьезное преступление. 12. Уйдя на пенсию, этот следователь открыл свое частное сыскное агентство. 13. Совершив убийство, несовершеннолетний скрылся с места пре-
ступления. 14. Борясь с преступностью, уголовное право помогает укреплять государство и поддерживать правопорядок. 15. Допрашивая свидетеля, следователь должен получить всю воз-
можную информацию о преступлении. 16. Английская правовая система иерархическая, причем суды высшей инстанции и судьи обладают большими полномочиями, чем судьи низшей инстанции. 17. Так как жюри не вынесло вердикт при первом
судебном разби-
рательстве, обвиняемому назначили повторное судебное разби-
рательство (a retrial). 18. Так как руководители профсоюза (a trade-union) были аресто-
ваны незаконно, Верховный Совет страны был вынужден (to be pressed) освободить (to release) их. 19. Сенат состоит из 100 членов, причем сенаторы избираются на срок 6 лет. 20. Сенат состоит из двух членов от каждого штата, причем одна треть избирается каждые два года. 21. Так как судебный процесс велся (to conduct) соответствующим образом, адвокат не мог подать на него апелляцию (to appeal against) 22. Когда полицейский инспектор допросил женщину, она была арестована как подозреваемая. 23. Так как адвокат был очень опытным, ему удалось выиграть де-
ло в суде. 184
Conditional Sentences Real Condition Unreal Condition The zero conditional : if, . .+ pres,..+ pres... Type Two Type Three The first condi-
tional : if, . .+ pres,..+ will + inf If. . .+ past, …+ would (could, might) + inf If. . .+ past perfect. , .+ would (could, might) + perfect inf 1. If he wants me to draw up a chattel, mortgage (1) the an-
swer is 'no' 1. If there were other possible suspects, Jack would be released. If each had accepted your cheque for one million pounds, cashable on Monday, incidentally, you would have signed this illegal contract with me. 2. If you tell the police the truth., I'm sure they will believe you. 2, If I found sufficient evidence, I could prove his guilt. Mixed Types But I blame the real culprit even more. If he knew his students better Pe-
ter would not have been expelled. The hijackers threatened to kill the pilot. Unless he had followed their in-
structions we couldn’t see him now. You form the zero conditional with if+ present, + present and use it to talk about general truths, habits or routines You use if + present, +imperative to give instructions or advice. You form the first conditional with if+present, + will + inf To talk about a likely situation and its probable result in the future. You form the second conditional with if + past, + would + inf a) to talk about an unlikely or imaginary situation and its probable result in the future, b) to give advice. You form the third conditional with if + past perfect, + would have + past participle to speculate about possibilities in the past that didn't happen. Note: You use may have, might have or could have when the result of the past possibility is not certain. 185 You form a mixed conditional with if+ past perfect, + would + inf You use it when you want to connect a possible past event with the present. You form a mixed conditional with if + past, + would + past participle. You use it when the condition refers to no particular time and the consequence refers to the past. Some modal auxiliaries in conditional sentences Modal Verb Real Condition Real Condition Type One Type Two Type Three Can If the attorney can defend her, he will do it. If the attorney could defend her, he would do it. If the attorney could have de-
fended her, he would have done it. I'11 tell her about the claim, if you see her in the court. I would tell her about the claim, if I could see her in the court. I would have told her about the claim, if I had been able to see her in the court. May If I may address the family lawyer, it'll save me a lot of money. If he goes to the crime scene, the po-
lice may arrest him. If I might (was al-
lowed to) address the family lawyer, it would save me a lot of money. If he went to the crime scene, the police might arrest him. If I had been al-
lowed to address the family lawyer, it would have saved me a lot of money. If he had gone to the crime scene, the police might have arrested him. Must If she doesn't agree to keep the forgery in secret, I must make her do this, (I'11 have to ...} If she didn't agree to keep the forgery in secret. I would have to make her do this. If she hadn't agreed to keep the forgery in secret I would have had to make her do this. Conditional Constructions If I were you, I would . . . + inf. / perf Inf. (на вашем месте я бы ...) If I were ( colloq. Was ) you, I wouldn't think of this suicide now. If I had been you, I would have arrested him earlier. But for } 186
If it were not for } Sb. / sth. ... sb. / sth. Would + inf. / perf. Inf Если бы не } But for the witness, the case would be closed. If it were not for the physical evidence, the police would have failed to find the clue. If sb 1 sth should ... sb / sth will + inf. or imper. Если бы так случилось, что ... If Helen should join the gang, we'll be accomplices. If you should meet him, tell him that the police are tapping his phone. Should, Had. Were } sb . . . sb / sth } would + inf. / perf. Inf. Ес-
ли бы, . . . случилось так, что . . . Should I know the truth. I would testify in court. Had he been seized by the police, he would have been arraigned. Were Jack here now. the jury would not deliberate so long. Provided that – Providing – Suppose – Supposing I'll defend you provided that ( providing ) you’re telling the truth. Supposing he were guilty, what would you say? Note: If In conditional clauses: I’ll call you if you refuse to be involved in such a crime. In object clauses: I don’t know if he will come here before the court starts handling his case. Unless = If ... not = Если только не Unless I am mistaken, Peter is innocent. Directed Speech Reported Speech Susan: “Leave some money at home in case I need to pay a ransom.” Mrs. Smith: “What will you do if the extor-
tion becomes evident?” Arthur: “We'll stop the investigation if the autopsy proves it was a suicide.” Susan told me to leave some money at home in case she needed to pay a ransom. Mrs. Smith asked Jack what he would do if the extortion became evident. Arthur told us they would stop the investigation if the autopsy proved it had been (was) a suicide. 187 'Wish' statements (Жаль, что ...(не); хотелось бы, чтобы ... ) I wish(ed) + past clause Wishes for Impossible things in the present . . . my friend didn't have any deal with that hard-
ened criminal. I wish(ed) + perf clause Wishes and regrets about the past . . .he had not been sentenced to such a long term of imprisonment. . . . you could have protected her from the suit. I wish + ‘would’ clause Complaints, hopes, dissatisfaction . . . the criminal would stop committing these
awful series crimes. Note: We can replace I wish with If only for emphasis. We usually stress only in speech. If only there were no witnesses! If only the decision of the jury had not been unanimous! Unreal Tenses and Subjunctives It's time, it's high time. These are followed by past simple or continuous, though the time re-
ferred to is unreal. It's time the criminal were/was found. Note: was is more common in everyday speech than were. I would rather /I' d prefer( followed by a clause) I would rather is followed by past tenses in the same way as wishes about the present. It expresses a personal preference about actions. Both I'd rather and I'd sooner are used with normal tenses when comparing nouns or phrases. I would rather be a barrister than a solicitor. Note: If you want somebody to do something use past simple after this structure. The police would rather people didn't commit crimes. As if/ as though 1. Real and unreal The tense here depends on whether the comparison is true or unreal. He acts as if he were in charge. He acts as though he isn't a witness but a suspect. 188
The difference is clearer with obviously unreal comparisons. You looked as if you had just seen a murderer! 2. Present and past reference are both possible. I feel аs if I were judged. He felt as if an expert had found the evidence to accuse the suspect. Formal Subjunctives 1. Insisting demanding, etc.
After verbs such as demand, insist suggest, require which involve an implied obligation, the subjunctive may be used in formal style. This has only one form, that of the infinitive, and there is no third person -s
, or past form. The verb has be for all forms. They demanded that he be brought into court at once. The same applies after expressions such as it is necessary / es-
sential / important that … It is essential that the police arrest the assassinators before Monday. 2. Less formal usage.
Less formally should can be used, and colloquially no tense change is made, or infinitive construction is used. It is important that the dossier should be filled in correctly. Formulaic Subjunctive These are fixed expressions all using subjunctive. Typical examples are: God save the Queen! Be that as it may happen in court every day. TASKS I. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian and the choice of conditionals. l. At the trial if the defendant is convicted, a date for sentence is set. 2. The plaintiff dropped the case if she accepted a six-figure settlement collected by civil rights. 3. If he'd seen the decree on the fifth, he'd have known it was a forgery. 4. The preference not to imprison if a fine or other punishment is suffi-
cient is easily explainable: prisons are overcrowded. 189 5. Should he or she move outside the permitted area, the computer will activate an alarm and the police will arrest him or her. 6. He or she can call his or her own witnesses who, if they do not want to attend voluntarily, may be legally compelled to do so. 7. It would have to look like an accident or suicide because if it looked like anything else, he would be the first one the police would suspect. 8. The present Law operates a presumption to the effect that the exis-
tence of a corporation need be mentioned in the Charter only if the duration is not. 9. He had hoped he would have been able to drive past the post, but it looked as he would have to stop. 10. The point of the woman being strange (зд. suspicious) is this: if she had known him and wanted to kill him, it would have been more natural to do so inside somewhere and not to take this insane risk of killing him in the open. 11. From reading the transcript, Adam judged that there was no real evi-
dence against Jennifer Parker. Unless she confessed or unless someone came forward with information that proved criminal complicity, Di Silva would not be able to touch the girl. 12. It isn't that Mason told him but if you've followed my cases, you'll note that most of them have been cleared up in the courtroom. 13. If anybody's going to be hung for murder on my say-so( 1), I want it to be after a case is built up which can't be torn down. I4. During the first year of school while Jennifer's classmates were flail-
ing about in an impenetrable swamp of contracts, torts, property, civil proce-
dure and criminal law, Jennifer felt as though she had come home. 15. If there is a will I m the executrix of it. if there isn't. I'm entitled to letters of administration.(2) (l) c моего разрешения (2) право на управление имуществом по постановлению суда II. Match the phrases in the left column with those from the right to make up sentences. 1. If he has a murder case, a) the divorce was inoperative. 2. If he had shot himself, b) the accused is sentenced to jail or payment of a fine. 3. If anyone had a motive for kill-
ing him, c) the penalty is imposed. 4. If it hadn't been for this murder, d) he'd have left some fingerprints on the gun. 5. If the parrot is to be a witness. e) I'll listen to him. 190
6. Chiles had said there would be no deal, f) I should have some right of cross-
examination. 7. It could open up a new frontier of civil rights suits, g) it means that he commits a crime. 8. Supposing the state recovered nothing, h) providing the High Court agrees. 9. If the appeal is unsuccessful or the defendant decides not to appeal, i) if the private lawyers were satisfied with the fee agreement. 10. If Fremont C.Sabin was killed before Mrs. Sabin was divorced, j) all the lawyers money they pumped into the case would be flushed. 11. If a judge finds a verdict of guilt, k) you did. 12. If a person breaks the law or violates public order, l) no one would ever have detected that forgery. Conditional sentences: type 1. III. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form. 1. If the High Court... (uphold) the Chicago law, dozens of cities... (be expected) to pass similar measures. 2. You ... (need) probably a lawyer , if you ... (wish) to buy, sell or rent a house. 3. Unless the case .. .(be) serious, the arrested person ... (be)usually granted bail if he or she ... (be able) to be quickly brought to court. 4. In this category are the laws valid which impose civil liability for slander or libel, you .. .(be allowed) to call a man a thief unless he ...(be) a thief. 5. If the House ... (vote) for the bill, it ... (proceed) to the committee stage. 6. If the proof ... (not be) sufficient, the jury ... (return) a not guilty ver-
dict. 7. That, basically, ... (be) the standard which the government ... (not be) meet if it... (seek) to limit political speech. 8. If the House so ... (decide) the whole House sitting in the committee ... (refer) to the bill. 9. Occasionally, if circumstances or policies ... (change), provisions ... (not be) brought into effect and may be repealed. 10. If people ... (not attend) their trial, they ... (lose) money (bail). 11. If the magistrates ... (find) a person guilty after a trial, they may im-
pose fines for each offence or ... (be able) to send people to prison. 191 12. I am warning you for the last time: you ... (not win) if you ... (at-
tempt) to contest the will after my death. 13. If magistrates ... (be) content to deal with the case
they ... (do) so with the consent of the accused. 14. If a landlord ... (fail) to provide adequate proofs, he ... (be able) now to receive a fine of up to $250 a day. 15. If an individual MP ... (die) or ... (resign) between General Elections a by-election in a single constituency ... (be held). Conditional sentences: type 2. IV. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form. 1. If he ... (win) the election, it ... (mean) moving to Washington, DC, giving up his law practice, starting a whole new life. 2. It was a prize that took years to attain, and he ... (not be) about to de-
prive someone of it unless he (be) certain there was justification. 3. If court ... (be) not in session she ... (hang) around his office, listening to him discuss his cases and his clients. 4. All I did was to request Mr. Monroe to ask the computer if there ... (be) other possible suspects. 5. If the telephone line ... (be tapped) by the police, Sergeant Holcomb ... (know) about it, and if that's the case, the police must have records of the conversations which took place over that phone ... 6. Не seemed to think that he ... (be dragged)up before the Grand Jury in San Molinas if he ... (try) anything like that. 7. I think, I ... (can), Mason told him if I ... (be permitted) to question the witnesses. 8. If someone ...(say), I will give you $500 to go into court and swear that this statement is true, what you ... (do)? 9. The officers followed too closely, knowing there ... (be) not enough room to stop if the pursued ... (lose) control. 10. That meant if tobacco ... (pay) the lawyers, they ... (have) to acqui-
esce to arbitration and an annual $500-million natural fee cup. 11. If we ... (be) going to represent more than the few states we were representing, we ... (need) more financial horsepower and more legal horse-
power. 12. If the powerful tobacco lobby ... (know) what was coming, the legis-
lation ... (be) doomed. 13. If I ... (come) across two men fighting with knives I ... (call) the po-
lice. - But this is a very peaceful area. 192
14. Texas lawyers agreed to get as much as they could back to the state if arbitrators ... (short) them on the contracted 15 per cent. 15. If I ... (keep) a district attorney record, I ... (give) him more points for finding out somebody was innocent and not prosecuting that person than I would for getting a convict just because he had gone into court. Conditional sentences: type 3. V. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form. 1. He ... (ask) for an annulment or a divorce, if he ... (not be) for his dread for publicity. 2. She was sent to prison only because she refused to pay the fine; if she ... (pay) the fine she ... (not be) sent to prison. 3. If there ... (be) any kind of inquiry, he ... (be sought) certainly for questioning. 4. The authorities ... (arrest) me in Hanoi, if they ... (know) of my illegal purpose, but, fortunately, I was free. 5. If Dorothy ... (be killed) the murderer ... (swear) on a dozen Bibles. 6. He was insanely jealous and yes, he admitted, if he ... (have) the op-
portunity and the means, he ... (kill) Anton. 7. I just thought that if I ... (get) the truth out of him, someone ... (start) already the investigation. 8. If any of the vice interests ... (decide) to bump Sabin off (1), they ... (hire) a down-and-outer (2) to do the job, or else ... (have) a mobster (3) put on the act. 9. If she ... (secure) a California divorce, she ... (have) to wait a year for the interlocutory decree to be become final, before she could have married again. 10. The accident was mainly Tom's fault. He was driving much too close to the car in front. If he ... (be) further away he … (be able) to stop in time. 11. The burglar made quite a lot of noise getting into the house: but for-
tunately for him the family were watching a noisy TV play. If they ... (play) cards they ... (hear) certainly him. 12. We were traveling with false passports. That was the trouble. If our passports ... (be) all right we ... (not be) arrested. 13. They voted by a show of hands and decided in favor of a strike. But it was by a narrow margin, and I think if they ... (hold) a secret ballot there ... (not be) a strike. 193 14. If their story ... (seem) good enough I ... (fly) to Hong Kong and ... (send) it from there, but any news about the conspiracy turned out to be enough for our arrest. 15. When Adam was through reading the transcript there was no doubt in his mind that Michael Moretti ... (be found) guilty by the jury if fate ... (not intervene) in the form of Jennifer Parker. (1) устранить (2) безработный, бродяга (3) гангстер Conditional sentences: Mixed types. VI. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form. 1. If Dorothy ... (commit) suicide you ... (be) in some way responsible. 2. But I blame the real culprit even more. If he ... (admit) his guilt Peter ... (not be) expelled. 3. If she ... (be working) for Moretti he ... (protect) her with a reasonable plausible story. 4. How ... (fix) the time of death so accurately, Dake asked, if they ... (not find) the body for so long? 5. It ...(be) easy to go ahead and carry out the wishes of Stewart Needham. Judge Lawrence Waldman and Robert di Silva unless some instinct ... (make) Adam Warner hesitate. 6. If that ... (be) а ease, he said, there were probably anywhere from a hundred and 50 people who ... (murder) him without batting an eyelash? 7. If you ... (know) all that Raymond Sprague said, and then hid Helen Monteith where we couldn't question her, I think I ... (charge) you with being an accessory? 8. If she … (be) in court in Reno, she … (be killing) her husband in a mountain cabin in San Molinas Country at one and the same time. 9. The headmaster decided that Peter was the culprit and expelled him from the school. A more intelligent man ... (realize) that he ... (not be able) to be guilty. 10. He ... (be told) to make the attack at exactly 12.15 if anybody ... (ac-
cuse) him of disobeying an order. 11. Speakers could not be punished for what they said, unless they ... (incite) others to unlawful conduct and unless the circumstances ... (be) such as to reasonably justify fear that action would occur. 12. Critics said that if Microsoft's opponents ... (be able) to infiltrate the software giant and devise a strategy that would backfire they ... (not do) better than Neukom's confrontational approach to the judge. 194
VII. Complete the sentences using different forms of conditionals. 1. If the jury's verdict is 'guilty', ... . 2. There must be a trial providing … . 3. The judge can interfere in case ... . 4. The accused would face a maximum term of life in prison without pa-
role if ... . 5. If he had been convicted of the murders, ... . 6. Were the jurors convicted of the guilt of the defendant, ... . 7. If the only suspect didn't do it, ... . 8. The defendant should have been acquitted supposed ... . 9. If the jury remains out for long enough ... . 10. It would have been convenient for the blackmailer, if... . 11. It can be murder or manslaughter provided that ... . 12. If you were to get involved in the solving of a real crime, perhaps a crime of great complexity, ... . 13. Unless the case is serious, ... . 14. Should the proof be not sufficient, … . 15. If you've been tampering with my witnesses,' the prosecuting attor-
ney exploded, I ... VIII. Rewrite the sentences given below using the prompt words which follow each of them. 1. Dick is in prison because a detective recognized him. (If a detective ...) 2. If arrested , don't say anything you think might incriminate you. (Should...) 3. The only thing that might prevent us from being there on time is the main witness's testimony. (... provided that...) 4. You'd see a big swing to the left if there was a general election this year. (Were...) 5. If the conduct is not too egregious and the lawyer doesn't want to lose the client, some lawyers recommend handling the situation delicately to avoid embarrassing the client. (Provided that...) 6. If only a lawyer chooses to protect assets by insurance , prudence dic-
tates that the limits of liability should probably be equal to or greater than the auto limits of liability. (Provided that ...) 195 7. Moreover, he said the statute would require the company to defer to national court systems in handling cases unless those courts were unwilling or unable to do so. (... if those courts ... ) 8. Officers shot at the car. The court held such gunfire is a seizure if the driver stops as a result ( ... if the driver should ...) 9. Unless the Charter of a corporation provides otherwise, the stock-
holder of a Delaware corporation has no responsibility for the debts of the cor-
poration. (If …) 10. If there were no eye-witnesses, the defendant would be released. (But for…) 11. The sentence would not have been so severe, if the accused had pleaded 'guilty' ( ... supposing ...) 12.Had the police been in the crime scene at 9 , they would have caught the criminals. (If …) IX. Complete the blanks with a suitable word or a phrase. According to the institute experts, the Scharf-Gerstenberg collection ----
(1)---- confiscated in 1945 unless there ----(2)---- a tribunal ruling that pro-
nounced its owners war criminals, or a relevant decision by the Control Coun-
cil of Germany. If the paintings ----(3)---- indeed seized from their owners without observing this legal procedure, the claimants ----(4)---- the right to demand their return. Today ----(5)---- the court hearing really take place, the court ----(6)---- to demand proof from the defendant, that is, the RF Government, that the con-
fiscation ----(7)---- lawful Though it is fairly difficult to predict how the prospective trials may end, of course. Anyway, the experts are certain that even if the heirs ----(8)---- Moscow empty-handed, they ----(9)---- apply to the National Court of Justice in the Hague which may easily find against Russia as well because one of the basic clauses of the Russian Restitution Law declaring items in private owner-
ship “property of enemy states” is blatantly at variance with international law. X. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English. 1. Если обвиняемый признает себя виновным, дело слушается без присяжных. 196
2. Если присяжные признали подсудимого виновным, судья опре-
деляет ему меру наказания. 3. Если бы был нанесен ущерб собственности юридических и фи-
зических лиц, то могло бы быть использовано деликатное право. 4. Если закон все-таки будет нарушен, необходимо использование средств судебной защиты и судопроизводства. 5. У полиции не будет ни одного ключа к разгадке преступления, если подтвердится алиби главного подозреваемого. 6. Если все-таки так случится, что шантажист выдаст себя, нам не нужно будет платить выкуп. 7. Адвокату удастся добиться освобождения подсудимого в случае отсутствия прямых доказательств его вины. 8. Будь я на твоем месте, я бы признался в соучастии в преступле-
нии, говоря, что не осознавал всей ответственности в случае провала. 9. Преступник так и не был бы пойман, если бы обстоятельства де-
ла не были бы полностью расследованы. 10. При условии, что правительство уйдет в отставку, представи-
тель правых получит право выиграть на выборах. 11. Если бы милиция действовала более решительно, террористам не удалось бы скрыться безнаказанно. 12. В случае отсутствия отпечатков пальцев на орудии убийства и улик, указывающих на конкретное лицо, перед следователями возникнет трудная задача раскрыть преступление. XI. Translate the sentences from English into Russian. Pay atten-
tion to the subjunctives. 1. I wish the testimony against me was false. 2. He wishes the evidence would suddenly disappear. 3. It's high time the case was closed. 4. The judge would rather the suspect pleaded guilty. 5. The accused wished he had not committed such a senseless crime. 6. The government would rather not put into effect that compromising law. 7. I had better be not involved in the case connected with blackmail. 8. It's obligatory that all the evidence be mentioned in the protocol. 9. I feel as if I had added a sense of guilt to my other more formal obli-
gations. 10. He wished nobody of his personnel staff had been bribed by the in-
genious Mr.Hong. 11. It was as though Pyle, when he left me, had sentenced me to long term of solitude. 197 12. The jury were absolutely confused and wished they didn't have to bring in a verdict in that case. 13. It's necessary that the police officer should be present at the crime scene to collect ail the evidence of the crime. 14. If only the eyewitness could nor testify in favor of the victim! 15. You sound as though you were more of a detective man a lawyer. XII. Rewrite the sentences given below using the prompt words which follow each of them. 1. It's a pity I'm not eligible for the elections this year. (I wish ...) 2. What a pity! The fraud has been disclosed. (The man wishes ...) 3. The convict regretted he had given false testimony against his ac-
complice. (The convict wished ...) 4. I'm sorry I have brought fake banknotes to the central bank. (I wish … ) 5. The culprit doesn't want the police to add two more cases connected with money laundering in NY banks to his dossier or his sentence will be too severe. (The culprit had better ... ) 6. Now I feel I must go to the police and plead guilty. I can 't bear it any more. (It's time ...) 7. It is more preferable for famous people not to be involved in any criminal cases in order to avoid any trials. ( ... would rather ...) 8. According to the criminal code people are obliged to observe laws strictly. (… it is important that...) 9. Ruling the country, the government wishes to have law-abiding citi-
zens than to have people who need a constant deterrent from committing crimes. (If only the government...) 10. The judge must appoint an advocate if the accused is unable to pay his work. (The law demands that...) 11. I'm tired of waiting for the verdict! (I think it's high time the jury ...) 198
12. The accused regrets he put at risk all his fortune and had to commit the burglary. (He wishes ...) XIII. Complete the following statements: 1. The foreman wished ...... . 2. It's time the defense attorney ...… . 3. The police suggested that the case ..... . 4. The witness would rather ..... . 5. Any plaintiff had better ….. . 6. They demanded that the complaint ..... . 7. Granted on bail the person wishes ….. . 8. It's high time the trial ..... . 9. A police officer would rather perpetrators ..... . 10. You'd better ….. . 11. I wish our government ..... . 12. The witness sounded as though ….. . XIV. Correct the mistakes if there are any. 1. I wish the attorney for prosecution proved guilt of the suspect. 2. I would rather you don't break the law. 3. She wised she didn't sign that forgery. 4. The criminals had better not to extort money from people or they will be imprisoned. 5. I would rather to be a marshal of the court. (суд. исполнитель) 6. Now mat makes it look as though the murder have some powerful reason for wanting Sabin out of the way ... 7. It's high time the government will do their best to solve the problem of unemployment and reduction. 8. It's important that all citizens be law-abiding and respect the laws. 9. I wish sometimes you have a few bad motives, you might understand a little more about the nature of hardened criminals. 10. She feared lest she be made to give testimony against her will. 11. I wish state officials stop taking bribes and do their duty irre-
proachably. 12. The key witness for prosecution behaved as though he had his own interest in the case. 199 TEST YOURSELF I. Choose the right answer. 1. It's time the jury ..... their deliberations and the verdict. A. would stop/bring up B. stopped/brought up C. stop/bring up 2. If only the witness …… my alibi I A. verified B. verifies C. would verify 3. Dick wishes the court ...... the accused guilty and …… him to life imprisonment. A. will find/sentence B. found/sentenced C. finds/sentences 4. You behave as if you ...... by a criminal, A. were being blackmailed B. would be blackmailed C. had been blackmailed 5. Should it turn out later to be false you …… liable for damage that your statement may have caused . A. would not be B. will not be C. were not 6. I'm afraid that Smith is a hardened criminal. Unless we …… him this time he will be able to commit more crimes. A. will punish B. punished C. punish 7. ……. the delegates ……. to agree on this point, known as the Great Compromise, the Convention would have been broken up at that junc-
ture. A. Were ... unwilling B. Had ... been unwilling C. Would ... be unwilling 8. Unless the case … serious, the arrested person is granted a bail if he or she cannot be quickly brought to court. A. is B. will be C. has been 200
9. If Member states …… to do so, the Commission would have brought them before the European Court of Justice which judges cases involving the interpretation of European law. A. failed B. would fail C. had failed 10. Provided that the defendant …… silent court will enter a plea of not guilty, set the case for jury trial and appoint an attorney to meet and consult with the defendant. A. will remain B. would remain С. remains 11. If it …… I had helped you escape I would go to jail. A. were found out B. found out C. would have been found out 12. You know, Della, I wish people …… to differentiate between the reputable lawyer who represents people accused of crime and the criminal law-
yer who becomes a silent partner in the profits of crime. A. will learn B. would learn C. would have learnt 13. He had looked at me with compassion, as he …… at some prisoner for whose capture he was responsible undergoing his sentence for life. A. might look B. might have looked C. might have been looked 14. If only the High Court …… a new frontier of civil rights suits. A. could open up B. can open up C. will be able to open up 15. The cold, harsh words of the transcript were clear-cut, and yet Adam wished he ..... the tone of Jennifer Parker's voice when she denied her guilt. A. could hear B. could have heard C. might hear II. Complete the blanks with a suitable word or a phrase. Under those circumstances, Mason said, don't you think it ----(1)---- more fair , all around, to have the guilt or innocence determined at the coroner's inquest tonight? Then, perhaps, it ----(2)---- necessary to take the matter before a jury. If Helen Monteith ----(3)---- innocent; the prosecution ----(4)---- every-
thing to gain by having me put all my facts before the coroner's jury. If she ----
(5)---- innocent, then the prosecution ----(6)---- everything to gain by not being put in the position of going into court on a big case, and having the jury return a verdict of not guilty. 201 Relative Clauses The pronouns who (whom), whose, what, which, that, where, used to connect subordinate clause with the principal clause. The conjunctive pronouns can be used to refer to some noun in the prin-
cipal clause. They are called relative pronouns. Who (whom) is used only of persons: A person who works at the Bar is a lawyer. The woman whom I wanted to see is on holiday. Which is used of things: I don’t like detectives which have unhappy ends. That may be used of both persons and things: What is the profession that/which you study in the Law Faculty? The person that/who is talking to the judge is my client. Note: Look “Extra information” clauses. If these pronouns are used as a subject in the sentence we mustn’t omit them: The woman who lives next door is a doctor.- “Who” is the subject, we can’t say: The woman lives next door is a doctor. But if those pronouns are used as an object we may omit them: Have you found the key that I lost? – The key is the object, so we may say: Have you found the key I lost? Whose may be used of both persons and things instead of his/her/their: We saw some people whose car had broken down. There are newspapers whose pages are full of criminal news. Where is used to talk about a place: The hotel where we stayed wasn’t very clean. ‘Extra information’ clauses We mustn’t use the pronoun that in clauses where the extra information is given: Compare: Do you know anyone who/that works in our District court? John, who (not ‘that’) works in our District court may help you. In the second sentence there is additional information about the person. We should use commas (,) in these clauses. Compare: Barbara works for a company which/that makes toys. Barbara told us about her job, which (not ‘that’) she is enjoying much. Compare: We met some people whose car had been stolen. Amy, whose car had been stolen, was in a very bad mood. 202
TASKS I. In the exercise you have to explain what some words mean. Choose the right meaning from the box and then write a sentence with ‘who’ E.g. An investigator is a person who deals with crimes. Magistrates are people who are laymen. Steals from a shop 1. a counsel for defence Protects people in the court 2. an offender Breaks the law 3. a burglar No longer works and gets money from the state 4. a lawyer Studies law 5. policemen Works at the Bar 6. a law student Breaks into a house to steal things 7. an investigator He/She accuses people in the court 8.a counsel for prosecution Doesn’t believe in God 9. a kidnapper Are laymen 10. an assassin Have the right to arrest people 11. witnesses Renders a verdict 12. the jury Murders people 13. magistrates Deals with crimes--- 14. an atheist Demands ransom for people 15. a shoplifter Give testimony at the trial 16. a customer Buys something from a shop 17. a pensioner II. Make one sentence from two.Use who/which/that : E.g. A girl was mugged 2 days ago. Now she is in hospital.- The girl who was mugged is in hospital. 1. A band committed a crime. Now it is court-room. 2. We study Civil and Criminal Laws. They are of great importance. 3. There are more than 50000 solicitors in England. They work in the offices. 4. A lawyer is a very popular profession. It is rather well-paid. 5. A barrister defends an accused. He’s committed a theft. 6. A judge decides questions of law. They are not for the jury. 7. Some people were arrested. They have been released. 8. Justices of the peace are laymen. They work at the Magistrates’ Courts. 9. A witness gave testimony. They were false. 10. A defendant pleaded his guilt. It was obvious. 203 11. The third kind of judges are Recorders. They work at the Crown Court. 12. The duties of the Police in the USA are to prevent crimes and disor-
der and preserve the peace. They are the most principle ones. 13. A man answered the phone. He told me you were out. 14. A boy was injured in the accident. It happened 2 days ago. 15. A notary helped us. She was very polite and patient. III. In some of these sentences you don’t need who /or that or/which. If you don’t need words, put them into the brackets: E.g. Have you found any evidence (that) you need? The man who lives next door was accused of shoplifting. 1. Do you know a lawyer who can help me? 2. Miss Black had hired a barrister that she needed. 3. The barrister examines witnesses who have seen or heard something. 4. It was a very serious case. It was the most serious case which I’ve ever investigated. 5. What have you told the advocate who came to you? 6. A notary works with clients that he doesn’t choose. 7. Mr. Smith has investigated the murder which was committed last year. 8. The jury decides the questions of facts that don’t concern the judge. 9. What has she made with the money which I gave her? 10. He was accused of the crime that he hadn’t committed. 11. The police arrested the person who they have been searching for sev-
eral months. 12. It was an awful experience. It was the worst thing which has ever happened to him. 13. What happened to the people who were charged with the robbery of the bank? 14. The people that work in the Notary Office are very friendly. 15. The counsel for the prosecution was able to prove her innocence that was obvious. IV. Insert who/ whom/ whose/ or nothing at all: E.g. What’s the name of the barrister who has helped you with your case? The people (who/whom) I talked to were polite. 1. The jury … verdict is “not guilty” has represented it at the trial. 2. A terrorist is a person … commits crimes according to his or her po-
litical reasons. 3. I don’t know the family … car was stolen. 204
4. Do you know the name of the judge to … I spoke on the phone? 5. The juvenile to … the barrister wanted to talk has escaped. 6. Has the investigation found any evidence against the criminal … that manslaughter 6 months ago? 7. The Crown Court deals with prisoners … committed more serious crimes. 8. An orphan is a child … parents are dead. 9. The offender with … the counsel for defence wanted to meet died in the hospital of prison. 10. Jail is only for people … guilt is proved. 11. A witness is a person … testimony is very important at the trial. 12. An arrested person has the right to consult a solicitor… he can hire or be appointed by the state. 13. There are only 70 stipendiary magistrates … duty is to decide both legal questions and questions of law. 14. The defendant … the judge allowed to give a last word refused to speak. 15. I met my friend … I haven’t seen for ages. V. Add one of the pieces of information below to each sentence and use who (whom)/which/whose/where. Don’t forget about commas: E.g: The police are looking for 2 boys aged 14… The police are looking for 2 boys aged 14, who have stolen a computer from the office. our father graduated from lives in New York will be heard by the Magistrates’ court stole a computer from the office I hadn’t seen since the last trial handbag had been stolen justice in minor civil cases is administered is a Queen’s Counsel many crimes happen can hold some investigating departments was committed by a juvenile I spoke on the phone last week was wrongfully arrested the murder of their servant was committed speaks French and Italian is going to hear the case of a fraud 205 1. ---- The police are looking for 2 boys aged 14…--- 2. My best friend John … is a judge. 3. Inspector Newman was asked to comment on the latest murder … . 4. Detective Jim Colin is investigating the case … . 5. My brother is going to become an investigator and enter the Univer-
sity … . 6. John … was released in the court. 7. Alice … works as a tourist guide. 8. The Browns are going to leave the house … . 9. Yesterday I met Judge Grey … . 10. The case will be handled in the County Court … . 11. My uncle Jack … works in the High Court. 12. Ann … was very upset. 13. New York is one of the most dangerous place in the USA .. . 14. A new police station … will be built next year. 15. The judge has chosen a fresh jury … . 16. Mr. Carter … is a very qualified lawyer. VI. Make one sentence from 2. Use the necessary relative clauses, don’t forget about commas in the sentences with extra information: E.g: There’s a woman living next door. She is a lawyer.- The woman who lives next door is a lawyer. I’ve got a brother called Jim. He lives in London. He is a law-
yer.- My brother, who lives in London, is a lawyer. 1. He has got a sister. She has graduated from the Law Faculty. 2. Margaret showed me a photograph of her son. He is a policeman. 3. A friend of mine is an advocate. He defends people when they are in trouble. 4. There are some offenders. They are difficult to interrogate. 5. There are too many criminals in this prison. It is overcrowded. 6. Sheila has a responsible job. Her job involves investigating crimes. 7. Mrs. Black was arrested in the department store. She had committed a shoplifting. 8. Tim told me about a new case. He has been investigating it for 3 months. 9. People can be present at the trial. They are held in the open court. 10. There are Magistrates’ Courts. Cases involving minor offences begin and end there. 11. The prisoners are sent to jail. They spend some time depending on their sentences. 12. Do you know any barrister? Who can take our case in his hand? 206
13. Mrs. Fox is the best counsel for defence. She has never lost the cases. 14. We have met a couple. Their car was stolen last night. 15. The chief of police called Mr. Johnson told me about the robbery. I spoke to him on the phone last evening. VII. Translate the sentences, point out your attention to the relative clauses: 1. The term “punishment” means those measures which in different ways involve restriction of certain rights. 2. Life in the country isn’t what is used to be, you know. 3. Barristers are the court-room lawyers, whose wigs and robes are fa-
miliar to anyone who has seen motion pictures or stage plays about English trials. 4. The Lord Chief Justice, who presides over the Queen ’s Bench Divi-
sion of the High Court, normally sits when criminal appeals are under consid-
eration. 5. Meg loved her little brother to whom she had been a second mother. 6. The Bar is actually the barrier in the courts beyond which no one may pass the privilege of Queen’s counsel who has been called within the Bar. 7. At the time I was reading an interesting book which later on I gave as a present to my niece. 8. There are newspapers in G. B. whose pages are largely filled with news of sport and with stories of film-stars, or accounts of crime and of law-
court trials. 9. He went one day to a picture dealer in whose shop my brother thought he could buy a picture or two. 10. Every police force in G. B. has its own detective complement staffed by police officers who, during their service as uniformed constables, showed a special aptitude for the investigation of crime. 11. The informant is a person who serves the police officer confiden-
tial information about a crime as his civic responsibility and duty. 12.Groups support of criminal behavior: the extent to which the of-
fender’s criminal behavior is supported by the norms of the group or groups to which he belongs. 13. She had a wit that was irresistible. 14. Cities and rural districts have different rates of crime which are de-
termined not by the size of the population but by the way in which the people live and are governed. 207 FINAL TEST Insert who/ whom/ whose/ which/ that/ where or nothing if possible and translate the sentences: E.g. Do you know the name of the hotel where the dangerous criminal was caught by the police? The judicial reforms which/that took effect in 1972 have intro-
duced a new national criminal court, the Crown Court. 1. The place … criminal cases are heard is called the Crown Court. 2. I met a friend … father is the greatest judge in our district. 3. He didn’t know anybody … could help him in his trouble with the police. Do you? 4. A person … works at the Bar is an advocate. 5. The investigator has found the evidence … can help to prove her innocence. 6. We know some prisoners … guilt isn’t proved. 7. The court is a place … trials are heard. 8. That barrister … is defending you now has much more experience. 9. The lawyer …I want to hire has just gone away on holiday. 10. Cases … involve minor offences begin and end in Magistrates’ Courts. 11. I know a man … mother is a good notary. 12. A place … criminals or offenders are sent to is a prison. 13. A solicitor … duties are to prepare contracts, draft deeds and to give general legal advice may represent his client in the County Court. 14. I met him at the court … he was working as a plaintiff. 15. He is the man … car was stolen last night. 16. Can you advise me any counsel of defence … I may address to? 17. Cities and rural districts have different rates of crime ….. are deter-
mined not by the size of the population but by the way in … the people live and are governed. 208
Грамматический справочник Артикль (The article) Артикль – служебное слово, которое обычно не имеет самостоя-
тельного значения и является определителем существительного. На рус-
ский язык артикль обычно не переводится. В английском языке имеется два артикля: a, the. Неопределенный артикль a имеет два варианта написания и произ-
ношения: a [
] – перед словами, начинающимися с согласной: a procurator, a judge an [
] – перед словами, начинающимися с гласной: an advocate Определенный артикль the имеет два варианта произношения: the [ð
] – перед словами, начинающимися с согласной: the court the [ði] – перед словами, начинающимися с гласной: the evidence Наличие артикля исключает употребление других определителей существительного: указательного, притяжательного, неопределенного местоимений и т. д. a the my case this some Pete’s Примечание: определения, выраженные прилагательными, существитель-
ными, порядковыми числительными и т. д., стоят всегда между указанными определителями и существительными. a the my serious case this some Pete’s 209 Неопределенный артикль произошел от числительного “один” (one) и поэтому может употребляться перед исчисляемыми существи-
тельными в единственном числе, давая понятие о предмете, обозначая название предмета, название класса, к которому относится предмет, а иногда сохраняя свое числовое значение – один. В русском языке перед такими существительными (которым в анг-
лийском языке предшествует неопределенный артикль) можно поставить одно из следующих слов: один, какой-то, любой. Give me a criminal code
, please. I am a member of a jury in a trial
. A solicitor
also deals with matters outside Court The trial lasted for an hour
. Исчисляемые существительные во множественном числе, а так-
же существительные вещественные (например: молоко, нефть) и отвле-
ченные (музыка, ненависть) употребляются без артикля, если дается название нескольким предметам одного класса, веществу, явлению. Barristers are different from solicitors. A jury consist of “jurors”, who are ordinary people. Life is impossible without water and air Определенный артикль the произошел от указательного местоиме-
ния that – тот. The употребляется как с исчисляемыми существительными в един-
ственном и множественном числе, так и с неисчисляемыми существи-
тельными (подразумевая этот, тот, тот самый, который). Существительные с определенным артиклем обозначают не назва-
ние предмета, вещества, а конкретный предмет (или предметы) из дан-
ного класса
предметов или конкретное вещество. То есть данный пред-
мет, вещество, явление рассматриваются как уже известные и говоряще-
му, и слушающему. The Courts of appeals and the Supreme Court are appellate Courts. Please, open the door and let the policemen in. Is the Clerk of the Court different from the Magistrates? Сравните употребление a и the: I bought a magazine
. Я купил журнал (а не книгу, не газету). The magazine
is very interesting. Журнал (тот самый, который я купил) очень интересный. We sent him a telegram. Мы послали ему телеграмму (а не письмо). The telegram
was very important. Телеграмма (та самая, которую мы послали) была очень важной. 210
С определенным артиклем употребляются названия: – океанов – the Pacific Ocean – Тихий океан – морей – the Black Sea – Черное море – заливов – the Persian Gulf – Персидский залив – рек – the Volga – Волга – некоторых стран – the USA – the USSR – США – СССР – горных хребтов – the Alps – Альпы – сторон света – the North – the South – север – юг – судов – the “Lermontov” – “Лермонтов” – гостиниц – the “National” – “Националь” Имена существительные собственные, как общее правило, упот-
ребляются без артикля: Petrov, Moscow, Omsk, England, France. Значение имени существительного является определяющим при употреблении с ним артиклей. Все имена существительные можно разде-
лить нa следующие группы слов, или лексико-семантические разряды: 1) разряд нарицательных и собственных существительных; 2) разряд конкретных существительных (a lawyer, a house, a table), которым противостоят существительные абстрактные (freedom, justice); 3) собирательные (police, government, news). Исчисляемость или неисчисляемость имени существительного яв-
ляется вторым фактором, определяющим употребление
с ним артиклей. Неопределенный артикль употребляется перед исчисляемыми су-
ществительными в единственном числе в следующих случаях: 1) при классификации предметов, лиц, явлений It’s a book; 2) для обобщения (классифицируемый предмет выступает в роли представителя класса предметов, лиц, явлений) He’s a lawyer; 3) для обозначения единичности An hour and a half is enough for this trial; 4) с исчисляемыми существительными в единственном числе в восклицательных предложениях после слов what such What a chance. Определенный артикль употребляется в тех случаях, когда ситуа-
ция (то, что вы можете мысленно представить себе) или контекст (часть связного текста) показывает, что речь идет об определенном предмете (лице): The heir is too rich. 211 Имя существительное (The noun) Существительное в современном английском языке имеет: – два числа – единственное и множественное; – два падежа – общий (Common Case), не имеющий специальных окончаний, и притяжательный (Possessive Case), имеющий окончание ‘s или только ‘ . В отличие от русского языка существительное в английском языке не имеет грамматической категории рода. Существительные, обозначаю-
щие живые существа, заменяются местоимениями he, she согласно
их полу (a boy – he, a girl – she), а существительные, обозначающие неоду-
шевленные предметы, вещества, отвлеченные понятия, заменяются ме-
стоимением it. Те и другие существительные во множественном числе заменяются местоимением they (boys – they, books - they). Число (Number) имен существительных Образование множественного числа имен существительных. a. Имена существительные образуют множественное число при помощи окончания -s (или -es, если существительное оканчивается на s, ss, ch, sh, x). Окончания произносятся следующим образом: [s] после глухих согласных map [mæp] maps [mæps] [z] после гласных и звонких согласных bag [bæg] bags [bægz] boy [bɔi] boys [bɔiz] [iz] после свистящих и шипящих (s, z, ʃ, ʧ, dʒ) rose, [rouz] roses [rouziz] page [peidʒ] pages [peidʒiz] place [pleis] places [pleisiz] - [iz] тоже после шипящих и свистящих class [kla:s] classes [kla:siz] watch [wɔʧ] watches [wɔʧiz] - s - es 212
b. У некоторых существительных, оканчивающихся на -о, во мно-
жественном числе добавляется -es. potato – potatoes; tomato – tomatoes c. У существительных, оканчивающихся на -f, -fe, во множествен-
ном числе обычно f переходит в v, за которым следует -es: shelf – shelves [ʃelvz] proof – proofs roof – roofs но: knife – knives [naivz] chief – chiefs d. У существительных, оканчивающихся на -y с предшествующей согласной, y заменяется i и добавляется окончание -es: city – cities [sitiz] boy – boys но: baby – babies [beibiz] (y предшествует гласная) Особые случаи образования множественного числа Единственное число Множественное число мужчина, человек man [mæn]
men [men] женщина woman [wum
n] women [wimin] ступня, фут foot [fu:t] feet [fi:t] зуб tooth [tu:θ] teeth [ti:θ] ребенок child [tʃaild] children [tʃildrən] Иностранные заимствования Некоторые существительные, заимствованные из латинского и греческого языков, сохраняют свои формы множественного числа. is [is] « es [i:z] analysis анализ analyses анализы axis ось axes оси basis основа bases основы crisis кризис crises кризисы phasis фаза phases фазы us « i [ai] us « a [ə] locus месторасположение loci месторасположения
focus фокус, центр foci фокусы
, центры
radius радиус radii радиусы
nucleus ядро nuclei ядра
213 stimulus влияние, стимул, побудитель stimuli влияния
, стимулы
, побудители
Genus род, сорт genera рода
, сорта
on, um « a [ə] phenomenon явление phenomena
criterion критерий criteria
datum данная величина data
данные величины
stratum пласт strata
maximum максимальное значение maxima
максимальные значения
minimum минимум minima
equilibrium равновесие equilibria
a « æ [i:] formula формула formulae формулы nebula туманность nebulae туманности corona корона coronae короны Существительные, имеющие одну форму единственного и множественного числа
species вид species виды
series серия, ряд series серии
, ряды
facies фация facies фации
means средство, способ means средства
, способы
evidence доказательство Примечание: В отличие от русского языка существительные work
работа; money
деньги; advice
совет, советы; evidence
доказательство, дока-
зательства; knowledge
знание, знания; progress
успех, успехи; information
сведения, сообщения, информация; news
новость, новости – в английском языке являются неисчисляемыми существительными и, следовательно, не употребляются с неопределенным артиклем. Они сочетаются со словами much,
little и глаголами только в единственном числе. work much news knowledge is (was)… little money information
Much pleasant news
was brought by Petrov. Много приятных новостей привез Петров. The latest information
on the movement of glaciers in this re-
gion has been published in our magazine. Последние сведения о движении ледников в этом районе опублико-
ваны в нашем журнале. He gave us some good advice.
Он дал нам несколько хороших советов. Падеж (case) В современном английском языке существительное имеет только два падежа: общий (Common Case), не имеющий специальных окончаний, и притяжательный (Possessive Case), имеющий окончание ‘s или ‘ (апо-
строф s или апостроф). Общий падеж (Common Case) Существительное в общем падеже не имеет специального оконча-
ния. Для выражения связей данного существительного с другими словами в предложении (которые в русском языке выражаются падежными окон-
чаниями) форма существительного в английском языке не изменяется, а падежные отношения выражаются порядком слов и предлогами. Английскому существительному в общем падеже с предлогом мо-
жет соответствовать русское существительное в косвенном падеже без предлога и с предлогом. Английские предлоги
of, to, with, by являются наиболее характер-
ными предлогами, соответствующими русским косвенным падежам без предлога: of – родительному падежу to – дательному падежу by, with – творительному падежу of = about – предложному падежу с предлогами о и об The center of the city. Центр города. The window of my room is large. Окно моей комнаты большое. Give this book to your boy. Дайте эту книгу своему мальчику. He goes there by bus. Он ездит туда автобусом. He writes with a pen. Он пишет ручкой. 215 При этом with употребляется с существительным, обозначающим орудие действия; by – с существительным, обозначающим действующее лицо или действующую силу. He was killed with a knife. Он был убит ножом. He was killed by the fascists. Он был убит фашистами. This machine is driven by electricity. Эта машина приводится в действие электричеством. Те же самые предлоги могут соответствовать русским косвенным падежам с предлогами: Go to the blackboard, please. Идите к доске, пожалуйста. He went to the concert yesterday. Он
ходил на концерт вчера. We shall go to the University tomor-
row. Мы пойдем в университет завтра. He lives with his parents. Он живет со своими родителями. Who is standing by the window? Кто стоит у окна? One of my friends is a pilot. Один из моих друзей летчик. What are you thinking of (about)? О чем Вы сейчас думаете? Притяжательный падеж (Possessive Case) Существительное в притяжательном падеже является определени-
ем к другому существительному, перед которым оно стоит, выражает принадлежность предмета или его отношение к другому предмету и отве-
чает на вопрос whose? чей? Как правило, в форме притяжательного падежа употребляются оду-
шевленные существительные. Притяжательный падеж существительных в единственном числе образуется прибавлением к ним окончания -‘s, которое произносится со-
гласно правилам произношения окончания -s множественного числа су-
ществительных. The student’s answer. Ответ студента. Petrov’s report. Доклад Петрова. The actress’s dress. Платье актрисы. Притяжательный падеж существительных во множественном числе (оканчивающихся на -s) образуется прибавлением к ним на письме одного апострофа и на слух ничем не отличается от единственного числа. The students’ books. Книги студентов. The student’s books. Книги студента. 216
Притяжательный падеж существительных, не имеющих во множе-
ственном числе -s (men, children), образуется прибавлением -‘s (как и в единственном числе). The children’s room. Комната детей. Существительное в притяжательном падеже исключает употребле-
ние артикля перед следующим за ним существительным. На русский язык оно обычно переводится существительным в родительном падеже или притяжательным прилагательным. Pete’s friends. Друзья Пети. Петины друзья. Для выражения принадлежности часто наряду с существительными в притяжательном падеже употребляется существительное с предлогом (также переводимое на русский язык родительным падежом). The children of my sister. Дети моей сестры. My sister’s children. The reports of the students. Доклады студентов.
The students’ reports. Возможны сочетания существительного с of и притяжательного падежа. The work of my friend’s father. Работа отца моего друга. The address of my best friend’s par-
ents. Адрес родителей моего лучшего друга. В форме притяжательного падежа могут также употребляться не-
которые неодушевленные существительные, обозначающие время, рас-
стояние, страны, города, а также слова world, country, city, ship, the sun, the moon, the earth, today, yesterday. An hour’s interval. Часовой перерыв. A five minutes’walk. Пятиминутная прогулка. The soviet Union’s policy. Политика Советского Союза. The earth’s surface. Поверхность земли. The moon’s light. Свет луны (лунный свет). Today’s newspaper. Сегодняшняя газета. Функции имени существительного в предложении Существительное в общем падеже может быть в предложении: 1) Подлежащим. The student
is reading. Студент
читает. 217 2) Именной частью составного именного сказуемого. He is a student
. Он студент
. 3) Дополнением (прямым, косвенным беспредложным, косвен-
ным предложным). I see my sister
(Ann) every day Я вижу мою сестру
(Анну) каждый день I can tell my sister
(Ann) about the meeting. Я могу сказать моей сестре (Анне) о собрании. I often speak with my sister
(Ann) about it. Я часто разговариваю с моей сестрой
(Анной) об этом. При отсутствии косвенного дополнения прямое дополнение стоит после глагола. I know this student (him) well. Я знаю этого студента (его) хорошо. При наличии косвенного и прямого дополнений косвенное допол-
нение ставится перед прямым или с предлогом to после него. I can give this student (him) my text-book. Я могу дать этому студенту (ему) мой учебник. I can give my text-book to this stu-
dent (to him). Я могу дать мой учебник этому студенту (ему
). Если же прямое дополнение выражено местоимением, оно всегда стоит перед косвенным дополнением. Here is the letter. Send it to Peter. Вот письмо. Отправьте его Петру. Но: Send Peter this letter. Send this letter to Peter. 4) Обстоятельством. He stood behind the door
. Он стоял за дверью. 5) Определением. The window of this room
is large. Окно этой комнаты большое. A bright winter
day. Ясный зимний день. Из примеров видно, что в английском языке отношение существи-
тельного к другим словам в предложении определяется его местом в предложении и предлогами. Большую трудность для перевода с английского языка на русский представляют двух- или многоэлементные определения, выраженные существительными. 218
Factory workers Фабричные рабочие Communist Party members Члены коммунистической партии Labour Government Policy Политика лейбористского прави-
тельства Earth gravity measurement Измерение земного тяготения The World Health Organization Всемирная организация здравоохра-
нения Polar Research and Development Centre Центр по исследованию и развитию полярных районов Структура существительных По своей структуре существительные бывают: Простые:
book книга table стол Производные:
(с суффиксами и префиксами) darkness темнота friendship дружба misprint опечатка Сложные:
courtroom судебный зал newspaper газета textbook учебник earth quake землетрясение courtroom зал судебного заседания Прилагательное (The Adjective) Общие сведения К числу прилагательных относятся слова, обозначающие свойства предметов, например: large, blue, simple, delightful, progressive. В предложении они обычно выполняют функции: 1) определения к существительным, например: It was early spring. Была ранняя весна. 2) предикатива (т.е. именной части составного сказуемого), на-
пример: The weather was cold yet. Погода все еще была холодная. 219 3) части составного глагольного сказуемого, например: She lay motionless with her head towards the wall. Она лежала неподвижно, и голова ее была повернута к стене. 4) объектного предикатива, например: I thought him very clever. Я считал его очень умным. 5) субъектного предикатива, например: The door was closed tight. Дверь была плотно закрыта. Прилагательные Простые good, bad, long, large, easy суффиксы: префиксы: Производные -ful -less -able -ous -y -ly -ish -en beautiful useless comfortable famous lucky lovely reddish golden un- in- im- ir- untrue insin-
cere impos-
sible irrele-
vant Составные snow-white, dark-blue Прилагательные в английском языке не изменяются ни по паде-
жам, ни по числам, но они образуют степени сравнения. Степени сравнения прилагательных В английском языке различают три степени сравнения прилага-
тельных: положительную (the positive degree), сравнительную (the com-
parative degree) и превосходную (the superlative degree). Прилагательные в положительной степени не имеют никаких окончаний, например: slow, straight, productive, curious. Сравнительная и превосходные степени у одних прилагательных образуются с помощью суффиксов -er и -est, а у других – прибавлением слов more и most
. Первым способом степени сравнения образуют: 1) односложные прилагательные, например: new – newer – newest; quick – quicker – quickest; 2) двусложные прилагательные, оканчивающиеся на -er, -ow, -y и -le, например: clever – cleverer – cleverest; narrow – narrower – narrowest; 220
happy – happier – happiest; simple = simpler – simplest; 3) двусложные прилагательные с ударением на втором слоге, на-
пример: polite – politer – politest. Вторым способом образуют степени сравнения все остальные при-
лагательные, не вошедшие в первую группу, например: careful – more careful – most careful; personal – more personal – most personal; tired – more tired – most tired; afraid – more afraid – most afraid. Несколько прилагательных образуют степени сравнения не по об-
щему правилу: good – better – best; bad – worse – worst; far – farther – farthest (о расстоянии); far – further – furthest (о времени и расстоянии); late – later – latest (о времени); late – latter – last (о порядке
следования); old – older – oldest (о возрасте); old – elder – eldest (о старшинстве, употребляется только как оп-
ределение к существительному). Сравнительная степень прилагательных употребляется, когда срав-
ниваются два предмета, действия и явления, например: My father is much older than my mother. Мой отец значительно старше моей матери. He found the work easier than he had expected. Он нашел, что работа была легче, чем он предполагал. I’m now more experienced than two years ago. Я теперь более опытен, чем два года назад. Превосходная степень прилагательных употребляется при сравне-
нии трех и более предметов, действий или явлений, например: Mine is the smallest study in the office. Мой кабинет самый маленький в офисе. Pete is the best student of us all. Пит учится лучше нас всех. Равное качество предметов, действий и явлений выражается с по-
мощью союзов as … as, например: It was as cold as in winter there. The trial was as complex as the Brown’s. Там
было холодно, как зимой. Этот судебный процесс был та-
кой же сложный, как и судебное дело Брауна. 221 Неравное качество предметов, действий или явлений выражается с помощью not so … as или not as … as, например: The sun is now not so (as) hot as in the afternoon. Солнце сейчас не такое жаркое, как днем. Уменьшение качества выражается с помощью less … than, напри-
мер: This lawyer is less experienced than that one. Этот юрист менее опытен, чем тот. Параллельное возрастание (или уменьшение) качества предметов, действий или явлений выражается с помощью конструкций the -er … the -er
, или more … as … -er, например: The longer I stay here the better I like it. Чем дольше я нахожусь здесь, тем больше мне здесь нравится. He became more careful as he grew older. С возрастом он стал более осто-
рожным. Степени сравнения Положи-
тельная Сравнительная Превосходная Односложные long large easy longer larger easier the longest the largest the easiest Многосложные beautiful impossible difficult more beautiful more impossible more difficult the most beautiful the most impossible the most difficult Исключения good bad little many much far better worse less more more farther (further) the best the worst the least the most the most the farthest (furthest)
Сравнительные конструкции than The result of the experiment is much better than that of the previous one. as … as This result is as good as that one. not so … as This result is not so good as that one. the (more) … the (less) The more we study the less we know. 222
Употребление 1. Определение They live in the new house. 2. Часть сказуемого My house is new. Перевод Прилагательными Наречие (The Adverb) Наречие – это слово, обозначающее признак действия или качества. Большинство наречий образовано от соответствующих прилага-
тельных с помощью суффикса -ly, например: slow – slowly, careful – care-
fully. В этой группе имеются наречия, форма которых не отличается от формы соответствующих прилагательных. Различить их можно только на основе их функций в предложении, например: There were not so many cases in early time. The thief was caught early in the morning. В ранние времена не было так много законов. Вора поймали рано утром. He drew a straight line. He went straight home. Он провел прямую линию. Он пошел прямо домой. Следует обратить внимание на то, что в английском языке есть па-
ры наречий, которые образованы от одного корня, но резко отличаются друг от друга по смыслу, например: late – поздно near – близко hard
– упорно (много) lately – в последнее время nearly – почти hardly – едва He came late. Он пришел поздно. He has been busy lately. Он был занят в последнее время. She lives near the university. Она живет близко от университета. The trial is nearly finished. Судебное рассмотрение почти закончено. He works hard. Он много (упорно) работает. He can hardly walk. Он едва может ходить. Большинство наречий являются неизменяемыми словами, но ряд наречий образа действия имеют формы сравнительной и превосходной степеней, которые они образуют в основном с помощью more и most, например: quickly – more quickly – most quickly; carefully – more carefully – most carefully. 223 Только небольшое количество наречий образует степени сравнения с помощью -er и -est, например: soon – sooner – soonest; early – earlier – earliest. Наречия well, badly, far, late образуют степени сравнения так же, как и соответствующие прилагательные, не по общему правилу. Следует, однако, помнить, что наречия в превосходной степени практически не употребляются. Наречия Простые well, much, very, often
Производные partly, quickly, hardly Составные Sometimes, somewhere, anywhere, no-
where, since then, so far Совпадающие по форме – с прилагательными – с предлогами – с союзами fast, hard, late He is working fast. It is a fast train. after, before, since I haven’t seen him since. I haven’t seen him since that day. since, when, where, but I haven’t seen him since. I haven’t seen him since he went there. Степени сравнения Положительная СравнительнаяПревосходная Односложные fast late early faster later earlier fastest latest earliest Многосложные slowly beautifully more slowly more beautifully most slowly most beautifully Исключения well badly little much far better worse less more farther (further)
best worst least most farthest (furthest)
Употребление 1. Обстоятельство: – при глаголе – при прилагательном – при наречии He is working fast. He is a very good speaker. He speaks English very well. 224
2. Вопросительное слово Where do you work? 3. Союзное слово Here is the house where he lives. How I should do it is not known. The question is how I should do it. I don’t know how I should do it. Перевод Наречиями Настоящее неопределённое (Present Simple) Present Simple совпадает с первой основной формой глагола – ин-
финитивом без частицы to для всех лиц и чисел, кроме третьего лица единственного числа. В этой форме к основе инфинитива прибавляется окончание -s или -es. Окончание -s прибавляется к основе большинства глаголов: (to) write – he writes (писать – он пишет); (to) work – he works (работать – он работает). Окончание -es используется тогда, когда глагол в инфинитиве оканчивается на: а) s, ss, ch, sh, tch, x: (to) dress – he dresses (одеваться – он одевается); (to) watch – he watches (наблюдать – он наблюдает) б) у, перед которым стоит согласная; у при этом меняется на i: (to) try – he tries (пытаться – он пытается). Окончание третьего лица единственного числа читается как [s] по-
сле глухих согласных, как [z] после звонких согласных и гласных и как [iz] - после s, ss, sh, ch, tch, x: asks [a:sks], reads [ri:dz], tries [traiz], dresses ['dresiz]. Вопросительная форма present simple образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола does для третьего лица единственного числа и глагола do для остальных лиц и чисел. Отрицательная форма present simple образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола do или does и отрицания not. Не speaks. Он говорит. Does he speak? Говорит ли он? Не does not speak. Он не говорит. 225 Формы глагола в Present Simpe Форма Число Утвердительная Вопросительная Отрицательная Ед. I (you) ask. Не(she, it) asks. Do I (you) ask? Does he (she, it) ask? I (you) do not ask. He (she, it) does not ask. Мн. We (you, they) ask. Do we (you, they) ask?
We (you, they) do not ask. В разговорной речи вместо полных форм обычно используют со-
кращенные: don't [dount], doesn't [daznt]. Present Simple употребляется в основном: 1) для обозначения простых фактов и общих истин: The coffee beans grow well in Brazil. (Кофейные бобы хорошо растут в Бразилии.) Water boils at 100 degrees C. (Вода закипает при 100° С.) The early bird catches the worm. (Кто рано встает, того удача ждет.) 2) для выражения повседневных, повторяющихся действий, привы-
чек, обычаев: I have a cup of coffee every morning. (Каждое утро я выпиваю чашку кофе.) You aren't going to leave me behind? I always go with you. (Ты ведь не уедешь без меня? Я всегда езжу с тобой.) The traditions of boyhood live on in us. (В нас всегда живут традиции, заложенные в детстве.) 3) для выражения будущего действия: а) программы, расписание The plane for Glasgow leaves at 10.05 on Tuesday morning. (Самолёт в Глазго отправляется в 10.05 во вторник утром.) John leaves for Moscow next week. (Джон уезжает в Москву на следующей неделе.) б) в условных и временных обстоятельственных предложениях после союзов: 226
if если, in case в случае, supposing предположим, unless если не, when когда, before перед, till (until) до, as soon as как только, provided если только, while пока и др. (В соответствующих русских предложениях глагол стоит в будущем времени.) If you interrogate him, you will understand the reason. (Если вы допросите его, то поймёте причину.) When John comes home, he will be shocked. (Когда Джон придёт домой, он будет шокирован.) Present Simple часто употребляется с наречиями, выражающими частотность: always всегда, often часто, seldom редко, sometimes иногда, never никогда, hardly ever почти никогда, nearly always почти всегда, usually обычно, generally как правило и т. д. Наречия обычно ставятся перед глаголом: I always get up early. Я всегда встаю рано. We often go to the theatre. Мы часто ходим в театр. They never have quarrels. Они никогда не ссорятся. В предложениях с глаголом to be наречия, выражающие частот-
ность, стоят после форм этого глагола: She is sometimes afraid of darkness. Иногда она боится темноты. Настоящее продолженное (Present Continuous) Present continuous образуется при помощи вспомогательного гла-
гола to be в настоящем времени и четвертой основной формы смыслового глагола. I am speaking. Я говорю. Не is speaking. Он говорит. We are speaking. Мы говорим. При образовании вопросительной формы глагол to be ставится пе-
ред подлежащим: Is he speaking? Говорит ли он? При образовании отрицательной формы между глаголом to be и формой смыслового глагола ставится отрицание not. Не is not speaking. Он не говорит. 227 Формы глагола в Present Continuous Форма Число Утвердительная Вопросительная Отрицательная Ед. I am asking. You are asking. He (she, it) is asking. Am I asking? Are you asking? Is he (she, it) asking? I am not asking. You are not asking. He (she, it) is not asking.
Мн. We (you, they) are asking. Are we (you, they) asking? We (you, they) are not asking. В разговорной речи вместо полных форм обычно используют со-
кращенные: isn't ['iznt], aren't [a:nt]. Обратите внимание, что в английском языке формы единственного и множественного числа второго лица совпадают. You are speaking English Ты говоришь по-английски. Вы говорите по-английски. Present Continuous представляет собой длительный вид настоящего времени и употребляется в следующих случаях. 1. Для выражения действия, протекающего в момент речи или в на-
стоящий период времени. В этом случае настоящее продолжен-
ное указывает на то, что действие, совершающееся в настоящий момент, началось до этого момента и будет продолжаться после него. На длительный характер действия могут указывать обстоя-
тельства времени: now, right now, at this moment сейчас, в дан-
ный момент, today сегодня, this week (month, year) на этой неде-
ле (в этом месяце, году) и т. д.: It's raining hard today, and the children are playing inside all the time. (Сегодня идет сильный дождь, и дети играют дома целый день.) Helen is listening to the news on the radio right now. (Как раз сейчас Елена слушает последние известия по радио.) It's noon. I'm sitting in the park. Some children are playing with a ball. An old man is reading a paper. (Полдень. Я сижу в парке. Несколько детей играют в мяч. Пожи-
лой человек читает газету.) 2. Для выражения будущего действия (как и настоящее время в русском языке), когда налицо намерение совершить действие или уверенность в его совершении. В этом случае на будущее действие указывают наречия tomorrow завтра, soon скоро и др. или контекст: 228
They are leaving Moscow next week. They are going to the south. (На следующей неделе они уезжают из Москвы. Они едут на юг.) Глаголы чувственного восприятия (to hear слышать, to see ви-
деть), умственной деятельности (to know знать, to understand понимать, to remember помнить, to forget забывать), чувств (to like нравиться, to love любить, to hate ненавидеть), желания (to want хотеть, to wish же-
лать), принадлежности (to belong принадлежать, to possess владеть) и глагол to be быть, как правило, не употребляются в Present Continuous. Некоторые глаголы могут употребляться в Present Continuous, но приобретают другое смысловое значение: to think – * “думать; полагать” e.g. I think it is a serious crime. * “обдумывать” e.g. What are you thinking about? to see – * “видеть; понимать” e.g. I see what you mean. e.g. I see there is a problem in representing facts. * “встречаться” e.g. We’re seeing Jenny tonight to decide the case in an im-
partial way. to hear – * “слышать” e.g. They hear him giving evidence in the courtroom. * “получать известие” e.g. The witness looks forward to hearing from to feel – * “понимать; чувствовать” e.g. I feel that something goes wrong. * “ощущать; чувствовать себя …” e.g. “What’s the matter with you? Are you feeling well?” to look – * “выглядеть” e.g. The policeman has worked all the night long. He looks very tired. * “смотреть” e.g. The investigator is looking at the suspects’ photos. to smell – * “иметь запах” e.g. It smells of burnt paper here. * “нюхать” e.g. “Why is he smelling the bottle of perfume? Is it the same scent we felt at the place of crime?” 229 to taste – * “иметь вкус” e.g. The meal tastes wonderful. * “пробовать” e.g. They are tasting the meal. Сочетание Present Continuous глагола to go с инфинитивом очень часто употребляется для выражения намерения совершить действие или уверенности в его совершении. I'm going to work in summer. Я собираюсь работать летом. Настоящее совершенное (Present Perfect) Present Perfect образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола to have в настоящем времени (have, has) и третьей основной формы смы-
слового глагола. В вопросительном предложении вспомогательный глагол ставится перед подлежащим. В отрицательном предложении после вспомогательного глагола ставится отрицание not. Не has asked. Он спросил. Has he asked? Спросил ли он? He has not asked. Он не спросил. Формы глагола в Present Perfect Форма Число Утвердительная Вопросительная Отрицательная Ед. I (you) have asked. Не (she, it) has asked. Have I (you) asked? Has he (she, it) asked? I (you) have not asked. He (she, it) has not asked. Мн. We (you, they) have asked. Have we (you, they) asked? We (you, they) have not asked. В разговорной речи вместо полных форм обычно употребляются сокращенные: haven't [hevnt], hasn't [heznt]. Употребление Present Perfect 1. Для выражения действия, завершившегося к моменту речи, по-
этому его можно назвать преднастоящим. Время действия, как 230
правило, не указывается, оно не имеет значения, так как важен сам факт совершения действия к настоящему моменту или его результат. I have seen the film and I think it is dull. (Я видал фильм и считаю eго скучным.) Форма have seen выражает действие, которое закончилось к моменту речи, до настоящего времени, то есть преднастоящее. С настоящим его связывает результат – мнение о фильме. Ann has read this book. (Аня (уже) прочитала эту книгу.) Если время действия указано, то употребляется Past Simple: Ann read this book last month. (Энн читала эту книгу в прошлом месяце.) В этом значении Present Perfect часто употребляется с наре-
чиями just только что и already уже, а в отрицательных пред-
ложениях – с yet еще. Эти наречия подчеркивают тот факт, что действие, которое началось в прошлом, завершилось очень близко к моменту речи (к настоящему моменту). The mail has just come. (Почта только что пришла.) We have already come to a definite conclusion. (Мы уже пришли к определенному заключению.) I haven't seen her yet (Я ее еще не видел.) В этом же значении Present Perfect употребляется с наречи-
ем lately недавно или of late в последнее время. I have seen many pictures lately (of late). (В последнее время я посмотрел много картин.) 2. Для выражения действия, которое завершилось; но тот период, в которое оно происходило, еще продолжается, может быть обозначен обстоятельством времени today сегодня, this week на этой неделе, this month в этом месяце, this year в этом году, this century в нашем веке: I have seen the film twice this week. (Я дважды видел этот фильм на этой неделе.) Если время действия истекло, глагол употребляется в Past Simple. Так, например, днем или вечером мы можем сказать: I wrote a letter this morning. (Сегодня утром я написал письмо.) Но если разговор происходит утром, то мы скажем: 231 I have written a letter this morning. И в первом, и во втором предложении глагол переводится на русский язык прошедшим временем. 3. Для выражения действия, которое началось в прошлом, про-
должалось до настоящего времени и протекает в настоящем, т. е. действие, которое охватывает целый период времени, включающий и настоящий момент (= преднастоящее + настоя-
щее): I have known him all my life. (Я знаю его всю жизнь. = Я знал его раньше и знаю сейчас.) I have always been in love with you. Я всегда вас любил. (= Я любил вас раньше и люблю те-
перь.) Глагол в Present Perfect в этом значении переводится на русский язык глаголом в настоящем времени. Примечания. 1. Present Perfect употребляется в тех случаях, когда начало действия передается посредством since с тех пор как, высту-
пающим: a. в качестве союза: I have lived in Moscow since my family moved here in 1960. (Я живу в Москве, с тех пор как моя семья переехала сю-
да в 1960 году.) Since вводит придаточное предложение, в котором ука-
зывается на начало действия в прошлом. В таких случаях, как правило, глагол в главном предложении употребляется в Present Perfect, а в придаточном – в Past Simple. b. в качестве наречия: We moved in Moscow in 1960. (Мы переехали в Москву в 1960 г.) We have lived here since. (С тех пор мы живём здесь.) c. в качестве предлога: We have lived in Moscow since 1960. (Мы живём в Москве с 1960.) В этих случаях вопросы к обстоятельству времени образу-
ются при помощи since when с каких пор или how long сколько. Since when (How long) have you lived in London? (С каких пор (сколько времени) вы живёте в Лондоне?) 232
2. Весь период времени, охватываемый действием глагола в Present Регfect – от прошлого до настоящего включительно – может передаваться предлогом for: I have lived in Kiev for 3 years. (Я живу в Киеве три года.) В этом значении Present Perfect употребляется: а) с глаголами, с которыми невозможен Present Perfect Con-
tinuous – to see, to hear и т. д. I haven't seen my friend for a week. (Я не видел друга неделю.) б) с глаголами to live жить, to study учиться, изучать, to work работать и др., выражающими процесс, длитель-
ное действие I have worked at my report since early morning. (Я работаю над докладом с утра.) Но в этом случае возможна и форма Present Perfect Continu-
ous: I have been working at my report since early morning. Present Perfect может употребляться с наречиями, обозначающими частотность действия или выражающими неопределенность времени дей-
ствия, которые также употребляются со всей группой времен Simple (не-
определенных) – Present Simple, Past Simple и Future Simple. Это наречия: always всегда, often часто, seldom редко, ever когда-нибудь, never нико-
гда, hardly ever почти никогда т. д. I have never seen this man. (Я никогда не видела этого человека.) Have you ever been to the Hermitage? (Вы когда-нибудь были в Эрмитаже?) Настоящее перфектно-длительное (Present Perfect Continuous) Present Perfect Continuous образуется при помощи вспомогательно-
го глагола to be в форме Present Perfect have been, has been и четвертой основной формы смыслового глагола. В вопросительном предложении первый вспомогательный глагол have, has ставится перед подлежащим. В отрицательном предложении после первого вспомогательного глагола have, has ставится отрицание not. Не has been asking. Он спрашивал. 233 Has he been asking? Спрашивал ли он? He has not been asking. Он не спрашивал. Формы глагола в Present Continuous Форма Число Утвердительная Вопросительная Отрицательная Ед. I (you) have been asking. He (she, it) has been asking. Have I (you) been asking? Has he (she, it) been asking? I (you) have not been asking. He (she, it) has not been asking. Мн.
We (you, they) have been asking. Have we (you; they) been asking? We (you, they) have not been asking. Употребление Present Perfect Continuous 1. Чтобы подчеркнуть длительный характер действия, которое началось в прошлом и продолжается в настоящем. “What are you doing here?” – “I'm waiting to talk to the teacher. I have been waiting for almost twenty minutes, but he's still busy.” (– Что ты здесь делаешь? – Я жду, чтобы поговорить с учителем. Я жду уже почти 20 минут, но он все еще занят.) В этом значении глагол в Present Perfect Continuous может быть взаимозаменяем глаголом в Present Perfect, хотя Present Perfect Continuous выражает длительность действия более эмоциональ-
но. Однако только Present Perfect может употребляться с глаго-
лами, выражающими состояние, восприятие и т. д., которые не употребляются в длительном виде. Начало действия может быть обозначено предлогом (союзом) since с тех пор (как). She has been reading since 3 o’clock (since morning, since I came). (Она читает с трёх часов (с утра, с тех пор как я пришла).) Период времени, в течение которого происходило действие, может быть выражен предлогом for со словосочетанием или на-
речием, служащим обстоятельством времени (all day long весь день, the whole month целый месяц, lately недавно, за последнее время и др.): Не has been reading for his exam all day long. (Он целый день готовится к экзамену.) 234
Вопрос к обстоятельству времени в этих случаях начинается с how long сколько, как долго. How long have you been sitting here? (Сколько (как долго) ты уже сидишь здесь?) Если в момент речи действие, выраженное сказуемым, еще про-
должается, глагол в Present Perfect Continuous переводится на русский язык глаголом несовершенного вида в настоящем вре-
мени. 2. Чтобы подчеркнуть, что, хотя длительное действие только что закончилось, завершилось, результат его виден налицо. “What's the matter? Why are you out of breath?” “I've been running all the way.” (Что случилось? Почему ты запыхался? – Я бежал всю дорогу.) Если действие, которое длилось какое-то время, к моменту речи уже закончилось, глагол в Present Perfect Continuous переводит-
ся на русский язык глаголом несовершенного вида в прошед-
шем времени. Прошедшее неопределённое (Past Simple) Past Simple правильных глаголов образуется при помощи оконча-
ния -ed или -d, прибавляемого к основе инфинитива. Окончание -ed ис-
пользуется в большинстве случаев: to ask – he asked (спрашивать – он спросил) to answer – he answered (отвечать – он ответил). Окончание -d прибавляется к основе инфинитива, если она оканчи-
вается на е. to invite – he invited (приглашать – он пригласил) to decide – he decided (решать – он решил) Окончание -ed/-d читается как [id] после согласных t и d, как [d] после звонких согласных, кроме d, и после гласных и как [t] – после глу-
хих согласных, кроме t: wanted [wantid], played [pleid], opened ['oup
nd], worked [w
:kt]. Если глагол оканчивается на у, перед которым стоит согласная, у перед окончанием -ed меняется на i. to try – he tried (пытаться – он пытался) 235 Если глагол оканчивается на согласную, которой предшествует краткий гласный, конечная согласная обычно удваивается. (останавливаться – он остановился) to stop – he stopped; to plan – he planned; to prefer – he preferred. Past Simple неправильных глаголов образуется особо (вторая ко-
лонка таблицы неправильных глаголов). Неправильные глаголы нужно запомнить сразу во всех основных формах. Вопросительная форма Past Simple образуется при помощи вспомо-
гательного глагола to do в форме did, который ставится перед подлежащим. Основной глагол при этом ставится в форме инфинитива без частицы to. Отрицательная форма Рast Simple образуется при помощи вспо-
могательного глагола to do в форме did, за которым идет отрицание not. Не asked. Он спрашивал. Did he ask? Спрашивал ли он? He did not! ask. Он не спрашивал. Формы глагола в Past Simple Форма Число Утвердительная Вопросительная Отрицательная Ед. и мн. I (you, he, she, it, we, they) asked. Did I (you, he, she, it, we, they) ask? I (you, he, she, it, we, they) did not ask. В разговорной речи вместо полной формы обычно используется сокращенная: didn't ['didn’t]. Употребление Past Simple 1. Для описания действий, происходивших в прошлом, как завер-
шившихся, так и не завершившихся в прошлом, но не связан-
ных с настоящим. Прошедшее действие может характеризо-
ваться обстоятельством времени (yesterday вчepa, last week на прошлой неделе, a month ago месяц назад, on Sunday в воскресе-
нье, in 1990 в 1990 году и др.). I worked in London police from 1984 to 1997. (Я работал в лондонской полиции с 1984 по 1997.) I met your brother the other day. (На днях я встретил твоего брата.) 2. Для описании ряда последовательных действий в прошлом. Mr. West came up to the house, took the key out of his pocket and opened the door. 236
(Мистер Уэст подошел к дому, достал из кармана ключ и от-
крыл дверь.) 3. Для описания обычных, повторяющихся действий в прошлом. When Mr. Dance was a student, he used to ride a bike to classes. (Когда мистер Данc был студентом, он бывало ездил на занятия на велосипеде.) Last year we used to go to the skating-rink on Sundays. (В прошлом году мы обычно ходили на каток по воскресеньям.) Различие в употреблении Past Simple и Present Perfect Употребление Past Simple Употребление Present Perfect 1. Past Simple выражает действие, целиком относящееся к прошлому, не связанное с настоящим. Поэто-
му Past Simple употребляется с наречиями: ago тому назад (a month ago месяц тому назад, three days ago три дня тому назад и т. п.), long ago давно, the other day на днях (в прошлом), yesterday вчера; с сочетаниями с last про-
шлый (last week на прошлой неделе, last month в прошлом месяце, last year в прошлом году и т. п.); с ука-
занием даты или периода времени в прошлом (in July в июле, in 1990 в 1990 г. и т. д.): I wrote several letters yesterday. (Вчера я написал несколько писем.) Mr. and Mrs. Gray went to the theatre last week. (Мистер и миссис Грей ходили в театр на прошлой неделе.) Past Simple употребляется с наре-
чием just now только что: I saw that you came in just now. (Я видел, как вы только что вошли.) 1. Present Perfect показывает, что действие, которое соверши-
лось, связано с настоящим, на что указывают наречия, с которыми употребляется Present Perfect (они в основном обозначают период времени в настоящем, который еще не закончен): today сегодня, различные сочетания с this этот (this week на этой неделе, this month в этом месяце, this year в этом году и т. п.): I have written several letters today. (Сегодня я написал несколько писем.) Mr. and Mrs. Gray have been to the theatre this week. (Мистер и миссис Грей были в театре на этой неделе.) Present Perfect употребляется с наречием just только что: I've just bought a new dress. (Я только что купила новое пла-
тье.) 237 2. Past Simple употребляется в спе-
циальных вопросах, начинающихся с when и where, так как такие во-
просы относят действие к конкрет-
ной ситуации в прошлом: Where did you see him? Где ты его видел? When did you see him? Когда ты его видел? (В ответе на этот вопрос может быть и Past Simple, и Present Perfect в зависимости от ситуации: I saw him yesterday. Я видел его вчера. I have just seen him. Я только что его видел.) 2. Present Perfect употребляется с глаголом to be в значении съез-
дить, побывать, навестить. После глагола to be в этом значении су-
ществительное, выражающее об-
стоятельство места (направление), употребляется с предлогом to: “Have you ever been to Belgrade?” “Yes, I've been there once. I went there in 1982.” – Ты когда-нибудь был в Бел-
граде? – Да, я был там однажды. Я ездил туда в 1982 г. Прошедшее продолженное (Past Continuous) Past Continuous образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола to be в прошедшем времени и четвертой основной формы смыслового глагола. Не was speaking. Он говорил. We were speaking. Мы говорили. При образовании вопросительной формы глагол to be ставится пе-
ред подлежащим. При образовании отрицательной формы между глаголом to be и формой смыслового глагола ставится отрицание not. Was he speaking? Говорил ли он? Не was not speaking. Он не говорил. Формы глагола в Past Continuos Число Утвердительная форма Вопросительная форма Отрицательная форма Ед. I (he, she, it) was asking. You were asking. Was I (he, she, it) ask-
ing? Were you asking? I (he, she, it) was not asking. You were not asking. Мн. We (you, they) were asking. Were we (you, they) asking? We (you, they) were not asking. 238
В разговорной речи вместо полных форм обычно используются со-
кращенные: wasn't, weren't. Past Continuous обычно употребляется: 1. Для выражения конкретного действия, длившегося в точно ука-
занный момент или период в прошлом, который обозначен либо обстоятельством времени, либо другим (одно действие на фоне другого) действием в прошлом. При этом ни начало, ни конец длительного действия не известны. When I entered the room he was reading a book. (Когда я вошла в комнату, он читал книгу.) At three o'clock yesterday I was reading a book. (Я читала книгу вчера в три часа.) 2. Для выражения длительного действия, протекавшего в опреде-
ленный период времени в прошлом (from six to seven с шести до семи, all day long last Saturday весь день в прошлую субботу, the whole day yesterday весь вчерашний день и т. д.). I was writing a composition the whole day yesterday. (Вчера я целый день писал сочинение.) И в этом случае начало и конец длительного действия не известны; важно только, что оно длилось весь указанный период времени. В обоих случаях Past Continuous употребляется, когда нужно подчеркнуть сам процесс действия, его продолжительность. Если же важен только факт совершения действия, то употребляется Past Simple. 3. Кроме того, Past Continuous может употребляться для выраже-
ния одновременных действий, протекавших в прошлом в один и тот же момент. The children were playing while their mother was watching them. (Дети играли, в то время как их мать наблюдала за ними.) While my mother was reading a book I was playing the piano. (Пока мама читала книгу, я играла на пианино.) As I was taking a shower, my mother was cooking breakfast. (В то время, когда я принимала душ, мама готовила завтрак.) 4. Past Continuous может выражать намерение, относящееся к про-
шлому, в основном с глаголами движения: to come приходить, to go идти, to leave уезжать, to start отправляться и др.: My friend was glad that I was leaving for the South. (Мой друг порадовался, что я собираюсь ехать на юг.) 239 Примечание. Past Continuous, как правило, не употребляется с глаголами чувст-
венного восприятия. Прошедшее совершенное (The Past Perfect Tense) 1. Прошедшее время группы Perfect употребляется для обозначения действия, уже совершившегося до определенного момента в прошлом и соотнесенного с этим моментом в прошлом, а не с моментом речи (то есть не с настоящим моментом). Прошедшее время группы Perfect образуется при помощи вспомо-
гательного глагола have в форме прошедшего времени и причастия II-
смыслового глагола: I had read the book by five o’clock yesterday. (Вчера к пяти часам я прочитал книгу). Для образования вопросительной формы вспомогательный глагол had ставится перед подлежащим: Had he read the book by five o’clock yesterday? Для образования отрицательной формы отрицательная частица not ставится после вспомогательного глагола had. He had not read the book by five o’clock yesterday 2. Определенный момент в прошлом может быть выражен точным указанием времени (года, числа, часа и т. д.) с предлогом времени by (к) или другим прошедшим действием, событием или ситуацией: I had already read the book when my friend rang me up. (Я уже прочитал книгу, когда мой друг позвонил мне ( к тому моменту, когда он позвонил мне)). 3. В английском языке в повествовании при описании последова-
тельных событий в прошлом употребляется прошедшее время группы Indefinite. Если же последовательное изложение событий нарушается, т.е., если указывается действие, которое произошло ранее, оно выражается прошедшим временем группы Perfect. 240
We hurried to the theatre. We got there at a quarter to eight. The show had already begun. My friend looked around. He had never been to this theatre before. Мы поспешили в театр. Без чет-
верти восемь мы вошли в зал. Представление уже началось. Мой друг посмотрел вокруг. Он никогда не был в этом театре раньше. Прошедшее совершенное продолженное (The Past Perfect Continuous Tense) 1. Прошедшее время группы Perfect Continuous образуется при по-
мощи глагола to be в Past Perfect и причастия I смыслового глагола: I had been waiting for 2 hours. (Я прождал 2 часа). Для образования вопросительной формы вспомогательный глагол had ставится перед подлежащим: Had he been waiting for 2 hours. (Он прождал 2 часа). Для образования отрицательной формы отрицательная частица not ставится после вспомогательного глагола had. He had not been waiting long. (Он недолго ждет). Прошедшее время группы Perfect Continuous обозначает действие, которое началось в указанный момент в прошлом и совершалось некото-
рое время, включая другой указанный момент (или вплоть до него). 2. The Past Perfect Continuous употребляется: а) когда в предложении обозначен период времени, в течение которого действие происходило до определенного момента в прошлом и (или) включая
его; этот период времени обычно обозначается обстоятель-
ством времени с предлогом for. He had been working for two hours by the time I came back. (Он работал уже два часа до того времени, когда я вернулся). б) когда в предложении обозначен момент в прошлом, с которо-
го начиналось действие; этот момент обозначается обстоятельством вре-
мени с предлогом since (c), придаточным (с тех пор, как) или наречием since (с тех пор). Mary had been translating the article since 9 o’clock yesterday. (Вчера Мэри переводила эту статью с 9 часов). 241 3. Глаголы, не имеющие формы Continuous, употребляются в фор-
ме Perfect, а не Perfect Continuous. К ним относятся глаголы, выражающие чувства, восприятия и умственную деятельность, а также некоторые дру-
гие глаголы, например: to want – хотеть, to like – нравиться, to love – любить, to wish – желать, to see – видеть, to hear – слышать, to feel – чувствовать, to know – знать, to forget – забывать, to seem – казаться, to be – быть и др. Будущие времена (Future) Простое будущее время (Future Simple) Образуется при помощи вспомогательных глаголов shall и will и инфинитива смыслового глагола без частицы to. В современном английском языке есть тенденция к употреблению вспомогательного глагола will для всех лиц. The Future Simple (Indefinite) Tense выражает: 1. Действие, которое будет совершено в будущем: It will be cold to-
morrow. 2. Действие, которое будет происходить в течение какого-либо времени в будущем: I think I’ll be in love with you all my life. 3. Повторяющееся действие в будущем: Will you phone me every evening? Будущее продолженное время (Future Progressive) Образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола to be в Future Simple (shall be, will be) и причастия I смыслового глагола. The Future Progressive (Continuous) Tense выражает: 1. Действие в процессе в определенный момент в будущем. In an hour we will be listening to the trial at the Crown court. 2. Действие, которое говорящий предвидит в будущем. I must go or my parents will be worrying about me. Будущее совершенное время (Future Perfect) Образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола have в Future Simple (shall have, will have) и причастия II смыслового глагола. The Future Perfect Tense выражает действие, закончившееся до оп-
ределенного момента в будущем. They will have got our letter by Monday. 242
Будущее совершенное продолженное время (Future Perfect Pro-
gressive) Oбразуется с помощью глагола to be в форме Future Perfect (shall have been, will have been) и причастия I смыслового глагола. The Future Perfect Progressive (Continuous) Tense выражает дейст-
вие, которое началось до определенного момента в будущем и будет на-
ходиться в процессе вплоть до этого момента, включая его. I shall have been staying at this hotel for a week. Другие способы выражения будущего времени • The Present Progressive употребляется для выражения действия, которое запланировано и определенно состоится в ближайшем будущем (обычно с глаголами движения). I am leaving tonight. He is coming to dinner on Thursday. • Сочетание модального глагола to be и инфинитива указывает на действие, которое было заранее запланировано и которое должно быть выполнено: I’ve had a letter from home. I am to go back at once, my brother in trouble. He is not to treat his child like that! • Конструкция to be going + инфинитив обозначает намерение говорящего совершить действие в ближайшем будущем: I am going to tell him the truth. She is going to explain it tomorrow. Различие между WILL и TO BE GOING TO Will используется в том случае, когда во время разговора мы при-
нимаем спонтанное решение относительно чего-либо. To be going to употребляется в случае, если говорящий решил что-
либо до момента разговора. Сравним 2 примера: 1. I’ll have a party.- That’s a good idea. We’ll invite lots of friends. 2. Later that day. Helen meets Dave: Sue and I decided to make a party. We’re going to invite you and other people.
243 Страдательный залог (The Passive Voice) В английском языке значение залога выражается в форме глагола. Страдательный залог показывает, что действие глагола-сказуемого направлено на лицо или предмет, выраженный существительным или ме-
стоимением в функции подлежащего. The man was arrested by the police, but now he is released. Мужчина был арестован полици-
ей, но сейчас он освобожден. That Law was adopted in 1969. Тот закон был принят в 1969 г. Образование страдательного залога В английском языку страдательный залог образуется с помощью вспомогательного глагола to be в соответствующем времени и формы причастия II смыслового глагола. Это можно представить формулой: to be + Participle II (V3 смыслового глагола) The Passive Voice существует в следующих видовременных формах: The Present Indefinite(Simple) – is, am, are + done (V3) The Past Indefinite(Simple) – was, were + done (V3) The Future Indefinite(Simple) – will(shall) + be + done(V3) The Present Continuous(Progressive) – is,am,are +being +done The Past Continuous(Progressive) – was,were +being +done(V3) The Present Perfect – have, has + been +done (V3) The Past Perfect – had + been + done (V3) The Future Perfect – will,shall + have been +done Формы The Perfect Continuous и The Future Continuous отсутствуют. Вопросительная форма образуется путем переноса (первого) вспо-
могательного глагола на
место перед подлежащим, например: When was he arrested ? Has he stolen the car ? Отрицательная форма образуется с помощью отрицания not , кото-
рое ставится после первого вспомогательного глагола, например: The letter will not (won’t ) be sent to the lawyer. В вопросительно-отрицательной форме первый вспомогательный глагол ставится перед подлежащим, а частица not – после подлежащего. Has the book not been written? 244
Употребление страдательного залога 1. Страдательный залог употребляется тогда, когда говорящий ли-
бо не знает, кто совершает действие, либо не придает этому значения. My car has been stolen. I was given a warrant. 2. Когда говорящий выражает процесс действия (или воздействия) и состояние, наступившее в результате этого воздействия. Страдательный залог употребляется с переходными глаголами. He was helped to write a report. The boy is being looked for at the moment. Хотя есть переходные глаголы, с которыми пассивный залог не возможен. Например: to resemble, to seem, to have, to possess, to suit, to lack, to find out, to fit. The boy resembles his father. Страдательный залог также употребляется после некоторых непе-
реходных глаголов. Например: to attend, to answer, to join, to affect, to fol-
low и др. Дополнение в предложении с глаголом-сказуемым в страдательном залоге употребляется с предлогом by или with: by – выражает действующее лицо или действующую силу. with – выражает орудие действия. The letter was written by a lawyer. The letter was written with a pencil. В качестве вспомогательного глагола для образования форм стра-
дательного залога все шире используется get вместо be, в этом случае get выражает процесс, а be – его результат. He got angered when he realized he was being manipulated. (Его раздражение нарастало в течение некоторого времени.) He was angered when he realized he was being manipulated. (Его раздражение было немедленной реакцией, когда он осознал это.) На русский язык глагол в страдательном залоге можно переводить тремя способами: 1) глаголом, оканчивающимся на -ся, -сь; 2) сочетанием глагола “быть” с краткой формой причастия страда-
тельного залога; 3) глаголом в действительном залоге в 3-м лице множественного числа в составе неопределенно-личного предложения; 245 4) глаголом в действительном залоге (при наличии исполнителя действия). The case was considered by the Crown Court yesterday. Дело рассмотрел суд Короны вчера. Дело было рассмотрено судом Короны вчера. Дело рассматривалось судом Короны вчера. В английском языке глаголы, которые имеют два дополнения, мо-
гут образовывать страдательный залог двумя способами. К этим глаголам относятся: bring, give, lend, pass, pay, promise, sell, send, show, tell, hand, ask, offer, teach. Например: The police were given the information. The information was given to the police. I was handed a note. A note was handed to me. Форма страдательного залога наблюдается после модальных глаго-
лов и вспомогательных will, shall, would, should, иначе эта форма называ-
ется инфинитив в форме страдательного залога (The Infinitive Passive). Например: Мr. Jones will be arrested. They ought to have been pun-
ished more severely. Модальные глаголы (The Modals) В английском языке есть группа глаголов, которые выражают не действия, а только отношение к ним со стороны говорящего, оценку дей-
ствия, т. е. возможность, необходимость, предположительность, должен-
ствование, разрешение и т. д. Они называются модальными, некоторые из них имеют эквиваленты. Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты Модальные глаголы Эквиваленты can (could) to be able to may (might) to be allowed to Must to have to to be to Shall Should ought to Need Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты имеют ряд формальных от-
личительных особенностей. 246
Модальные глаголы Эквиваленты 1) являются недостаточными, т. к. не изменяются по временам, т. е. не имеют личных форм (за исклю-
чением could и might (past simple)) 1) употребляются во всех грамма-
тических временах I’m having to put up with his pres-
ence. 2) не имеют неличных форм (Ger-
und, Infinitive, Participle) 2) могут иметь неличную форму It was awful, not being able to see you for so long. 3) вопросительная и отрицатель-
ная форма строится без вспомога-
тельного глагола I cannot promise you anything 3) вопросительная и отрицатель-
ная форма строится по правилам употребления личных форм Did you have to tell them about it? 4) в составе сказуемого занимает первое место 4) может употребляться после другого модального глагола Tom might be able to
come tomorrow 5) требуют после себя употребления смыслового глагола в одной из форм инфинитива: без частицы to (за исключением ought to) с частицей to Формы инфинитива Залог Tenses действительный (Active Voice) страдательный (Passive Voice) Indefinite to ask to be asked Continuous to be asking ------------- Perfect to have asked to have been asked Perfect Continuous to have been asking ------------- Употребление модальных глаголов и их эквивалентов can (could) / to be able to 1. Глагол can (could) выражает способность или возможность что-
либо делать (мочь). He can analyse people’s handwriting. Это значение can может быть выражено конструкцией to be able to. Helen can / is able to read well, even though she is only three. Ho: в значении “удалось, получилось” употребляется только was / were able to (=managed), но не could. Very few people were able to survive after explosion. 247 2. Can может выражать разрешение. You can borrow my car. 3. Can (could) только в вопросительных и отрицательных
жениях может выражать сомнение, удивление, недоверие, невероятность. Can it be true? He can’t have said it. may (might) / to be allowed to 1. may (might)
может выражать разрешение. May I come in? Might I come too? В этом значении may соответствует to be allowed (разрешено): You’ll be allowed to ask for help; not to be allowed (запрещено): You are not allowed to feed animals. 2. may выражает предположение с оттенком сомнения, неуверенно-
сти (возможно, может быть) She may have left. В этом значении may (might) употребляется наряду с could (только в утвердительной форме). You could have lost your keys. must / to have to / to be to 1. must может выражать обязанность, долг, необходимость. You must warn him. В этом значении must соответствует: 1) to have to (to have got to), выражающему необходимость, вызван-
ную обстоятельствами (вынужден, приходится, должен) She has had to give up her job because she can’t find a nurse to look after her bab;. 2) to be to, выражающему предварительную договоренность, обя-
занность, предусмотренную по плану, по расписанию (употребляется только в Present Past Simple) We were to meet her yesterday. – в отрицательной форме must not (mustn’t) имеет значение катего-
рического запрещения (нельзя, не должен, запрещается
) You mustn’t tell anybody else. cannot
(can’t) – перевод на русский язык: не может быть, вряд ли; неужели.
might – делает просьбу более вежливой. 248
Но: для выражения отсутствия необходимости, разрешения не вы-
полнять действия используются not to have to, need not You needn’t do it today – для получения распоряжения или указания (что сделать или как поступить) употребляется глагол shall Shall I do again? 2. must может выражать предположение с уверенностью (должно быть, очевидно, вероятно) – только в утвердительных предложениях. The streets are wet. It must have been raining all the night. I must have seen you somewhere before. Your face is very familiar to me. should / ought to 1. Глагол should имеет значение личного мнения, совета (следует
, должен, нужно). Может употребляться: а) с простым инфинитивом, если высказываемое мнение относится к настоящему или будущему времени One shouldn’t make a decision in a hurry; б) с перфектным инфинитивом, если высказываемое мнение отно-
сится к прошедшему времени. В этом случае высказывание имеет оттенок порицания, упрека The boy shouldn’t have gone out without the permission. 2. В значении совета, мнения и порицания, упрека употребляется также глагол ought to He was sorry he had said things which he ought not to have said. need Употребляется для выражения необходимости совершить действие (нужно, надо) Need not (needn’t) hurry don’t need to
You needn’t have come so early. 249 Косвенная речь (Reported Speech) Cодержание ранее высказанного сообщения можно передать прямой речью (от лица говорящего) или косвенной речью (от лица передающего). He says: “I need some help”. – He says (that) he needs help. He said: “I need some help”. – He said (that) he needed help. При употреблении косвенной речи соблюдаются следующие правила: В английском языке время глагола в придаточном предложении за-
висит от времени глагола главного предложения. Время глагола в придаточном предложении не изменяется, если глагол главного
предложения стоит в настоящем или будущем времени. you are busy вы заняты He knows that you were busy Он знает, что вы были заняты you will be busy вы будете заняты 1. Если глагол главного предложения стоит в одном из прошедших времен (обычно в Past Simple), то глагол в придаточном предложении тоже должен употребляться в прошедшем времени. Происходит сдвиг времен в прошедшие времена. Соблюдается правило согласования вре-
мен (Sequence of Tenses). а) если действие придаточного предложения происходит одно-
временно с действием главного, то сказуемое придаточного
ложения стоит в Past Simple или Past Continuous и переводится на русский язык глаголом в настоящем времени: He said he lived in Moscow. – Он сказал, что живет в Москве. I thought that he was waiting for me in the hall. – Я думал, что он ждет меня в холле. б) если действие придаточного предложения предшествовало действию главного, то сказуемое придаточного предложения стоит в Past Perfect или Past Perfect Continuous и
переводится на русский язык глаголом в прошедшем времени: He said he had lived in Moscow. – Он сказал, что жил в Москве. They informed us that they had sent the papers by post. – Они сообщили нам, что они послали документы почтой. 250
в) если действие придаточного предложения последует за дей-
ствием главного, т.е. по отношению к нему совершится в будущем, то сказуемое этого предложения стоит в Future-in-the-Past
. Ска-
зуемое придаточного предложения переводится в этом случае гла-
голом в будущем времени: I was sure you would come. – Я был уверен, что вы придете. I hoped that he would try to come in time. – Я надеялся, что он постарается придти вовремя. Придаточное предложение в косвенной речи Simple Continuous Perfect Perfect Continuous Present Past wrote (active voice) was (were) written (passive voice) was (were) writing (active) was (were) being written (passive) had written (active) had been writ-
ten (passive) had been writ-
ing (active) Future Future-in-the-Past Главное предложение Он сказал (что) He said (that) would write (active) would be writ-
ten (passive) would be writ-
ing (active) would have written (active) would have been written (passive) would have been writing (active) Правила согласования времен распространяется и на косвенную речь. Future-in-the-Past образуется так же, как и соответствующие времена Fu-
ture, с той лишь разницей, что вместо shall и will употребляются вспомогатель-
ные глаголы should и would и соответствующий инфинитив смыслового глагола без to. Future-in-the-Past выражает будущие действия по отношению к прошед-
шему моменту. Future-in-the-Past употребляется в придаточных предложениях, когда сказуемое главного предложения
выражено глаголом в прошедшем време-
ни. 251 She said: “I won’t speak
without my lawyer.” She said that she would not speak
without her lawyer. He said: “My car has been stolen
.” He said that his car had been stolen
. 1. Косвенная речь вводится союзом that, который часто опускается: He said: “I have lost my keys.” He said (that)
he had lost his keys. 2. Если в словах, вводящих прямую речь, употреблен глагол to say без дополнения, указывающего на лицо, к которому обращают-
ся с речью, то to say сохраняется. He said, “She will come in the evening.” He said that she would come in the evening. 3. Если в словах, вводящих прямую речь, употреблен глагол to say (употребляется с предлогом to) с дополнением, то он заменяется глаголом to tell (употребляется без предлога): He said to them
: “I’m glad I can give you all the necessary informa-
tion.” He told them
(that) he was glad he could give them all the necessary information.” Также глагол to say употребляется в следующих конструкциях: “say something to somebody” Ann said goodbye to me and left. What did you say to the police? “say to do something” The doctor said to stay in bed for a few days. 4. Личные и притяжательные местоимения заменяются по смыслу: He said: “You
have stolen my
car!” He said that she
had stolen his
car. 5. Указательные местоимения и наречия времени и места заменя-
ются по смыслу другими словами: this – that these – those now – then today – that day tomorrow – the next day 252
the day after tomorrow –two days later next year –the following year, the next year yesterday –the day before the day before yesterday –two days before ago –before here –there “I’ll see you in the court tomorrow,” said Sue. Sue said that she would see me in the court the next day. Вопросительные предложения 6. Общие вопросы вводятся союзами if, whether, имеющими зна-
чение частицы “ли”. В придаточных предложениях соблюдается порядок слов утвердительного предложения (прямой порядок слов): She asked: “Does the conference on law problems start in March?” She asked if the conference on law problems started in March. 7. Специальные вопросы вводятся тем же вопросительным сло-
вом, с которого начинается прямая речь. Соблюдается порядок
слов утвердительного предложения (прямой порядок слов). He asked: “Who is invited to form the new Government?” He asked who was invited to form the new Government. She said: “How do the members of the legislature vote in your coun-
try?” She asked how the members of the legislature voted in my country?” Побудительные предложения 8. Для передачи побуждений в косвенной речи употребляются простые предложения с инфинитивом с частицей to. Отрица-
тельная форма повелительного наклонения заменяется инфини-
тивом с частицей not. Если прямая речь выражает приказание, то глагол to say заменяется глаголом to tell (велеть), to order (приказывать). Если прямая речь выражает просьбу, глагол to say заменяется глаголом to ask (просить) He said: “Coordinate your efforts with the police.” He asked to coordinate our efforts with the police. She said him: “Don’t fail to appear in the court!” She ordered him not to fail to appear in he court. 253 9. Наряду с глаголами to tell, to ask, to order для введения косвен-
ной речи употребляются многие другие: To admit, to explain, to point out, to advise, to agree, to answer, to reply, to apologize, to congratulate, to decide, to invite, to inform, to offer, to suggest, to promise, to refuse, to remind, to warn, to thank, to protest, to beg, to request, to demand, to wonder. He said: “I meet you after the sitting of the jury for a cup of coffee.” He promised
to meet me after the sitting of the jury for a cup of cof-
fee. The thief said: “I stole the money.” The thief admitted
that he had stolen the money. Неличные формы глагола (Non-finite forms of verb) В английском языке имеются три неличные формы глагола: при-
частие, инфинитив и герундий. Неличные формы не изменяются по лицам и не употребляются самостоятельно в роли сказуемого. Помимо глаголь-
ных свойств неличные формы глагола обладают признаками других час-
тей речи. The Participle (причастие) 1. Причастие – неличная форма глагола, обладающая свойствами глагола, прилагательного и
наречия. Английское причастие соответствует русским причастию и дее-
причастию. The facts illustrating his theory sound convicing. Факты, иллюстрирующие его тео-
рию, звучат убедительно. Illustrating his theory, he gave a lot of historical facts. Иллюстрируя свою теорию, он при-
вел много исторических фактов. 2. В английском языке различают причастие I (Participle I или Pre-
sent Participle) и причастие II (Participle II или Past Participle). Participle I выражает действие, являющееся признаком предмета (the boy sitting on the chair – мальчик, сидящий на стуле) или сопутствующим действием (sitting on the chair he asked… – сидя на
стуле, он спросил…). 254
Формы причастия I Participle I Active Passive non-perfect sending being sent perfect having sent having been sent Причастные обороты Сочетание неличной формы глагола с именем существительным (или местоимением), выступающее в качестве одного члена предложения, называется предикативным оборотом, который соответствует по значе-
нию придаточному предложению. Сложное дополнение с причастием (существительное в общем падеже или личное местоимение в объектном падеже + причастие) Причастие I (non-perfect) и Participle II. Сложное дополнение употребляется после глаголов, выражающих: а) физическое восприятие (see, hear, watch, notice); b) желание (want, wish, would like). I saw him photographing the Monument. Я видел, как он фотографировал памятник. The family wanted the case investigated by somebody else. Родственники хотели, чтобы дело расследовал кто-нибудь другой. c) после глагола have в конструкции have something done (кон-
струкция означает, что действие производится не лицом-подлежащим, а каким-либо другим лицом). I had my car repaired. Я отремонтировал автомобиль (но не сам, мне его отремонтировали в мастерской). She had her flat redecorated. Она сделала ремонт в квартире (ра-
ботали мастера). She made a dress. Она сшила платье (сама). She had a dress made. Она сшила платье (ей сшили в мас-
терской). Глагол have в этой конструкции может употребляться в различных временных формах. I am having my flat redecorated. Мне ремонтируют квартиру. I’ve just had my flat redecorated. Мне только что отремонтировали квартиру. 255 I’ll have my flat redecorated next month. Мне отремонтируют квартиру в будущем месяце. Независимый причастный оборот Как Participle I, так и Participle II могут быть вторым элементом особой конструкции – Nominative Absolute Participle Construction (незави-
симого причастного оборота). Первый элемент: существительное, личное местоимение, место-
имение it или this (редко). Второй элемент: причастие I (в любой из своих форм) одно или с зависимыми словами. Эта конструкция имеет самостоятельное подлежащее и чаще всего выражает время, причину или сопутствующие обстоятельства. На рус-
ский язык переводится придаточным обстоятельственным предложением. Подлежащим в таком предложении является существительное или место-
имение, к которому относится причастие. На письме независимый прича-
стный оборот выделяется запятой. Причастные обороты являются при-
надлежностью письменной речи. It being Sunday
, the shops
were closed. Так как было воскресенье, все магазины были закрыты. There being a lot of things to dis-
cuss, the conference lasted long. Поскольку нужно было обсудить много вопросов, конференция длилась долго. Если независимый причастный оборот стоит в начале предложе-
ния, его перевод начинается со слов: так как, поскольку, когда; если же независимый причастный оборот стоит в конце предложения, его перевод начинается со слов: причем, а, но. The situation being favourable, they bought the shares. Так как
ситуация была благо-
приятной, они купили эти акции. Members of Parliament vote automatically with their parties, the limit for the division being six minutes. Члены (английского) Парламента голосуют автоматически со сво-
ей партией, причем
голосование не должно занимать более шес-
ти минут. 256
Свойства причастия 1. Причастие имеет ряд глагольных свойств: а) залог; b) относительное время; c) имеет прямое дополнение; d) определяется наречием. Залог What is the name of the police inspector questioning
this woman? Как фамилия полицейского ин-
спектора, допрашивающего эту женщину? What’s the name of the woman being questioned? Как зовут женщину, которую доп-
рашивают? Having questioned the woman, the inspector no longer doubted that she was the murder. Допросив женщину, инспектор больше не сомневался, что убий-
цей является она. Having been questioned a second time, the woman realized, that she was suspected of the murder. После того, как женщину допро-
сили еще раз, она поняла, что ее подозревают в совершении этого убийства. 2. Причастие имеет формы относительного времени, то есть вы-
ражает одновременность или предшествование по отношению к другому действию, выраженному глаголом-сказуемым. Неперфектная форма при-
частия I обозначает действие, одновременное с действием глагола-
сказуемого, независимо от времени последнего. She is looking at the boys playing in the yard. Она смотрит на мальчиков, иг-
рающих во дворе. She looked at the boys playing in the yard. Она посмотрела на мальчиков, игравших во дворе. Перфектная форма причастия I обозначает действие, предшест-
вующее действию глагола-сказуемого. Причастия от глаголов hear, see, notice, learn, understand, realise, come, arrive и некоторых других имеют неперфектную форму, если вы-
ражаемое ими действие непосредственно предшествует действию глаго-
ла-сказуемого. Hearing the news (when I heard the news), I called him at once. Услышав эти новости (когда я услышал эти новости), я сразу же позвонил ему. 257 Arriving at the station (when she arrived at the station), she called me up at once. Приехав на вокзал (когда она приехала на вокзал), она сразу же мне позвонила. Значение причастия II определяется контекстом. If treated by a good specialist the thick man will recover Если больного будет лечить хороший врач, он выздоровеет When treated by a good specialist, the sick man began to feel better. Когда больного начал лечить хороший врач, он почувствовал себя лучше. 3. Причастие переходного глагола имеет дополнение He sat at his desk writing something. Он сидел за столом и что-то писал. 4. Причастие может определяться наречием Supported unanimously, the project was approved. Получив единогласную под-
держку, проект был одобрен. 5. Причастию свойственны также некоторые черты прилагательно-
го и наречия. Оно может выступать в роли тех же членов предложения, что и прилагательное и наречие: является определением, именной частью сказуемого и обстоятельством. Функции Participle II 1. Определение В
функции определения Participle II может стоять до и после опре-
деляемого слова и переводится на другой язык страдательным причасти-
ем или придаточным определительным предложением. We entered the deserted house. Мы вошли в дом, который был покинут жильцами. The machine constructed by him is very effective. Машина, сконструированная им, очень эффективна. The engineers invited to our Laboratory work very well. Инженеры, приглашенные в нашу лабораторию, работают хорошо (или: Инженеры, которых при-
гласили в нашу лабораторию …) 258
2. Обстоятельство Обстоятельство (времени, причины, условия, образа действия и др.), часто в сочетании с союзом (when, while, if, with). When asked, he couldn’t answer any-
thing. Когда его спросили, он не мог ничего ответить. If asked, answer that you are busy. Если тебя спросят, ответь, что ты занят. When addressed, you have to stand up. Когда к тебе обращаются, ты должен встать. When changed, the article will be pub-
lished. При внесении изменений ста-
тья будет напечатана. В функции обстоятельства Participle II переводится придаточным обстоятельственным предложением либо “при” + существительное. 3. Часть сказуемого Во временах группы Perfect и Passive Voice. He has done it. The article was published. Функции причастия I (Present Participle) 1. Определение (все формы, кроме перфектных форм причастия I). Причастие отвечает в этом случае на вопрос: какой? какая? какое? какие? На русский язык Participle I переводится: а) причастием действительного залога на
-щий, -щийся, -щая, -щее, -щие, иногда -вший, -вшие, независимо от времени действия, выраженно-
го сказуемым. We often speak about our friends living
in the south. Мы часто говорим о наших друзь-
ях, живущих на юге. b) определительным придаточным предложением. The President said that one of the main tasks facing humanity was to create a nuclear-free world. Президент сказал, одной из глав-
ных задач, которые стоят перед человечеством – создать мир без ядерного оружия. 2. Часть сказуемого The boys are running now. Мальчики сейчас бегут. 259 3. Обстоятельство (времени, причины, образа действия и др.). When (while) arriving at the station he consulted he time-table again. Приехав на вокзал, он снова све-
рился с расписанием поездов. Being asked H
aving been asked When asked he couldn’t answer anything Когда его спросили, он не мог ниче-
го ответить. Being in London (as I was in Lon-
don), I could not help them. Будучи в Лондоне (поскольку я был в Лондоне), я не мог им помочь. He asked questions looking at me suspiciously. Он задавал вопросы, глядя на нас с подозрением. На русский язык Participle I в функции обстоятельства переводится деепричастием несовершенного вида, оканчивающимся на -а, -я (напри-
: лежа, сидя) или деепричастием совершенного вида с суфиксами -ав, -ив (например: сказав, решив). Reading English books you enlarge your vocabulary Читая английские книги, вы уве-
личиваете свой словарный запас Studying a foreign language students should learn the words Изучая иностранный язык, сту-
денты должны учить слова Перед Participle I в функции обстоятельства часто стоят союзы when или while. Такие причастные обороты соответствуют придаточным предложениям времени
. While studying a foreign language students should learn new words Когда студенты изучают ино-
странный язык, они должны учить новые слова Допустим такой перевод: При изучении иностранного языка … (т.е. при + существительное). Функции причастия II (Past Participle) Participle II имеет только одну форму. Образуется добавлением суффикса -ed к основе правильных глаголов, а причастие II неправильных глаголов см. в третьей колонке неправильных глаголов. Participle II
на русский язык переводится страдательным причасти-
ем совершенного и несовершенного вида с суффиксами-окончаниями (-анный, -енный, -имый, -тый), а также причастиями, образованными от переходных глаголов (invented – изобретенный, изобретаемый, изобре-
тавшийся). 260
The house built in our street is very beautiful. Дом, построенный на нашей ули-
це, очень красив. Houses built in Moscow every year make our capital more and more beautiful. Дома, строящиеся в Москве каж-
дый год, делают нашу столицу все более красивой. Причастие II переходных глаголов выражает состояние или качест-
во предмета, явившееся результатом воздействия на предмет извне (a locked door – закрытая дверь, a stolen book – украденная книга). Причастие II непереходных глаголов самостоятельно не употреб
ляется, а служит для образования глагольных форм группы Perfect. She has smiled. He has been living here for 20 years. Причастие II переходных глаголов всегда пассивно по назначению (given – заданный, told – рассказанный). Глаголы, в которых заложена необходимость сочетаться с допол-
нением, без которых значение самого глагола остается незавершенным, называются переходными (to tell a story, the truth, to give a book, to buy food). Глаголы, которым не требуется дополнения, называются непере-
ходными (to walk, to live, to smile). Инфинитив (Infinitive) Инфинитив – это неличная форма глагола, т.е. он не изменяется по лицам и числам (не спрягается). Формы инфинитива Active Passive Indefinite (Non-Perfect) to try tо be tried Perfect to have tried to have been tried Неперфектные формы to try и to be tried обозначают действия, од-
новременные с действием, выраженным глаголом-сказуемым, или буду-
щие по отношению к нему. Перфектные формы to have tried и to have been tried обозначают действия, совершенные ранее действия, выраженного глаголом-сказуе- мым. Формы действительного залога to try и to have tried обозначают действия, совершаемые лицом (предметом). Формы страдательного зало-
261 га to be tried, to have been tried обозначают действия, совершаемые над лицом (предметом). Для перевода необходимо также устанавливать функцию инфи-
нитива, т. е. каким членом предложения является та или иная форма ин-
финитива (по месту в предложении и вопросу). Инфинитив может быть любым членом предложения. 1. Подлежащее. Стоит в начале предложения с последующим ска-
зуемым. То consider cases honestly is the duty of every judge. Рассматривать дела честно – долг каждого судьи. 2. Сказуемое. Сказуемое может быть частью сказуемого: а) состав-
ного глагольного и б) составного именного. а) Как часть составного глагольного сказуемого инфинитив упот-
ребляется: – после модальных глаголов: You must read a lot. Вы должны много читать. – после глаголов, которые без инфинитива не имеют законченного значения (to begin, to continue, to finish, to end и некоторых других): He began to read. Он начал читать. б) Как часть составного именного сказуемого инфинитив обычно употребляется после глагола-связки to be. Глагол-связка to be переводится словами быть (есть); значить, состоять в том, чтобы. То live is to learn. Жить – значит учиться. 3. Дополнение (стоит после сказуемого). I like to walk. Я люблю ходить пешком. При переводе инфинитива Passive в функции дополнения необходимо брать союзы что, чтобы, когда и др. (по смыслу). Не wanted to be invited there. Он хотел, чтобы его пригласили туда. 4. Обстоятельство цели. Инфинитив в функции обстоятельства цели может стоять как в на-
чале предложения (перед подлежащим), так и в конце предложения. Пе-
ред инфинитивом в этой функции часто стоит подчинительный союз in order. При переводе такого инфинитива употребляется союз чтобы. I have come here to study. Я пришел сюда, чтобы заниматься. То eradicate crime it is necessary to study all causes of crimes. Чтобы искоренить преступность, необходимо изучать все причины преступлений. 262
5. Определение. Инфинитив в функции определения стоит после определяемого существительного и отвечает на вопрос какой? а) Не had a great desire to interro-
gate the offender immediately. У него было огромное желание допросить правонарушителя не-
медленно. Many measures to eliminate juve-
nile delinquency are taken in this country. Много мер для ликвидации (по ли-
квидации) преступности несо-
вершеннолетних принимается в
этой стране. Инфинитив в Active Voice в функции определения переводится су-
ществительным в косвенном падеже с предлогом или неопределенной формой глагола. б) The problem to be solved is impor-
tant. Проблема, которую надо решить, важна. Инфинитив в Passive Voice в функции определения переводится придаточным определительным предложением с союзом который и од-
ним из слов: нужно, можно, должно, следует, будет. Сложное подлежащее (Complex Subject) Сложное подлежащее представляет собой сочетание существи-
тельного (в общем падеже) или местоимения (в именительном падеже) с инфинитивом. Глаголами-сказуемыми в таких предложениях бывают следующие группы глаголов. I. В страдательном залоге. 1. Глаголы, выражающие умственную деятельность: to know – знать; to believe – считать, полагать; to consider – считать; to expect – ожидать; to suppose – предполагать; to understand – понимать и др. 2. Глаголы, выражающие чувственное восприятие: to see – ви-
деть; to hear – слышать и др. 3. Глаголы, выражающие сообщение: to announce – объявлять; to report – сообщать; to say – сказать; to tell – говорить, сказать; to state – сообщать и др. Примеры (выделено сложное подлежащее): The delegation is known to arrive soon. Известно, что делегация скоро прибудет. The delegation was announced to have arrived. Объявили, что делегация прибыла. 263 The delegation was expected to be met at the station. Ожидали, что делегацию встре-
тят на вокзале. The delegation was reported to have been met. Сообщили, что делегацию уже встретили. II. В действительном залоге. to seem – казаться, to happen – случаться; to prove – оказываться, доказывать; to appear – оказываться. Примеры: She seems to work much. Кажется, (что) она много рабо-
тает. She appears to study at the Law Institute. Она, оказывается, учится в юри-
дическом институте. III. Фразы, состоящие из глагола to be и прилагательных likely – вероятно, unlikely – маловероятно, sure – определенно, certain – несо-
мненно. Примеры: The lecture is likely to be in Hall 7. Вероятно, лекция будет в седьмой аудитории. The delegation is unlikely to arrive soon. Маловероятно, что делегация скоро прибудет. He is sure to come. Он обязательно придет. Перевод таких предложений следует начинать со сказуемого; гла-
гол этот берется в русском языке в неопределенно-личной форме (гово-
рят, сообщают, видели); затем берутся союзы что, чтобы, как; затем пе-
реводится первый элемент сложного подлежащего, т.е. существительное или местоимение, стоящие перед сказуемым; затем переводится инфини-
тив глаголом в форме времени, при этом необходимо учитывать смысл формы инфинитива. сложное подлежащее Сообщили, что подросток совершил незначительное правонарушение.
The boy to have committed was reported сказуемое (Perfect Infinitive указывает, что действие to commit совершилось раньше действия to report) 264
Сложное дополнение (Complex Object) Сложное дополнение представляет собой сочетание существитель-
ного (в общем падеже) или местоимения (в объектном падеже) с инфини-
тивом. Стоит на обычном (третьем) месте дополнения в предложении, после сказуемого. Употребляется со следующими группами глаголов. Глаголы-сказуемые, после которых упот
ебляется сложное пополнение Примеры Перевод I группа Глаголы, выражающие жела-
ние (нежелание) to want, to wish, to like, should (would) like, to dislike, to hate II группа Глаголы, выражающие умст-
венную деятельность To expect, to think, to believe, to suppose, to consider, to find, to know, to suspect, to under-
stand III группа Глаголы, выражающие по-
буждение, допущение To make (заставлять) to get, to order, to ask, to allow, to let I want you to come tomorrow. I like people to tell the truth. They expect us to come. He made me do it again. They ordered us to come. Я хочу, чтобы вы пришли завтра. Мне нравится, когда люди говорят правду. Они ожидают, что мы приедем Он заставил меня сделать это еще раз. Они приказали нам прийти Предложения со сложным дополнением переводятся на русский язык сложноподчиненными предложениями с придаточными, вводимыми союзами что, чтобы, когда, как, в которых существительное в общем па-
деже или местоимение в объектном падеже (первая часть) является подле-
жащим, а инфинитив (вторая часть) – сказуемым в личной форме глагола. 265 Герундий (Gerund) Герундий – это неличная форма глагола, которая имеет признаки глагола и существительного. Герундий образуется: Inf. (без to) + ing. Функции Функция Пример Примечание 1 2 3 1. Подлежащее Reading English books helps to master English. Чтение английских книг помогает овладевать английским языком За герундием с относящими-
ся к нему словами идет ска-
зуемое (глагол в Present Indefinite) 2. Часть сказуе-
мого а) составного глагольного б) составного именного The student stopped talking at last. Студент, наконец, перестал разговари-
вать. Our task is studying well. Наша задача состоит в том, чтобы хорошо учиться. Герундий идет за глаголами to begin, to go on, to finish, to stop, to continue. Герундий стоит за to be, который переводится быть (есть), значить, состоять в том, чтобы. 3. Дополнение а) прямое б) косвенное Не avoids meeting his friends, Он и избeгает встре-
чаться с друзьями. Не is interested in read-
ing books. Он интересуется чте-
нием После глаголов to remember, to avoid, to mention, to suggest.
В функции косвенного дополнения герундий употребляется после: to be disappointed at – быть разочарованным в to be surprised at – удивлять-
ся ч.-л. to prevent from – препятство-
вать to consist in – заключаться to persist in – настаивать на ч.-л. 266
1 2 3 to result in – приводить к ч.-л. tо spend in – тратить (время) на ч.-л. to succeed in – удаваться to be engaged in –заниматься ч.-л. to be interested in – интересо-
ваться to ассuse of – обвинять в ч.-л. to approve of – одобрять ч.-л, to hear of – слышать ч.-л. to inform of – сообщать о ч.-л. to suspect of – подозреватъ в ч.-л. to think of – думать о lo be afraid of – бояться ч.-л. to be (in) incapable of – быть (не)способным to be fond of – любить ч.-л. to be proud of – гордитъся ч.-л. to count on (upon) – рассчи-
тывать to depend on (upon) – зави-
сеть от ч.л. to insist on – настаивать to object to – возражать про-
тив ч.-л. 4. Обстоятельст-
во: а) времени б) образа дейст-
вия On coming home I had a rest. Придя домой, я отдохнул. You саn master English by reading English books. Вы можете Перед герундием употреб-
ляются предлоги on, in, after, defore. Герундий употребляется с предлогами by, without, be-
sides, instead of. 267 1 2 3 овладеть английским языкам читая англий-
ские книги.
5. Определение I like the idea of going there Мне нравится мысль пойти туда Герундий имеет предлоги of, for, in, at. В функции определения герундий употребляется после суше-
ствительных: astonishment (at) – удивление
disappointment (at) – разоча-
рование surprise (at) – удивление plan (for) – план preparation (for) – приготов-
ление reason (for) – причина, осно-
вание experiencе (in) – опыт interest (in) – интерес skill (In) –мастерство art (of) – искусство chance (of) – удобный случай opportunity [of) – возмож-
ность fear (of) – страх habit (of) – привычка hope (of) – надежда idea (of) –мысль, идеи importance (of) – важность intention (of) – намерение means (of) – средство method (of) – метод necessity (of) – необходи-
мость pleasure (of) – удовольствие possibility (of) – возможность
right (of) – право objection ((о) – возражение 268
Герундий с относящимися к нему словами является одним членом предложения. На русский язык герундий переводится существительным, неопре-
деленной формой глагола, деепричастием или придаточным предложени-
ем. Герундий имеет четыре формы, которые образуются от соответст-
вующих форм инфинитива: Indefinite (Non-Perfect) Perfect Active to abolish abolishing to have abolished having abolished Passive to be abolished being abolished to have been abolished having been abolished Таким образом, герундий имеет те же сложные формы, что и Parti-
ciple I. Эти формы сохраняют тот же смысл. Переводятся они в зависимо-
сти от функции в предложении. Иногда даже сложная форма герундия может переводиться одним словом. Пример: After having been discussed by the Parliament the law was adopted. После обсуждения парламентом закон был принят. Самостоятельный герундиальный оборот (СГО) Когда перед герундием стоит существительное или притяжатель-
ное местоимение, имеет место самостоятельный герундиальный оборот (СГО). Запятой СГО не отделяется. СГО переводится придаточным пред-
ложением (союзы берутся по смыслу, герундий переводится сказуемым в личной форме глагола). Пример: The teacher objects to the group tak-
ing the exam ahead of time. Преподаватель возражает против того, чтобы группа сда-
вала экзамен досрочно. Условные предложения (Conditional sentences) В английском языке придаточные предложения условия соеди-
няются с главным при помощи следующих союзов: 269 If – если: If you graduate from the faculty of Law you will become a lawyer. Unless – если ... не: We will fail the investigation unless we hurry with evidence. Supposing (that) – предположим (что), допустим (что): Supposing the case is initiated, shall we arrest the suspect? On condition (that), provided (that) – при условии если, при усло-
вии что: We were called to give testimony on condition that we were the only eye-witnesses of the crime. (Последние два союза в разговорной речи не употребляются) Придаточные условные предложения I типа. Реальные условия. (Probable Condition) Придаточные предложения условия I типа чаще всего выражают реальные условия выполнения действия в будущем времени. При этом глагол-сказуемое придаточного предложения употребляется в Present Indefinite, а главного – в Future Indefinite: Suppose the verdict is brought in, then we shall have to give up our business. Если действие относится к настоящему или прошедшему вре-
мени, то времена в английском языке совпадают с русскими: If I have time I collect evidence of each case. If I had time I collected evidence of each case. В придаточном предложении условия наряду со временем Pre-
sent Indefinite для выражения меньшей вероятности совершения дей-
ствия употребляется сочетание глагола should с инфинитивом без час-
тицы to: If he should testify we shall be prosecuted. Придаточные условные предложения II типа Нереальное условие в настоящем или будущем времени (Improbable Condition) Предложения этого типа выражают нереальное условие совершен-
ного действия в настоящем или будущем времени. 270
В придаточном предложении употребляется Past Indefinite, а в главном – сочетание глагола should (1-е лицо ед. и мн. числа) или would (для остальных лиц и чисел) или could и might с инфинитивом без части-
цы to. If we had time we would conclude the contract. Условные предложения II типа переводятся на русский язык со-
слагательным наклонением. Если сказуемое придаточного предложения выражено глаголом to be
, то наряду с его обычными формами прошедшего времени (was, were) может употребляться форма were для всех лиц и чисел. If I were you, I should (would) plead guilty. Придаточные условные предложения III типа Нереальное условие в прошедшем времени (Impossible Condition) Придаточные условные предложения III типа выражают нереаль-
ное условие совершенного действия в прошедшем времени. В придаточ-
ном предложении употребляется время Past Perfect, а в главном – сочета-
ние глаголов should и would или could и might с перфектным инфинити-
вом. If he had been here yesterday, he could have seen the robbery. Придаточные условные смешанного типа Придаточные условные смешанного типа бывают двух видов: 1) условие относится к прошедшему, а следствие – к настоящему или будущему времени: If you had not followed the instructions of the hijackers we were dead now. 2) условие относится к определенному времени, а следствие – к прошедшему: If I lived in the country such an accident would never have happened to me. Инверсия в придаточных условных предложениях Во всех трех типах условных предложений союзы if, provided мо
гут быть опущены; при этом в придаточном предложении условия вспо-
могательный или модальный глагол выносится на место перед подлежа-
щим. Предложения условия I типа: Should I know the truth, I will testify in court. Предложения условия II типа: Were Jack here now, the jury would not deliberate so long. 271 Предложения условия III типа: Had you read this article you could have told us about the serial murderer. Сослагательное наклонение (Subjunctive Mood) Указывает на то, что действие является предполагаемым или жела-
тельным, а также возможным при известных условиях. Формы Subjunctive переводятся на русский язык формами русского сослагательного наклонения – сочетание глагола в форме прошедшего времени с частицей бы (или без частицы бы, если она входит в состав союза чтобы, если бы). В современном английском языке употребляются две формы со-
слагательного наклонения: синтетическая (простая) и аналитическая (сложная). Синтаксические формы сослагательного наклонения dсех глаголов за исключением глагола to be, совпадают с формами изъявительного на-
клонения в настоящем времени (Present Indefinite) без окончания -s в третьем числе единственного числа (he ask). Глагол to be имеет две фор
мы: be (архаичная форма) и were для всех лиц единственного и множе-
ственного числа (хотя в современном английском языке есть тенденция употреблять обычные формы прошедшего времени – was для единствен-
ного числа, were для множественного числа). Аналитические формы сослагательного наклонения образуются при помощи глаголов should (для 1-го лица ед. и мн. числа) и
would (для 2-го и 3-го лица ед. и мн. числа) + инфинитив без частицы to или не изме-
няющихся по лицам глаголов should, may, might + инфинитив без части-
цы to. Употребление форм сослагательного наклонения Формы сослагательного наклонения употребляются: 1) в простых предложениях: I should like to investigate a crime. There would be no fingerprints on the gun. 2) в восклицательных предложениях: So that may be! (Да будет так!) 3) в придаточных предложениях после безличных предложений типа it is necessary: It is important that they should know their rights. It is necessary that he be present. 4) в дополнительных придаточных предложениях, зависящих от глаголов в главном предложении со значением: 272
a) приказания, предложения и т. д. или b) удивления, сожале-
ния и т. д.; b) They suggested that the article be printed in their magazine. 5) в придаточных предложениях цели после союзов so that (что-
бы), lest (чтобы не): You should revise the material lest you forget it. 6) в придаточных предложениях сравнения после союзов as if, as though (как будто, как если бы): I feel as if I were judged. 7) в уступительных придаточных предложениях. В
этих случаях глаголы may и might на русский язык не переводятся: Whenever they may write to me I will be glad. 8) в придаточных предложениях цели: They spoke as though they had seen it with their own eyes. После выражения It is (about, high) time обычно употребляется Past Indefinite в значении сослагательного наклонения. It is (about, high) time you caught the criminal. Сослагательное наклонение после глагола to wish В придаточном предложении после глагола to wish для выражения сожаления, неосуществленного желания употребляются следующие фор-
мы: 1) форма, совпадающая с
Past Indefinite, для выражения действия, относящегося к настоящему времени: I wish I were a lawyer. 2) форма, совпадающая с Past Perfect, для выражения действия, относящегося к прошлому: I wished he had not been sentenced to imprisonment. 3) для выражения сожаления, относящегося к будущему времени, после глагола to wish употребляются модальные глаголы would и could: They wish the criminal would stop committing crimes. Относительные местоимения (Relative Pronouns) Для связи придаточных предложений с главным употребляются союзные местоимения Who-Whom, Whose, Which, That, What, Where. Who относится к лицам (вместо he, she, they) A person who works at the Bar is a lawyer. 273 Whom употребляется вместо who в том случае, если это слово в предложении является дополнением. The person whom I wanted to talk to has already left. Слова which и that относятся к неодушевленным предметам и от-
влеченным понятиям. What is the profession that/which you study at the Law Faculty? Мeстоимение whose используется в сложных предложениях вместо притяжательных his, her, their, our. We saw the person whose car had been broken down. Where используется в придаточных предложениях, когда мы ука-
зываем на обстоятельство места. The hotel where we stayed wasn’t very comfortable. That
может использоваться для указания не только на неодушев-
ленные предметы, но и на лица. The man who/that is talking to you is my friend. Если местоимения who, which, that являются в предложении под-
лежащим, мы не можем их опустить. The woman who lives next door is a doctor. Who (the woman) является подлежащим. Where is the cake that was in the fridge? That (the cake) – тоже подлежащее. Если же эти слова являются в предложении дополнением, мы их можем опустить. Нave you found the keys (that) you lost? The woman (who(m)) I wanted to talk to was busy. Note: Если в предложении дается дополнительная информация, нельзя использовать that, вместо этого местоимения необходимо употребить либо who, либо which, в зависимости от ситуации. John, who (not “that”) speaks English and French, works as a tourist guide. Colin told me about the new job, which (not “that”) he’s enjoying. 274
Оглавление Предисловие ................................................................................................. 3 Part I The Article (Э.В. Акаева, Б.А. Мартынов)..........................................4 The Noun (Б.А. Мартынов)................................................................11 Adjectives and adverbs (С.Д. Оськина)...............................................24 The Verb The Active Present Simple (Ю.Б. Дроботенко).................35 Present Continuous (Ю.Б. Дроботенко).............................................40 Stative Verbs (Ю.Б. Дроботенко)......................................................45 Present Perfect (Ю.Б. Дроботенко)....................................................51 Past Simple (Ю.Б. Дроботенко).........................................................55 Used to (Ю.Б. Дроботенко)...............................................................61 Past Continuous (Ю.
Б. Дроботенко)..................................................66 Present Perfect Continuous (Ю.Б. Дроботенко).................................71 The Past Perfect Tense (С.Н. Голерова)..............................................77 The Past Perfect Continuous Tense (С.Н. Голерова)..........................82 The Future Tenses (Т.Н. Дорофеева)..................................................89 The Passive (С.Д. Оськина)...............................................................102 Modals (М.Х. Рахимбергенова)........................................................127 Reported speech 1 (Р.Р. Мавлиева)...................................................135 Reported speech 2 (Р.Р. Мавлиева)...................................................137 Part II The non-finite forms of the verb The Infinitive (О.Н. Глазер)..........149 The Gerund (О.Н. Глазер).................................................................160 The Participle (Э.К. Сопелева)
..........................................................169 Conditional Sentences (И.Г. Оконешникова)...................................184 Грамматический справочник Артикль (The article).........................................................................208 Имя существительное (The noun)....................................................211 Прилагательное (The Adjective).....................................................218 Наречие (The Adverb).......................................................................222 Настоящее неопределённое (Present Simple)................................224 Настоящее продолженное (Present Continuous).............................226 Настоящее совершенное (Present Perfect).....................................229 Настоящее перфектно-длительное (Present Perfect Continuous)..232 Прошедшее неопределённое (Past Simple).....................................234 Прошедшее продолженное (Past Continuous)...............................237 275 Прошедшее совершенное (The Past Perfect Tense).........................239 Прошедшее совершенное продолженное (The Past Perfect Continuous Tense)..........................................................................................240 Будущие времена (Future)................................................................241 Страдательный залог (The Passive Voice)......................................243 Модальные глаголы (The Modals)...................................................245 Косвенная речь (Reported Speech)..................................................249 Неличные формы глагола (Non-finite forms of verb)......................253 Инфинитив (Infinitive)......................................................................260 Герундий (Gerund)...........................................................................265 Условные предложения (Conditional sentences)............................268 Относительные местоимения (Relative Pronouns)..........................272 Cоставители: Элеонора Вячеславовна Акаева, Ольга Николаевна Глазер, Светлана Николаевна Голерова, Татьяна Николаевна Дорофеева, Юлия Борисовна Дроботенко, Рушана Руслановна Мавлиева, Борис Александрович Мартынов, Ирина Геннадьевна Оконешникова, Светлана Дмитриевна Оськина, Майра Хаджимуратовна Рахимбергенова, Элеонора Кузьминична Сопелева СБОРНИК ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИХ УПРАЖНЕНИЙ ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ для студентов I и II курсов дневного и заочного отделений юридического факультета Технический редактор Е.В. Лозовая Редактор Л.М. Кицина Дизайн обложки З.Н. Образова Подписано в печать 25.10.05. Формат 60х84 1/16. Печ. л. 17,25. Уч.-изд. 21,8. Тираж 200 экз. Заказ 477. Издательство ОмГУ 644077, Омск, пр. Мира, 55а, госуниверситет 
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