Forming of ecological culture of pupils in process of excursions (trips) and studies - investigations works Astakhova O. A. (student investigation) 2003. Introduction In connection with exist of ecological problems (antropogenious crisis) as a result of violation (infringement, breach) of balance between Nature and Human, the ecological upbringing (raising) and ecological education had been acquired the more significant . The purpose of ecological pedagogic and psychology has been become a forming of new mentality (way of thinking), ecological consciousness and ecological personality at whole . Such ecological personality must include in itself not only ecological knowledge's, skills (abilities), humane senses, but also ecological responsibility, ecological views, aspirations (tendency) to be in harmony with Nature , that are characteristic for higher ecological culture . Especially big deposit (contribution) in development of theory of ecological education and upbringing (raising) have carried in (brought in) are Zveryev I . D . , Zakhlebniy A . N . , Suravyegina I . T . , Mamyedov N . M . , Glazachyev S . N . , Bobilyeva L . D . Practical side (part) of ecological upbringing (raising) and ecological education are noticed by Streltsova V . B . , Bukin A . P . , Bogolyubov A . S . , Ridiger O . N . in their works . Series of excursions (trips) have been composed by Teplov D . A . and Titov E . V . Methods of realization (conducting) of studies - investigations works of pupils (students) are presented (opened, revealed) in works of Lunyak N . N . , Denisova S . I . , Kulyeva A . V . The unity (complex) of moral, patriotically and ecological upbringing (raising) and education, forming of psychical culture are contained in the greatest degree on works of Suhomlinskiy V . A . The purpose of our researches are represented by organization of a work about forming of ecological culture of pupils (students) in process of excursions (trips) and studies - investigations works (activity) . At achievement of the purpose had been decided the follow tasks (problems ) : 1 . To reveal (learn) theoretical material about forming of ecological culture of pupils (students), to notice psychology - pedagogical aspect (side, part) of problem . 2 . To reveal (learn) methods and forms of organization of excursions (trips) and studies - investigations works . 3 . To carry out (spent) diagnosis about the level of ecological culture of pupils (students) . 4 . To create (work out) organization of excursions (trips) and studies - investigations works . At studying of the level of ecological culture of pupils (students) had been used the method of questionnaire (answer to questions) . At creation (work out) of organization of excursions (trips) and studies - investigations works had been used wordy, graphically (visual), practical methods of teaching and such form of teaching, as lessons “Young ecologist”, subject - role and didactical (teaching) plays, discussion and debates, contests (competitions), conferences . Chapter I. Theoretical bases of form ing of ecological culture of pupils (students) 1.1. Form ing of ecological culture a s a psychology - pedagogical problem In Middle Ages , teachers - humanists already understood positive influence of the nature on development and formation of the person of the pupil . As opposed to scholastic schools, which were characterized by severe discipline, authoritarianness, an orientation on mechanical learning (remember) of a teaching material, humanists had faithful respect relation to the person of the child, aspired to develop inquisitiveness and interest to knowledge , noticed the great importance of development of physical and spiritual forces of the person (human) . Italian teacher - humanist Vittorino de - Feltre ( 1378 - 1446 ) has organized school inside of the nature and has named her(it) "The House of joy" . As against medieval schools in it(her) was many light and air , excursions in the nature was being made . French humanist Fransua Rable ( 1494 - 1553 ) considered pernicious to jag (learn by rote) all by heart . Training (teaching, studies) should be connected to surrounding reality - walks (trips) on fields and woods (forests) were being made, plants gathered and herbariums were being made, supervision in the nature were being carried out (spent) . Mastering (learn ing , remember) of knowledge had conscious character . Such education had been g i ve n development of multilateral and independent thinking at pupil, his(its) creativity and activity (Konstantinov, 1982 ) . Known French thinker Jean - Jacque Russo ( 1712 - 1778 ) was the sensationalist - considered, that there is nothing in our consciousness , that would not be received at means of sensations , through sense organs . He has brightly shown great value (significant) of education (forming) of ability to observation, keenness and activity of the child, importance for training (learning) his direct dialogue (communication, contact) with the nature and a life . All should be submitted to perception (recognition) of the child with the maximal presentation . In opinion of Russo, presentation (visual ) - the nature, a life . To develop physical, moral, intellectual spheres of the child, it is necessary to generate (forming) feeling (sence) of the nature in his person . The child, colliding (facing) with the nature, undoubtedly will understand , that is necessary to submit to its(her) laws (Konstantinov, 1982 ) . Really, without humanity and respect it is impossible to upbring (to educate) the humane and respecting person (human ), so it is impossible to generate (forming) and its(her) psychological culture , which is a bas e of all culture of the person (human) (and of ecological culture , including) . Especially big attention to forming of psychological culture was noticed by talented teacher V . A . Suhomlinskiy . The psychological culture consist of constant and intensive development of all spheres of the spiritual part (side) of the person (human) : emotional, aesthetic, willpower, creative . Suhomlinskiy V . A . noticed importance, that knowledge of elements (basis) of psychological (mental) culture spiritualized teenagers, which asserted (approved) in them optimism, belief in their forces . Work to begin with elementary feelings (senses ) . Pupils of fifth class (studies stage) have learned (revealed) concept about kinds of feelings (senses), and with the big interest they began to observe f or own feelings (senses) . Carried out (spent) special exercises on increase of sensitivity of sight and hearing , which have played (gave) the big role in form ing of culture of feelings (senses ) . During excursions (trips) and campaigns , teenagers distinguished shades of color of leaves of trees , grasses, the sky . They could see over ten shades of a blue sky - in different seasons, illumination by the sun and other factors . In a wood (forest), on coast of the river, at the sea, teenagers studied to distinguish shades of sounds . These exercises have played (gave) a huge role in development of feelness to subtleties of coloring (painting), sounds . Not finding in speech of words to name all shades, teenagers created the poetic names, that developed their creative activity . Teenagers experienced feeling of pleasure (joy), delight, admiration, surprise . The subtlety of perception (recognition ) gave forming of a subtlety of feelings (senses), developed noble human need (requirement) again and again to experience these feelings (senses ) ( Suhomlinskiy , 1979 ) . So from culture of visual and color sensations was formed the general (common) culture of perception (recognition ) , without which high - grade ecological culture to be generated (formed) cannot in any way . So, in order to have love (like) to the nature , to have to it(her) humanity, the respect and the responsibility , it is necessary first of all to see and feel her(it ) , for t hat the culture of perception (recognition ) is necessary . The culture of perception (recognition) give (forming) skill to perceive harmonious unity of all subjects of world around . Than is more delicate sensation and perception (recognition ), tha n the person (human) more sees and hears shades , tones and semitones in sur round ing world - then is more deeply expressed the personal emotional and aesthetic estimation of the facts, subjects, the phenomena (appearances) , event s , and then an emotional range is more widely , which characterizes higher spiritual culture of the person (human ) ( Suhomlinskiy , 1979 ) . Already in the childhood it is necessary to try (tendency, aspiration), that these sensations and feelings accompanied with process of knowledge of natural phenomena (appearances) . In adolescence it even more to amplifies . Each teenager should pass (go) long school of sensations and perception, which would develop at everyone a wide range of the feelings , accompanying process of knowledge, arising and developing during knowledge . Travel to the world of the nature open all riches of perception(recognition ) . It is difficult to find words , to express a boundless saturation of foliage in silent sunny days, especial in solar mornings after a rain or humid nights , when transparent air as if opens (reveals) new shades of coloring ( painting ) of a wood (forest) , garden, a meadow . Some teenagers found over seventy shades and transitions from green to emerald, light yellow, to dark blue, other children - above eighty . In sunny days after lessons, teenagers would like to go in a field, in a wood (forest), on coast of a pond to see and to be pleased (be glad) . During excursions, V . A . Suhomlinskiy frequently gave the task to children : draw (picture, image), that you want, that consider it necessary, that see around of itself . And children started (began) to look narrowly with the big attention at the nature, to its(her) shades, trying to represent surrounding on the sheets of a paper . V . A . Suhomlinskiy by such method developed culture of perception (recognition), creative activity, emotional self - expression of children . Before us opened the new surprising beauty of world around - beauty of open space . We observed a steppe area (distance, far) . Before us were laid the fields similar to the seas, hardly disturbed with waves . There were woods (forests), a s if green islands . We saw, how the space imposes tens of shades on fields and meadows, hills and coppices, on the villages stretched in valleys . We admired the most subtle transitions of colors - from light green up to dark - violet, from gentle - blue up to dense - dark blue . Dark blue - violet smoke in a distance (far) attracted us, covering edge (territory) of a wood (forest) on horizon . A valley behind a valley, a height behind a height, a wood (forest) behind a wood (forest) - all this lasted afar, as if the captivated bottom of a fairyland . Vision and experience of beauty of world around - one of the main sources of understanding of uniqueness and originality of the nature , its(her) value (significant) in creation of pleasure (joy) of life, beauty and eternity of a life ( Suhomlinskiy , 1979 ) . This emotional - aesthetic perception (recognition) of the nature of Paustovsk i y K . G . has named the sixth feeling (sense) or feeling (sense) of the nature . Such " the feeling (sense) of the nature " or culture of perception (recognition ) also is a basis of forming of ecological culture of the person (human) . Thus, forming of psychologica l, and together with it(her) and ecological cultures should pass (go) is realized (conscious ) . Children need to know about the person (human ) - about his(its) mentality (psychica), way of thinking and consciousness, about emotional, aesthetic, willpower and creative spheres (parts, sides) of a spiritual life . It is necessary to generate (to form) scientific views about physical and spiritual unity , about a material basis of mentality (psychical essence) . It is important to open (reveal) before young reason of person - that uplifts the human as the creator, spiritualized by high ideals, in comparison with all alive on a planet . There should be a understanding of the nature as source of positive feelings (sense ) and emotions, positive conditions in an organism of the person (human), that gives psychological culture and, first of all, psychological health, which is uniform (united, connected) with physical health ( Tischenko , 1997 ; Suhomlinskiy , 1979 ) . One of criteria of ecological culture is the motive to be in harmony with the Nature . How to generate (to form) this motive in the person of human ? To have such aspiration (tendency) , the person (human) should grow fond strong of the nature, to feel relationship, need (requirement) for dialogue (contact) with it(her) . A first step on a way to this - skill to see the nature (forming of culture of perception (recognition) about which it was already spoken) . The second step - comprehension of positive influence of the nature on a psychological condition of the person (human), that forms psychological culture . The person (human) always tries to act so, that to strengthen the positive feelings (senses ) . Therefore once having tested positive emotional experiences at dialogue with the nature, the person (human) again also will aspire again to this psychological condition, to interaction with the nature . At repeated experience of the positive feelings (senses), connected to the Nature, the person (human) gets love to it(her) - feeling (sense) of the self - expressed and deep attachment, an intimate inclination (Rostopshin, 2001 ) . It is important to start to form these two first and the most significant a step on a way to ecological culture (culture of perception (recognition) and psychological culture) since the early childhood . Psychologists explain influence of color on physical and psychological health of the person (human) . Each color can carry certain influence on an emotional and physiological condition of the person (human) . The combination of different forms, contrast of color increases serviceability (capacity for work) , it raises stability to stressful situations . Now it is possible to understand, why the person (human), l i ving on the nature , he senses vivacity, activity and many other positive emotions - he collides (faces) with the huge color scale (spectrum), which causes positive perception (recognition) by the central nervous system (Shergina, 1997 ) . Besides , reduced noise background, purer (cleaner) air , sated by phytoncides (particles of plants), and the general (common) microclimate of the nature also favorably influences a condition of nervous system of the person (human ) . Thus the person (human) gets spiritual or psychological health , which is characterized also by healthy way of thinking (wide, deep, positively directed) . Wisdom, force of Reason (thoughts) are necessary in mutual relations with the Nature , therefore psychological health and as following, healthy way of thinking are one of bases of ecological culture ( Kogay , 1999 ; Tischenko , 1997 ; Streltsova , 1985 ; Astaphyeva , 1998 ) . It is necessary to note, that criterion of psychological health is positive emotions, feelings (senses) of the person (human) , his positive psychological conditions and a positive orientation of the person (human) as a whole . Psychological health is necessary to keep and develop since the childhood - and, thus, to form at the child the positive attitude (relation) to surrounding (to people, to the person or human, in particular), to activity, to itself . Having a positive orientation , to the child will be simply to have positive relations and with the nature (Matrusov, 1984 ; Streltsova , 1985 ; Schurkova , 1998 ; Zveryev , 1984 ) . Especially significant has become communication with nature for development of childe personality, living in big town (city) . Rare appeared at closely contact with world of alive nature, townsman already in childhood lose that not recover (restoration) during follow years of further life : he hot knows the enjoy at observation of sunrise and sunset – and during all his life stays (remains) indifferent to beautiful of natural phenomena (appearances) . Appeared in the forest (wood), he (human) behaves sometimes very bad (coarsely, roughly, ruddy), he breaks, spoils all on his way (he is stronger, clever, “king of nature ”) – he (human) not has skills (abilities) to be kind (good), accurate, cautious (careful) in relation to nature, to become as “friend of nature” for human (person) is very difficult (Streltsova, 1985 ) . Scientists and pedagogies was convinced (affirmed), that only at direct closely contact (communication ) with nature , the person (human) began to relates to it (her) as to subject , but not relates as to object , on which can only to influence . Long time the human was in Nature by only one part (side) – biological (that is in results of evolution the human had been created (formed) by Nature) . And as biological creatures (essences), people influenced on Nature, but they not thought (conscious) about that . And now the human (person) has become new consciousness (ecological ), through of that he sees itself together with Nature , but not separate with it (her) . Wakes up spiritual (mental) relation to Nature – as to subject . The consciousness (understanding) is being formed, that Nature is source (origin) of biological (physical, material) essence and spiritual (psychological) essence of human (person ) (Kogay, 1999 ; Schurkova, 1998 ; Astaphyeva, 1998 ) . So, the Nature – part of the human (person), as the human (person) – part of the Nature . And the Nature is part of the human (person) double : biological component and spiritual (mental) component . For understanding ( conscious) of human (person), that the Nature is the greatest force , he must meets frequently and communicates with Nature . The human (person) must understands (conscious), that he only is reflection (repetition) of lows of this force – NATURE (Chernova, 2001 ; Voronkov, 1999 ; Suravyegina, 1994 ) . Higher ecological culture must include not only emotional - psychological culture , but also scientific knowledge's , ecological skills (abilities ) and ecological experience (Bobileva, 2001 ) . Human (person) must to be able to see the Nature in all it (her) interconnections (interrelations ) and interactions , he must to understand the lows of Nature , connecting all levels of organization of alive (biological) matter – from atomic, molecularly to level of organism, biosphere, planet and Universe . So, the human (person) must to be not only ecological educated , but also to be able globally (wider) to think (Suravyegina, 1994 ; Astaphyeva, 1998 ) . Certainly, not all give such scientific outlook (views) and ability (skill) of globally (wider) to think . And in this problem of modern natural ecological education, which strong to aspire decide leading pedagogies and scientists . Exist four basic aspects (tasks) of ecological education (Zveryev, 1984 ) : - scientific aspect (gives development of cognition relation to environment) ; - valuable aspect ( moral and aesthetical relations to environment) ; - normative aspect (the row or number of rules, norms, prohibitions of ecological character) ; - act aspect (kinds and ways of activity, directing to forming of cognition, practical and creation skills (abilities) of ecological character) . But in order to date aspects carry (give) effect in ecological bringing up (raising) and ecological education, it is necessary ecological personality of pedagogue (teacher) with higher ecological culture . That is absented in the personality of pedagogue (teacher ), that is not being also in personality of pupil (student) . Pedagogue (teacher) can gives more or less pedagogical (educational) influence on pupils and direct gives their (influences), as far as itself (teacher) is educated , as far as pedagogue (teacher) made education his property (A . Disterveg) . Each personality is expressed (shown) in the relations to surrounding , to situations of life, to norms, principles . Pupils (students) especially feels relation of teacher to that or other subject of life . First of all, teacher is expressed (shown) his personality in relation to science, nature, his activity, methods and especially to pupils (student) . Pedagogue (teacher) can give (pass, transmit) to pupils (student) knowledge, love to nature , aspiration (tendency) to keep (preserve) and to multiply it (her) only if itself will love and know nature . And from that, personal properties of teacher are resulted : passion of science, love to nature, aspiration to be closer to it (her), to perfect (improve) itself (Verzilin, 1983 ) . In many literary references of the soviet period of Russia the big attention is given to normative aspect of ecological upbringing (raising) and ecological education (interdictions or prohibitions, rules of ecological character) . But the modern ecological pedagogics and psychology takes into account other social system of our society , rather than during the soviet time, carrying democratic character . Democracy means freedom of each person - freedom of opinion, a word, behaviour . Therefore without dependence from existence of the general (common) norms and principles in a society, each person can freely show the attitude(relation ), behaviour , which in the most part will depend from a level of culture of the personality, its(her) internal morals (morality) . This implies, that the normative aspect in ecological upbringing and education is not the biggest significance , the basic - in culture of the person (personality ), its(her) internal morals (morality), a positive orientation ( Astaphyeva , 1998 ) . Thus, the purpose of modern ecological upbringing and education is not the establishment as much as possible ecological rules and interdictions (prohibition), not the control of the ecological attitude (relation) and behaviour, but forming of the ecological (harmless) person (personality), which has ecological belief (conviction ), ecological outlook (views ), ecological consciousness , the motive to be in harmony with the Nature , the responsibility for it(her ) . Thus the ecological (harmless) person does not require the external control over interdictions (prohibition) and rules, because always acts according to the high ecological culture . But, unfortunately, it is far from that everyone ( not all ) are ecological (harmless) persons with high ecological culture . Many factors participate in education of such person . Forming of the ecological (harmless) person - is complex (difficult) and long process , to which not all can be exposed . Therefore the normative aspect now in our society remains actual (modern) . Ecological culture at each person is on the certain level . Everyone has the certain level of its(her) development according to development of the person , its(her) spheres, its(her) erudition (education ), its(her) base (common) culture . To develop ecological culture of the person, it is necessary constantly to improve all spheres of the person : sensual, intellectual , willpowe r (activity ) (Matrusov, 1984 ; Bobilyeva , 2001 ) . The ecological (harmless) person is the person, possessing ecocentral type of consciousness , which is characterized by three main features ( Rostopshin , 2001 ): Psychological inclusion of the person (human) in the world of the nature: Subjective character of perception (recognition) of natural objects Aspiration (tendency) to not pragmatical to interaction with the world of the nature - f or ecological (harmless) person it is peculiar psychological inclusion in the world of the nature, basing on representation about coherence of the world of people and the world of the nature ; - n atural objects concern (relate) by the person to sphere "human", equal to it(her) in the self - value, and, accordingly, interaction with them is included in sphere of action of ethical standards, rules, etc . - a esthetic perception of natural objects and their complexes ; - t he person (human) does not cost separately above the nature, and is included as one of elements in complex (difficult) system of interrelations – his (its) any action can have the unpredictable consequences, breaking balance in eco system . Therefore the ecological ( harmless ) person aspires to be ecologically cautious ; - c ognitive activity, caused by interest to a life of the nature, pleasure (joy) from the process of knowledge ; - natural objects can act for the person in a role of authoritative representative , changing views of personality, its(her) estimations, the attitude (relation) to itself , to things, to the nature and to other people ; - p ractical interaction with natural objects, in basis of which the desire lays not to receive any "a useful product", but there is need (requirement) for dialogue (communication) with them ; - waste products of human activity, "thrown out in the nature", do not disappear completely, and anyhow comes back to the person (human) and gives destructive influence on his(its) organism : all laws of functioning of ecosystem are for the person (human) so obligatory, as well as for other alive essences . Therefore ecological ( harmless ) person aspire to be ecologically moderate ; - natural objects can represent itself as full partners on dialogue (communication) and joint activity ; - participation in nature protection activity, which is dictated by reasons of "perspective pragmatism" (necessity) to keep the nature, for possible using of the future generations, and need (requirement) to care of the nature for the sake of it (her) . - The world of the nature is not only a source of material resources, but is the factor of personal, spiritual development of the person (human) . Therefore ecological (harmless) person aspires to psychological unity with the world of the nature, allowing to express spiritual potential, which there is in interaction with nature . - not only the human society gives unilateral influence on the nature, but also the nature influences character of development of a society . Therefore ecological (harmless) person aspires to influence on other people, various public, economic and political structures, in order that their activity was ecologically expedient , did not lead to such changes in the nature, which then will gives negative influence on development of a society, otherwise, ecological person aspires to be ecologically active . Conditions of forming The ecological (harmless) personality of teacher Positively directed person of the pupil or student (positive attitudes(relations)): - to people - t o the person - to work - to itself Direct contact with the nature The personality of the pupil (student) Sensual sphere Intellectual sphere Activity (will power ) sphere On the basis of the characteristic of ecological (harmless) person and of the used literature, it is possible to make the circuit (scheme) of stages of form ing of ecological (harmless) person and the factors, which influence on its(her) development (Astakhova, Bobilyeva , 2003): Forming of the ecological (harmless) person with high ecological culture The personality of the pupil (student) Sensual sphere Intellectual sphere Activity (will power ) sphere Influence on sense organs : forming of culture of perception (recognition ), feeling of beauty and harmony Positive condition of mentality (psychical essense ) : occurrence of positive emotions and feelings on the basis of favourable influence of the nature to (on) nervous system of an organism of the person (human) . Forming of positive properties of the personality on the basis of constant experience of positive emotions and feelings (senses) : kindness, responsiveness, an openness, sincerity, consciousness, activity. The scientific consciousness (views) is formed Knowledge of the organization of biosphere as the largest ecosystem, functions of biosphere, about its(her) development, evolution. Knowledge of communications (connections) of the person (human) with the nature on different scales : global, regional, local ; knowledge of prospects (perspectives) of cohabitation of the person (human) and the nature . Forming of the general (common) feeling (sense) of love to the native nature , to the native territory (town, region) (patriotism) . Direct dialogue with the nature : excursions, expeditions (dispatches), trips, field practical work. Studying of the nature : research work, monitoring, supervision over objects of the nature Creative work in the nature : subject - role games (plays) , discussions, debates, forecasts, generalizations, conclusions Nature protection activity : propagation, ecological tracks, food (fodder) for animals, landing (planting) of plants and caring for them. Forming of sensation of relationship and spiritual communication(connection) with the nature : attachment to the nature, need(requirement) of interaction with it(her), respect for it(her) . Knowledge of laws of all nature (from a molecular level of its(her) organization up to biospheric, planetary and Universal). Knowledge of interrelations and interactions in the nature. The general emotional - psychological culture is formed Ecological skills (abilities) and activity, experience are formed The scientific consciousness (views) is formed The general emotional - psychological culture is formed Ecological skills (abilities) and activity, experience are formed Ecological belief (conviction): system of knowledge, feelings (senses), skills (abilities), and need (requirement ) to act according to that knowledge, feelings, skills Ecological (outlook) views : vision of the world through a prism of ecological belief (conviction) Ecological consciousness : comprehension (understanding) of the ecological outlook (views) and its value in relation to the nature; comprehension (assimilating) of a role of ecological outlook (views) in spiritual and physical health of the person (human) The ecological personality (human): the carrier of (includes) high ecological culture Motive: aspiration (tendency) to be in harmony with the Nature The responsibility in relation to the native nature , its(her) protection, care of the nature The responsibility in relation to the nature of all planet , its(her) protection, care of the nature From the circuit (scheme) it is visible, that the true motive to be in harmony with the Nature is born only at the ecological (harmless) person (human), and also only ecological personality possesses the true responsibility in relation to the nature . The modern pupil - graduate, which finished of school ( student ) should according to all criteria of the ecological (harmless) person (Matrusov, 1984 ) . But, unfortunately, at the majority of pupils - graduates , which finished of school (student) presently , development of the ecological ( harmless ) person is only at a stage of form ing of emotional - psychological culture (sensual sphere), during forming of scientific outlook or consciousness (views) (intellectual sphere), of ecological skills or abilities (will power sphere) . A unusual occurrence (phenomenon ), when the pupil - graduate , which finished of school (student) will penetrate by ecological belief (convictions ) and furthermore, will possesse s ecological consciousness , that is a basis of the ecological ( harmless ) person (Ivanov a , 1999 ; Korolyov , 1996 ; Golov , 1996 ) . Thus, the purpose of ecological pedagogics and psychology - to create methods and forms of effective development of the ecological ( harmless ) person and high ecological culture . Certainly, in order that all people of a planet had similar qualities (properties) , time must be (it is necessary ) - and not known, what interval ( 100 , 200 years?) . But the most important, that forming of ecological consciousness of mankind (human) began , that there is a becoming coexistence, development together , evolution together of the Person and the Nature - so, and the Reason (consciousness ), as "present" given of to the Person by the Nature, gets force . It characterizes qualitatively new jump in development of mankind (human ), the leading to side (in tendency) of a new valuable views , harmonious and wise mutual relations ( Kogay , 1999 ; Chernova , 2000 ; Voronkov , 1999 ; Maxakovskiy , 1996 ) . Any training (learning) represents the certain model of reality , created with the purpose of knowledge of the world in artificial conditions of auditorium . Having distinguished ( allocated ) from practical activities , the training (learning, studies) has got the form of "transfer" (passing, transmission, give) of the abstract educational information to the pupil , that is education of sign s system , learning, understanding of which is considered basic purpose , and that education is a ready, cleared from any communication (connection) with real practice . However, the model of traditional, explanatory - illustrative training (learning, teaching) has too far come off (gone) from reality , that is very important damage for ecological education and upbringing ( Astaphyeva , 1998 ) . During the pre - revolutionary period of Russia the leading teachers supported wide application (using) of practical methods of training (learning, teaching) . V . V . Polovtsev wrote : " The problem (task) of education at all is not the message of the ready facts and ideas - is not less important study (learning, possession) by those methods, by which these achieved ideas were found out (were revealed)" ( Ridiger , 2002 ) . Here some statements of teachers : "There is not the best means as to stimulate and to develop in children the observation, independence , how to put them in position of independent researchers" . " The research method answers the nature of the child and laws of his(its) development . Children are congenital researchers" . " Application (using) of practical methods is connected to the vigorous activity of receptors (included in touch bodies) and effectors - organs of fulfilment - bodies of labour activity" . The Chinese proverb says : " I hear - and I forget , I see - and I remember, I make (do, act) - and I understand " . Unfortunately, by virtue of objective and subjective circumstances many teachers it do not take into account, substituting laboratory works and excursions by demonstration or the story . In result, interest to studying of natural subjects and to ecologies is appeared fallen (is lost) ( Ridiger , 2002 ) . In modern education there should be priority of a free creative development of the person (personality) . It is impossible to bring up (raising, educate, create) the careful attitude (relation) to the nature, appealing only to technical, economic and legal aspects of knowledge . It is necessary to help to the person (human) to transfer ( passing, tran smission, give ) this knowledge to his personal views (understanding, consciousness, outlook) , to promote becoming of his moral - ethical principles ( Ridiger , 2002 ) . 1.2. Excursion and studies - research work in the nature as a m eans of ecological education The higher ecological culture cannot be generated (forming) in a separation from the "real", "alive" nature . The wood (forest), the wild nature and ecological education are inseparable (Bogolyubov, 1999 ) . Truly nature protection, ecological views (ideas, consciousness, outlook) of the person (human ) cannot be generated (forming) without precise and clear representation , that we nam e is the " nature ", that this such , how "she(it)" is arranged (is structured) and exists , how and what "she(it)" feels and what requires . It is possible to speak indefinitely about necessity of preservation (keep) of the nature, "natural riches" and resources, the careful attitude (relation) to them, etc . , but it never will reach depth of reason (consciousness) of the person (human), if he will not understand, that the nature - is not simply our "environment" as walls of a house, in which we live (in which it is possible to penetrate (drive in) by a nail or which it is possible to paint), but it is something the greater - an alive, "reasonable", breathing essence , is more true - it is billions the alive essences, closely interconnected and depended from each other . Just as practically it is not possible to protect and care of the one whom you do not love and you do not know, and also very difficultly to protect and keep the nature, if which you do not understand . Thus, the basic idea of the " naturalistic" approach in ecological education - necessity of display (show) to children the nature from within, with possible the greater degree of a detailly and at "the maximal increase" . As a result of such " visibility " by each person (human) , it may be the child or the adult , is able t o appear almost of shock condition , the surprise , admiration, which to express by words (exclamation) : "Really we on this go (walking)?!" Thus, " ecologisation of souls " occurs in itself - it is necessary only dialogue with the nature (Bogolyubov, 1999 ) . Importance of practical methods in ecological education and development of ecological culture is established (convinces) . Integration of ecology with study of local lore (native territory ) is necessary for implementation (action) of these methods and introduction their in training (learning, studing) of ecology . First of all, the ecological culture and the responsibility in relation to the nature of native territory must is being formed, and then are transferred (passing, translation) also to the Nature of all planet . The organization of ecology - study of native territory by pedestrian excursions (trips) for all pupils (students) - affair with efforts . Still V . A . Suhomlinskiy spoke : " To exit (removal) for walk (trip) of children to a lawn (in nature), to stay with them in a wood (forest), in park - affair considerably more complex (difficult), than to lead (carry out) lessons " (Suhomlinskiy, 1979 ) . The success of excursion depends on its(her) preparation . The teacher should establish precisely a theme and the purpose of excursion , and then to see (overlook) the literature on this theme - scientific, popular scientific, methodical . After that the teacher plans a plan - route of excursion . In this plan it is necessary to specify the basic sections (stages) of excursion , it is necessary to find out, what phenomena will be shown and on what objects , by what (which) method will be lead (will carry out) excursion . It is necessary to check up preliminary a route of excursion by the teacher . The sequence and a technique of carrying out (leading) of separate parts of excursion are being planned, places for independent work and rest of pupils (students) are being established . The technique of excursion depends on its(her) theme and the purpose , age and knowledge of pupils (students ) . In the first excursions the teacher is the most active person : it(he) shows objects , pays attention to the phenomena, and during excursion gives small simple tasks . Excursion in this case has illustrative character . If pupils (student ) have a skill of work in the nature , it is possible to strengthen an element of independent research work in excursion, that promotes the best mastering (learning, studying, understanding) of a material and activity of pupils (students ) . Dividing excursion on the certain logic parts according to the plan and a route, it is necessary to plan the most effective methodical receptions . Thinking over a technique and the maintenance (contents) of excursion, it is necessary to plan and that equipment , without which performance of work is impossible . Lists of necessary equipment are being resulted (are being made) . Besides, for work the notebook and a pencil are necessary for records, an album or a writing - book for sketches . It is useful to have the camera (photo) . Preparation of pupils (student ) begins with the message of the teacher of a theme , a problem (task ) and a route of excursion . It is possible to recommend books , which are useful for reading on this theme . It is better to divide pupils (students) into parts (groups ) and to study so on parts separate questions of a theme . In a part (group) usually works 4 - 5 person , among whom the teacher appoints the main person (chief ), responsible (crucial) for performance of the task, for the equipment , given to a part ( group ) . During excursion it is important, that pupils marked comparative attributes (signs) of objects . Also it is necessary to warn pupils (student) about duration of excursion , to specify, how it is necessary to put on . Each excursion develops of several parts : 1 ) gathering at school (educational establishment) and transition to a place of excursion ; 2 ) direct work of pupils (students) under the direction of the teacher ; 3 ) the organized returning from excursion . The subsequent processing and registration of a material closely adjoins to (with) work of excursion . Details of carrying out (leading ) of excursion can be various depending on a theme and the purpose of excursion, age and knowledge of pupils (students), time and a place of excursion . Parts of introduction and conclusion of excursions ( in form of conversation, talk ) are significant . In depend on age and preparation of pupils (students), information can be different in volume , but always it must be strict scientific , is checked up and is based (explained) . Language of conversation (talk ) must be exact (accurate), clearly, educated (artistic ), simply . Development of interest at pupils (student) to promote (to stimulate) by their work, which is conscious, active, has purpose (goal ) . At excursions develops (forms) a positive properties of personality : feeling (sense) of collective, relationship, friendship, conscious discipline, conscientious relation to performance (fulfillment) of commission task . The results of excursion it is possible to show on conference, where the prepared relief's (visual aids) are demonstrated, and reports (communications, information's) are made about material of observations and literatures (Belyaeva, 1995 ) . Excursions, studies - investigations works can have form (image, appearance) of plays (games) and already by that is become the more interest, active, the effect of learning (teaching, studies) is increased (Bukin, 1991 ) . Pedagogically correctly organized activity of games (plays) at pupils (students) allows to aspire full itself - expression, active and freely creation , at reasonable degree according to requires (demands) of mutual respect , learning (studying) of environment , feeling (sense) of beautiful of nature ant it (her) harmony , development of sense (feeling) of love and careful in relation to objects of nature . Plays (games ) have significant place in forming of ecological culture (Zveryev, 1988 ) . Especially effective are imitation - situations or subject - roles plays . Playing of roles of really scientist - researchers of nature, imitation of their activity gives to possess moral - willpower properties of that heroes , can to develop skills (abilities) of reasonable relation to nature . Studies - investigation work can to imitate really scientific - research work : someone plays the role of chief (main), other person plays the role of assistant, someone plays the role of professor or doctor of sciences, other plays the observant, someone is specialist on difficult problems (tasks) . So, role playing can to build (to construct) collective, which will be organized by self - government . Play (game ) learns (teaches) to mutual understanding , cooperation , and also it develops initiative, ingenious (resourceful), responsibility of pupils (students), and it increases the common level of their psychological development (Bukin, 1991 ; Streltsova, 1985 ) . It is useful to create situations of choice of behaviour , relation to nature during excursions . At choice of that or other acts in relation to nature, pupils (students) develops willpower, ability to make responsible decisions . It is gives the unity and interrelations of theoretical and practical aspects (approaches) at ecological upbringing and ecological education (Zveryev, 1988 ) . At studies - investigations works is especially significant the development of independence and creation of pupils (students) . The creative activity – the higher stage of cognition activity of pupils (students), given the most high results . By only one way of possessing (learning, development) features of creation activity and experience of their expression - is independent decision of problems, which are new for pupil (student ), and that problems must be in partly accessible for decisions, but in other part are difficult in certain degree and require (demand) expression of the creative features . The one of main conditions of successful decision of that question – is influence on senses (feelings) of person (human ) . The ways of influence can be various : astonishment (surprise) to new knowledge , effectiveness of visible (sight) , possible to expression of itself (own) forces , satisfaction from independent achievement of originally (unique) results . In base of creative activity lies (is) creative search , which appears at scientific search (pursuit), at investigation . At process of search (pursuit), pupil (student) learns (studies) the world , learns (studies) it in all parts ( is thorough ) . Although such search work of pupil (student ) hot gives (not carries) scientific information, but pupil (student) repeats way of opening (discovery, found out) of knowledge's at briefly form (way ) (Ridiger, 2002 ) . Investigation activity of pupils (students) divided on some stages (Bobilyeva, 2001): 1) Stage of preparing (studying of literatures, dates about objects of investigation, choice of equipment). 2) Experimental part (exist or remove to nature, carry out (leading) of system of observations, taking of samples and etc.). 3) Stage of treatment (treatment of samples of investigation, material of excursions). 4) Stage of analysis (discovering or revealing of cause - consequence connections, lows, innovation). 5) Stage of report (account ) (composing of schedules, diagrams, preparing of reports or lectures). 6) Information stage (publication of article in journal, newspapers, become acquainted with results of work by other people). 7) Practical stage (practical conference, measures of nature preserving or keeping). For discussion of results of studies - investigation activity it is possible to use such forms (methods), as discussion , debates , that increases the cognition activity of pupils (students ), creative approach to decision of problem , the greatest interest to nature and, as consequence, it increases love and careful to nature (Bukin, 1991 ; Ridiger, 2002 ) . It is significant, in order that pupils (students) had belief (faith) in (for) itself (own) forces (abilities ), had aspiration (tendency) to learn (to study) of nature , aspiration to see (observation) it (her) beautiful , and on base of that to upbringing ( to create) in itself (own) personality the love and responsibility in relation to nature , that are it is necessary for development of ecological culture and ecological personality at whole . Chapter II. Experience of organization of work on forming of ecological culture of pupils (students) in process of excursions and studies - investigation work The level of ecological culture was definitude by method of questionnaire (answers on questions) on bases of level knowledge about birds, the degree of development of feelings (senses), interest to animals, having positive motives and activity in relation to birds . Fifty pupils (student) of senior forms ( 10 - 11 forms) at school were had questioning . The questionnaire contained 12 questions . The results of questioning it is possible to show in form (by method) of diagrams : on axis of ordinate is designated percentage relates of answers persons, on axis of abscise – are variants of answers of pupils (students) . Diagram 1: Answers of pupils (students) on question: “What animals you like (love)?” • The pupils (students) give answers, that animals of group (class) of Mammal are the most liked, of which they love . The majority choice the cat and dog . Not difficult to explain the liking by constant interaction (contact) with that domestic (home) animals . It is necessary to note, that not small quantities of pupils (students) chose the liked animal as tiger, which associates not only with soft and fluffy, but also associates with force, leading (leader), aggression . Animals of other classes (groups), in particular – of Birds, were not observed in answers . • So, for development of ecological culture, it is necessary the detailed to meet (to show ) the pupils (students) with representatives of other classes (groups) of animals (with their variety ), in particular – with class of Birds . To stimulate the interest, liking to animals . 2.1. Studying of level of ecological culture of pupils (students) Diagram 2: Answers of pupils (students) on question: “Call the birds, which you like (love).” • The majority of pupils (students ) chose the liked birds as birds of prey (eagle, falcon, hawk) – the symbols of force (power), leading (leader), having of purpose (goal) . It is possible to explain by features of young age of teenagers – aspiration to allocate (distinguish) itself, to show own strong features (properties) . Owl as symbol of wisdom and as having of interesting appearance (form of body), also is liked by the majority . It is interest, that such simply and many visible, small birds as chaffinch ( Fringilla) is liked by many pupils (students ) . Certainly, graceful swan, closer to soul – pigeon (dove), tit (Parus), sparrow, cock, parrot – are not given to stay the indifferent to them . They (animals) living near person (human) and because frequently appear are liked (are loved) by us . The small (less) percent of pupils (students ) remembers the exotically birds (ostrich, sunbird), and not much pupils (students ) answer, that they like (love) the less noticeable birds of native nature as nightingale, skylark, swallow . • So, it is necessary to learn (to teach) the pupils (students) to see not only direct surrounding birds near us (human) – that is synantropic birds, but also to learn (to teach) to see the beautiful of birds at native nature . It is necessary to learn (to teach) to love (liking) it (birds) not for their symbols, but for that they (birds) are alive (living), similar as we (human ) . From answers it is clearing (revealing), that pupils (students) not know about such birds of native nature, as lapwing (Vanellus), redshank (Tringa), plower (Galinago) – that is shorebirds (Charadrii) . It is necessary to form understanding (terminus) about that birds, to form the love (liking) to it (birds of native nature) . Diagram 3: Answers of pupils (students) on question: “By what the birds are attractive for you?” • It is strangely, but the majority of pupils (students) likes (loves) the birds, because it (birds) can to fly . May be, teenagers were idealists, and therefore they compare the feeling (sense) of flight with romantic feeling (sense) The color of feathers, singing of birds are only on second place of quantities of answers . It is necessary to note, that the majority of person “can to see” the nature, than quantities of pupils (students), which “can to hear” it (her) . Tenderness and defenceless of birds are estimated by only not much percent of answers (pupils) . The answers “I like (love) the nothing, not any” disappoint . • So, it is necessary the measures of aesthetic (moral) upbringing (educating) for forming of culture of perception – can to see and to hear of nature , that are the base of ecological culture . Also it is necessary to note the defenceless of birds in comparison with the human . Diagram 4: Answers of pupils (students) on question: “The birds – are : А) the animals, endothermic, having plumage, can (able) to flight ; B ) exothermic animals, able to lie eggs ; C ) animals, can to fly and to feed the young individuals by milk. That testy question reveal the degree of forming of understanding (terminus) “birds” . Biological knowledge's construct (compose) scientific views (consciousness ), without of which it is impossible become of ecological views (consciousness ) and ecological culture . As an exception of not much percent, all pupils (students) know the basic features of class (group) of Birds . It is necessary to form the terminus (understanding) about birds (who not formed) and transfer (transmit, give, translate) that knowledge on (to) practical activity (aspect ) at purpose (goal) of forming of high ecological culture . Diagram 5: Answers of pupils (students) on question: “What basic adaptations to flight have birds?” • Ecological views (consciousness ) must include the knowledge's about adaptations of organisms to environment . The basic adaptations of birds to flight are well - known to pupils (students) (wings, feathers, light skeleton), though such specifically adaptations to flight, as air (lung) bags (capacities), characteristic only for birds, were forgot . More of that, part of pupils (students) considered a extension of throat, beak and long lower limbs as the basic adaptations to flight – that are not quite correctly (right) . • So, at process of excursions (trips) and studies - investigation work it is necessary to form the terminus (understanding) about character of adaptations of birds to air environment at the majority of pupils (students) . Diagram 6: Answers of pupils (students) on question: “Why marsh (bog) birds has long lower limbs and long hard beak?” а) for better walking and for comfortless (convenience) split, unriping (rip open) of air by beak at flight ; b ) that is feeding at being in water and at founding (searching) of food (fodder, pray) in soft silt and on bottom of shallow water of ponds ; c ) for measurement of depth of shallow water of ponds and for deterrent of enemies. The majority of pupils (students) understands character of the adaptation of birds to ecological conditions of boggy (marsh) habitats . However, almost half interrogated pupils (students) does not have formed concept (understanding) about ecology of marsh birds and their adaptations to an inhabitancy . It is necessary to form these concepts (understanding s ) at studying such birds of native territory, as redshank (Tringa) , plover (Galinago) and other species of shorebirds (Charadrii) . Diagram 7: Answers of pupils (students) on question: “What birds, living near the water (ponds), you know?” Are most known to pupils (students) such birds, living near the water (ponds ), as ducks, the seagull s, herons . T heir popularity i t is simple to explain by often occurrence in literatures , at displays (shows) of films and many programs on the TV . Smaller percent of answering pupils (students) have named a swan and the goose . Thus, it is necessary directly in the nature to acquaint (to meet, to show) to the pupils (students) with birds , living near the water (ponds) habitats, in particular, with a lapwing (Vanellus) , plover (Charadrius) ; to pay attention (to note) to their way of life, conditions of dwelling (habitat) in native territory . Diagram 8: Answers of pupils (students) on question: “The Shorebirds – are: It is more than half of pupils (students) know, what group of birds relates to the Shorebirds . On the bas is of this basic knowledge it is possible to develop fuller representation about Shorebirds as object of research . Diagram 9: Answers of pupils (students) on question: “Whether environment influence on birds?” The greater percent of answering pupils (students) have named a right (correct) answer . Unfortunately, there are pupils (student), who do not understand connection of birds with an environment . During excursions (trips ) and studies - investigation work it is necessary to form and to develop concept (understanding ) about influence of an environment on birds at studying of the ecological factors , influencing on character of distribution of Shorebirds . Diagram 10: Answers of pupils (students) on question: “ How the person (human) influences on birds?” The majority of pupils (students) have answered, that the person (human) influences on birds by exterminating of them (on hunting, as the source of food) . The few have recollected, that the person (human) troubles the birds, and absolutely small quantity of pupils (students) knows about indirect influence of the person (human) on birds (cutting down of woods or forests, pollution of water reservoirs) . Thus, during excursions (trips ) and studies - investigations work it is necessary to pay attention (to note) of pupils (students) to wider spectrum of direct and indirect influence of the person (human ) on birds (in particular on Shorebirds as example ) . Diagram 11: Answers of pupils (students) on question: “What help it is possible to make to birds?” Pupils (students) actively chose ways of the help to birds . The majority nevertheless has decided, that the best help to birds - is to feed them, to create for them reserves (preserving zone or territory) and thus to engage in cultivation of rare species . Many consider, that birds need simply to be preserved against anxiety . The smaller part of answering pupils (students) has shown compassion in rendering assistance (help) by the patient (ill, sick) (with the broken wing, for example) to birds . The some persons have recollected advantage (benefit) of starling houses (construction of birds small houses) . Thus, on the basis of knowledge of pupils (students) it is possible to develop concepts (understandings) about concrete nature protection measures at studying a degree of influence of the anthropogenous factor on birds ( Shorebirds as example ) . Diagram 12: Answers of pupils (students) on question: “Whether birds of native territory are liked by you?” The majority of pupils (students) has answered positively on this question . But, unfortunately, the considerable percent from them does not accept the native nature, and in particular, not love the birds of native territory . The ecological culture begins with love (like) to the native nature , which directly surrounds the person (human) . During excursions (trips) and studies - investigations works it is necessary to develop feeling (sense) of attachment (fond) , spiritual relationship to the native nature on the basis of skill to see beauty of birds of native territory , on the basis of skills to estimate beauty of their (birds) singing, beauty of their behaviour . According to diagnostics it is possible to draw conclusions about a level of development of ecological culture of pupils (students ) . Ecological culture - complex quality of the personality , which is defined (determined) by a level of development of intellectual (knowledge) sphere, sensual (interest, emotions, feelings) sphere and willpower (activity) sphere in relation to the nature (Bobilyeva, 2001 ) . Results of questioning have shown, that the minimal basic knowledge about birds , their interrelations with an environment, pupils (students) have . But, unfortunately, this knowledge it is not enough for full forming scientific consciousness , and consequently, and for full forming ecological outlook (views, consciousness), therefore that characterizes a low level of ecological culture . It is necessary on the basis of basic knowledge at pupils (students) to develop new concepts (understandings ) about birds, their ecologies and, thus, to promote (to stimulate) the increase of ecological culture . The sensual sphere of the person ality of pupils (students ) is already revealed (shown) in relation to the nature at pupils (students) (from questionnaire) , but not in that degree , which defines (determines) sufficient development of ecological culture . And, favourite animals at teenagers almost all were mammal . Among pupils (students) use the greatest popularity the birds frequently meeting in books, on screens of the TV, directly living with the person (human) . It is necessary to acquaint (to show, to meet) the pupils (students) with a variety of birds fauna of the native nature , to form to them cognitive and aesthetic interest, love at studying (learning) of ecology of birds, their way of life . The will power sphere of the person ality of pupils (students ) in relation to the nature also has a low level of development (from questionnaire ) . Motives of positively directed activity in the nature still are formed not absolutely precisely . Thus, during excursions (trips) and studies - investigation work it is necessary to develop knowledge, feeling, interest of pupils (students) in relation to the nature , and in particular, to birds, as to one of its(her) elements . And on the basis of that it is necessary to form spiritually and physically health y person ality , ecological ( harmless ) person ality , positively directed , with ecocentral type of consciousness and the high ecological culture , having motive to be in harmony with the Nature . 2.2. Experience of the organization of excursion and studies - investigations work As curriculums not always allow to make (to carry out) the full excursions and studies - investigations works , the optimum form of upbringing (at educat ion) of high ecological culture of pupils (students) - is after learning (teaching) work, namely, as a biological circle (section) . Month Theme (subject) of lesson Direct (tendency) of work Theoretical lessons Practical and investigation work 1 2 3 4 September Ecological groups of birds . Ecological factors of environment: abiotical (physical), biotical (alive), antropogenios (human). Play (game ): “Connection of birds with environment and way of life” Conversation (talk ): “Factors of environment, which influence on birds” Preparing to excursion : definite of goal (purposes), problems (tasks), choice of equipment, methods of investigation. Excursion on territory near school or to towns park: account synantropic (towns) birds (sparrow, crow, magpie, jackdaw), reveal factors, which influence on them. October Treatment (put into shape) of results of excursion and discussing of them Conversation (talk ): “Influence of abundance of food or prey , vegetation, t o C of air, soil and human influence on synantropic (towns) birds”. Discussion: “What factor influences on birds is stronger?” Composing of map of birds habitats . Composing (put into shape) of table of birds account and factors , which influence on them. November Significance (meaning) of birds in nature Game (play ) (in form questionnaire or puzzle, solve): “The role of birds on our planet”. Competition of speakers : “Whether human (person) needs in birds, and birds needs in human (person)?”. Observation of birds at beginning of cool weather: estimation of influence of abiotical (physical), biotical (alive), antropogenios (human) factors on birds. December Birds – ornament (decoration) of nature . Birds of Tambov region . Role play (game) - contest (competition): “I – is bird is the best, the more beautiful, clever, important, sonorous…” Conversation (talk ) : “Variety of birds in Tambov region. Rare birds”. Making of birds houses for food (feeding), their distribution (place) on trees . The program of work of a biological circle (section) on ecological education of teenagers on the basis of studying (learning) ecology of birds of native territory. The program of work of a biological circle (section) on ecological education of teenagers on the basis of studying (learning) ecology of birds of native territory. January Preservation (keeping) and attracting of birds Press - conference on themes (subjects ): “Natural enemies of birds and struggle with them”. “Landing (planting) of trees and shrubberies – as significance for birds”. “Winter feeding of birds”. “People – as destroyers of nests and enemies of birds”. Contest (competition) of authors and painters : “Take care of birds!”. Winter feeding of birds . Making of planks - posters on preserving (keeping) and careful of birds . February Influence of environment factors on behaviour of birds . Conversations (talks ) : “Real alive barometers”. “Whether birds thinks?” “How birds fly and orientation?” Contest (competition): “Found (reveal) distinctions in behaviour between birds of pray and eating insects, night and day birds”. Excursion to the museum of native nature or to the station of young naturalists . Mart Birds on nests . Conversation (talk ) : “Behaviour of birds in nest period”. Game (play) in form of scenes (subjects ): “Birds in spring: marriage plays, careful about young generation”. Observation for return flight of the first birds (rooks, starlings). Distribution (place) of birds small houses (starling houses) on a trees in town. Account of birds, which stay in town – tits and bullfinches. April Ecology of water birds and who living near the water reservoirs Discussion: “How birds are adapts to habitats in water environment?” Conversation (talk ) : “Water - marsh birds: Shorebirds. Influence of environment factors on Shorebirds”. Preparing to excursion on meadow near the river: definite of goal (purposes) and problems (tasks) of investigation, choice of equipment, discussion of methods at investigation. May Studying of Shorebirds ecology Conversation (talk ) on excursion : “Behaviour and way of life of lapwing (Vanellus), redshank (Tringa), plover (Galinago)”. Treatment (put into shape) of results of excursion and investigation , their discussion : influence of abiotical (physical), biotical (alive), antropogenios (human) factors on Shorebirds. Excursion on meadow near the river : birds account of lapwing, redshank. plover. Estimation of parameters of soil, water. Taking of samples of invertebrate animals. Geobotanic description. Antropogenius (human) factors. 1 2 3 4 The program of work of biological circle (section ) stimulates at pupils (students) the development of high ecological culture , for which characteristic : high level of development of cognition sphere (consciousness ), and as a result of that are forming scientific and ecological views (outlook, knowledge's, consciousness) ; high level of development of sensual sphere (skill or abilities to see the nature, to hear the nature, feeling of nature, skill to receive the positive emotion from contact (interaction, communication) with nature), and as result of that are emotion - psychological culture ; and also developed enough the sphere of willpower , which includes ecological skills, experience . It is necessary to note, that full high ecological culture can to form only at become of ecological consciousness , which is characteristic for ecological personality . Ecological consciousness (ecocentral type) is formed at interaction (contact) and harmonious development of all three spheres of personality in relation to nature . Problem (task, purpose) of biological circle (section) – is forming of interest to nature , and on the base of that to develop the spheres of personality at goal (purpose) to form the ecological consciousness and ecological personality as whole, from which already will be go the motive to be in harmony with Nature . In order that to represent (to show) action (effect) of program of work of biological circle (section), it is necessary to describe (to show) some lessons of studying (learning) of ecology of Shorebirds (Charadrii), that forms the ecological culture of pupils (students) in process of excursion (trip) and studies - investigation work . Description of lesson of biological circle (section) on theme (subject): “Studying (learning) of ecology of Shorebirds” The purpose (goal) : to study (to learn) the ecological conditions of habitats of Shorebirds . Cognitional tasks : to carry out (leading) the account of Shorebirds (individuals), to estimate the parameters of soil, river water, vegetation of habitats of that animals, to account the antropogenios (human) factor, to learn (to study) the ways of life of that birds . Upbringing (educational) tasks : aesthetical upbringing (educating) ( on basis of geobotanic description of meadow, definition of Shorebirds on voice (song), plumage, way of flight and other features, estimation of parameters of environment) ; ecological upbringing (educating) (on basis of revealing of connection and interaction between alive and not alive (physical) compounds of nature and its (her) the whole or unity) ; patriotic upbringing (educating) (forming of love, attraction to native nature and through of that – to native territory) ; moral upbringing (educating) (forming of feeling of love, spiritual relationship, care to nature) ; labouring (working) upbringing or educating (feeling of spiritual and material or physical health) ; educating (forming) of scientific and ecological views (outlook, consciousness) . Development tasks : development of cognition sphere (attention, observation, abilities and skills to analysis, to compare, to generalize, to conclude) ; emotional sphere (development of cognition interest, astonishment, delight, positive emotions) ; willpower sphere (development of ecological skills and experience), and also development of ecological culture as whole . Place of excursion (trip) : meadow of Panskoe near the river of Forest Voronezh . Methods of teaching (learning) of pupils (students) : - by speech (words) (conversation or talk with elements of story (tale), explanation) - by visible (visual, by vision) (the objects of nature) - by practice (work) ( independent estimation of parameters of environment, registrations in field diary, observation of birds) . Type of teaching (learning) of pupils (students) : particle - searching, problematic . Equipment : binoculars, field diary, a pen, pencil, thermometer, aluminium wire (diameter 5 mm, length 1 m), disc of Seck (white plastic on thread, diameter 5 cm), network capacities for invertebrate animals (air and water, diameter of network circles 20 - 30 cm), pincers (tweezers), jars (cupping - glass) and cotton wool, ruler ( 30 cm), small shovel . Route of excursion : 1 ) Crossing (passage) from school (educational building) to meadow of Panskoe . 2 ) Crossing (passage) on dried meadow, early flooded by river water, having many small hillocks . 3 ) Crossing (passage) on marsh meadow with many small hillocks (where more dried meadow and not dangerous) . 4 ) Crossing (passage) on shallow water of river (on its coast) . 5 ) Return (comeback) to school (educational building ) . Plan of excursion : 1 ) General characteristic of meadow near the river . 2 ) Geobotanical characteristic of meadow near the river . 3 ) Observation of Shorebirds, the account of their individuals, definition of its species . 4 ) Estimation of abiotical (physical), biotical (alive) and antropogenios (human) factors in different points of investigation territory : - dried meadow, early flooded by river water, having many small hillocks - marsh meadow with many small hillocks (where more dried meadow and not dangerous) - shallow water of river (on its coast) 5 ) Making of conclusions . General (common) antropogenios (human) loading (pressing) on meadow of Panskoe, and consequences of that . Course of excursion Children, we went to the meadow, which is situated near the river of Forest Voronezh, or that is meadow, flooded by river water in every year . How you think, why that meadow has special character or features? - Because the meadow near the river constantly flooded by water . Yes, in spring the exit (go out) of river water occurs far from coast on the territory of meadow of Panskoe (during disappear of snow) . In connection with that, separate places of the meadow have stronger humidity, and therefore as result of that to become marsh (bog) meadow . Children, you know already, that typical (common) river meadow divides into parts : near the river (the coast), central part and remote part . Look on the space (territory) of all meadow and say (tell) me, where that flooded parts of river meadow are situated . - The coast of river is closer to water part of meadow, the more wider (big) part of meadow is central part, and the more far lowest part (lowland) of meadow is remote constantly marsh part of meadow . Good fellow, you well understand the structure of the river meadow . Children, pay attention ( note ) on color scale (spectrum) of wider central part of meadow, dried from river water. What color groups of plants i t is possible to allocate (distinguish) on area of meadow ? - Green, yellow, white, in some places dark blue and red. Yes, central part of river meadow is characterized most by fertile soils and a significant variety of plants (vegetations) . Among them it is possible to allocate (distinguish) four economic - valuable groups: cereals, leguminous, a sedge, different grass . How you think, what color background make cereals and a sedge ? - Green. Correctly, it is the basic background of a meadow. Then what plants (vegetations) can make a yellow background? - Dandelions. Yes, but except for dandelions, the bright yellow background of a meadow is caused by flowering of buttercups (creeping, caus tic ). The white background is frequently submitted by such plants as the cor dial , and dark blue and red colors - by leguminous and complexflower, which will be learned (found out) by you during research. Here, children, you can feel this beauty of Russian open meadow space. In forming of the wide, natural, higher spiritual char act er of Russian nation is played (took place) the big role our nature. Still the poet S. Yesenin in the verses was admired by the native land: Goy, yo u, Russia, my native, Huts - in copes of an image … To not see the end and edge - Only blue sucks eyes. The beauty of Russian nature was sung also by the author I. A. Bunin: In shine of fires, behind mirror of glasses, Magnificently dear flowers blossom, Their thin smells are gentle and thin, Leaves and stalks are full of beauty. Children , you do not represent, as Bunin I. A. subtly felt the native nature: As fields smells, - fresh grasses, Meadows cool breath! From haymakings and oak groves I catch a fragrance in it (him). Look, what groups of plants (vegetations) are characteristic for the river coast and remote marsh part of meadow? - A reed, water and marsh (swamp) grasses . Yes, children, these places are characterized by high humidity, therefore on their area moistureloving plants grow. So, you have got acquainted with structure and character of vegetation in river meadow of Panskoe . Now we should carry out (leading) our studies purpose and research problems. But we also know , that during our investigation work we must be very cautiously . First we shall write down in field diaries today's date and a place of research. Children, it is necessary to fix climatic features and account them during research. For this task it is necessary to be divided into 3 groups, in e ach group will be the main (chief) person , responsible for work. The first group defines (determines) time of research and temperature of air. The second group defines (determines) force and speed of a wind on scale of Bophort, which will be given to them. The third group defines (determines) degree of cloudy weather on 10 - mark system. Scale of Bophort Mark Speed of wind Feather for estimation of a wind force Speed of wind , m / sec 0 Calm Leaves (vegetation) on trees do not change (not vibrate), the smoke rises vertically from pipes. 0 1 Silent The smoke deviates a little, but the wind is not felt. 1 - 2 2 Easy Leaves (vegetation) on trees wave, the wind is felt. 1 - 3 3 Weak The small branches shake on trees, appreciable feeling (sensation) of a wind. 3 - 5 4 Moderate Branches of average size shake on trees. It is kicked up dust. 5 - 7 5 Fresh Thin trunks and thick branches shake on trees, the ripples on water is formed. 8 - 10 6 Strong Thick trunks of trees shake. 10 - 12 7 Powerful The big trees shake, to go against a wind difficultly. 12 - 15 Definition of degree of cloudy weather : It is make visually. If the sky cloudless or there are one or several small clouds on sky, the cloudy weather is considered equal 0 mark. At cloudy weather equal 10 marks, all sky is closed by clouds. If clouds cover 1/10, 2/10, 3/10 parts of a firmament, cloudy weather is considered to accordingly 1, 2, 3 marks. Work should pass (leading) silently and no more than 10 minutes. All data it is necessary write down in a diary. And now, crossing a meadow, we shall pass (go) on its distant (remote) part. At this route it is necessary to note the feedin g ( take food) and flying up of Shorebirds. But you know, as far as these birds are sensitive to presence of the person, is especial redshank (Tringa) , which flying up on distance more than of 200 m etres up to the observer. We should not cause alarm at all and anxiety to birds, therefore you now prepare the binoculars and be ready to observe the birds from far (remote) distance. A point of rise (flying up) and places of feeding (take of food) of Shorebirds (Charadrii) try to remember, keep in memory , for that then to take tests (samples) on this place. So, we begin a route. Here you already see , that the pair of Shorebirds has fl ying up from a place of feeding (take of food) (sh allow water of the river ). Hear their disturbing voices? - Tyu - li , Tyu - li, Tyu - li … Yes, melodious, lingering as if the flute sings. All the same we have disturbed (worry) them. On a voice it is possible to define(determine), that it Shorebirds from group (family) of Ulit . Look, is there at them the white plumage as a sharp corner on a back at flight ? - Yes, between wings as a sharp white corner. And what color of a leg s and a beak? - Bright red. Children , it means redshank ( Tringa totanus L.) . Look, one more distinctive attribute (feature) of redshank - white mirrors (places) on wings (white wave feathers), and also under the wings is white. Pay attention (note) to a harmonous body of redshank , his (its) characteristic flight. How you think, what his (its) size? - Probably, big. Yes, at flight the Shorebirds seem mor e big, th an natural size. In reality , redshank is little more , than thrush . Probably, it were male and female, though sexual dimorphism (difference) is absent, and female usually differs more light color of feathers . You have seen, what color at plumage of redshank ? - Brown. Yes, brownish with many dense spots. At people, still long since, redshank is named "red legs" and is defined (determined) by red " boots " and white under wings . Now this bird is brought in the red book of the Tambov area as a disappearing species . We find out the reasons of it later. Redshank occupy such crude (river) meadows, as ours meadow of Panskoe, where can be the grassy bogs (marshes) , boggy (swamp) f resh (stale) water reservoirs. Nests there are in more or less dense water or marsh grass, usually cover ing by dr ied leaves (vegetation) of cereals, sedge . After exit of nestlings from eggs, on a nest they are cautious and at danger it is usual they leave (abandon) the nest . At anxiety redshank subject the infringer to mental attack, exhausting his(its) by sharp annoying shouts (calls) . Redshank actively pursue b irds of prey and crows . Nestlings keep (living) in places of crude grass (humidity) with p uddles . Nestlings " rise on a wing " (beginning of flying) in the age of about one month. As a whole the nested period is very stretched (very wide ), that is many pairs of birds make repe tition in laying instead of victims. Many individuals of redshank fly t o the south early, in July. During our w inter (in west Russia), redshank there are in the south of Europe, in Africa, Southern Asia, Australia. But redshank are adhered to a place of their nesting and constant ly come back to nesting places , if conditions of a life do not vary (not change) . Therefore we, people (human, person), must keep (preserve) ecological conditions of biocenose (meadows) , in order that redshank could return to our native territory again and again and to compose the integrity (unity) of biocenose (ecological system). Children, stop here . Look, almost above us the bird fly, also related to Shorebirds . - By dark color ? Yes, what its voice (call) you hear ? - Chui - vi, chui - vi, chui - vi … Already on the voice (call) can to definite (determinate), that is a lapwing ( Vanellus vanellus L . ) . In our territory a lapwing is common (constant) bird during long time, and it become the native bird for us . Look on his (its) flight . What form (figure) its (his) wings ? - The wings are not long and some round at the ends . Yes, by that feature a lapwing differ from other representatives of Shorebirds – wider wings, round at the ends . Pay attention (note) on color of plumage on bottom parts of its body . - White . Yes, black body and white sides – are the features of a lapwing . We come up (approach) to dried meadow with many small hillocks – is common (constant) place of a lapwing, and there are many pairs of a lapwing living (inhabit) . If we now closely approach (come up) to place of its (his) nesting, then we can worry (disturb, trouble) them (it) . A lapwing can expose the disturber (infringer) by boreal (trouble) voice (calls), turning (spin round) during long time above the disturber (infringer) (a psychical attack) . Therefore we shall not be to trouble a lapwing, and we shall be to observe the birds on enough distance . How much of lapwing individuals you can see (observe) ? - Six . Good, remember quantity of birds, in order that to note it in table after that . Pay attention (note), in what part of dried meadow (having many small hillocks) a lapwing feed (take food), where its take food is more big and frequently . And in that places of meadow we shall be to take samples of invertebrate animals (very accurately) . You, probably, note, that a lapwing ( Vanellus vanellus ) gives possibility for approach (come up) of person (human) on more close distance, than (in differ from) redshank ( Tringa totanus ), Look, that a lapwing differs (distinguishes) from redshank on structure of body (exterior), but although they (birds) relate to one suborder (group) of Shorebirds (Charadrii) . And cause of that – is different ecological conditions of their habitats (places of its living) . But about that we shall be to talk later . Children, look more attentive (closely) a feeding lapwing (which takes food on meadow) with binoculars . What you see on head of a lapwing? - Lock (long feathers) . Yes, that is also features of a lapwing . At young lapwing the head lock of feathers is more short and light . And pay attention (note) on back part of a lapwing body, on color of body back . - Black with lustre . Yes, lustre of plumage at a lapwing . How much of shades the lustre includes? - Greenish, blue, purple, partly violet, sometimes grey … Good, children . The shades of lustre, possibility, can to account up to indefinitely (endless) – shades is much (many), but basic of them (it) you saw (distinguished) . A lapwing comeback (returns) to our native territory in spring early, than many other birds – usually at thawing of snow on meadows, fields, open spaces . Therefore at people (human) were forming saying : “Shorebird fly from sea, lead out the spring from shutting” . A lapwing is nested on meadows, marshes (swamps) with low grass, arable lands, therefore ecological conditions of our meadow of Panskoe enough suitable (advantageous) for a lapwing ( Vanellus vanellus ) . A lapwing has interest marriage plays – turn up (somersaults) in air at flight with s harp turns , down and up flying . Pairs of lapwing nets not far from each other . Nest is situated on the soil (ground) – small pit is covered by grass . On dried meadow with many small hillocks the nests easy to mask (hide), therefore that is optimal (advantageous) place for nesting (living) . At laying of eggs usually is 4 eggs with spots, arranged by sharp ends inside – as asterisk . Crows, seagulls and birds of prey furiously drive away . Not seldom the nests is ruined under the hoofs of cattle (we also account now that factor), from agricultures techniques, at flooded by river water . Birds, which lost nest, make laying of eggs again . Young birds all together go to south in middle of summer . In our winter a lapwing spent (go) on Mediterranean (Sea), Asia . A lapwing is very attracted to places of past nesting and return to that territory from one year to another (next) year . Also, in spite of seeming big size of a lapwing, it (he) only as size of dove (pigeon) . O, children, look faster, that the brown bird in zigzag fashion flies up. Listen … what sound? - Crackling. Yes, the sound is issued by vibrating feathers of a tail … as if bleating. These are distinctive attributes of plover ( Galinago galinago L.): after ris ing at flight, some first meters it (he) flies directly , then passes (way) to fast zigzag flight. Have noted a point of his(its) ris ing at flight ? - Boggy (marsh) meadow (having many small hillocks) . Well. There we too shall take tests (samples of invertebrate animals) and we shall note features of ecological conditions of a plover habitat. Pay attention (note) to a beak, to color of plumage? - A beak is long, plumage brown, speckled. Yes, color is a speckled, bottom surface (part of body) of wings are striped. Plover return (fly comeback ) in middle of thawing of a snow and soon reveal itself by marriage plays . Their "bleating" are audible all day and night. The nest is well latent (mask, hide) in crude (swamp) hillocks , complex of a sedge. Female makes laying of eggs is dense, flutter out almost from under legs (foots) of disturber (infringer, who trouble it) and quickly departs (fly) away; or female makes falls in a grass, somewhere in some distance from a nest and is not remove d (not go) from nest often, it (she) not show the anxiety to disturber . Adults in the middle of summer of year have gradual full change of feather s , and they keep (preserve) itself in remote places. Plover f ly away on the south at the end of a summer of yea r , separate birds can fly to south late up to frosts. Winter ing (during our winter) in Africa. Now, children, write down the birds, which we saw (observed), in account table: Habitats Birds Redshank ( Tringa totanus ) Lapwing ( Vanellus vanellus ) Plover ( Galinago galinago ) Shallow water of the river 2 individuals Dried meadow with many small hillocks 6 individuals Marsh meadow with many small hillocks 1 individual So, children, the first stage of our investigation work is finished . At the following stage we should estimate ecological conditions of Shorebirds habitats . For now it is possible to have a rest . Please , sit down . Look around (on surrounding nature) - what contrast : the sated bright - blue clear sky, juicy - green spaces of a meadow … It is beautiful . Listen to a rustle of a grass, whiff of a wind, hum of insects … Isn't it splendid?! At once you feel a difference between city (town) and the real nature, you are being filled by something positive, encouraging . Only you shall be accurate (neat) and silent . Children, you took album sheets and color pencils ( before excursion I told to you about these ). Take out it and draw (painting), w hat you see around (surrounding nature) (15 - 20 min) . And then, at school (institute) , we shall lead (shall carry out) competition for choice of the best figure (drawing) of the nature. By the way, how you think, how meadow was formed with many small hillocks on which we are situated now ? What itself represent these hummocks (hillocks) ? - … Actually or in reality, that is formation of cereals ( as oats), and they densely grow. They grow on the dense and humid ground (soil), consisting of fine (small) particles. Complex of the cereals occurs on a surface of ground (soil) , and their lateral branches grow vertically upwards. In result , dense interlacing are formed from close arranged (touched) to each other stalks and leaves of grass ( cereals ) . And from year to year these dense interlacings of vegetation form a hummock s (hillocks) . So, children , we start (begin) the following stage of work. As our researches have serious character, then we as true scientists, should play and serious roles. In the beginning of excursion you were already divided into 3 groups on 2 - 4 persons in each . Responsible for work in these groups will be the professors , knowing performance (carrying out, leading) of all kinds of works and their registration. The professor should supervise work of group, observe (keep up) its (her) quality. To argue with professors, to evade from their tasks it is impossible. Other person in each of groups will be the assistant to the professor, him "the right hand", i.e. the helper. His duty - correct registration of tests (samples, which will be to take). The rested others persons of groups are experts on difficult questions - only they are capable to take tests (samples) qualitatively, professionally. And, the professor and his assistants should participate in work directly, not only the control of work. The appeal (relations) to each other only by name and patronymic is must be. Noise, fuss, negative mutual relations are not supposed. Work only on a basis of respect , mutual understanding and trust. The task will be given to each group according to parameters of the certain ecological factor : 1 group - an estimation of parameters of the abiotical (physical) factor (ground or soil , water). 2 group - an estimation of parameters of the biotical (alive) factor (vegetation, invertebrate animals). 3 group - an estimation of parameters of the anthropogenous (human) factor (pasture of cattle, character of land making by human , visiting of a meadow by the person or human ). Cards with the description of a technique of taking of sampl es are given to professors , who notify the assistants , how to make out (to registrate) the data, and they notify the experts , how to take tests (samples) . Remember, that all should pass (go, leading) cautiously, because a ll around alive, as we (human, person). So, the first point of research (investigation) - dried meadow with many small hillocks. We start (begin) to work. Abiotical (physical) factors Card № 1. An estimation of humidity of ground (soil ). On scale of Ramenskiy : Mark 1 : the ground (soil) is dry, not cool (cold) for ha nds. If s and , then is loose, and if clay - is brought down in dense little bits Mark 2 : ground (soil) is fresh, slightly cool for hands. Attached to ground (soil) the filtering paper is humidified. Mark 3 : ground (soil) is humid (wet) , it is appreciable cool (cold) for hands, humidifies the filtering paper pressed down to soil . Mark 4 : ground (soil) is very crude (swamp) , to the touch is cold. The enclosed ordinary paper soaks the water through. Mark 5 : the ground (soil) wet (strong humid) , shines from water , which covers it, fluidity is being found out (revealed) , is not being rolle d (not form bits). Card № 2. An estimation of mechanical structure of ground (soil) (from Kachinskiy, 1985): 1) Clay soil : the soil weight (mass) with the big work is rub on a palm of hand , in a dry condition is firm, in damp (humid) - viscous, plastic and at rolling it forms thin long " sausage " , which at bending in a ring does not break 2) Loamy (subclay) soil : the ground (soil) is rub (massage) by hand without effort, are well visible the small particles (as at sand) , in a dry kind is rather dense, in damp (humid, crude) - is plastic, but " sausage " at bending in a ring breaks; 3) Subs andy soil : the ground (soil) is rub (massage) without effort, sandy particles prevail, at drying it form the fragile bits , in " sausage " is not being roll ed ; 4) Sandy soil : the ground (soil) will consist exclusively from separate particles , in a dry condition is pour (is loose ) , in damp (water, humid) - fluid weight (mass) . Biotical (alive) f actors Card №1. An estimation of height of vegetation (plants) Measurement with the help of a ruler of five species of vegetation, prevailing on the given place of researche. Measurement of each species of plants to make not less than three times. Card №2. An estimation of an abundance of vegetation On a trial platform (by area of 5 m 2 ) to make measurements with the help of a ruler of distance between plants not less than five times. To be guided by a scale: Very abundant 5 - 25 sm Abundant 25 - 50 sm Abundant enough - up to 1,5 m The small number - is more than 2 m Individually are 2 - 5 plants Single (one copy) - 1 plant Card №3. An estimation of an abundance of invertebrate animals To make 10 times of strokes by an air net (in circle form on long stick) on surface of soil (ground) (distance between ground or soil and network is 1 - 3 cm) - 5 strokes to one side, and 5 strokes to another side - length of stroke to one side is 1 meter). It is must be so , in order that shadows were not ahead (i.e. the sun should shine to our face ) . Collected invertebrate animals to place (put) in test tubes (glass capacities) , to close their by cotton wool and to sign a place of gathering on a label . Anthropogenous (human) factors To estimate on 5 - mark scale the following criteria of anthropogenous (human) loading (pressing) ( from Okolelov , 2000): 1. Remoteness of biotop (ecological place or birds habitat) from anthropogenous (human) objects ( meters ) : 1 mark - 300 - 2000 4 marks - 20 - 50 2 marks - 100 - 300 5 marks - 0 - 20 3 marks - 50 - 100 Step - by - step measurements of distances of territory during excursion (at returning). 2. Character of land making by human 1 mark - past arable land ( is left on next year - the rest) 4 marks - arable land 2 marks - a haymaking 5 marks - vegetables cultures 3 marks - a pasture 3. Attendance of a meadow by the person (human) (going number of people at one o'clock): 1 mark - 1 - 5 person s 4 marks - 20 person s and 5 - 10 machines 2 marks - 6 - 10 person s 5 marks - 25 person s and 10 - 15 machines 3 marks - 15 person s and 1 - 3 machines 4. Quantity (amount) of pasture cattle (if there is): 1 mark - 1 - 5 individuals 4 marks - 51 - 80 individuals 2 marks - 5 - 10 individuals 5 marks - more than 81 individuals 3 marks - 11 - 50 individuals Children, now we pass (go) to boggy (some marsh) meadow, which have many small hillocks. What shorebird we have seen on that place ? - Plover ( Galinago galinago L.). Yes, it is necessary to estimate parameters of ecological factors of plover habitats . Work will go also i n groups and by the same principles: c ards with techniques remain with you , by which you will be guided during works. The only thing, that the second group will need to take tests (samples) of invertebrate animals from ground (soil) , because a plover prob ed a substratum (he penetrated into the soil) , he extract ed (took) from soil the objects of fodder (food) . Therefore this group of researchers receives additional methodical card . Bioltical (alive) factors Card №4. An estimation of an abundance of invertebrate animals With the help of small shovel to take the upper layer of ground (soil) (25x25 c m and depth of 10 c m). Those invertebrate animals, which have found out (revealed) to place (put) in a test tube (glass capacities) , to close their by cotton wool and to sign a place of gathering on a label. And, at the end , the last point of research (investigation) - shallow water of the river, where it was fed (took food) what shorebird ? - Redshank ( Tringa totanus ) . Children , it is a special territory point (ecological place) - it is connected to water. Here it is necessary to be cautious doubly. We shall work in the most part on shallow water of river (on the river coast) . Taking of water tests (samples) of invertebrate animals and measurement of a transparency of river water will be strictly supervised by teachers. Abiotical (physical) factors Card №4. An estimation of a transparency of river water Disk of S е ck (a white disk of a strong material with cord ) to lower(omit) in river water (on sh allow water , depth no more than 30 c m) up to becom ing of it is not visibl e - and to fix this moment and to measure distance of a cord from water surface up to the ending of a seen (visible) part of water (that is up to white disk) with the help of a ruler. The distance from our eyes up to disk of S е c к should be identical at repeatability of experience. Card №5. An estimation of the area of shallow river water Visually to measure length and width of shallow river water, on basis of a projection of the known sizes of objects near the water ( reed , sedge ) . Also the second group of researchers (on biotical or alive factors) receives a new card about technique of taking of water tests (samples) of invertebrate animals , but the second group gives a card № 3 (air - soil tests (samples) of invertebrate animals ). Card №5. An estimation of an abundance of invertebrate animals To make 6 times of strokes by a water net (the more dense network in form of circle on a stick) (3 times of strokes - for one side, 3 times of strokes - in another side, where the length of one stroke is 1 meter ) on shallow river water (depth no more than 30 c m). With the help of tweezers (pincers) to place (put) of invertebrate animals in test tubes (glass capacities) , to close their by cotton wool and to sign labels (a place of gathering). So, children, you carried out (did) made investigation work is very well. You were very clever researchers. Those biological data , which you have written down in the diaries, we shall bring (to write down) in account tables and then we shall make conclusio ns about ecological conditions of shorebirds habitat s . Let's conclu de, at the end, about the general (common) anthropogenous (human) loading (pressing) on meadow of Panskoe . Whether meadow is cattle pasture? - Yes. How many heads (individuals) of cattle you have counted up? - About 70 heads (individuals) . Yes, children , it is intensive pasture of cattle. How you think, what results of the cattle pasture ? - … At pasture, the animals (cattle) trample ground (soil) , its(her) top (upper) layers are condensed and become adverse for development of many plants (vegetations) and animals (invertebrates is specially) . Also at pasture during long time, animals (cattle) eat away more valuable plants (vegetations) and after that there are (left) "meadow weeds", unsuitable for the further feed (meal), i.e. a species specific variety of a meadow decreases, there can be a soil erosion. Whether the haymaking is carried out (did by person) on a meadow? - Yes. And what results of it? As in a case of pasture of cattle, and in this case also there is a reduction of a species specific variety of plants (vegetations) and invertebrate animals, so also the infringements (breach) of stability exist in given (investigated by us) biocenose or in ecological system (meadow). The ground (soil) is dried up and exhausted, because with hay a plenty of mineral substances is irrevocably carried away. These anthropogenous (human) factors also indirectly influence and on the Shorebirds, because they influence an abundance of invertebrate animals through a condition of ground (soil) and vegetations. And an abundance of fodder objects (food of birds) - the most important factor for birds. We shall still be convinced in that and discuss it . More of that, the person (human) carries out (makes) direct influence on the Shorebirds (Charadrii) . How you think, what influence? - Anxiety . Yes, and also frequently pasture of cattle gives (makes) the destruction (death) of nestlings of birds, as nests of the Shorebirds are located on the ground (soil) . Conclusion On the basis of the analysed literature, and on the base of a general (common) characteristic of the ecological (harmless) personality , of stages of its(her) forming , the program of ecological education (ecological upbringing) has been made and was shown partly in the form of biological circle (section) on studying of ecology of birds of native territory . The high ecological culture is capable to be is formed only at direct dialogue (contact, communicate) with the nature . This contact in full degree is carried out (done) by such forms of educational activity, as excursion and studies - investigation work . Thus , it is important to take into account harmonious development of all three spheres of the person ality of the pupil s or students ( sensual, intellectual, will power ) in relation to the nature . Joint interaction of products (results) of development of the given spheres in structure of the person ality (the emotional - psychological culture, scientific outlook (views or consciousness) , ecological skills and experience ) promote (stimulate) the becoming of ecological consciousness and the ecological ( harmless ) person ality as a whole , which is the carrier (possessor) of high ecological culture . For ecological education (ecological upbringing) has great value (significance) and influence the ecological person ality of the teacher (pedagogue ) . T he teacher makes the carries (transfers) of the basic educational influence on the person ality of pupils (students) , to be exact - the personality of the teacher has influence, a degree of personality development , good character (kind consciousness), erudition (education ) . The special attention is necessary to give to development of creative activity of pupils (students ), their independence and initiative and, as result, pay attention on forming of an active vital position . This is promoted (stimulated) by such forms of training (learning, teaching, studying), as discussion, debates, roles plays or imitation plays (games ), which allow to carry out (lead) a principle of humanism, of democratization, of an individual approach , which is necessary both in educational (studies) processes , and in processes of upbringing at whole , and in particular, during form ing of high ecological culture of the person ality of pupils (students) . L iterature 1. Avilova K. V. 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Minsk, 1999. – 120 p. 14. Zakhlebniy A. N. The school and problems of keeping (preserving) of nature: maintenance of nature protect at education / A. N . Zakhlebniy. – Moscow: Pedagogic, 1981. – 184 p. 15. Zveryev I. D. Upbringing (educating) of pupils in process of biology learning (teaching): Textbook for teacher / I. D. Zverye v, etc. – Moscow: Education, 1984. – 160 p. 16. Health without medicine. Book 2 / It is formed by A. I. Tischenko. – Samara: Publ. “ABC”, 1997. – 480 p. 17. Ivanova T. V. Ecological valuables in social consciousness / T. V. Ivanova // Questions of psychology. – 1999. - № 3. – P. 83 - 88. 18. Kogay E. A. Social ecology. Conception of noosphere, ecodevelopment and coevolution / E. A. Kogay // Social - humanities knowledge 's. – 1991. - № 4 . – P. 148 - 160. 19. Konstantinov N. A. History of pedagogic: Textbook for student of pedagogical institutes / N. A. Konstantinov. – Moscow: Educatio n, 1982. – 447 p. 20. Korolyov V. A. Problems of ecology at geological education of pupils / V. A. Korolyov // Geography at school. - № 3. – P. 63 - 68. 21. Kulev A. V. Scientific report as result of investigation work of pupils / A. V. Kulev // Biology at school. - № 6. – P. 38 - 41. 22. Lunyak N. N. Studies - investigation work of pupils // Biology at school / N. N. Lunyak. – 2000. - № 8. – P . 55 - 58. 23. Maxakovskiy V. P. Conception of stable development of Human // V. P. Maxakovskiy // Geography at school. – 1996. - № 3. – P . 14 - 19. 24. Naiumov S. P. Biology of hunting beasts and birds of USSR / S. P. Naiumov, N.P. Lavrov. – Moscow: States publ. of technical and economical literatures, 1948. – 358 p. 25. Naiumov S. P. Zoology of vertebrate animals / S. P. Naiumov. – Moscow: Education, 1965. – 462 p. L iterature 26 . Week of ecology at school : textbook on methodic of biology teaching (learning) / L . D . Bobilyeva, L . P . Petrischeva, L . F . 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In 2 volumes . V . 1 / I . P . Podlasiy . – Moscow : Humanities publ . center VLADOS, 1999 . – 576 p . 32 . Psychology and pedagogic in schemes / by ed . P . Rostopshin, V . Vodopyanov . – Moscow : Publ . “PRIOR”, 2001 . – 96 p . 33 . Ridiger O . N . The problems of school ecological education / O . N . Ridiger // Biology . – 2002 . - № 27 - 28 . – P . 17 . 34 . Rizhkov I . N . Plays (games) on lessons of geography and ecology / I . N . Rizhkov // Geography at school . – 1997 . - № 3 . - P . 68 - 73 . 35 . Ryabitsev V . K . The birds of Urals and west Siberia : Atlas - determination / V . K . Ryabitsev . – Ekaterinburg : Publ . of Ural university, 2002 . – 608 p . 36 . Streltsova V . B . Our friend – the nature : From experience of ecolgical education in schools of Moscow / V . B . Streltsova . – Moscow : Pedagogic, 1985 . – 113 p . 37 . Suravegina I . T . Ecology and peace (world) : Methodical textbook for teacher / I . T . Suravegina, V . M . Senkevich . – Moscow : New school, 1994 . – 128 p . 38 . Suchomlinskiy V . A . Chosen pedagogical works . In 3 volumes . V . 1 / It is formed by O . S . Bogdanov, V . Z . Small . – Moscow : Pedagogic, 1979 . – 560 p . 39 . Teoretical bases of ecological education and upbringing : Collection of scientific works / by eds . N . E . Astaphyeva, N . I . Ponomaryova, etc . – Tambov, 1998 . 69 p . 40 . Teplov D . L . Independent work of pupils on excursion / D . L . Teplov, E . V . Titov // Biology at school, 1998 . - № 2 . – P . 76 - 80 . 41 . Teplov D . L . Excursion “Plants of dried meadow” / D . L . Teplov // Biology at school . – 2000 . - № 3 . – P . 63 - 67 . 42 . Working and moral upbringing (education) in process of ecological education of pupils : Collection of scientific works / by eds . I . S . Matrusov, A . N . Zakhlebniy, V . M . Senkevich, I . T . Suravegina . – Moscow : Academy of pedagogical sciences of USSR, 1984 . – 90 p . 43 . Fridman L . M . , Kulagina I . Yu . 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Description of lesson of biological circle (section) on a theme (subject): "Registration (put into shape) of results of excursion and investigation, and their discussion: influence of abiotical (physical) , biotical (alive) and anthropogenous (human) factors on the Shorebirds" The purpose (goal ): to registrate (to put into shape), to account the results of our research or investigation, and after that to discuss the results. Problems (tasks ): Educational : to study connection (relation) of the Shorebirds with (to) abiotical (physical), biotical (alive) and anthropogenous (human) factors of environment , and to reveal the basic ecological conditions of environment for the Shorebirds. Upbringing (rising ) : the becoming of scientific and ecological outlook (views, knowledges, consciousness) ; patriotic education (studying of ecology of native territory); labour ing (working) education (skill or abilities to endure (to stand, to bear) the physical and intellectual loadings or intensive work ); aesthetic education (competition (choice) of figures (drawings) about the nature); education of creative thinking ( at the discussions, debates , which are formed or organized ). Developing : development of intellectual (cognition) sphere (the analysis, synthesis, comparison, generalization, skills logically to think and to make conclusions); emotional sphere (cognitive interest, astonishment , positive emotions); will power sphere (activity, skill to operate (control) the emotions, skills to make out (to registrate) research or investigation work). Methods of training (learning, teaching ) : verbal (conversation with elements of an explanation, story or tale ), visible (working or account tables, schedules, figures), practical (registration of research or investigation work, discussion of it s results) . Type of training (learning, teaching ) : part ly - search, problem. The plan of lesson : 1. Registration of results of research or investigation ( i n groups) 2. Drawing up (composing) of the report of research and distribution of the report among members in each group 3. Competition (choice) of orators (speakers) 4. Debate: what parameter or the factor of an environment is more important for the Shorebirds ? 5. A conclusion on the basis of literature references. 6. Competition (choice) of figures (drawing) about the nature. Children, today (now) the purpose of lesson - processing (registration) and discussion of results of our research (investigation) on ecology of the Shorebirds . This work not less serious, than what we have done on a meadow of Panskoe during excursion . Moreover, it (work) is connected to the big analysis of the facts, with forming of hypotheses and, probably, with opening (discovering, revealing) of the new facts . Therefore work is interest ing , will demand creativity, activity, persistence on work (in process) . You remember, that you carry out (play) or you have roles of the important scientists . But today these roles will have a little exchange of places among you . The one , who was the professor and the assistant (function of which to registrate and to control work , to observe its correct course ) - they begin to carry out (to play) or have a role of experts on difficult questions (the responsible for work , that it will be made by them), and experts in past begin to carry out (to play) or have roles of professors and assistants , which should organize work, should keep up (to control) its performance and, certainly,to participate in the work directly . So, three big tables (with chairs) (furniture) are placed (it stand before us) . The first group sits down to the first table (furniture) . The professor, tell please, what factor you investigated on a meadow? - We investigated the abiotical (physical) factor , which has influenc e on the Shorebirds . The second group , occupy places (sit down) - your table (furniture) the following . The professor, what factor was studied by your group? - Our group studied the biotical (alive) factor , which influences on the Shorebirds . And, at last, the third table (furniture) - the third group . The professor, also remind, what studying of the factor influencing on the Shorebirds , you were engaged (were made by you) ? - The anthropogenous (human) factor . Well . All dates (facts) of researches (investigation), collected on a meadow, are brought (are written down) in field diaries, now they - on your tables (furniture) . Our problem (task) - to registrate (to put into shape) the data (our facts) as (in form of) working (account) tables . You know, that each ecological factor has parameters, estimation of which you were engaged (were made by you). Therefore now to professors of each group shall be given cards with forms (figures ) of working (account) tables . It is necessary to fill ( to write down ) in them the data (our facts) from field diaries . Directly experts (specialists ) on difficult questions will be to engage ( will make, registrate ) in this work . Thus the assistant should help , and the professor should control, keep up the quality of work, closely (attentively) look for mistakes (their correction) . The relation to each other former - by name and patronymic . Work only on the basis of mutual understanding, respect, trust . We start (we begin) . Course of lesson Abiotical (physical) factors Card № 1. Estimation of humidity of soil Habitats of the Shorebirds Quantity of marks 1. Dried meadow with many small hillocks 1 2. Marsh (boggy) meadow with many small hillocks 4 3. Shallow water of river 5 Card № 2 . Estimation of mechanical structure of soil Habitats of the Shorebirds Type of soil 1. Dried meadow with many small hillocks Subsandy 2. Marsh (boggy) meadow with many small hillocks Loamy (subclay) 3. Shallow water of river Clay soil Card № 3. Estimation of density (solidity) of soil (distance between one end of aluminium wire and place of its bending at penetrating of wire to (in) the soil by our hand) Habitats of the Shorebirds Density of soil (cm) 1. Dried meadow with many small hillocks 1,5 2. Marsh (boggy) meadow with many small hillocks 10 3. Shallow water of river 25 Card № 4 . Estimation of transparency of river water Habitats of the Shorebirds Transparency of river water (cm) 1. Dried meadow with many small hillocks – 2. Marsh (boggy) meadow with many small hillocks – 3. Shallow water of river 3 Card № 5 . Estimation of the area of shallow river water Habitats of the Shorebirds The area of shallow river water (m) 1. Dried meadow with many small hillocks – 2. Marsh (boggy) meadow with many small hillocks – 3. Shallow water of river 10 х 5 Biotical (alive) factors Card № 1 . Estimation of height and abundance of vegetations (plants) Habitats of the Shorebirds Height ( cm ) Abundance 1. Dried meadow with many small hillocks 15 abundant 2. Marsh (boggy) meadow with many small hillocks 17 abundant enough 3. Shallow water of river 35 single Card № 2 . Estimation of abundance of invertebrate animals Habitats of the Shorebirds Habitats of invertebrate animals Systematical group (taxon) of invertebrates (name) Quantity of invertebrate animals (sample size), n 1. Dried meadow with many small hillocks Grass Biwingers (Fly) Beetles (Bugs) Bedbugs Spiders 5 2 3 3 2. Marsh (boggy) meadow with many small hillocks Surface of ground (soil) Biwingers (Fly) Water Beetles (Bugs) Spiders 3 3 2 Thickness of soil (ground) Rain (rings) worms (Annelidae) Larvas 2 2 3. Shallow water of river Water and silt Water Beetles (Bugs) Dragonfly (larva) Mosquito (larvas) 4 3 5 Thickness of water Rain (rings) worms (Annelidae) 3 Antropogenous factors Card № 1. Estimation of antropogenuos loading (pressing) on habitats of the Shorebirds (in marks) Habitats of the Shorebirds Remoteness of antropogenuos objects Character of land making by human Going ( a ttendance ) by people (person, human) Quantity of pasture cattle 1. Dried meadow with many small hillocks 1 2 + 3 1 4 2. Marsh (boggy) meadow with many small hillocks 1 3 – 3 3. Shallow water of river 2 3 1 2 So, children, it is made by you. Good fellows. Now each group should present the report on the research (investigation). Using working (account) tables, it is necessary to make a general characteristic of ecological factors, which influence on all 3 kinds (species) of the Shorebirds (Charadrii) : redshank ( Tringa totanus ) , a lapwing ( Vanellus vanellus ) , plover ( Galinago galinago ) . To draw (to make) conclusions, what factor in what habitat influences birds in more degree . Also it is necessary to make the schedule , where the given dependence (between birds and factors) is will be shown. Cards with forms of account tables are given to professors. The assistant registrates (puts into form) them (writes down the facts) , and experts make the text of the report. After that the professor, being coordinated (according to) with all members of group , distributes (allocates) the report among members of group , and after that they will be to come (to go out) by turns before us and to tell to all about the conclusions, sketching (drawing, show) of schedules on a black board. We start (we begin) drawing up (making) of schedules and conclusions. Abiotical (physical) factor Card № 1. Estimation of humidity of soil at Shorebirds habitats Conclusion: on dr ied meadow with many small hillocks the lowest humidity of ground (soil), on sh allow water of river - the highest humidity of ground (soil) . So, the lapwing ( Vanellus vanellus ) lives on ecological places with low humidity of ground (soil), and redshank ( Tringa totanus ) - on the contrary, with high humidity of ground (soil). The plover ( Galinago galinago ) lives on ecological places with the humidified ground (soil) . Card №2. Estimation of mechanical structure of soil (ground) at Shorebirds habitats . Conclusion: the lapwing ( Vanellus vanellus ) lives on places with subsandy ground (soil), the plover ( Galinago galinago ) – with loamy (subclay) soil (ground), and redshank ( Tringa totanus ) – with clay soil (ground). Card №3. Estimation of density (solidity) of soil (ground) (cm) Conclusion: the lapwing ( Vanellus vanellus ) lives in ecological places with the big density (solidity) of ground (soil), redshank ( Tringa totanus ) – with low density (solidity) of ground (soil), and plover ( Galinago galinago ) – with average density of ground (soil). Biotical (alive) factors Card № 1 . Estimation of height and abundance of plants (vegetations) at Shorebirds habitats Conclusion : the lapwing ( Vanellus vanellus ) lives on ecological places with low, but plentiful (abundant) vegetation (plants), the plover ( Galinago galinago ) can lives on ecological places with low , not plentiful (not abundant) vegetation (plants), redshank ( Tringa totanus ) prefers ecological places with rare vegetation (plants), which can be high. Card №2. Estimation of abundance of invertebrate animals at Shorebirds habitats Dried meadow with many small hillocks Marsh (boggy) meadow with many small hillocks Shallow water of river Conclusion: the lapwing ( Vanellus vanrllus ) lives on ecological place, where there are most of all Biwingers (Fly) and Bedb ugs, but also there are B ugs (Beetles) and S piders , whom it(he) can eat (feeding) . The plover ( Galinago galinago ) can eat (feeding) B ugs (Beetles) and earthworms (rain worms - Annelidae) , and redshank ( Tringa totanus ) - take food such as larvas of mosquitoes (worms) and water bugs (Beetles) . Antropogenous (human) factor Conclusion : the lapwing ( Vanellus vanellus ) lives on ecological places with higher anthropogenous (human) loading (pressing), redshank ( Tringa totanus ) - with the lower anthropogenous (human) loading (pressing) at most ecological places (but at whole , redshank can endure (stand) the average anthropogenous loading , influence) , the plover ( Galinago galinago ) - with average anthropogenous loading (press, influence) . So, children . Now representatives of the first group will start (begin) to tell to us conclusions about abiotical (physical) factor , which influenc e on the Shorebirds . The professor of this group declares sequence of performance at blackboard ( who has speech) of experts on difficult questions . Each of them by turns comes (go out) before us , draws (makes) the schedule on a black board, explains i t (figure) and makes the conclusions . On performance (s peech ) of one person 5 minutes are given . And the other persons at this time write down our facts in account table on the ir sheets of a paper, closely (attentively) listening acting (who has performance and speech) . Name of ecological factor Lapwing ( Vanellus vanellus ) Redshank ( Tringa totanus ) Plover ( Galinago galinago ) Humidity of soil 1 5 4 Mechanical structure of soil Subsandy Clay soil Loamy (subclay) Density (solidity) of soil 1,5 25 10 Height of plants (vegetations) 15 35 17 Abundance of plants (vegetations) Abundant Single Abundant enough Abundance of invertebrate animals Biwingers (Fly) Beetles (Bugs) Bedbugs Water Beetles (Bugs) Mosquito (larvas) Beetles (Bugs) Rain (rings) worms (Annelidae) Antropogenuos factor 11 8 9 On the basis of this account table (which is generalized), we shall discuss ecological conditions of Shorebirds habitats. For now closely (attentively) we listen to lecturers (speakers) . Assistants of each group will be jury and will be to estimate the report and performance of experts on difficult questions by the following criteria : - c orrectness of speech; - quality of p resentation of represented schedules on a black board; - proof (prove) of facts , actors emotions at performances( at speech ). It is estimated on a scale : 1 mark - a lot of lacks (defects) 2 marks - more advantages, than lacks (defects) 3 marks - basically of advantage. Estimations of jury should be fixed on sheets of a paper and then paper are given to teacher. The teacher on the basis of these estimations names the winner of competition (choice) of orators (of experts on difficult questions). Children, having heard colleague - scientific, you already have the general (common) representation, what ecological factors influence on the Shorebirds (Charadrii). Now let's discuss it. Each person expresses the own opinion on questions: • How the ecological factors , investigated by us , can be connected to a way of Shorebirds life ? • Why the Shorebirds choose places of habitats with such special ecological factors? • As far as strongly the anthropogenous factor influences on the Shorebirds ? If someone disagrees with opinion of another - is his right; but he should respect , account the opinions of another person, and should not impose (pressing) the own ideas at all on ideas to another person . So, children , you are good fellows. You have very actively shown the creative thinking; original (interesting) ideas have been stated (are formed and told by you). Let's make the conclusion from all , that we told. But we shall make it in an especial way. On tables (furniture) at you there are books ( atlas - determinants of birds , popular scientific editions) , in which you can find data (facts) on (relation) a way s of Shorebirds life. B asing on these literature references and on our summary (generalizing table ) (connection or relation of factors and Shorebirds ) , you can make a conclusion: what ecological factors influence on the Shorebirds more strongly (i.e. what ecological conditions of an environment are necessary for Shorebirds l ife , and what bring sharply negative value). Children, remember, during rest (stay) on a meadow of Panskoe (our excursion) you drew (painting) the nature on yours sheets of paper ? We now can lead (carry out) competition (choice) on (of) the best of figures (drawings, paintings) . Though, certainly, it is impossible to tell, that one is better than another … in each of figures (drawings, paintings ) the individuality of personality, the own attitude to surrounding (individual features), the creativity of each person are reflected. Nevertheless, figures (drawings, paintings) are placed (fixed) at the stand (on the wall), you can pass (go) and closely (attentively) look of them (you can see, observe). Estimation of figures (drawings, paintings) by the following criteria : - colors scale (spectrum) - a degree of "investment (giving) of soul" in drawing (figures, paintings) - skill to see feature of a structure of the nature. As you already know, a 3 - mark scale : 1 mark - a lot of lacks (defects) 2 marks - more than advantages, than lacks (defects) 3 marks - basically of advantage. Thanks for attention! All good!