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Forming of ecological culture of pupils

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Ecological education
Forming of ecological culture of pupils in process
of excursions (trips) and studies
-
investigations works
Astakhova O. A. (student investigation) 2003.
Introduction
In
connection
with
exist
of
ecological
problems
(antropogenious
crisis)
as
a
result
of
violation
(infringement,
breach)
of
balance
between
Nature
and
Human,
the
ecological
upbringing
(raising)
and
ecological
education
had
been
acquired
the
more
significant
.
The
purpose
of
ecological
pedagogic
and
psychology
has
been
become
a
forming
of
new
mentality
(way
of
thinking),
ecological
consciousness
and
ecological
personality
at
whole
.
Such
ecological
personality
must
include
in
itself
not
only
ecological
knowledge's,
skills
(abilities),
humane
senses,
but
also
ecological
responsibility,
ecological
views,
aspirations
(tendency)
to
be
in
harmony
with
Nature
,
that
are
characteristic
for
higher
ecological
culture
.
Especially
big
deposit
(contribution)
in
development
of
theory
of
ecological
education
and
upbringing
(raising)
have
carried
in
(brought
in)
are
Zveryev
I
.
D
.
,
Zakhlebniy
A
.
N
.
,
Suravyegina
I
.
T
.
,
Mamyedov
N
.
M
.
,
Glazachyev
S
.
N
.
,
Bobilyeva
L
.
D
.
Practical
side
(part)
of
ecological
upbringing
(raising)
and
ecological
education
are
noticed
by
Streltsova
V
.
B
.
,
Bukin
A
.
P
.
,
Bogolyubov
A
.
S
.
,
Ridiger
O
.
N
.
in
their
works
.
Series
of
excursions
(trips)
have
been
composed
by
Teplov
D
.
A
.
and
Titov
E
.
V
.
Methods
of
realization
(conducting)
of
studies
-
investigations
works
of
pupils
(students)
are
presented
(opened,
revealed)
in
works
of
Lunyak
N
.
N
.
,
Denisova
S
.
I
.
,
Kulyeva
A
.
V
.
The
unity
(complex)
of
moral,
patriotically
and
ecological
upbringing
(raising)
and
education,
forming
of
psychical
culture
are
contained
in
the
greatest
degree
on
works
of
Suhomlinskiy
V
.
A
.
The
purpose
of
our
researches
are
represented
by
organization
of
a
work
about
forming
of
ecological
culture
of
pupils
(students)
in
process
of
excursions
(trips)
and
studies
-
investigations
works
(activity)
.
At
achievement
of
the
purpose
had
been
decided
the
follow
tasks
(problems
)
:
1
.
To
reveal
(learn)
theoretical
material
about
forming
of
ecological
culture
of
pupils
(students),
to
notice
psychology
-
pedagogical
aspect
(side,
part)
of
problem
.
2
.
To
reveal
(learn)
methods
and
forms
of
organization
of
excursions
(trips)
and
studies
-
investigations
works
.
3
.
To
carry
out
(spent)
diagnosis
about
the
level
of
ecological
culture
of
pupils
(students)
.
4
.
To
create
(work
out)
organization
of
excursions
(trips)
and
studies
-
investigations
works
.
At
studying
of
the
level
of
ecological
culture
of
pupils
(students)
had
been
used
the
method
of
questionnaire
(answer
to
questions)
.
At
creation
(work
out)
of
organization
of
excursions
(trips)
and
studies
-
investigations
works
had
been
used
wordy,
graphically
(visual),
practical
methods
of
teaching
and
such
form
of
teaching,
as
lessons
“Young
ecologist”,
subject
-
role
and
didactical
(teaching)
plays,
discussion
and
debates,
contests
(competitions),
conferences
.
Chapter I. Theoretical bases of form
ing of
ecological culture of pupils (students) 1.1. Form
ing
of ecological culture a
s a psychology
-
pedagogical problem
In
Middle
Ages
,
teachers
-
humanists
already
understood
positive
influence
of
the
nature
on
development
and
formation
of
the
person
of
the
pupil
.
As
opposed
to
scholastic
schools,
which
were
characterized
by
severe
discipline,
authoritarianness,
an
orientation
on
mechanical
learning
(remember)
of
a
teaching
material,
humanists
had
faithful
respect
relation
to
the
person
of
the
child,
aspired
to
develop
inquisitiveness
and
interest
to
knowledge
,
noticed
the
great
importance
of
development
of
physical
and
spiritual
forces
of
the
person
(human)
.
Italian
teacher
-
humanist
Vittorino
de
-
Feltre
(
1378
-
1446
)
has
organized
school
inside
of
the
nature
and
has
named
her(it)
"The
House
of
joy"
.
As
against
medieval
schools
in
it(her)
was
many
light
and
air
,
excursions
in
the
nature
was
being
made
.
French
humanist
Fransua
Rable
(
1494
-
1553
)
considered
pernicious
to
jag
(learn
by
rote)
all
by
heart
.
Training
(teaching,
studies)
should
be
connected
to
surrounding
reality
-
walks
(trips)
on
fields
and
woods
(forests)
were
being
made,
plants
gathered
and
herbariums
were
being
made,
supervision
in
the
nature
were
being
carried
out
(spent)
.
Mastering
(learn
ing
,
remember)
of
knowledge
had
conscious
character
.
Such
education
had
been
g
i
ve
n
development
of
multilateral
and
independent
thinking
at
pupil,
his(its)
creativity
and
activity
(Konstantinov,
1982
)
.
Known
French
thinker
Jean
-
Jacque
Russo
(
1712
-
1778
)
was
the
sensationalist
-
considered,
that
there
is
nothing
in
our
consciousness
,
that
would
not
be
received
at
means
of
sensations
,
through
sense
organs
.
He
has
brightly
shown
great
value
(significant)
of
education
(forming)
of
ability
to
observation,
keenness
and
activity
of
the
child,
importance
for
training
(learning)
his
direct
dialogue
(communication,
contact)
with
the
nature
and
a
life
.
All
should
be
submitted
to
perception
(recognition)
of
the
child
with
the
maximal
presentation
.
In
opinion
of
Russo,
presentation
(visual
)
-
the
nature,
a
life
.
To
develop
physical,
moral,
intellectual
spheres
of
the
child,
it
is
necessary
to
generate
(forming)
feeling
(sence)
of
the
nature
in
his
person
.
The
child,
colliding
(facing)
with
the
nature,
undoubtedly
will
understand
,
that
is
necessary
to
submit
to
its(her)
laws
(Konstantinov,
1982
)
.
Really,
without
humanity
and
respect
it
is
impossible
to
upbring
(to
educate)
the
humane
and
respecting
person
(human
),
so
it
is
impossible
to
generate
(forming)
and
its(her)
psychological
culture
,
which
is
a
bas
e
of
all
culture
of
the
person
(human)
(and
of
ecological
culture
,
including)
.
Especially
big
attention
to
forming
of
psychological
culture
was
noticed
by
talented
teacher
V
.
A
.
Suhomlinskiy
.
The
psychological
culture
consist
of
constant
and
intensive
development
of
all
spheres
of
the
spiritual
part
(side)
of
the
person
(human)
:
emotional,
aesthetic,
willpower,
creative
.
Suhomlinskiy
V
.
A
.
noticed
importance,
that
knowledge
of
elements
(basis)
of
psychological
(mental)
culture
spiritualized
teenagers,
which
asserted
(approved)
in
them
optimism,
belief
in
their
forces
.
Work
to
begin
with
elementary
feelings
(senses
)
.
Pupils
of
fifth
class
(studies
stage)
have
learned
(revealed)
concept
about
kinds
of
feelings
(senses),
and
with
the
big
interest
they
began
to
observe
f
or
own
feelings
(senses)
.
Carried
out
(spent)
special
exercises
on
increase
of
sensitivity
of
sight
and
hearing
,
which
have
played
(gave)
the
big
role
in
form
ing
of
culture
of
feelings
(senses
)
.
During
excursions
(trips)
and
campaigns
,
teenagers
distinguished
shades
of
color
of
leaves
of
trees
,
grasses,
the
sky
.
They
could
see
over
ten
shades
of
a
blue
sky
-
in
different
seasons,
illumination
by
the
sun
and
other
factors
.
In
a
wood
(forest),
on
coast
of
the
river,
at
the
sea,
teenagers
studied
to
distinguish
shades
of
sounds
.
These
exercises
have
played
(gave)
a
huge
role
in
development
of
feelness
to
subtleties
of
coloring
(painting),
sounds
.
Not
finding
in
speech
of
words
to
name
all
shades,
teenagers
created
the
poetic
names,
that
developed
their
creative
activity
.
Teenagers
experienced
feeling
of
pleasure
(joy),
delight,
admiration,
surprise
.
The
subtlety
of
perception
(recognition
)
gave
forming
of
a
subtlety
of
feelings
(senses),
developed
noble
human
need
(requirement)
again
and
again
to
experience
these
feelings
(senses
)
(
Suhomlinskiy
,
1979
)
.
So
from
culture
of
visual
and
color
sensations
was
formed
the
general
(common)
culture
of
perception
(recognition
)
,
without
which
high
-
grade
ecological
culture
to
be
generated
(formed)
cannot
in
any
way
.
So,
in
order
to
have
love
(like)
to
the
nature
,
to
have
to
it(her)
humanity,
the
respect
and
the
responsibility
,
it
is
necessary
first
of
all
to
see
and
feel
her(it
)
,
for
t
hat
the
culture
of
perception
(recognition
)
is
necessary
.
The
culture
of
perception
(recognition)
give
(forming)
skill
to
perceive
harmonious
unity
of
all
subjects
of
world
around
.
Than
is
more
delicate
sensation
and
perception
(recognition
),
tha
n
the
person
(human)
more
sees
and
hears
shades
,
tones
and
semitones
in
sur
round
ing
world
-
then
is
more
deeply
expressed
the
personal
emotional
and
aesthetic
estimation
of
the
facts,
subjects,
the
phenomena
(appearances)
,
event
s
,
and
then
an
emotional
range
is
more
widely
,
which
characterizes
higher
spiritual
culture
of
the
person
(human
)
(
Suhomlinskiy
,
1979
)
.
Already
in
the
childhood
it
is
necessary
to
try
(tendency,
aspiration),
that
these
sensations
and
feelings
accompanied
with
process
of
knowledge
of
natural
phenomena
(appearances)
.
In
adolescence
it
even
more
to
amplifies
.
Each
teenager
should
pass
(go)
long
school
of
sensations
and
perception,
which
would
develop
at
everyone
a
wide
range
of
the
feelings
,
accompanying
process
of
knowledge,
arising
and
developing
during
knowledge
.
Travel
to
the
world
of
the
nature
open
all
riches
of
perception(recognition
)
.
It
is
difficult
to
find
words
,
to
express
a
boundless
saturation
of
foliage
in
silent
sunny
days,
especial
in
solar
mornings
after
a
rain
or
humid
nights
,
when
transparent
air
as
if
opens
(reveals)
new
shades
of
coloring
(
painting
)
of
a
wood
(forest)
,
garden,
a
meadow
.
Some
teenagers
found
over
seventy
shades
and
transitions
from
green
to
emerald,
light
yellow,
to
dark
blue,
other
children
-
above
eighty
.
In
sunny
days
after
lessons,
teenagers
would
like
to
go
in
a
field,
in
a
wood
(forest),
on
coast
of
a
pond
to
see
and
to
be
pleased
(be
glad)
.
During
excursions,
V
.
A
.
Suhomlinskiy
frequently
gave
the
task
to
children
:
draw
(picture,
image),
that
you
want,
that
consider
it
necessary,
that
see
around
of
itself
.
And
children
started
(began)
to
look
narrowly
with
the
big
attention
at
the
nature,
to
its(her)
shades,
trying
to
represent
surrounding
on
the
sheets
of
a
paper
.
V
.
A
.
Suhomlinskiy
by
such
method
developed
culture
of
perception
(recognition),
creative
activity,
emotional
self
-
expression
of
children
.
Before
us
opened
the
new
surprising
beauty
of
world
around
-
beauty
of
open
space
.
We
observed
a
steppe
area
(distance,
far)
.
Before
us
were
laid
the
fields
similar
to
the
seas,
hardly
disturbed
with
waves
.
There
were
woods
(forests),
a
s
if
green
islands
.
We
saw,
how
the
space
imposes
tens
of
shades
on
fields
and
meadows,
hills
and
coppices,
on
the
villages
stretched
in
valleys
.
We
admired
the
most
subtle
transitions
of
colors
-
from
light
green
up
to
dark
-
violet,
from
gentle
-
blue
up
to
dense
-
dark
blue
.
Dark
blue
-
violet
smoke
in
a
distance
(far)
attracted
us,
covering
edge
(territory)
of
a
wood
(forest)
on
horizon
.
A
valley
behind
a
valley,
a
height
behind
a
height,
a
wood
(forest)
behind
a
wood
(forest)
-
all
this
lasted
afar,
as
if
the
captivated
bottom
of
a
fairyland
.
Vision
and
experience
of
beauty
of
world
around
-
one
of
the
main
sources
of
understanding
of
uniqueness
and
originality
of
the
nature
,
its(her)
value
(significant)
in
creation
of
pleasure
(joy)
of
life,
beauty
and
eternity
of
a
life
(
Suhomlinskiy
,
1979
)
.
This
emotional
-
aesthetic
perception
(recognition)
of
the
nature
of
Paustovsk
i
y
K
.
G
.
has
named
the
sixth
feeling
(sense)
or
feeling
(sense)
of
the
nature
.
Such
"
the
feeling
(sense)
of
the
nature
"
or
culture
of
perception
(recognition
)
also
is
a
basis
of
forming
of
ecological
culture
of
the
person
(human)
.
Thus,
forming
of
psychologica
l,
and
together
with
it(her)
and
ecological
cultures
should
pass
(go)
is
realized
(conscious
)
.
Children
need
to
know
about
the
person
(human
)
-
about
his(its)
mentality
(psychica),
way
of
thinking
and
consciousness,
about
emotional,
aesthetic,
willpower
and
creative
spheres
(parts,
sides)
of
a
spiritual
life
.
It
is
necessary
to
generate
(to
form)
scientific
views
about
physical
and
spiritual
unity
,
about
a
material
basis
of
mentality
(psychical
essence)
.
It
is
important
to
open
(reveal)
before
young
reason
of
person
-
that
uplifts
the
human
as
the
creator,
spiritualized
by
high
ideals,
in
comparison
with
all
alive
on
a
planet
.
There
should
be
a
understanding
of
the
nature
as
source
of
positive
feelings
(sense
)
and
emotions,
positive
conditions
in
an
organism
of
the
person
(human),
that
gives
psychological
culture
and,
first
of
all,
psychological
health,
which
is
uniform
(united,
connected)
with
physical
health
(
Tischenko
,
1997
;
Suhomlinskiy
,
1979
)
.
One
of
criteria
of
ecological
culture
is
the
motive
to
be
in
harmony
with
the
Nature
.
How
to
generate
(to
form)
this
motive
in
the
person
of
human
?
To
have
such
aspiration
(tendency)
,
the
person
(human)
should
grow
fond
strong
of
the
nature,
to
feel
relationship,
need
(requirement)
for
dialogue
(contact)
with
it(her)
.
A
first
step
on
a
way
to
this
-
skill
to
see
the
nature
(forming
of
culture
of
perception
(recognition)
about
which
it
was
already
spoken)
.
The
second
step
-
comprehension
of
positive
influence
of
the
nature
on
a
psychological
condition
of
the
person
(human),
that
forms
psychological
culture
.
The
person
(human)
always
tries
to
act
so,
that
to
strengthen
the
positive
feelings
(senses
)
.
Therefore
once
having
tested
positive
emotional
experiences
at
dialogue
with
the
nature,
the
person
(human)
again
also
will
aspire
again
to
this
psychological
condition,
to
interaction
with
the
nature
.
At
repeated
experience
of
the
positive
feelings
(senses),
connected
to
the
Nature,
the
person
(human)
gets
love
to
it(her)
-
feeling
(sense)
of
the
self
-
expressed
and
deep
attachment,
an
intimate
inclination
(Rostopshin,
2001
)
.
It
is
important
to
start
to
form
these
two
first
and
the
most
significant
a
step
on
a
way
to
ecological
culture
(culture
of
perception
(recognition)
and
psychological
culture)
since
the
early
childhood
.
Psychologists
explain
influence
of
color
on
physical
and
psychological
health
of
the
person
(human)
.
Each
color
can
carry
certain
influence
on
an
emotional
and
physiological
condition
of
the
person
(human)
.
The
combination
of
different
forms,
contrast
of
color
increases
serviceability
(capacity
for
work)
,
it
raises
stability
to
stressful
situations
.
Now
it
is
possible
to
understand,
why
the
person
(human),
l
i
ving
on
the
nature
,
he
senses
vivacity,
activity
and
many
other
positive
emotions
-
he
collides
(faces)
with
the
huge
color
scale
(spectrum),
which
causes
positive
perception
(recognition)
by
the
central
nervous
system
(Shergina,
1997
)
.
Besides
,
reduced
noise
background,
purer
(cleaner)
air
,
sated
by
phytoncides
(particles
of
plants),
and
the
general
(common)
microclimate
of
the
nature
also
favorably
influences
a
condition
of
nervous
system
of
the
person
(human
)
.
Thus
the
person
(human)
gets
spiritual
or
psychological
health
,
which
is
characterized
also
by
healthy
way
of
thinking
(wide,
deep,
positively
directed)
.
Wisdom,
force
of
Reason
(thoughts)
are
necessary
in
mutual
relations
with
the
Nature
,
therefore
psychological
health
and
as
following,
healthy
way
of
thinking
are
one
of
bases
of
ecological
culture
(
Kogay
,
1999
;
Tischenko
,
1997
;
Streltsova
,
1985
;
Astaphyeva
,
1998
)
.
It
is
necessary
to
note,
that
criterion
of
psychological
health
is
positive
emotions,
feelings
(senses)
of
the
person
(human)
,
his
positive
psychological
conditions
and
a
positive
orientation
of
the
person
(human)
as
a
whole
.
Psychological
health
is
necessary
to
keep
and
develop
since
the
childhood
-
and,
thus,
to
form
at
the
child
the
positive
attitude
(relation)
to
surrounding
(to
people,
to
the
person
or
human,
in
particular),
to
activity,
to
itself
.
Having
a
positive
orientation
,
to
the
child
will
be
simply
to
have
positive
relations
and
with
the
nature
(Matrusov,
1984
;
Streltsova
,
1985
;
Schurkova
,
1998
;
Zveryev
,
1984
)
.
Especially
significant
has
become
communication
with
nature
for
development
of
childe
personality,
living
in
big
town
(city)
.
Rare
appeared
at
closely
contact
with
world
of
alive
nature,
townsman
already
in
childhood
lose
that
not
recover
(restoration)
during
follow
years
of
further
life
:
he
hot
knows
the
enjoy
at
observation
of
sunrise
and
sunset
–
and
during
all
his
life
stays
(remains)
indifferent
to
beautiful
of
natural
phenomena
(appearances)
.
Appeared
in
the
forest
(wood),
he
(human)
behaves
sometimes
very
bad
(coarsely,
roughly,
ruddy),
he
breaks,
spoils
all
on
his
way
(he
is
stronger,
clever,
“king
of
nature
”)
–
he
(human)
not
has
skills
(abilities)
to
be
kind
(good),
accurate,
cautious
(careful)
in
relation
to
nature,
to
become
as
“friend
of
nature”
for
human
(person)
is
very
difficult
(Streltsova,
1985
)
.
Scientists
and
pedagogies
was
convinced
(affirmed),
that
only
at
direct
closely
contact
(communication
)
with
nature
,
the
person
(human)
began
to
relates
to
it
(her)
as
to
subject
,
but
not
relates
as
to
object
,
on
which
can
only
to
influence
.
Long
time
the
human
was
in
Nature
by
only
one
part
(side)
–
biological
(that
is
in
results
of
evolution
the
human
had
been
created
(formed)
by
Nature)
.
And
as
biological
creatures
(essences),
people
influenced
on
Nature,
but
they
not
thought
(conscious)
about
that
.
And
now
the
human
(person)
has
become
new
consciousness
(ecological
),
through
of
that
he
sees
itself
together
with
Nature
,
but
not
separate
with
it
(her)
.
Wakes
up
spiritual
(mental)
relation
to
Nature
–
as
to
subject
.
The
consciousness
(understanding)
is
being
formed,
that
Nature
is
source
(origin)
of
biological
(physical,
material)
essence
and
spiritual
(psychological)
essence
of
human
(person
)
(Kogay,
1999
;
Schurkova,
1998
;
Astaphyeva,
1998
)
.
So,
the
Nature
–
part
of
the
human
(person),
as
the
human
(person)
–
part
of
the
Nature
.
And
the
Nature
is
part
of
the
human
(person)
double
:
biological
component
and
spiritual
(mental)
component
.
For
understanding
(
conscious)
of
human
(person),
that
the
Nature
is
the
greatest
force
,
he
must
meets
frequently
and
communicates
with
Nature
.
The
human
(person)
must
understands
(conscious),
that
he
only
is
reflection
(repetition)
of
lows
of
this
force
–
NATURE
(Chernova,
2001
;
Voronkov,
1999
;
Suravyegina,
1994
)
.
Higher
ecological
culture
must
include
not
only
emotional
-
psychological
culture
,
but
also
scientific
knowledge's
,
ecological
skills
(abilities
)
and
ecological
experience
(Bobileva,
2001
)
.
Human
(person)
must
to
be
able
to
see
the
Nature
in
all
it
(her)
interconnections
(interrelations
)
and
interactions
,
he
must
to
understand
the
lows
of
Nature
,
connecting
all
levels
of
organization
of
alive
(biological)
matter
–
from
atomic,
molecularly
to
level
of
organism,
biosphere,
planet
and
Universe
.
So,
the
human
(person)
must
to
be
not
only
ecological
educated
,
but
also
to
be
able
globally
(wider)
to
think
(Suravyegina,
1994
;
Astaphyeva,
1998
)
.
Certainly,
not
all
give
such
scientific
outlook
(views)
and
ability
(skill)
of
globally
(wider)
to
think
.
And
in
this
problem
of
modern
natural
ecological
education,
which
strong
to
aspire
decide
leading
pedagogies
and
scientists
.
Exist
four
basic
aspects
(tasks)
of
ecological
education
(Zveryev,
1984
)
:
-
scientific
aspect
(gives
development
of
cognition
relation
to
environment)
;
-
valuable
aspect
(
moral
and
aesthetical
relations
to
environment)
;
-
normative
aspect
(the
row
or
number
of
rules,
norms,
prohibitions
of
ecological
character)
;
-
act
aspect
(kinds
and
ways
of
activity,
directing
to
forming
of
cognition,
practical
and
creation
skills
(abilities)
of
ecological
character)
.
But
in
order
to
date
aspects
carry
(give)
effect
in
ecological
bringing
up
(raising)
and
ecological
education,
it
is
necessary
ecological
personality
of
pedagogue
(teacher)
with
higher
ecological
culture
.
That
is
absented
in
the
personality
of
pedagogue
(teacher
),
that
is
not
being
also
in
personality
of
pupil
(student)
.
Pedagogue
(teacher)
can
gives
more
or
less
pedagogical
(educational)
influence
on
pupils
and
direct
gives
their
(influences),
as
far
as
itself
(teacher)
is
educated
,
as
far
as
pedagogue
(teacher)
made
education
his
property
(A
.
Disterveg)
.
Each
personality
is
expressed
(shown)
in
the
relations
to
surrounding
,
to
situations
of
life,
to
norms,
principles
.
Pupils
(students)
especially
feels
relation
of
teacher
to
that
or
other
subject
of
life
.
First
of
all,
teacher
is
expressed
(shown)
his
personality
in
relation
to
science,
nature,
his
activity,
methods
and
especially
to
pupils
(student)
.
Pedagogue
(teacher)
can
give
(pass,
transmit)
to
pupils
(student)
knowledge,
love
to
nature
,
aspiration
(tendency)
to
keep
(preserve)
and
to
multiply
it
(her)
only
if
itself
will
love
and
know
nature
.
And
from
that,
personal
properties
of
teacher
are
resulted
:
passion
of
science,
love
to
nature,
aspiration
to
be
closer
to
it
(her),
to
perfect
(improve)
itself
(Verzilin,
1983
)
.
In
many
literary
references
of
the
soviet
period
of
Russia
the
big
attention
is
given
to
normative
aspect
of
ecological
upbringing
(raising)
and
ecological
education
(interdictions
or
prohibitions,
rules
of
ecological
character)
.
But
the
modern
ecological
pedagogics
and
psychology
takes
into
account
other
social
system
of
our
society
,
rather
than
during
the
soviet
time,
carrying
democratic
character
.
Democracy
means
freedom
of
each
person
-
freedom
of
opinion,
a
word,
behaviour
.
Therefore
without
dependence
from
existence
of
the
general
(common)
norms
and
principles
in
a
society,
each
person
can
freely
show
the
attitude(relation
),
behaviour
,
which
in
the
most
part
will
depend
from
a
level
of
culture
of
the
personality,
its(her)
internal
morals
(morality)
.
This
implies,
that
the
normative
aspect
in
ecological
upbringing
and
education
is
not
the
biggest
significance
,
the
basic
-
in
culture
of
the
person
(personality
),
its(her)
internal
morals
(morality),
a
positive
orientation
(
Astaphyeva
,
1998
)
.
Thus,
the
purpose
of
modern
ecological
upbringing
and
education
is
not
the
establishment
as
much
as
possible
ecological
rules
and
interdictions
(prohibition),
not
the
control
of
the
ecological
attitude
(relation)
and
behaviour,
but
forming
of
the
ecological
(harmless)
person
(personality),
which
has
ecological
belief
(conviction
),
ecological
outlook
(views
),
ecological
consciousness
,
the
motive
to
be
in
harmony
with
the
Nature
,
the
responsibility
for
it(her
)
.
Thus
the
ecological
(harmless)
person
does
not
require
the
external
control
over
interdictions
(prohibition)
and
rules,
because
always
acts
according
to
the
high
ecological
culture
.
But,
unfortunately,
it
is
far
from
that
everyone
(
not
all
)
are
ecological
(harmless)
persons
with
high
ecological
culture
.
Many
factors
participate
in
education
of
such
person
.
Forming
of
the
ecological
(harmless)
person
-
is
complex
(difficult)
and
long
process
,
to
which
not
all
can
be
exposed
.
Therefore
the
normative
aspect
now
in
our
society
remains
actual
(modern)
.
Ecological
culture
at
each
person
is
on
the
certain
level
.
Everyone
has
the
certain
level
of
its(her)
development
according
to
development
of
the
person
,
its(her)
spheres,
its(her)
erudition
(education
),
its(her)
base
(common)
culture
.
To
develop
ecological
culture
of
the
person,
it
is
necessary
constantly
to
improve
all
spheres
of
the
person
:
sensual,
intellectual
,
willpowe
r
(activity
)
(Matrusov,
1984
;
Bobilyeva
,
2001
)
.
The ecological (harmless) person
is the person, possessing ecocentral type of consciousness
,
which is characterized by three main features
(
Rostopshin
, 2001
):
Psychological inclusion of
the
person
(human)
in the world of the nature:
Subjective character of perception (recognition) of natural objects
Aspiration (tendency) to not pragmatical to interaction with the world of the nature
-
f
or
ecological
(harmless)
person
it
is
peculiar
psychological
inclusion
in
the
world
of
the
nature,
basing
on
representation
about
coherence
of
the
world
of
people
and
the
world
of
the
nature
;
-
n
atural
objects
concern
(relate)
by
the
person
to
sphere
"human",
equal
to
it(her)
in
the
self
-
value,
and,
accordingly,
interaction
with
them
is
included
in
sphere
of
action
of
ethical
standards,
rules,
etc
.
-
a
esthetic
perception
of
natural
objects
and
their
complexes
;
-
t
he
person
(human)
does
not
cost
separately
above
the
nature,
and
is
included
as
one
of
elements
in
complex
(difficult)
system
of
interrelations
–
his
(its)
any
action
can
have
the
unpredictable
consequences,
breaking
balance
in
eco
system
.
Therefore
the
ecological
(
harmless
)
person
aspires
to
be
ecologically
cautious
;
-
c
ognitive
activity,
caused
by
interest
to
a
life
of
the
nature,
pleasure
(joy)
from
the
process
of
knowledge
;
-
natural
objects
can
act
for
the
person
in
a
role
of
authoritative
representative
,
changing
views
of
personality,
its(her)
estimations,
the
attitude
(relation)
to
itself
,
to
things,
to
the
nature
and
to
other
people
;
-
p
ractical
interaction
with
natural
objects,
in
basis
of
which
the
desire
lays
not
to
receive
any
"a
useful
product",
but
there
is
need
(requirement)
for
dialogue
(communication)
with
them
;
-
waste
products
of
human
activity,
"thrown
out
in
the
nature",
do
not
disappear
completely,
and
anyhow
comes
back
to
the
person
(human)
and
gives
destructive
influence
on
his(its)
organism
:
all
laws
of
functioning
of
ecosystem
are
for
the
person
(human)
so
obligatory,
as
well
as
for
other
alive
essences
.
Therefore
ecological
(
harmless
)
person
aspire
to
be
ecologically
moderate
;
-
natural
objects
can
represent
itself
as
full
partners
on
dialogue
(communication)
and
joint
activity
;
-
participation
in
nature
protection
activity,
which
is
dictated
by
reasons
of
"perspective
pragmatism"
(necessity)
to
keep
the
nature,
for
possible
using
of
the
future
generations,
and
need
(requirement)
to
care
of
the
nature
for
the
sake
of
it
(her)
.
-
The
world
of
the
nature
is
not
only
a
source
of
material
resources,
but
is
the
factor
of
personal,
spiritual
development
of
the
person
(human)
.
Therefore
ecological
(harmless)
person
aspires
to
psychological
unity
with
the
world
of
the
nature,
allowing
to
express
spiritual
potential,
which
there
is
in
interaction
with
nature
.
-
not
only
the
human
society
gives
unilateral
influence
on
the
nature,
but
also
the
nature
influences
character
of
development
of
a
society
.
Therefore
ecological
(harmless)
person
aspires
to
influence
on
other
people,
various
public,
economic
and
political
structures,
in
order
that
their
activity
was
ecologically
expedient
,
did
not
lead
to
such
changes
in
the
nature,
which
then
will
gives
negative
influence
on
development
of
a
society,
otherwise,
ecological
person
aspires
to
be
ecologically
active
.
Conditions of forming The ecological (harmless) personality of teacher
Positively directed person of the pupil or student (positive attitudes(relations)):
-
to people
-
t
o
the person
-
to work
-
to itself Direct contact with the nature
The personality of the pupil (student)
Sensual sphere
Intellectual sphere
Activity (will
power
) sphere
On the basis of the characteristic of ecological (harmless) person and of the used literature, it is possible to make the circuit (scheme) of stages of form
ing
of ecological (harmless) person
and the factors, which influence on its(her) development (Astakhova, Bobilyeva
, 2003):
Forming of the ecological (harmless) person with high ecological culture
The personality of the pupil (student)
Sensual sphere
Intellectual sphere
Activity (will
power
) sphere
Influence
on
sense
organs
:
forming
of
culture
of
perception
(recognition
),
feeling
of
beauty
and
harmony
Positive
condition
of
mentality
(psychical
essense
)
:
occurrence
of
positive
emotions
and
feelings
on
the
basis
of
favourable
influence
of
the
nature
to
(on)
nervous
system
of
an
organism
of
the
person
(human)
.
Forming of positive properties
of the personality on the basis of constant experience of
positive emotions and feelings
(senses) : kindness, responsiveness, an openness, sincerity, consciousness, activity.
The scientific consciousness (views) is formed
Knowledge of the organization of biosphere
as the largest ecosystem, functions of biosphere, about its(her) development, evolution.
Knowledge
of
communications
(connections)
of
the
person
(human)
with
the
nature
on
different
scales
:
global,
regional,
local
;
knowledge
of
prospects
(perspectives)
of
cohabitation
of
the
person
(human)
and
the
nature
.
Forming
of
the
general
(common)
feeling
(sense)
of
love
to
the
native
nature
,
to
the
native
territory
(town,
region)
(patriotism)
.
Direct dialogue with the nature
: excursions, expeditions (dispatches), trips, field practical work.
Studying of the nature
: research work, monitoring, supervision over objects of the nature
Creative work in the nature
: subject
-
role games
(plays)
, discussions, debates, forecasts, generalizations, conclusions
Nature protection activity
: propagation, ecological tracks, food (fodder) for animals, landing (planting) of plants and caring for them.
Forming
of
sensation
of
relationship
and
spiritual
communication(connection)
with
the
nature
:
attachment
to
the
nature,
need(requirement)
of
interaction
with
it(her),
respect
for
it(her)
.
Knowledge of laws of all nature
(from a molecular level of its(her) organization up to biospheric, planetary and Universal).
Knowledge of interrelations and interactions
in the nature.
The general emotional
-
psychological culture is formed
Ecological skills (abilities) and activity, experience are formed
The scientific consciousness (views) is formed
The general emotional
-
psychological culture is formed
Ecological skills (abilities) and activity, experience are formed
Ecological belief (conviction):
system of knowledge, feelings (senses), skills (abilities), and need (requirement
) to act according to that knowledge, feelings, skills Ecological (outlook) views
: vision of the world through a prism of ecological belief (conviction)
Ecological consciousness
:
comprehension (understanding) of the ecological outlook (views) and its value in relation to the nature; comprehension (assimilating) of a role of ecological outlook (views) in spiritual and physical health of the person (human) The ecological personality (human):
the carrier of (includes) high ecological culture
Motive:
aspiration (tendency) to be in harmony with the Nature
The responsibility
in relation to the native nature
, its(her) protection, care of the nature
The responsibility
in relation to the nature
of all planet
, its(her) protection, care of the nature
From
the
circuit
(scheme)
it
is
visible,
that
the
true
motive
to
be
in
harmony
with
the
Nature
is
born
only
at
the
ecological
(harmless)
person
(human),
and
also
only
ecological
personality
possesses
the
true
responsibility
in
relation
to
the
nature
.
The
modern
pupil
-
graduate,
which
finished
of
school
(
student
)
should
according
to
all
criteria
of
the
ecological
(harmless)
person
(Matrusov,
1984
)
.
But,
unfortunately,
at
the
majority
of
pupils
-
graduates
,
which
finished
of
school
(student)
presently
,
development
of
the
ecological
(
harmless
)
person
is
only
at
a
stage
of
form
ing
of
emotional
-
psychological
culture
(sensual
sphere),
during
forming
of
scientific
outlook
or
consciousness
(views)
(intellectual
sphere),
of
ecological
skills
or
abilities
(will
power
sphere)
.
A
unusual
occurrence
(phenomenon
),
when
the
pupil
-
graduate
,
which
finished
of
school
(student)
will
penetrate
by
ecological
belief
(convictions
)
and
furthermore,
will
possesse
s
ecological
consciousness
,
that
is
a
basis
of
the
ecological
(
harmless
)
person
(Ivanov
a
,
1999
;
Korolyov
,
1996
;
Golov
,
1996
)
.
Thus,
the
purpose
of
ecological
pedagogics
and
psychology
-
to
create
methods
and
forms
of
effective
development
of
the
ecological
(
harmless
)
person
and
high
ecological
culture
.
Certainly,
in
order
that
all
people
of
a
planet
had
similar
qualities
(properties)
,
time
must
be
(it
is
necessary
)
-
and
not
known,
what
interval
(
100
,
200
years?)
.
But
the
most
important,
that
forming
of
ecological
consciousness
of
mankind
(human)
began
,
that
there
is
a
becoming
coexistence,
development
together
,
evolution
together
of
the
Person
and
the
Nature
-
so,
and
the
Reason
(consciousness
),
as
"present"
given
of
to
the
Person
by
the
Nature,
gets
force
.
It
characterizes
qualitatively
new
jump
in
development
of
mankind
(human
),
the
leading
to
side
(in
tendency)
of
a
new
valuable
views
,
harmonious
and
wise
mutual
relations
(
Kogay
,
1999
;
Chernova
,
2000
;
Voronkov
,
1999
;
Maxakovskiy
,
1996
)
.
Any
training
(learning)
represents
the
certain
model
of
reality
,
created
with
the
purpose
of
knowledge
of
the
world
in
artificial
conditions
of
auditorium
.
Having
distinguished
(
allocated
)
from
practical
activities
,
the
training
(learning,
studies)
has
got
the
form
of
"transfer"
(passing,
transmission,
give)
of
the
abstract
educational
information
to
the
pupil
,
that
is
education
of
sign
s
system
,
learning,
understanding
of
which
is
considered
basic
purpose
,
and
that
education
is
a
ready,
cleared
from
any
communication
(connection)
with
real
practice
.
However,
the
model
of
traditional,
explanatory
-
illustrative
training
(learning,
teaching)
has
too
far
come
off
(gone)
from
reality
,
that
is
very
important
damage
for
ecological
education
and
upbringing
(
Astaphyeva
,
1998
)
.
During
the
pre
-
revolutionary
period
of
Russia
the
leading
teachers
supported
wide
application
(using)
of
practical
methods
of
training
(learning,
teaching)
.
V
.
V
.
Polovtsev
wrote
:
"
The
problem
(task)
of
education
at
all
is
not
the
message
of
the
ready
facts
and
ideas
-
is
not
less
important
study
(learning,
possession)
by
those
methods,
by
which
these
achieved
ideas
were
found
out
(were
revealed)"
(
Ridiger
,
2002
)
.
Here
some
statements
of
teachers
:
"There
is
not
the
best
means
as
to
stimulate
and
to
develop
in
children
the
observation,
independence
,
how
to
put
them
in
position
of
independent
researchers"
.
"
The
research
method
answers
the
nature
of
the
child
and
laws
of
his(its)
development
.
Children
are
congenital
researchers"
.
"
Application
(using)
of
practical
methods
is
connected
to
the
vigorous
activity
of
receptors
(included
in
touch
bodies)
and
effectors
-
organs
of
fulfilment
-
bodies
of
labour
activity"
.
The
Chinese
proverb
says
:
"
I
hear
-
and
I
forget
,
I
see
-
and
I
remember,
I
make
(do,
act)
-
and
I
understand
"
.
Unfortunately,
by
virtue
of
objective
and
subjective
circumstances
many
teachers
it
do
not
take
into
account,
substituting
laboratory
works
and
excursions
by
demonstration
or
the
story
.
In
result,
interest
to
studying
of
natural
subjects
and
to
ecologies
is
appeared
fallen
(is
lost)
(
Ridiger
,
2002
)
.
In
modern
education
there
should
be
priority
of
a
free
creative
development
of
the
person
(personality)
.
It
is
impossible
to
bring
up
(raising,
educate,
create)
the
careful
attitude
(relation)
to
the
nature,
appealing
only
to
technical,
economic
and
legal
aspects
of
knowledge
.
It
is
necessary
to
help
to
the
person
(human)
to
transfer
(
passing,
tran
smission,
give
)
this
knowledge
to
his
personal
views
(understanding,
consciousness,
outlook)
,
to
promote
becoming
of
his
moral
-
ethical
principles
(
Ridiger
,
2002
)
.
1.2. Excursion
and
studies
-
research
work in the nature as a m
eans of ecological education
The
higher
ecological
culture
cannot
be
generated
(forming)
in
a
separation
from
the
"real",
"alive"
nature
.
The
wood
(forest),
the
wild
nature
and
ecological
education
are
inseparable
(Bogolyubov,
1999
)
.
Truly
nature
protection,
ecological
views
(ideas,
consciousness,
outlook)
of
the
person
(human
)
cannot
be
generated
(forming)
without
precise
and
clear
representation
,
that
we
nam
e
is
the
"
nature
",
that
this
such
,
how
"she(it)"
is
arranged
(is
structured)
and
exists
,
how
and
what
"she(it)"
feels
and
what
requires
.
It
is
possible
to
speak
indefinitely
about
necessity
of
preservation
(keep)
of
the
nature,
"natural
riches"
and
resources,
the
careful
attitude
(relation)
to
them,
etc
.
,
but
it
never
will
reach
depth
of
reason
(consciousness)
of
the
person
(human),
if
he
will
not
understand,
that
the
nature
-
is
not
simply
our
"environment"
as
walls
of
a
house,
in
which
we
live
(in
which
it
is
possible
to
penetrate
(drive
in)
by
a
nail
or
which
it
is
possible
to
paint),
but
it
is
something
the
greater
-
an
alive,
"reasonable",
breathing
essence
,
is
more
true
-
it
is
billions
the
alive
essences,
closely
interconnected
and
depended
from
each
other
.
Just
as
practically
it
is
not
possible
to
protect
and
care
of
the
one
whom
you
do
not
love
and
you
do
not
know,
and
also
very
difficultly
to
protect
and
keep
the
nature,
if
which
you
do
not
understand
.
Thus,
the
basic
idea
of
the
"
naturalistic"
approach
in
ecological
education
-
necessity
of
display
(show)
to
children
the
nature
from
within,
with
possible
the
greater
degree
of
a
detailly
and
at
"the
maximal
increase"
.
As
a
result
of
such
"
visibility
"
by
each
person
(human)
,
it
may
be
the
child
or
the
adult
,
is
able
t
o
appear
almost
of
shock
condition
,
the
surprise
,
admiration,
which
to
express
by
words
(exclamation)
:
"Really
we
on
this
go
(walking)?!"
Thus,
"
ecologisation
of
souls
"
occurs
in
itself
-
it
is
necessary
only
dialogue
with
the
nature
(Bogolyubov,
1999
)
.
Importance
of
practical
methods
in
ecological
education
and
development
of
ecological
culture
is
established
(convinces)
.
Integration
of
ecology
with
study
of
local
lore
(native
territory
)
is
necessary
for
implementation
(action)
of
these
methods
and
introduction
their
in
training
(learning,
studing)
of
ecology
.
First
of
all,
the
ecological
culture
and
the
responsibility
in
relation
to
the
nature
of
native
territory
must
is
being
formed,
and
then
are
transferred
(passing,
translation)
also
to
the
Nature
of
all
planet
.
The
organization
of
ecology
-
study
of
native
territory
by
pedestrian
excursions
(trips)
for
all
pupils
(students)
-
affair
with
efforts
.
Still
V
.
A
.
Suhomlinskiy
spoke
:
"
To
exit
(removal)
for
walk
(trip)
of
children
to
a
lawn
(in
nature),
to
stay
with
them
in
a
wood
(forest),
in
park
-
affair
considerably
more
complex
(difficult),
than
to
lead
(carry
out)
lessons
"
(Suhomlinskiy,
1979
)
.
The
success
of
excursion
depends
on
its(her)
preparation
.
The
teacher
should
establish
precisely
a
theme
and
the
purpose
of
excursion
,
and
then
to
see
(overlook)
the
literature
on
this
theme
-
scientific,
popular
scientific,
methodical
.
After
that
the
teacher
plans
a
plan
-
route
of
excursion
.
In
this
plan
it
is
necessary
to
specify
the
basic
sections
(stages)
of
excursion
,
it
is
necessary
to
find
out,
what
phenomena
will
be
shown
and
on
what
objects
,
by
what
(which)
method
will
be
lead
(will
carry
out)
excursion
.
It
is
necessary
to
check
up
preliminary
a
route
of
excursion
by
the
teacher
.
The
sequence
and
a
technique
of
carrying
out
(leading)
of
separate
parts
of
excursion
are
being
planned,
places
for
independent
work
and
rest
of
pupils
(students)
are
being
established
.
The
technique
of
excursion
depends
on
its(her)
theme
and
the
purpose
,
age
and
knowledge
of
pupils
(students
)
.
In
the
first
excursions
the
teacher
is
the
most
active
person
:
it(he)
shows
objects
,
pays
attention
to
the
phenomena,
and
during
excursion
gives
small
simple
tasks
.
Excursion
in
this
case
has
illustrative
character
.
If
pupils
(student
)
have
a
skill
of
work
in
the
nature
,
it
is
possible
to
strengthen
an
element
of
independent
research
work
in
excursion,
that
promotes
the
best
mastering
(learning,
studying,
understanding)
of
a
material
and
activity
of
pupils
(students
)
.
Dividing
excursion
on
the
certain
logic
parts
according
to
the
plan
and
a
route,
it
is
necessary
to
plan
the
most
effective
methodical
receptions
.
Thinking
over
a
technique
and
the
maintenance
(contents)
of
excursion,
it
is
necessary
to
plan
and
that
equipment
,
without
which
performance
of
work
is
impossible
.
Lists
of
necessary
equipment
are
being
resulted
(are
being
made)
.
Besides,
for
work
the
notebook
and
a
pencil
are
necessary
for
records,
an
album
or
a
writing
-
book
for
sketches
.
It
is
useful
to
have
the
camera
(photo)
.
Preparation
of
pupils
(student
)
begins
with
the
message
of
the
teacher
of
a
theme
,
a
problem
(task
)
and
a
route
of
excursion
.
It
is
possible
to
recommend
books
,
which
are
useful
for
reading
on
this
theme
.
It
is
better
to
divide
pupils
(students)
into
parts
(groups
)
and
to
study
so
on
parts
separate
questions
of
a
theme
.
In
a
part
(group)
usually
works
4
-
5
person
,
among
whom
the
teacher
appoints
the
main
person
(chief
),
responsible
(crucial)
for
performance
of
the
task,
for
the
equipment
,
given
to
a
part
(
group
)
.
During
excursion
it
is
important,
that
pupils
marked
comparative
attributes
(signs)
of
objects
.
Also
it
is
necessary
to
warn
pupils
(student)
about
duration
of
excursion
,
to
specify,
how
it
is
necessary
to
put
on
.
Each
excursion
develops
of
several
parts
:
1
)
gathering
at
school
(educational
establishment)
and
transition
to
a
place
of
excursion
;
2
)
direct
work
of
pupils
(students)
under
the
direction
of
the
teacher
;
3
)
the
organized
returning
from
excursion
.
The
subsequent
processing
and
registration
of
a
material
closely
adjoins
to
(with)
work
of
excursion
.
Details
of
carrying
out
(leading
)
of
excursion
can
be
various
depending
on
a
theme
and
the
purpose
of
excursion,
age
and
knowledge
of
pupils
(students),
time
and
a
place
of
excursion
.
Parts
of
introduction
and
conclusion
of
excursions
(
in
form
of
conversation,
talk
)
are
significant
.
In
depend
on
age
and
preparation
of
pupils
(students),
information
can
be
different
in
volume
,
but
always
it
must
be
strict
scientific
,
is
checked
up
and
is
based
(explained)
.
Language
of
conversation
(talk
)
must
be
exact
(accurate),
clearly,
educated
(artistic
),
simply
.
Development
of
interest
at
pupils
(student)
to
promote
(to
stimulate)
by
their
work,
which
is
conscious,
active,
has
purpose
(goal
)
.
At
excursions
develops
(forms)
a
positive
properties
of
personality
:
feeling
(sense)
of
collective,
relationship,
friendship,
conscious
discipline,
conscientious
relation
to
performance
(fulfillment)
of
commission
task
.
The
results
of
excursion
it
is
possible
to
show
on
conference,
where
the
prepared
relief's
(visual
aids)
are
demonstrated,
and
reports
(communications,
information's)
are
made
about
material
of
observations
and
literatures
(Belyaeva,
1995
)
.
Excursions,
studies
-
investigations
works
can
have
form
(image,
appearance)
of
plays
(games)
and
already
by
that
is
become
the
more
interest,
active,
the
effect
of
learning
(teaching,
studies)
is
increased
(Bukin,
1991
)
.
Pedagogically
correctly
organized
activity
of
games
(plays)
at
pupils
(students)
allows
to
aspire
full
itself
-
expression,
active
and
freely
creation
,
at
reasonable
degree
according
to
requires
(demands)
of
mutual
respect
,
learning
(studying)
of
environment
,
feeling
(sense)
of
beautiful
of
nature
ant
it
(her)
harmony
,
development
of
sense
(feeling)
of
love
and
careful
in
relation
to
objects
of
nature
.
Plays
(games
)
have
significant
place
in
forming
of
ecological
culture
(Zveryev,
1988
)
.
Especially
effective
are
imitation
-
situations
or
subject
-
roles
plays
.
Playing
of
roles
of
really
scientist
-
researchers
of
nature,
imitation
of
their
activity
gives
to
possess
moral
-
willpower
properties
of
that
heroes
,
can
to
develop
skills
(abilities)
of
reasonable
relation
to
nature
.
Studies
-
investigation
work
can
to
imitate
really
scientific
-
research
work
:
someone
plays
the
role
of
chief
(main),
other
person
plays
the
role
of
assistant,
someone
plays
the
role
of
professor
or
doctor
of
sciences,
other
plays
the
observant,
someone
is
specialist
on
difficult
problems
(tasks)
.
So,
role
playing
can
to
build
(to
construct)
collective,
which
will
be
organized
by
self
-
government
.
Play
(game
)
learns
(teaches)
to
mutual
understanding
,
cooperation
,
and
also
it
develops
initiative,
ingenious
(resourceful),
responsibility
of
pupils
(students),
and
it
increases
the
common
level
of
their
psychological
development
(Bukin,
1991
;
Streltsova,
1985
)
.
It
is
useful
to
create
situations
of
choice
of
behaviour
,
relation
to
nature
during
excursions
.
At
choice
of
that
or
other
acts
in
relation
to
nature,
pupils
(students)
develops
willpower,
ability
to
make
responsible
decisions
.
It
is
gives
the
unity
and
interrelations
of
theoretical
and
practical
aspects
(approaches)
at
ecological
upbringing
and
ecological
education
(Zveryev,
1988
)
.
At
studies
-
investigations
works
is
especially
significant
the
development
of
independence
and
creation
of
pupils
(students)
.
The
creative
activity
–
the
higher
stage
of
cognition
activity
of
pupils
(students),
given
the
most
high
results
.
By
only
one
way
of
possessing
(learning,
development)
features
of
creation
activity
and
experience
of
their
expression
-
is
independent
decision
of
problems,
which
are
new
for
pupil
(student
),
and
that
problems
must
be
in
partly
accessible
for
decisions,
but
in
other
part
are
difficult
in
certain
degree
and
require
(demand)
expression
of
the
creative
features
.
The
one
of
main
conditions
of
successful
decision
of
that
question
–
is
influence
on
senses
(feelings)
of
person
(human
)
.
The
ways
of
influence
can
be
various
:
astonishment
(surprise)
to
new
knowledge
,
effectiveness
of
visible
(sight)
,
possible
to
expression
of
itself
(own)
forces
,
satisfaction
from
independent
achievement
of
originally
(unique)
results
.
In
base
of
creative
activity
lies
(is)
creative
search
,
which
appears
at
scientific
search
(pursuit),
at
investigation
.
At
process
of
search
(pursuit),
pupil
(student)
learns
(studies)
the
world
,
learns
(studies)
it
in
all
parts
(
is
thorough
)
.
Although
such
search
work
of
pupil
(student
)
hot
gives
(not
carries)
scientific
information,
but
pupil
(student)
repeats
way
of
opening
(discovery,
found
out)
of
knowledge's
at
briefly
form
(way
)
(Ridiger,
2002
)
.
Investigation activity of pupils (students) divided on some stages (Bobilyeva, 2001):
1)
Stage of preparing
(studying of literatures, dates about objects of investigation, choice of equipment). 2)
Experimental part
(exist or remove to nature, carry out (leading) of system of observations, taking of samples and etc.). 3)
Stage of treatment
(treatment of samples of investigation, material of excursions). 4)
Stage of analysis
(discovering or revealing of cause
-
consequence connections, lows, innovation). 5)
Stage of report (account
) (composing of schedules, diagrams, preparing of reports or lectures). 6)
Information stage
(publication of article in journal, newspapers, become acquainted with results of work by other people). 7)
Practical stage
(practical conference, measures of nature preserving or keeping). For
discussion
of
results
of
studies
-
investigation
activity
it
is
possible
to
use
such
forms
(methods),
as
discussion
,
debates
,
that
increases
the
cognition
activity
of
pupils
(students
),
creative
approach
to
decision
of
problem
,
the
greatest
interest
to
nature
and,
as
consequence,
it
increases
love
and
careful
to
nature
(Bukin,
1991
;
Ridiger,
2002
)
.
It
is
significant,
in
order
that
pupils
(students)
had
belief
(faith)
in
(for)
itself
(own)
forces
(abilities
),
had
aspiration
(tendency)
to
learn
(to
study)
of
nature
,
aspiration
to
see
(observation)
it
(her)
beautiful
,
and
on
base
of
that
to
upbringing
(
to
create)
in
itself
(own)
personality
the
love
and
responsibility
in
relation
to
nature
,
that
are
it
is
necessary
for
development
of
ecological
culture
and
ecological
personality
at
whole
.
Chapter II. Experience of organization of work on forming of ecological culture of pupils (students) in process of excursions and studies
-
investigation work The
level
of
ecological
culture
was
definitude
by
method
of
questionnaire
(answers
on
questions)
on
bases
of
level
knowledge
about
birds,
the
degree
of
development
of
feelings
(senses),
interest
to
animals,
having
positive
motives
and
activity
in
relation
to
birds
.
Fifty
pupils
(student)
of
senior
forms
(
10
-
11
forms)
at
school
were
had
questioning
.
The
questionnaire
contained
12
questions
.
The
results
of
questioning
it
is
possible
to
show
in
form
(by
method)
of
diagrams
:
on
axis
of
ordinate
is
designated
percentage
relates
of
answers
persons,
on
axis
of
abscise
–
are
variants
of
answers
of
pupils
(students)
.
Diagram
1:
Answers of pupils (students) on question: “What animals you like (love)?”
•
The
pupils
(students)
give
answers,
that
animals
of
group
(class)
of
Mammal
are
the
most
liked,
of
which
they
love
.
The
majority
choice
the
cat
and
dog
.
Not
difficult
to
explain
the
liking
by
constant
interaction
(contact)
with
that
domestic
(home)
animals
.
It
is
necessary
to
note,
that
not
small
quantities
of
pupils
(students)
chose
the
liked
animal
as
tiger,
which
associates
not
only
with
soft
and
fluffy,
but
also
associates
with
force,
leading
(leader),
aggression
.
Animals
of
other
classes
(groups),
in
particular
–
of
Birds,
were
not
observed
in
answers
.
•
So,
for
development
of
ecological
culture,
it
is
necessary
the
detailed
to
meet
(to
show
)
the
pupils
(students)
with
representatives
of
other
classes
(groups)
of
animals
(with
their
variety
),
in
particular
–
with
class
of
Birds
.
To
stimulate
the
interest,
liking
to
animals
.
2.1. Studying of level of ecological culture of pupils (students)
Diagram 2: Answers of pupils (students) on question: “Call the birds, which you like (love).”
•
The
majority
of
pupils
(students
)
chose
the
liked
birds
as
birds
of
prey
(eagle,
falcon,
hawk)
–
the
symbols
of
force
(power),
leading
(leader),
having
of
purpose
(goal)
.
It
is
possible
to
explain
by
features
of
young
age
of
teenagers
–
aspiration
to
allocate
(distinguish)
itself,
to
show
own
strong
features
(properties)
.
Owl
as
symbol
of
wisdom
and
as
having
of
interesting
appearance
(form
of
body),
also
is
liked
by
the
majority
.
It
is
interest,
that
such
simply
and
many
visible,
small
birds
as
chaffinch
(
Fringilla)
is
liked
by
many
pupils
(students
)
.
Certainly,
graceful
swan,
closer
to
soul
–
pigeon
(dove),
tit
(Parus),
sparrow,
cock,
parrot
–
are
not
given
to
stay
the
indifferent
to
them
.
They
(animals)
living
near
person
(human)
and
because
frequently
appear
are
liked
(are
loved)
by
us
.
The
small
(less)
percent
of
pupils
(students
)
remembers
the
exotically
birds
(ostrich,
sunbird),
and
not
much
pupils
(students
)
answer,
that
they
like
(love)
the
less
noticeable
birds
of
native
nature
as
nightingale,
skylark,
swallow
.
•
So,
it
is
necessary
to
learn
(to
teach)
the
pupils
(students)
to
see
not
only
direct
surrounding
birds
near
us
(human)
–
that
is
synantropic
birds,
but
also
to
learn
(to
teach)
to
see
the
beautiful
of
birds
at
native
nature
.
It
is
necessary
to
learn
(to
teach)
to
love
(liking)
it
(birds)
not
for
their
symbols,
but
for
that
they
(birds)
are
alive
(living),
similar
as
we
(human
)
.
From
answers
it
is
clearing
(revealing),
that
pupils
(students)
not
know
about
such
birds
of
native
nature,
as
lapwing
(Vanellus),
redshank
(Tringa),
plower
(Galinago)
–
that
is
shorebirds
(Charadrii)
.
It
is
necessary
to
form
understanding
(terminus)
about
that
birds,
to
form
the
love
(liking)
to
it
(birds
of
native
nature)
.
Diagram 3: Answers of pupils (students) on question: “By what the birds are attractive for you?”
•
It
is
strangely,
but
the
majority
of
pupils
(students)
likes
(loves)
the
birds,
because
it
(birds)
can
to
fly
.
May
be,
teenagers
were
idealists,
and
therefore
they
compare
the
feeling
(sense)
of
flight
with
romantic
feeling
(sense)
The
color
of
feathers,
singing
of
birds
are
only
on
second
place
of
quantities
of
answers
.
It
is
necessary
to
note,
that
the
majority
of
person
“can
to
see”
the
nature,
than
quantities
of
pupils
(students),
which
“can
to
hear”
it
(her)
.
Tenderness
and
defenceless
of
birds
are
estimated
by
only
not
much
percent
of
answers
(pupils)
.
The
answers
“I
like
(love)
the
nothing,
not
any”
disappoint
.
•
So,
it
is
necessary
the
measures
of
aesthetic
(moral)
upbringing
(educating)
for
forming
of
culture
of
perception
–
can
to
see
and
to
hear
of
nature
,
that
are
the
base
of
ecological
culture
.
Also
it
is
necessary
to
note
the
defenceless
of
birds
in
comparison
with
the
human
.
Diagram
4: Answers of pupils (students) on question: “The birds –
are
:
А) the animals, endothermic, having plumage, can (able) to flight
;
B
) exothermic animals, able to lie eggs
; C
) animals, can to fly and to feed the young individuals by milk. That
testy
question
reveal
the
degree
of
forming
of
understanding
(terminus)
“birds”
.
Biological
knowledge's
construct
(compose)
scientific
views
(consciousness
),
without
of
which
it
is
impossible
become
of
ecological
views
(consciousness
)
and
ecological
culture
.
As
an
exception
of
not
much
percent,
all
pupils
(students)
know
the
basic
features
of
class
(group)
of
Birds
.
It
is
necessary
to
form
the
terminus
(understanding)
about
birds
(who
not
formed)
and
transfer
(transmit,
give,
translate)
that
knowledge
on
(to)
practical
activity
(aspect
)
at
purpose
(goal)
of
forming
of
high
ecological
culture
.
Diagram 5: Answers of pupils (students) on question: “What basic adaptations to flight have birds?”
•
Ecological
views
(consciousness
)
must
include
the
knowledge's
about
adaptations
of
organisms
to
environment
.
The
basic
adaptations
of
birds
to
flight
are
well
-
known
to
pupils
(students)
(wings,
feathers,
light
skeleton),
though
such
specifically
adaptations
to
flight,
as
air
(lung)
bags
(capacities),
characteristic
only
for
birds,
were
forgot
.
More
of
that,
part
of
pupils
(students)
considered
a
extension
of
throat,
beak
and
long
lower
limbs
as
the
basic
adaptations
to
flight
–
that
are
not
quite
correctly
(right)
.
•
So,
at
process
of
excursions
(trips)
and
studies
-
investigation
work
it
is
necessary
to
form
the
terminus
(understanding)
about
character
of
adaptations
of
birds
to
air
environment
at
the
majority
of
pupils
(students)
.
Diagram
6: Answers of pupils (students) on question: “Why marsh (bog) birds has long lower limbs and long hard beak?”
а) for better walking and for comfortless (convenience) split, unriping (rip open) of air by beak at flight
;
b
) that is feeding at being in water and at founding (searching) of food (fodder, pray) in soft silt and on bottom of shallow water of ponds
; c
) for measurement of depth of shallow water of ponds and for deterrent of enemies.
The
majority
of
pupils
(students)
understands
character
of
the
adaptation
of
birds
to
ecological
conditions
of
boggy
(marsh)
habitats
.
However,
almost
half
interrogated
pupils
(students)
does
not
have
formed
concept
(understanding)
about
ecology
of
marsh
birds
and
their
adaptations
to
an
inhabitancy
.
It
is
necessary
to
form
these
concepts
(understanding
s
)
at
studying
such
birds
of
native
territory,
as
redshank
(Tringa)
,
plover
(Galinago)
and
other
species
of
shorebirds
(Charadrii)
.
Diagram
7: Answers of pupils (students) on question:
“What birds, living near the water (ponds), you know?”
Are
most
known
to
pupils
(students)
such
birds,
living
near
the
water
(ponds
),
as
ducks,
the
seagull
s,
herons
.
T
heir
popularity
i
t
is
simple
to
explain
by
often
occurrence
in
literatures
,
at
displays
(shows)
of
films
and
many
programs
on
the
TV
.
Smaller
percent
of
answering
pupils
(students)
have
named
a
swan
and
the
goose
.
Thus,
it
is
necessary
directly
in
the
nature
to
acquaint
(to
meet,
to
show)
to
the
pupils
(students)
with
birds
,
living
near
the
water
(ponds)
habitats,
in
particular,
with
a
lapwing
(Vanellus)
,
plover
(Charadrius)
;
to
pay
attention
(to
note)
to
their
way
of
life,
conditions
of
dwelling
(habitat)
in
native
territory
.
Diagram
8: Answers of pupils (students) on question: “The Shorebirds
–
are:
It
is
more
than
half
of
pupils
(students)
know,
what
group
of
birds
relates
to
the
Shorebirds
.
On
the
bas
is
of
this
basic
knowledge
it
is
possible
to
develop
fuller
representation
about
Shorebirds
as
object
of
research
.
Diagram
9: Answers of pupils (students) on question: “Whether environment
influence on birds?”
The
greater
percent
of
answering
pupils
(students)
have
named
a
right
(correct)
answer
.
Unfortunately,
there
are
pupils
(student),
who
do
not
understand
connection
of
birds
with
an
environment
.
During
excursions
(trips
)
and
studies
-
investigation
work
it
is
necessary
to
form
and
to
develop
concept
(understanding
)
about
influence
of
an
environment
on
birds
at
studying
of
the
ecological
factors
,
influencing
on
character
of
distribution
of
Shorebirds
.
Diagram
10: Answers of pupils (students) on question: “ How the person (human) influences on birds?”
The
majority
of
pupils
(students)
have
answered,
that
the
person
(human)
influences
on
birds
by
exterminating
of
them
(on
hunting,
as
the
source
of
food)
.
The
few
have
recollected,
that
the
person
(human)
troubles
the
birds,
and
absolutely
small
quantity
of
pupils
(students)
knows
about
indirect
influence
of
the
person
(human)
on
birds
(cutting
down
of
woods
or
forests,
pollution
of
water
reservoirs)
.
Thus,
during
excursions
(trips
)
and
studies
-
investigations
work
it
is
necessary
to
pay
attention
(to
note)
of
pupils
(students)
to
wider
spectrum
of
direct
and
indirect
influence
of
the
person
(human
)
on
birds
(in
particular
on
Shorebirds
as
example
)
.
Diagram
11: Answers of pupils (students) on question: “What help it is possible to make to birds?”
Pupils
(students)
actively
chose
ways
of
the
help
to
birds
.
The
majority
nevertheless
has
decided,
that
the
best
help
to
birds
-
is
to
feed
them,
to
create
for
them
reserves
(preserving
zone
or
territory)
and
thus
to
engage
in
cultivation
of
rare
species
.
Many
consider,
that
birds
need
simply
to
be
preserved
against
anxiety
.
The
smaller
part
of
answering
pupils
(students)
has
shown
compassion
in
rendering
assistance
(help)
by
the
patient
(ill,
sick)
(with
the
broken
wing,
for
example)
to
birds
.
The
some
persons
have
recollected
advantage
(benefit)
of
starling
houses
(construction
of
birds
small
houses)
.
Thus,
on
the
basis
of
knowledge
of
pupils
(students)
it
is
possible
to
develop
concepts
(understandings)
about
concrete
nature
protection
measures
at
studying
a
degree
of
influence
of
the
anthropogenous
factor
on
birds
(
Shorebirds
as
example
)
.
Diagram
12: Answers of pupils (students) on question: “Whether birds of native territory are liked by you?”
The
majority
of
pupils
(students)
has
answered
positively
on
this
question
.
But,
unfortunately,
the
considerable
percent
from
them
does
not
accept
the
native
nature,
and
in
particular,
not
love
the
birds
of
native
territory
.
The
ecological
culture
begins
with
love
(like)
to
the
native
nature
,
which
directly
surrounds
the
person
(human)
.
During
excursions
(trips)
and
studies
-
investigations
works
it
is
necessary
to
develop
feeling
(sense)
of
attachment
(fond)
,
spiritual
relationship
to
the
native
nature
on
the
basis
of
skill
to
see
beauty
of
birds
of
native
territory
,
on
the
basis
of
skills
to
estimate
beauty
of
their
(birds)
singing,
beauty
of
their
behaviour
.
According
to
diagnostics
it
is
possible
to
draw
conclusions
about
a
level
of
development
of
ecological
culture
of
pupils
(students
)
.
Ecological
culture
-
complex
quality
of
the
personality
,
which
is
defined
(determined)
by
a
level
of
development
of
intellectual
(knowledge)
sphere,
sensual
(interest,
emotions,
feelings)
sphere
and
willpower
(activity)
sphere
in
relation
to
the
nature
(Bobilyeva,
2001
)
.
Results
of
questioning
have
shown,
that
the
minimal
basic
knowledge
about
birds
,
their
interrelations
with
an
environment,
pupils
(students)
have
.
But,
unfortunately,
this
knowledge
it
is
not
enough
for
full
forming
scientific
consciousness
,
and
consequently,
and
for
full
forming
ecological
outlook
(views,
consciousness),
therefore
that
characterizes
a
low
level
of
ecological
culture
.
It
is
necessary
on
the
basis
of
basic
knowledge
at
pupils
(students)
to
develop
new
concepts
(understandings
)
about
birds,
their
ecologies
and,
thus,
to
promote
(to
stimulate)
the
increase
of
ecological
culture
.
The
sensual
sphere
of
the
person
ality
of
pupils
(students
)
is
already
revealed
(shown)
in
relation
to
the
nature
at
pupils
(students)
(from
questionnaire)
,
but
not
in
that
degree
,
which
defines
(determines)
sufficient
development
of
ecological
culture
.
And,
favourite
animals
at
teenagers
almost
all
were
mammal
.
Among
pupils
(students)
use
the
greatest
popularity
the
birds
frequently
meeting
in
books,
on
screens
of
the
TV,
directly
living
with
the
person
(human)
.
It
is
necessary
to
acquaint
(to
show,
to
meet)
the
pupils
(students)
with
a
variety
of
birds
fauna
of
the
native
nature
,
to
form
to
them
cognitive
and
aesthetic
interest,
love
at
studying
(learning)
of
ecology
of
birds,
their
way
of
life
.
The
will
power
sphere
of
the
person
ality
of
pupils
(students
)
in
relation
to
the
nature
also
has
a
low
level
of
development
(from
questionnaire
)
.
Motives
of
positively
directed
activity
in
the
nature
still
are
formed
not
absolutely
precisely
.
Thus,
during
excursions
(trips)
and
studies
-
investigation
work
it
is
necessary
to
develop
knowledge,
feeling,
interest
of
pupils
(students)
in
relation
to
the
nature
,
and
in
particular,
to
birds,
as
to
one
of
its(her)
elements
.
And
on
the
basis
of
that
it
is
necessary
to
form
spiritually
and
physically
health
y
person
ality
,
ecological
(
harmless
)
person
ality
,
positively
directed
,
with
ecocentral
type
of
consciousness
and
the
high
ecological
culture
,
having
motive
to
be
in
harmony
with
the
Nature
.
2.2. Experience of the organization of excursion and studies
-
investigations work
As curriculums not always allow to make (to carry out) the full excursions and studies
-
investigations works
,
the optimum form of upbringing
(at educat
ion)
of high ecological culture of pupils
(students)
-
is after learning
(teaching)
work, namely, as a biological circle
(section)
.
Month
Theme (subject) of lesson
Direct (tendency) of work
Theoretical lessons
Practical and investigation work
1
2
3
4
September
Ecological groups of birds
. Ecological factors
of environment: abiotical (physical), biotical (alive), antropogenios (human). Play (game
): “Connection of birds with environment and way of life” Conversation (talk
): “Factors of environment, which influence on birds”
Preparing to excursion
: definite of goal (purposes), problems (tasks), choice of equipment, methods of investigation. Excursion on territory near school
or to towns park: account synantropic (towns) birds (sparrow, crow, magpie, jackdaw), reveal factors, which influence on them. October
Treatment (put into shape) of results of excursion
and discussing
of them
Conversation (talk
): “Influence of abundance of food or prey , vegetation, t
o C of air, soil and human influence on synantropic (towns) birds”. Discussion:
“What factor influences on birds is stronger?”
Composing of map
of birds habitats
. Composing (put into shape) of table of birds account and factors
, which influence on them. November
Significance
(meaning) of birds
in nature
Game (play
) (in form questionnaire or puzzle, solve): “The role of birds on our planet”. Competition of speakers
: “Whether human (person) needs in birds, and birds needs in human (person)?”. Observation of birds
at beginning of cool weather: estimation of influence of abiotical (physical), biotical (alive), antropogenios (human) factors
on birds. December
Birds –
ornament
(decoration) of nature
.
Birds of Tambov region
. Role play (game)
-
contest (competition): “I –
is bird is the best, the more beautiful, clever, important, sonorous…” Conversation (talk
)
: “Variety of birds in Tambov region. Rare birds”.
Making of birds houses for food
(feeding), their distribution (place) on trees
. The program of
work
of
a biological circle
(section) on ecological education of teenagers on the basis of studying
(learning)
ecology of birds of native territory.
The program of
work
of
a biological circle
(section) on ecological education of teenagers on the basis of studying
(learning)
ecology of birds of native territory.
January
Preservation (keeping) and attracting of birds
Press
-
conference on themes (subjects
): “Natural enemies of birds and struggle with them”. “Landing (planting) of trees and shrubberies –
as significance for birds”. “Winter feeding of birds”. “People –
as destroyers of nests and enemies of birds”. Contest (competition)
of authors and painters
: “Take care of birds!”. Winter feeding of birds
.
Making of planks
-
posters on preserving
(keeping) and careful of birds
. February
Influence of environment factors
on behaviour of birds
. Conversations (talks
)
: “Real alive barometers”.
“Whether birds thinks?” “How birds fly and orientation?”
Contest (competition):
“Found (reveal) distinctions in behaviour between birds of pray and eating insects, night and day birds”. Excursion
to
the
museum of native nature
or to the station of young naturalists
. Mart
Birds on nests
. Conversation (talk
)
: “Behaviour of birds in nest period”. Game (play) in form of scenes (subjects
): “Birds in spring: marriage plays, careful about young generation”. Observation for return flight of the first birds (rooks, starlings).
Distribution (place) of birds small houses (starling houses)
on a trees in town. Account of birds, which stay in town –
tits and bullfinches. April
Ecology of water birds
and who living near the water reservoirs
Discussion:
“How birds are adapts to habitats in water environment?” Conversation (talk
)
: “Water
-
marsh birds: Shorebirds. Influence of environment factors on Shorebirds”. Preparing to excursion on meadow near the river:
definite of goal (purposes) and problems (tasks) of investigation, choice of equipment, discussion of methods at investigation. May
Studying of Shorebirds ecology
Conversation (talk
) on excursion
: “Behaviour and way of life of lapwing (Vanellus), redshank (Tringa), plover (Galinago)”. Treatment (put into shape) of results of excursion
and investigation
, their discussion
: influence of abiotical (physical), biotical (alive), antropogenios (human) factors on Shorebirds. Excursion on meadow near the river
: birds account of lapwing, redshank. plover. Estimation of parameters of soil, water. Taking of samples of invertebrate animals. Geobotanic description. Antropogenius (human) factors. 1
2
3
4
The
program
of
work
of
biological
circle
(section
)
stimulates
at
pupils
(students)
the
development
of
high
ecological
culture
,
for
which
characteristic
:
high
level
of
development
of
cognition
sphere
(consciousness
),
and
as
a
result
of
that
are
forming
scientific
and
ecological
views
(outlook,
knowledge's,
consciousness)
;
high
level
of
development
of
sensual
sphere
(skill
or
abilities
to
see
the
nature,
to
hear
the
nature,
feeling
of
nature,
skill
to
receive
the
positive
emotion
from
contact
(interaction,
communication)
with
nature),
and
as
result
of
that
are
emotion
-
psychological
culture
;
and
also
developed
enough
the
sphere
of
willpower
,
which
includes
ecological
skills,
experience
.
It
is
necessary
to
note,
that
full
high
ecological
culture
can
to
form
only
at
become
of
ecological
consciousness
,
which
is
characteristic
for
ecological
personality
.
Ecological
consciousness
(ecocentral
type)
is
formed
at
interaction
(contact)
and
harmonious
development
of
all
three
spheres
of
personality
in
relation
to
nature
.
Problem
(task,
purpose)
of
biological
circle
(section)
–
is
forming
of
interest
to
nature
,
and
on
the
base
of
that
to
develop
the
spheres
of
personality
at
goal
(purpose)
to
form
the
ecological
consciousness
and
ecological
personality
as
whole,
from
which
already
will
be
go
the
motive
to
be
in
harmony
with
Nature
.
In
order
that
to
represent
(to
show)
action
(effect)
of
program
of
work
of
biological
circle
(section),
it
is
necessary
to
describe
(to
show)
some
lessons
of
studying
(learning)
of
ecology
of
Shorebirds
(Charadrii),
that
forms
the
ecological
culture
of
pupils
(students)
in
process
of
excursion
(trip)
and
studies
-
investigation
work
.
Description of lesson of biological circle (section) on theme (subject): “Studying (learning) of ecology of Shorebirds” The
purpose
(goal)
:
to
study
(to
learn)
the
ecological
conditions
of
habitats
of
Shorebirds
.
Cognitional
tasks
:
to
carry
out
(leading)
the
account
of
Shorebirds
(individuals),
to
estimate
the
parameters
of
soil,
river
water,
vegetation
of
habitats
of
that
animals,
to
account
the
antropogenios
(human)
factor,
to
learn
(to
study)
the
ways
of
life
of
that
birds
.
Upbringing
(educational)
tasks
:
aesthetical
upbringing
(educating)
(
on
basis
of
geobotanic
description
of
meadow,
definition
of
Shorebirds
on
voice
(song),
plumage,
way
of
flight
and
other
features,
estimation
of
parameters
of
environment)
;
ecological
upbringing
(educating)
(on
basis
of
revealing
of
connection
and
interaction
between
alive
and
not
alive
(physical)
compounds
of
nature
and
its
(her)
the
whole
or
unity)
;
patriotic
upbringing
(educating)
(forming
of
love,
attraction
to
native
nature
and
through
of
that
–
to
native
territory)
;
moral
upbringing
(educating)
(forming
of
feeling
of
love,
spiritual
relationship,
care
to
nature)
;
labouring
(working)
upbringing
or
educating
(feeling
of
spiritual
and
material
or
physical
health)
;
educating
(forming)
of
scientific
and
ecological
views
(outlook,
consciousness)
.
Development
tasks
:
development
of
cognition
sphere
(attention,
observation,
abilities
and
skills
to
analysis,
to
compare,
to
generalize,
to
conclude)
;
emotional
sphere
(development
of
cognition
interest,
astonishment,
delight,
positive
emotions)
;
willpower
sphere
(development
of
ecological
skills
and
experience),
and
also
development
of
ecological
culture
as
whole
.
Place
of
excursion
(trip)
:
meadow
of
Panskoe
near
the
river
of
Forest
Voronezh
.
Methods
of
teaching
(learning)
of
pupils
(students)
:
-
by
speech
(words)
(conversation
or
talk
with
elements
of
story
(tale),
explanation)
-
by
visible
(visual,
by
vision)
(the
objects
of
nature)
-
by
practice
(work)
(
independent
estimation
of
parameters
of
environment,
registrations
in
field
diary,
observation
of
birds)
.
Type
of
teaching
(learning)
of
pupils
(students)
:
particle
-
searching,
problematic
.
Equipment
:
binoculars,
field
diary,
a
pen,
pencil,
thermometer,
aluminium
wire
(diameter
5
mm,
length
1
m),
disc
of
Seck
(white
plastic
on
thread,
diameter
5
cm),
network
capacities
for
invertebrate
animals
(air
and
water,
diameter
of
network
circles
20
-
30
cm),
pincers
(tweezers),
jars
(cupping
-
glass)
and
cotton
wool,
ruler
(
30
cm),
small
shovel
.
Route
of
excursion
:
1
)
Crossing
(passage)
from
school
(educational
building)
to
meadow
of
Panskoe
.
2
)
Crossing
(passage)
on
dried
meadow,
early
flooded
by
river
water,
having
many
small
hillocks
.
3
)
Crossing
(passage)
on
marsh
meadow
with
many
small
hillocks
(where
more
dried
meadow
and
not
dangerous)
.
4
)
Crossing
(passage)
on
shallow
water
of
river
(on
its
coast)
.
5
)
Return
(comeback)
to
school
(educational
building
)
.
Plan
of
excursion
:
1
)
General
characteristic
of
meadow
near
the
river
.
2
)
Geobotanical
characteristic
of
meadow
near
the
river
.
3
)
Observation
of
Shorebirds,
the
account
of
their
individuals,
definition
of
its
species
.
4
)
Estimation
of
abiotical
(physical),
biotical
(alive)
and
antropogenios
(human)
factors
in
different
points
of
investigation
territory
:
-
dried
meadow,
early
flooded
by
river
water,
having
many
small
hillocks
-
marsh
meadow
with
many
small
hillocks
(where
more
dried
meadow
and
not
dangerous)
-
shallow
water
of
river
(on
its
coast)
5
)
Making
of
conclusions
.
General
(common)
antropogenios
(human)
loading
(pressing)
on
meadow
of
Panskoe,
and
consequences
of
that
.
Course of excursion
Children,
we
went
to
the
meadow,
which
is
situated
near
the
river
of
Forest
Voronezh,
or
that
is
meadow,
flooded
by
river
water
in
every
year
.
How
you
think,
why
that
meadow
has
special
character
or
features?
-
Because
the
meadow
near
the
river
constantly
flooded
by
water
.
Yes,
in
spring
the
exit
(go
out)
of
river
water
occurs
far
from
coast
on
the
territory
of
meadow
of
Panskoe
(during
disappear
of
snow)
.
In
connection
with
that,
separate
places
of
the
meadow
have
stronger
humidity,
and
therefore
as
result
of
that
to
become
marsh
(bog)
meadow
.
Children,
you
know
already,
that
typical
(common)
river
meadow
divides
into
parts
:
near
the
river
(the
coast),
central
part
and
remote
part
.
Look
on
the
space
(territory)
of
all
meadow
and
say
(tell)
me,
where
that
flooded
parts
of
river
meadow
are
situated
.
-
The
coast
of
river
is
closer
to
water
part
of
meadow,
the
more
wider
(big)
part
of
meadow
is
central
part,
and
the
more
far
lowest
part
(lowland)
of
meadow
is
remote
constantly
marsh
part
of
meadow
.
Good
fellow,
you
well
understand
the
structure
of
the
river
meadow
.
Children,
pay attention (
note
)
on color scale (spectrum) of wider central part of meadow, dried from river water. What color groups of plants i
t is possible to allocate
(distinguish) on area
of meadow
?
-
Green, yellow, white,
in some places dark blue and red.
Yes, central part of river meadow
is characterized most by fertile soils and a significant variety of plants
(vegetations)
. Among them it is possible to allocate
(distinguish) four economic
-
valuable groups: cereals, leguminous, a sedge, different grass
. How you think,
what color background
make
cereals and a sedge ?
-
Green.
Correctly, it is the basic background of a meadow. Then what plants
(vegetations)
can make a yellow background?
-
Dandelions.
Yes, but except for dandelions, the bright yellow background of a meadow is caused by flowering of buttercups (creeping, caus
tic
).
The white
background is frequently submitted by such plants as the
cor
dial
, and dark blue and red colors -
by leguminous and complexflower, which
will be learned (found out) by you during research.
Here, children, you can feel this beauty of Russian open meadow space. In forming of the wide, natural, higher spiritual char
act
er of Russian nation is played
(took place) the big role
our nature. Still
the poet S.
Yesenin in the verses was admired by the native land:
Goy, yo
u, Russia, my native,
Huts -
in copes of an image …
To not see the end and edge -
Only blue sucks eyes.
The beauty
of Russian nature was sung also by the author I.
A.
Bunin:
In shine of fires, behind mirror of glasses,
Magnificently dear flowers blossom,
Their thin smells are gentle and thin,
Leaves and stalks are full of beauty.
Children
, you do not represent, as Bunin I.
A.
subtly felt the native nature:
As fields smells, -
fresh grasses,
Meadows cool breath!
From haymakings and oak groves I catch a fragrance in it
(him).
Look, what groups of plants (vegetations) are characteristic for the river coast and remote marsh part of meadow?
-
A reed, water and marsh (swamp) grasses
.
Yes, children,
these places are characterized by high humidity, therefore on their area moistureloving plants grow.
So, you have got acquainted with structure and character of vegetation in river meadow
of Panskoe
. Now we should carry out (leading)
our
studies purpose and research problems. But we also know
, that
during our investigation work we must be very
cautiously
.
First we shall write down in field diaries today's date and a place of research.
Children,
it is necessary to fix climatic features and account them during research. For this task
it is necessary to be divided into 3 groups, in e
ach group will be the main (chief)
person
,
responsible for work.
The first group
defines
(determines) time of research and temperature of air.
The second group
defines
(determines) force and speed of a wind on scale
of Bophort, which will be given to them.
The third group
defines
(determines) degree of cloudy
weather
on 10
-
mark system.
Scale of Bophort
Mark
Speed of wind
Feather for estimation of a wind force
Speed of wind
, m
/
sec
0
Calm
Leaves (vegetation) on trees do not change (not vibrate), the smoke rises vertically from pipes.
0
1
Silent
The smoke deviates a little, but the wind is not felt.
1
-
2
2
Easy
Leaves (vegetation) on trees wave, the wind is felt.
1
-
3
3
Weak
The small branches shake on trees, appreciable feeling (sensation) of a wind.
3
-
5
4
Moderate
Branches of average size shake on trees. It is kicked up dust.
5
-
7
5
Fresh
Thin trunks and thick branches shake on trees, the ripples on water is formed.
8
-
10
6
Strong
Thick trunks of trees shake.
10
-
12
7
Powerful
The big trees shake, to go against a wind difficultly.
12
-
15
Definition of degree of cloudy weather
:
It is make visually. If the sky cloudless or there are one or several small clouds on sky, the cloudy weather
is considered equal 0 mark. At cloudy weather
equal 10 marks, all sky is closed by clouds. If clouds cover 1/10, 2/10, 3/10 parts of a firmament, cloudy weather
is considered to accordingly 1, 2, 3 marks.
Work should pass (leading) silently and no more than 10 minutes. All data it is necessary write down in a diary.
And now, crossing a meadow, we shall pass (go) on its distant (remote) part. At this route it is necessary to note the feedin
g (
take food) and flying up of Shorebirds. But you know, as far as these birds are sensitive to presence of the person, is especial redshank (Tringa)
, which flying up on distance more than of
200 m
etres
up to the observer. We should not cause alarm at all and anxiety to birds, therefore you now prepare the binoculars and be ready
to observe
the birds
from far (remote) distance. A point of rise
(flying up) and places of feeding
(take of food)
of Shorebirds (Charadrii)
try to remember, keep in memory
, for that then to take tests (samples) on this place.
So, we begin a route. Here you already see
, that
the pair of Shorebirds has fl
ying
up
from a place of feeding
(take of food)
(sh
allow water of the river
). Hear their disturbing voices?
-
Tyu
-
li
, Tyu
-
li, Tyu
-
li
…
Yes, melodious, lingering as if the flute sings. All the same we have disturbed (worry) them. On a voice it is possible to define(determine), that it Shorebirds from group (family) of Ulit
. Look, is there at them
the white plumage as
a sharp corner
on a back at flight ?
-
Yes, between wings as a sharp white corner.
And what color of a leg
s
and a beak?
-
Bright red.
Children
, it
means
redshank (
Tringa totanus
L.)
. Look, one more distinctive attribute (feature) of redshank -
white mirrors (places) on wings (white wave feathers), and also under the
wings
is
white.
Pay attention
(note) to a harmonous body
of redshank
, his
(its) characteristic flight. How you think, what his
(its) size?
-
Probably, big.
Yes, at flight the Shorebirds seem mor
e big,
th
an
natural size. In reality
, redshank
is
little more
,
than thrush
. Probably, it were male and female, though sexual dimorphism (difference) is absent, and female usually differs more light color of feathers
. You have seen, what color
at plumage of redshank
?
-
Brown.
Yes, brownish with many dense spots.
At
people, still long since, redshank
is named "red legs" and
is defined
(determined)
by
red "
boots
" and white under wings
.
Now this bird is brought in the red book of the Tambov area
as a disappearing species
. We find out the reasons of it later.
Redshank
occupy such crude
(river) meadows, as ours meadow
of Panskoe, where can be the grassy bogs
(marshes)
, boggy
(swamp) f
resh
(stale) water reservoirs.
Nests
there are
in more or less dense water or marsh grass, usually cover
ing by dr
ied leaves (vegetation) of cereals, sedge
. After exit of nestlings from eggs, on a nest they are cautious and at danger
it is usual they leave (abandon) the nest
. At anxiety redshank subject the infringer to mental attack, exhausting his(its) by sharp annoying shouts
(calls)
.
Redshank actively pursue
b
irds
of prey
and crows
. Nestlings
keep
(living)
in places
of crude
grass (humidity)
with p
uddles
. Nestlings "
rise on a wing
" (beginning of flying)
in the age of about one month. As a whole the nested period is very stretched
(very
wide
), that is many pairs of birds make repe
tition in
laying instead of victims.
Many individuals of redshank fly
t
o the south early, in July.
During our w
inter
(in west Russia), redshank there are
in the south of Europe, in Africa, Southern Asia, Australia. But redshank are adhered to a place of their nesting and constant
ly
come back
to nesting places
, if conditions of a life do not vary
(not change)
. Therefore
we,
people
(human, person),
must
keep
(preserve)
ecological conditions
of biocenose (meadows)
, in order that redshank could return to our native territory again and again and to
compose the
integrity (unity) of biocenose (ecological system).
Children,
stop
here
.
Look,
almost
above
us
the
bird
fly,
also
related
to
Shorebirds
.
-
By
dark
color
?
Yes,
what
its
voice
(call)
you
hear
?
-
Chui
-
vi,
chui
-
vi,
chui
-
vi
…
Already
on
the
voice
(call)
can
to
definite
(determinate),
that
is
a
lapwing
(
Vanellus
vanellus
L
.
)
.
In
our
territory
a
lapwing
is
common
(constant)
bird
during
long
time,
and
it
become
the
native
bird
for
us
.
Look
on
his
(its)
flight
.
What
form
(figure)
its
(his)
wings
?
-
The
wings
are
not
long
and
some
round
at
the
ends
.
Yes,
by
that
feature
a
lapwing
differ
from
other
representatives
of
Shorebirds
–
wider
wings,
round
at
the
ends
.
Pay
attention
(note)
on
color
of
plumage
on
bottom
parts
of
its
body
.
-
White
.
Yes,
black
body
and
white
sides
–
are
the
features
of
a
lapwing
.
We
come
up
(approach)
to
dried
meadow
with
many
small
hillocks
–
is
common
(constant)
place
of
a
lapwing,
and
there
are
many
pairs
of
a
lapwing
living
(inhabit)
.
If
we
now
closely
approach
(come
up)
to
place
of
its
(his)
nesting,
then
we
can
worry
(disturb,
trouble)
them
(it)
.
A
lapwing
can
expose
the
disturber
(infringer)
by
boreal
(trouble)
voice
(calls),
turning
(spin
round)
during
long
time
above
the
disturber
(infringer)
(a
psychical
attack)
.
Therefore
we
shall
not
be
to
trouble
a
lapwing,
and
we
shall
be
to
observe
the
birds
on
enough
distance
.
How
much
of
lapwing
individuals
you
can
see
(observe)
?
-
Six
.
Good,
remember
quantity
of
birds,
in
order
that
to
note
it
in
table
after
that
.
Pay
attention
(note),
in
what
part
of
dried
meadow
(having
many
small
hillocks)
a
lapwing
feed
(take
food),
where
its
take
food
is
more
big
and
frequently
.
And
in
that
places
of
meadow
we
shall
be
to
take
samples
of
invertebrate
animals
(very
accurately)
.
You,
probably,
note,
that
a
lapwing
(
Vanellus
vanellus
)
gives
possibility
for
approach
(come
up)
of
person
(human)
on
more
close
distance,
than
(in
differ
from)
redshank
(
Tringa
totanus
),
Look,
that
a
lapwing
differs
(distinguishes)
from
redshank
on
structure
of
body
(exterior),
but
although
they
(birds)
relate
to
one
suborder
(group)
of
Shorebirds
(Charadrii)
.
And
cause
of
that
–
is
different
ecological
conditions
of
their
habitats
(places
of
its
living)
.
But
about
that
we
shall
be
to
talk
later
.
Children,
look
more
attentive
(closely)
a
feeding
lapwing
(which
takes
food
on
meadow)
with
binoculars
.
What
you
see
on
head
of
a
lapwing?
-
Lock
(long
feathers)
.
Yes,
that
is
also
features
of
a
lapwing
.
At
young
lapwing
the
head
lock
of
feathers
is
more
short
and
light
.
And
pay
attention
(note)
on
back
part
of
a
lapwing
body,
on
color
of
body
back
.
-
Black
with
lustre
.
Yes,
lustre
of
plumage
at
a
lapwing
.
How
much
of
shades
the
lustre
includes?
-
Greenish,
blue,
purple,
partly
violet,
sometimes
grey
…
Good,
children
.
The
shades
of
lustre,
possibility,
can
to
account
up
to
indefinitely
(endless)
–
shades
is
much
(many),
but
basic
of
them
(it)
you
saw
(distinguished)
.
A
lapwing
comeback
(returns)
to
our
native
territory
in
spring
early,
than
many
other
birds
–
usually
at
thawing
of
snow
on
meadows,
fields,
open
spaces
.
Therefore
at
people
(human)
were
forming
saying
:
“Shorebird
fly
from
sea,
lead
out
the
spring
from
shutting”
.
A
lapwing
is
nested
on
meadows,
marshes
(swamps)
with
low
grass,
arable
lands,
therefore
ecological
conditions
of
our
meadow
of
Panskoe
enough
suitable
(advantageous)
for
a
lapwing
(
Vanellus
vanellus
)
.
A
lapwing
has
interest
marriage
plays
–
turn
up
(somersaults)
in
air
at
flight
with
s
harp
turns
,
down
and
up
flying
.
Pairs
of
lapwing
nets
not
far
from
each
other
.
Nest
is
situated
on
the
soil
(ground)
–
small
pit
is
covered
by
grass
.
On
dried
meadow
with
many
small
hillocks
the
nests
easy
to
mask
(hide),
therefore
that
is
optimal
(advantageous)
place
for
nesting
(living)
.
At
laying
of
eggs
usually
is
4
eggs
with
spots,
arranged
by
sharp
ends
inside
–
as
asterisk
.
Crows,
seagulls
and
birds
of
prey
furiously
drive
away
.
Not
seldom
the
nests
is
ruined
under
the
hoofs
of
cattle
(we
also
account
now
that
factor),
from
agricultures
techniques,
at
flooded
by
river
water
.
Birds,
which
lost
nest,
make
laying
of
eggs
again
.
Young
birds
all
together
go
to
south
in
middle
of
summer
.
In
our
winter
a
lapwing
spent
(go)
on
Mediterranean
(Sea),
Asia
.
A
lapwing
is
very
attracted
to
places
of
past
nesting
and
return
to
that
territory
from
one
year
to
another
(next)
year
.
Also,
in
spite
of
seeming
big
size
of
a
lapwing,
it
(he)
only
as
size
of
dove
(pigeon)
.
O, children, look faster, that the brown bird in zigzag fashion flies up. Listen … what sound?
-
Crackling.
Yes, the sound is issued by vibrating feathers of a tail … as if bleating.
These are distinctive attributes of plover (
Galinago galinago
L.): after ris
ing
at flight, some first
meters it
(he) flies directly
,
then passes
(way)
to fast zigzag flight. Have noted a point of his(its) ris
ing at flight
?
-
Boggy (marsh) meadow (having many small hillocks)
.
Well. There we too shall take tests
(samples of invertebrate animals)
and we shall note features of ecological conditions of a plover habitat.
Pay attention
(note)
to a beak, to
color
of plumage?
-
A beak is long, plumage brown, speckled.
Yes, color
is a speckled, bottom surface
(part of body)
of wings are striped.
Plover
return (fly
comeback
) in middle of thawing of a snow and soon
reveal itself by marriage plays
. Their "bleating" are audible all day and night. The nest
is well latent
(mask, hide)
in crude (swamp) hillocks
, complex
of a sedge. Female makes laying of eggs
is dense, flutter out almost from under legs
(foots)
of disturber
(infringer,
who trouble it) and quickly departs
(fly)
away; or female makes falls in a grass, somewhere in some distance from a nest and
is not remove
d (not go) from nest
often, it (she) not show the anxiety
to disturber
. Adults in the middle of summer
of year have gradual full change of
feather
s
, and they keep
(preserve)
itself in remote places.
Plover
f
ly away
on
the south at the end of a summer
of yea
r
, separate birds can fly
to south late up to frosts. Winter
ing (during our winter)
in Africa.
Now, children, write down
the birds, which we saw (observed), in account table:
Habitats
Birds
Redshank
(
Tringa totanus
)
Lapwing
(
Vanellus vanellus
)
Plover
(
Galinago galinago
)
Shallow water of the river
2
individuals
Dried meadow with many small hillocks
6
individuals
Marsh meadow with many small hillocks
1
individual
So,
children,
the
first
stage
of
our
investigation
work
is
finished
.
At
the
following
stage
we
should
estimate
ecological
conditions
of
Shorebirds
habitats
.
For
now
it
is
possible
to
have
a
rest
.
Please
,
sit
down
.
Look
around
(on
surrounding
nature)
-
what
contrast
:
the
sated
bright
-
blue
clear
sky,
juicy
-
green
spaces
of
a
meadow
…
It
is
beautiful
.
Listen
to
a
rustle
of
a
grass,
whiff
of
a
wind,
hum
of
insects
…
Isn't
it
splendid?!
At
once
you
feel
a
difference
between
city
(town)
and
the
real
nature,
you
are
being
filled
by
something
positive,
encouraging
.
Only
you
shall
be
accurate
(neat)
and
silent
.
Children, you took album sheets
and color pencils
(
before excursion I told
to you
about these
). Take out
it
and draw
(painting),
w
hat you see around
(surrounding nature)
(15
-
20 min)
. And then, at school
(institute)
, we shall lead
(shall carry out) competition for choice
of the best figure (drawing) of the nature.
By the way, how you think, how
meadow was formed with many small hillocks
on which we are situated now
? What itself represent these hummocks
(hillocks)
?
-
…
Actually or in reality, that is formation of cereals (
as oats), and they densely grow.
They grow on the dense and humid ground (soil), consisting of fine
(small)
particles. Complex of the cereals
occurs on a surface of ground
(soil)
, and their lateral
branches grow vertically upwards. In result
, dense interlacing are formed
from close arranged (touched)
to each other stalks and leaves
of grass (
cereals
)
. And from year to year these dense interlacings of vegetation
form a hummock
s (hillocks)
.
So, children
, we start
(begin) the following stage of work. As our researches have serious character, then we as true scientists, should play and serious roles. In the beginning of excursion you were already divided into 3 groups on 2
-
4 persons
in each
. Responsible for work in these groups will be the professors
,
knowing performance (carrying out, leading) of all kinds of works and their registration. The professor should supervise work of group, observe (keep up) its
(her) quality. To argue with professors, to evade from their tasks it is impossible.
Other person in each of groups will be the assistant to the professor, him "the right hand", i.e. the helper. His duty -
correct registration of tests (samples, which will be to take). The rested others persons of groups are experts on difficult questions -
only they are capable to take tests (samples) qualitatively, professionally. And, the professor and his assistants should participate in work directly, not only the control of work.
The appeal (relations) to each other only by name and patronymic is must be. Noise, fuss, negative mutual relations are not supposed. Work only on a basis of respect
, mutual understanding and trust.
The task
will be given to each group
according to parameters
of the certain ecological factor
:
1 group
-
an estimation of parameters of the abiotical (physical)
factor (ground
or soil
, water).
2 group
-
an estimation of parameters of the biotical (alive) factor (vegetation, invertebrate
animals).
3 group
-
an estimation of parameters of the anthropogenous (human) factor (pasture of cattle, character of land making by human
, visiting of a meadow by the person
or human
).
Cards with the description of a technique of taking of sampl
es
are given to professors
,
who notify the assistants
,
how
to make out
(to registrate)
the data, and they notify
the experts
, how
to take tests
(samples)
.
Remember, that all should pass
(go, leading) cautiously, because
a
ll around alive, as we
(human, person). So, the first point of research (investigation) -
dried meadow with many small hillocks. We start
(begin)
to work.
Abiotical (physical)
factors
Card № 1. An estimation of humidity of ground (soil
).
On scale of Ramenskiy
:
Mark
1
: the ground
(soil)
is dry, not cool (cold) for ha
nds. If s
and
, then is loose, and if clay -
is brought down in dense little bits
Mark
2
: ground (soil) is fresh, slightly cool for
hands. Attached to ground
(soil)
the filtering paper is humidified.
Mark
3
: ground (soil) is humid
(wet)
, it is appreciable cool (cold) for
hands, humidifies the filtering paper pressed down to soil
.
Mark
4
: ground
(soil) is very
crude
(swamp)
, to the touch is cold. The enclosed ordinary paper soaks the water through.
Mark
5
: the ground (soil) wet
(strong humid)
, shines
from
water
, which covers it, fluidity is being found out
(revealed)
, is not
being rolle
d (not form bits).
Card № 2. An estimation of mechanical structure of ground (soil)
(from Kachinskiy, 1985):
1) Clay
soil
: the soil weight (mass) with the big work is rub on a palm
of hand
, in a dry condition
is firm, in damp
(humid)
-
viscous, plastic and at rolling it
forms thin long "
sausage
"
,
which at bending in a ring does not break
2) Loamy
(subclay) soil
: the ground
(soil)
is rub (massage) by hand without effort, are well visible the small particles (as at sand)
, in a dry kind is rather dense, in damp
(humid, crude)
-
is plastic, but "
sausage
" at bending in a ring breaks;
3) Subs
andy
soil
: the ground
(soil)
is rub
(massage) without effort, sandy particles prevail, at drying it form the fragile bits
, in "
sausage
" is not being roll
ed
;
4) Sandy
soil
: the ground (soil) will consist exclusively from separate particles
, in a dry condition is pour (is loose
)
, in damp
(water, humid)
-
fluid weight
(mass)
.
Biotical (alive)
f
actors
Card №1. An estimation of height of vegetation (plants)
Measurement with the help of a ruler of five species of vegetation, prevailing on the given place of researche. Measurement of each species of plants to make not less than three times.
Card №2. An estimation of an abundance of vegetation
On a trial platform (by area of 5 m
2
) to make measurements with the help of a ruler of distance between plants not less than five times. To be guided by a scale:
Very abundant 5
-
25 sm
Abundant 25
-
50 sm
Abundant enough -
up to 1,5 m
The small number -
is more than 2 m
Individually are 2
-
5 plants Single (one copy) -
1 plant
Card №3. An estimation of an abundance of invertebrate animals
To make 10 times of strokes by an air net
(in circle form on long stick) on surface of soil (ground) (distance between ground or soil and network is 1
-
3 cm) -
5 strokes
to one side, and 5 strokes to another
side -
length of stroke to one side is 1 meter). It is must be so
,
in order that
shadows were not ahead (i.e. the sun should shine to
our face
)
. Collected
invertebrate animals
to place
(put)
in test tubes
(glass capacities)
, to close their by cotton wool and to sign a place of gathering
on a label
.
Anthropogenous
(human)
factors
To estimate on 5
-
mark scale the following criteria of anthropogenous
(human)
loading
(pressing)
(
from Okolelov
, 2000):
1. Remoteness
of
biotop (ecological place or birds
habitat) from anthropogenous
(human)
objects (
meters
)
:
1 mark
-
300
-
2000 4 marks -
20
-
50 2 marks -
100
-
300 5 marks -
0
-
20 3 marks -
50
-
100
Step
-
by
-
step measurements of distances
of territory
during excursion (at returning).
2. Character of land making by human
1 mark -
past arable land (
is
left on next year -
the rest) 4 marks -
arable land
2 marks -
a haymaking 5 marks -
vegetables
cultures
3 marks
-
a pasture
3. Attendance of a meadow by the person (human) (going number of people at one o'clock):
1 mark -
1
-
5 person
s
4 marks -
20 person
s
and 5
-
10 machines
2 marks -
6
-
10 person
s
5 marks -
25 person
s
and 10
-
15 machines
3 marks -
15 person
s
and 1
-
3 machines
4. Quantity (amount) of pasture cattle (if there is):
1 mark -
1
-
5 individuals
4 marks -
51
-
80 individuals 2 marks -
5
-
10 individuals 5 marks -
more than 81 individuals
3 marks -
11
-
50 individuals
Children, now we pass (go) to boggy (some marsh) meadow, which have many small hillocks. What shorebird
we have seen on that place
?
-
Plover
(
Galinago galinago
L.).
Yes, it is necessary to estimate parameters of ecological factors
of plover habitats
. Work will go also i
n groups and by the same principles: c
ards with techniques remain with you
,
by which you will be guided during
works. The only thing, that the second group will need to take tests (samples) of invertebrate animals from ground
(soil)
, because a plover
prob
ed a substratum
(he penetrated into the soil)
, he extract
ed (took)
from soil
the objects
of fodder (food)
. Therefore this group
of researchers receives additional methodical card
.
Bioltical (alive)
factors
Card №4. An estimation of an abundance of invertebrate animals
With the help of small shovel
to take the upper layer of ground
(soil)
(25x25 c
m and depth of 10 c
m). Those
invertebrate animals, which have found out
(revealed)
to place (put) in a test tube
(glass capacities)
, to close their by cotton wool and to sign a place of gathering
on a label.
And, at the end
, the last point of research
(investigation)
-
shallow water of the river, where it was fed (took food) what shorebird ? -
Redshank (
Tringa totanus
)
. Children
, it is a special territory point
(ecological place)
-
it is connected to water. Here it is necessary to be cautious doubly. We shall work in the most part on shallow water of river (on the river coast)
. Taking
of water tests (samples) of invertebrate animals
and measurement of a transparency of
river
water will be strictly supervised by teachers.
Abiotical (physical)
factors
Card №4. An estimation of a transparency of river water
Disk of S
е
ck
(a white disk of
a strong material with cord
) to lower(omit) in river water (on sh
allow water
, depth no more than 30 c
m) up to
becom
ing of it is not visibl
e -
and to fix this moment and to measure distance of a cord from water surface up to the ending of a seen
(visible) part of water
(that is up to white disk)
with the help of a ruler. The distance from our eyes up to disk of S
е
c
к should be identical at repeatability of experience.
Card №5. An estimation of the area of shallow river water
Visually to measure length and width of shallow river water, on basis of a projection of the known sizes of objects near the water
(
reed
, sedge
)
.
Also the second group
of researchers
(on biotical or alive factors) receives a new card about technique of taking
of water tests (samples) of invertebrate animals
, but the second group
gives a card № 3 (air
-
soil tests (samples) of invertebrate animals
).
Card №5. An estimation of an abundance of invertebrate animals
To make 6 times of strokes by
a water net
(the more dense network in form of circle on a stick)
(3 times of strokes -
for one
side, 3
times of strokes -
in another
side, where the length of one stroke is 1 meter
) on shallow river water (depth no more than 30 c
m). With the help of tweezers
(pincers)
to place
(put) of invertebrate animals
in test tubes
(glass capacities)
, to close their by cotton wool and to sign labels (a place of gathering).
So, children, you carried out (did) made investigation work is very well. You were very clever researchers.
Those biological data
,
which you have written down in the diaries, we shall bring
(to write down) in
account
tables and then we shall make conclusio
ns
about
ecological conditions of shorebirds
habitat
s
.
Let's conclu
de, at the end, about
the general
(common) anthropogenous (human) loading (pressing) on meadow
of Panskoe
. Whether meadow is cattle
pasture?
-
Yes.
How many heads
(individuals)
of cattle you have counted up?
-
About 70 heads
(individuals)
.
Yes, children
, it is intensive pasture of cattle. How you think, what results
of the cattle pasture
?
-
…
At pasture, the animals (cattle)
trample
ground
(soil)
, its(her) top
(upper)
layers are condensed and become adverse for development of many plants
(vegetations) and animals
(invertebrates is specially)
. Also at pasture during long time,
animals
(cattle)
eat away more valuable plants (vegetations) and after that there are (left) "meadow weeds", unsuitable for the further feed (meal), i.e. a species specific variety of a meadow decreases, there can be a soil erosion.
Whether the haymaking is carried out (did by person) on a meadow?
-
Yes.
And what results of it?
As in a case of pasture of cattle, and in this case also there is a reduction of a species specific variety of plants
(vegetations)
and invertebrate
animals, so
also
the infringements
(breach) of stability exist in given (investigated by us) biocenose or in ecological system (meadow). The ground (soil) is dried up and exhausted, because with hay a plenty of mineral substances is irrevocably carried away.
These anthropogenous (human) factors also indirectly influence and on the Shorebirds,
because they
influence an abundance of invertebrate
animals
through a condition of ground
(soil)
and vegetations. And an abundance of fodder objects
(food of birds)
-
the most important factor for birds. We shall still be convinced in that and discuss it
.
More of that,
the person (human) carries out
(makes)
direct influence on the Shorebirds (Charadrii)
. How you think, what
influence?
-
Anxiety
.
Yes, and also
frequently pasture of cattle gives (makes)
the
destruction
(death) of nestlings of birds, as nests of the Shorebirds
are located on the ground
(soil)
.
Conclusion
On
the
basis
of
the
analysed
literature,
and
on
the
base
of
a
general
(common)
characteristic
of
the
ecological
(harmless)
personality
,
of
stages
of
its(her)
forming
,
the
program
of
ecological
education
(ecological
upbringing)
has
been
made
and
was
shown
partly
in
the
form
of
biological
circle
(section)
on
studying
of
ecology
of
birds
of
native
territory
.
The
high
ecological
culture
is
capable
to
be
is
formed
only
at
direct
dialogue
(contact,
communicate)
with
the
nature
.
This
contact
in
full
degree
is
carried
out
(done)
by
such
forms
of
educational
activity,
as
excursion
and
studies
-
investigation
work
.
Thus
,
it
is
important
to
take
into
account
harmonious
development
of
all
three
spheres
of
the
person
ality
of
the
pupil
s
or
students
(
sensual,
intellectual,
will
power
)
in
relation
to
the
nature
.
Joint
interaction
of
products
(results)
of
development
of
the
given
spheres
in
structure
of
the
person
ality
(the
emotional
-
psychological
culture,
scientific
outlook
(views
or
consciousness)
,
ecological
skills
and
experience
)
promote
(stimulate)
the
becoming
of
ecological
consciousness
and
the
ecological
(
harmless
)
person
ality
as
a
whole
,
which
is
the
carrier
(possessor)
of
high
ecological
culture
.
For
ecological
education
(ecological
upbringing)
has
great
value
(significance)
and
influence
the
ecological
person
ality
of
the
teacher
(pedagogue
)
.
T
he
teacher
makes
the
carries
(transfers)
of
the
basic
educational
influence
on
the
person
ality
of
pupils
(students)
,
to
be
exact
-
the
personality
of
the
teacher
has
influence,
a
degree
of
personality
development
,
good
character
(kind
consciousness),
erudition
(education
)
.
The
special
attention
is
necessary
to
give
to
development
of
creative
activity
of
pupils
(students
),
their
independence
and
initiative
and,
as
result,
pay
attention
on
forming
of
an
active
vital
position
.
This
is
promoted
(stimulated)
by
such
forms
of
training
(learning,
teaching,
studying),
as
discussion,
debates,
roles
plays
or
imitation
plays
(games
),
which
allow
to
carry
out
(lead)
a
principle
of
humanism,
of
democratization,
of
an
individual
approach
,
which
is
necessary
both
in
educational
(studies)
processes
,
and
in
processes
of
upbringing
at
whole
,
and
in
particular,
during
form
ing
of
high
ecological
culture
of
the
person
ality
of
pupils
(students)
.
L
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eds
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I
.
S
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L
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.
The appendix. Description of lesson of biological circle (section) on a theme (subject): "Registration (put into shape) of results of excursion and investigation, and their discussion: influence of abiotical (physical)
, biotical (alive)
and anthropogenous (human) factors on the Shorebirds"
The purpose (goal
): to registrate (to put into shape), to account the results of our research or investigation, and after that to discuss the results.
Problems (tasks
):
Educational
: to study connection (relation) of the Shorebirds with
(to)
abiotical (physical), biotical (alive) and anthropogenous (human) factors of environment
, and to reveal the basic ecological conditions of environment
for the Shorebirds.
Upbringing (rising
)
: the becoming of scientific and ecological outlook
(views, knowledges, consciousness)
; patriotic education (studying of ecology of native
territory); labour
ing (working)
education (skill or abilities to endure (to stand, to bear)
the physical and intellectual loadings
or intensive work
); aesthetic education (competition
(choice)
of figures (drawings) about the nature); education of creative thinking (
at the
discussions, debates
, which are formed or organized
).
Developing
: development of intellectual (cognition) sphere (the analysis, synthesis, comparison, generalization, skills logically to think and to make
conclusions); emotional sphere (cognitive interest, astonishment
, positive emotions); will
power sphere (activity, skill to operate
(control)
the emotions, skills to make out
(to registrate)
research
or investigation
work).
Methods of training
(learning, teaching
)
:
verbal (conversation with elements of an explanation, story or tale
), visible
(working
or account
tables, schedules, figures), practical (registration of research or investigation work, discussion of it
s
results)
.
Type of training
(learning, teaching
)
:
part
ly
-
search, problem.
The plan of lesson
: 1. Registration of results of research
or investigation
(
i
n groups)
2. Drawing up
(composing)
of the report of research and distribution of the report among members in
each group
3. Competition
(choice)
of orators
(speakers)
4. Debate: what parameter or the factor of an environment is more important for
the Shorebirds
?
5. A conclusion on the basis of literature references.
6. Competition (choice) of figures (drawing) about the nature.
Children,
today
(now)
the
purpose
of
lesson
-
processing
(registration)
and
discussion
of
results
of
our
research
(investigation)
on
ecology
of
the
Shorebirds
.
This
work
not
less
serious,
than
what
we
have
done
on
a
meadow
of
Panskoe
during
excursion
.
Moreover,
it
(work)
is
connected
to
the
big
analysis
of
the
facts,
with
forming
of
hypotheses
and,
probably,
with
opening
(discovering,
revealing)
of
the
new
facts
.
Therefore
work
is
interest
ing
,
will
demand
creativity,
activity,
persistence
on
work
(in
process)
.
You
remember,
that
you
carry
out
(play)
or
you
have
roles
of
the
important
scientists
.
But
today
these
roles
will
have
a
little
exchange
of
places
among
you
.
The
one
,
who
was
the
professor
and
the
assistant
(function
of
which
to
registrate
and
to
control
work
,
to
observe
its
correct
course
)
-
they
begin
to
carry
out
(to
play)
or
have
a
role
of
experts
on
difficult
questions
(the
responsible
for
work
,
that
it
will
be
made
by
them),
and
experts
in
past
begin
to
carry
out
(to
play)
or
have
roles
of
professors
and
assistants
,
which
should
organize
work,
should
keep
up
(to
control)
its
performance
and,
certainly,to
participate
in
the
work
directly
.
So,
three
big
tables
(with
chairs)
(furniture)
are
placed
(it
stand
before
us)
.
The
first
group
sits
down
to
the
first
table
(furniture)
.
The
professor,
tell
please,
what
factor
you
investigated
on
a
meadow?
-
We
investigated
the
abiotical
(physical)
factor
,
which
has
influenc
e
on
the
Shorebirds
.
The
second
group
,
occupy
places
(sit
down)
-
your
table
(furniture)
the
following
.
The
professor,
what
factor
was
studied
by
your
group?
-
Our
group
studied
the
biotical
(alive)
factor
,
which
influences
on
the
Shorebirds
.
And,
at
last,
the
third
table
(furniture)
-
the
third
group
.
The
professor,
also
remind,
what
studying
of
the
factor
influencing
on
the
Shorebirds
,
you
were
engaged
(were
made
by
you)
?
-
The
anthropogenous
(human)
factor
.
Well
.
All
dates
(facts)
of
researches
(investigation),
collected
on
a
meadow,
are
brought
(are
written
down)
in
field
diaries,
now
they
-
on
your
tables
(furniture)
.
Our
problem
(task)
-
to
registrate
(to
put
into
shape)
the
data
(our
facts)
as
(in
form
of)
working
(account)
tables
.
You know, that each ecological factor has parameters, estimation of which you were engaged (were made by you). Therefore now to professors
of each group shall be given
cards with forms
(figures
)
of working
(account)
tables
. It is necessary to fill
(
to write down
)
in them the data
(our facts)
from field diaries
.
Directly experts (specialists
) on difficult questions will be to engage
(
will make, registrate
)
in this work
. Thus the assistant
should help
, and the professor
should control, keep up
the
quality of work, closely
(attentively) look
for
mistakes
(their correction)
. The relation
to each other former -
by name and patronymic
. Work only on the basis of mutual understanding, respect, trust
. We start
(we begin)
.
Course of lesson
Abiotical (physical) factors
Card № 1. Estimation of humidity of soil
Habitats of the Shorebirds
Quantity of marks
1. Dried meadow with many small hillocks
1
2. Marsh (boggy) meadow with many small hillocks
4
3. Shallow water of river
5
Card
№
2
.
Estimation
of
mechanical
structure
of
soil
Habitats of the Shorebirds
Type of soil
1. Dried meadow with many small hillocks
Subsandy
2. Marsh (boggy) meadow with many small hillocks
Loamy (subclay)
3. Shallow water of river
Clay soil
Card № 3. Estimation of density (solidity) of soil
(distance between one end of aluminium wire and place of its bending at penetrating of wire to (in) the soil by our hand)
Habitats of the Shorebirds
Density of soil (cm)
1. Dried meadow with many small hillocks
1,5
2. Marsh (boggy) meadow with many small hillocks
10
3. Shallow water of river
25
Card
№
4
.
Estimation
of
transparency
of
river
water
Habitats of the Shorebirds
Transparency of river water (cm)
1. Dried meadow with many small hillocks
–
2. Marsh (boggy) meadow with many small hillocks
–
3. Shallow water of river
3
Card
№
5
.
Estimation
of
the
area
of
shallow
river
water
Habitats of the Shorebirds
The area of shallow river water (m)
1. Dried meadow with many small hillocks
–
2. Marsh (boggy) meadow with many small hillocks
–
3. Shallow water of river
10 х 5
Biotical (alive) factors
Card № 1
.
Estimation of height and abundance of vegetations (plants)
Habitats of the Shorebirds
Height
(
cm
)
Abundance
1. Dried meadow with many small hillocks
15
abundant
2. Marsh (boggy) meadow with many small hillocks
17
abundant
enough
3. Shallow water of river
35
single
Card
№
2
.
Estimation
of
abundance
of
invertebrate
animals
Habitats of the Shorebirds
Habitats of invertebrate animals
Systematical group (taxon) of invertebrates (name)
Quantity of invertebrate animals (sample size), n
1. Dried meadow with many small hillocks
Grass
Biwingers (Fly)
Beetles (Bugs)
Bedbugs
Spiders
5
2
3
3
2. Marsh (boggy) meadow with many small hillocks
Surface of ground (soil)
Biwingers (Fly)
Water Beetles (Bugs)
Spiders
3
3
2
Thickness of soil (ground)
Rain (rings) worms
(Annelidae)
Larvas
2
2
3. Shallow water of river
Water and silt
Water Beetles (Bugs)
Dragonfly (larva)
Mosquito (larvas)
4
3
5
Thickness of water
Rain (rings) worms (Annelidae)
3
Antropogenous factors
Card № 1.
Estimation of
antropogenuos loading (pressing) on habitats of the Shorebirds (in marks)
Habitats of the Shorebirds
Remoteness of antropogenuos objects
Character of land making by human
Going (
a
ttendance
)
by people (person, human)
Quantity of pasture cattle
1. Dried meadow with many small hillocks
1
2 + 3
1
4
2. Marsh (boggy) meadow with many small hillocks
1
3
–
3
3. Shallow water of river
2
3
1
2
So, children, it is made by you. Good fellows. Now each group should present the report on the research (investigation). Using working (account) tables, it is necessary to make a general characteristic of ecological factors, which influence on all
3 kinds (species) of the Shorebirds (Charadrii) : redshank (
Tringa totanus
)
, a lapwing
(
Vanellus vanellus
)
, plover (
Galinago galinago
)
. To draw (to make) conclusions, what factor in what habitat influences birds in more
degree
. Also it is necessary to make the schedule
,
where the given dependence
(between birds and factors)
is will be shown. Cards with forms of account tables are given to professors. The assistant registrates (puts into form) them (writes down the facts)
, and experts make the text of the report. After that the professor, being coordinated (according to) with all members of group
, distributes
(allocates) the report among members of group
,
and after that they will be to come (to go out) by turns before us
and to tell to all about the conclusions, sketching
(drawing, show) of
schedules on a black
board. We start (we begin) drawing up
(making)
of schedules and conclusions.
Abiotical (physical) factor
Card № 1. Estimation of humidity of soil at Shorebirds habitats
Conclusion:
on dr
ied meadow with many small hillocks
the lowest humidity of ground
(soil), on sh
allow water of river
-
the highest humidity of ground
(soil)
. So, the lapwing (
Vanellus vanellus
) lives on ecological places with low humidity of ground (soil), and redshank (
Tringa totanus
)
-
on the contrary, with high humidity of ground (soil). The plover (
Galinago galinago
) lives on ecological places with the humidified ground
(soil)
.
Card №2.
Estimation of mechanical structure of soil (ground) at
Shorebirds habitats
.
Conclusion:
the lapwing (
Vanellus vanellus
) lives on places with subsandy ground (soil), the plover
(
Galinago galinago
) –
with loamy (subclay) soil (ground), and redshank (
Tringa totanus
) –
with clay soil (ground).
Card №3. Estimation of density (solidity) of soil (ground) (cm)
Conclusion:
the lapwing (
Vanellus vanellus
) lives in ecological places with the big density (solidity) of ground (soil), redshank (
Tringa totanus
) –
with low density (solidity) of ground (soil), and plover (
Galinago galinago
)
–
with average density of ground (soil).
Biotical (alive) factors
Card
№
1
.
Estimation
of
height
and
abundance
of
plants
(vegetations)
at
Shorebirds
habitats
Conclusion
: the lapwing (
Vanellus vanellus
) lives on ecological places with low, but plentiful (abundant) vegetation (plants), the plover (
Galinago galinago
)
can lives on ecological places with low
, not plentiful
(not abundant) vegetation (plants), redshank (
Tringa totanus
)
prefers
ecological
places with rare vegetation
(plants),
which can be high.
Card №2. Estimation of abundance of invertebrate animals at Shorebirds habitats
Dried meadow with many small hillocks
Marsh (boggy) meadow with many small hillocks
Shallow water of river
Conclusion:
the lapwing (
Vanellus vanrllus
) lives on ecological place, where there are most of all Biwingers (Fly)
and Bedb
ugs, but also there are B
ugs
(Beetles)
and S
piders
,
whom it(he) can eat
(feeding)
. The plover (
Galinago galinago
) can eat
(feeding)
B
ugs
(Beetles)
and earthworms
(rain worms -
Annelidae)
, and redshank (
Tringa totanus
)
-
take food such as larvas of mosquitoes
(worms)
and water bugs
(Beetles)
.
Antropogenous (human) factor
Conclusion
: the lapwing (
Vanellus vanellus
) lives on ecological places with higher anthropogenous (human) loading (pressing), redshank (
Tringa totanus
) -
with the lower anthropogenous (human) loading (pressing)
at most ecological places (but at whole , redshank can endure (stand) the average anthropogenous loading
, influence)
, the plover (
Galinago galinago
)
-
with average anthropogenous loading
(press, influence)
.
So,
children
.
Now
representatives
of
the
first
group
will
start
(begin)
to
tell
to
us
conclusions
about
abiotical
(physical)
factor
,
which
influenc
e
on
the
Shorebirds
.
The
professor
of
this
group
declares
sequence
of
performance
at
blackboard
(
who
has
speech)
of
experts
on
difficult
questions
.
Each
of
them
by
turns
comes
(go
out)
before
us
,
draws
(makes)
the
schedule
on
a
black
board,
explains
i
t
(figure)
and
makes
the
conclusions
.
On
performance
(s
peech
)
of
one
person
5
minutes
are
given
.
And
the
other
persons
at
this
time
write
down
our
facts
in
account
table
on
the
ir
sheets
of
a
paper,
closely
(attentively)
listening
acting
(who
has
performance
and
speech)
.
Name of ecological factor
Lapwing (
Vanellus vanellus
)
Redshank (
Tringa totanus
)
Plover (
Galinago galinago
)
Humidity of soil
1
5
4
Mechanical structure of soil
Subsandy
Clay soil
Loamy (subclay)
Density (solidity) of soil
1,5
25
10
Height of plants (vegetations)
15
35
17
Abundance of plants (vegetations)
Abundant
Single
Abundant
enough
Abundance of invertebrate animals
Biwingers (Fly)
Beetles (Bugs)
Bedbugs
Water Beetles (Bugs)
Mosquito (larvas)
Beetles (Bugs)
Rain (rings) worms (Annelidae)
Antropogenuos factor
11
8
9
On the basis of this account table (which is generalized), we shall discuss ecological conditions
of Shorebirds habitats. For now closely
(attentively) we listen to lecturers
(speakers)
. Assistants
of
each group
will be jury and will be to estimate the report and performance of experts on difficult questions
by the following criteria
: -
c
orrectness of speech;
-
quality of p
resentation of represented schedules on a black
board;
-
proof (prove) of facts
, actors emotions at
performances(
at speech
).
It is estimated on a scale
:
1 mark
-
a lot of lacks (defects)
2 marks -
more advantages, than lacks (defects)
3 marks -
basically of advantage.
Estimations of jury should be fixed on sheets of a paper and then paper are given to teacher. The teacher on the basis of these estimations names the winner of competition (choice) of orators (of experts on difficult questions).
Children, having heard colleague
-
scientific, you already have the general (common) representation, what ecological factors influence on the Shorebirds (Charadrii).
Now let's discuss it. Each person expresses the own opinion on
questions:
•
How the ecological factors
,
investigated by us
,
can be connected to a way of Shorebirds life ?
•
Why the Shorebirds
choose places of habitats
with such special ecological factors?
•
As far as strongly the anthropogenous factor
influences
on
the Shorebirds
?
If someone disagrees with opinion of another -
is his right; but he should
respect
, account the
opinions of another
person, and should not impose (pressing)
the
own
ideas at all on ideas to another
person
.
So, children
, you are
good fellows. You have very actively shown the creative thinking; original
(interesting)
ideas have been stated
(are formed and told by you).
Let's make the conclusion from all
, that we
told. But we shall make it in an especial way. On tables
(furniture)
at you there are books (
atlas
-
determinants
of birds
, popular scientific editions)
,
in which you can find data
(facts)
on
(relation)
a way
s
of
Shorebirds
life. B
asing on these
literature
references and on our summary
(generalizing
table
)
(connection
or relation of factors and Shorebirds
)
,
you can make
a conclusion: what ecological factors influence on the Shorebirds
more strongly (i.e. what ecological conditions of an environment are necessary for Shorebirds l
ife
,
and what bring sharply negative value).
Children, remember, during rest (stay) on a meadow
of Panskoe (our excursion)
you drew
(painting)
the nature
on yours sheets of paper
? We now can lead
(carry out) competition (choice) on
(of)
the best of figures
(drawings, paintings)
. Though, certainly, it is impossible to tell, that one is better than another … in each of figures (drawings, paintings
) the individuality of personality, the own attitude to surrounding (individual features), the creativity of each person are reflected. Nevertheless, figures (drawings, paintings) are placed (fixed) at the stand (on the wall), you can pass (go) and closely (attentively) look of them (you can see, observe). Estimation of figures (drawings, paintings) by the following criteria
:
-
colors scale (spectrum)
-
a degree of "investment (giving) of soul" in drawing (figures, paintings)
-
skill to see feature of a structure of the nature.
As you already know, a 3
-
mark scale
:
1 mark -
a lot of lacks (defects)
2 marks -
more than advantages, than lacks (defects)
3 marks -
basically of advantage.
Thanks for attention!
All good!
Автор
Olesya Astakhova
Документ
Категория
Педагогика
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Теги
pupils, culture, forming, ecological
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