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Influence of factors of environment on number and distribution of Shorebirds (Charadrii)

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Ecology of birds
Influence of factors of environment on number and distribution of Shorebirds (Charadriiformes) near the river of Forest Voronezh
Astakhova
О. А. (
student biological investigation
) 2004.
Studying of influence of conditions of a habitat on animals is an actual (
interest in present time) direction (theme) of modern ecological researches. Representatives of a suborder of Shorebirds
(Charadrii) can serve as convenient model for similar works. These birds choose open places of dwelling
(inhabitat),
that does
(makes) their accessible to visual supervision. T
o finding
-
out qualitative influence of separate factors of environment
o
n distribution of Shorebirds is devoted
(revealed)
in last decades the significant number of works in our and many other country
es
(Goss
-
Custard et al., 1977; 1991; Yates et al., 1993; Shubin
, 1998; 1999; Okolelov
, 2000; Okolelov
, Shubin
, 2003, etc.). Studying of Shorebirds
is actual
(interest in present time)
in connection with a problem of preservation of water
-
marsh ecological places,
important component
of which
are birds
, living near the water
. Shorebirds
in this case can represent itself as model
species
-
the indicators, which allow to estimate a level of economic use of water
-
marsh
ecological places
(
Okolelov
, 2000).
The purpose of our work was to reveal ecological laws of distribution of Shorebirds
near the river Forest
Voronezh.
For achievement of an object
of research
are solved the following problems(tasks):
1.
To study fauna and the population of Shorebirds near the river of Forest
Voronezh.
2.
To establish specificity of habitats of Shorebirds
.
3.
T
o reveal the key
(basic)
factors
,
which influenc
e
on spatial distribution of Shorebirds, o
n the basis of a quantitative estimation of various parameters of environment.
4.
To study species specific differences of fo
od
behaviour
(features of nourishment)
of birds.
Fauna and population of Shorebirds near the river of Forest Voronezh
Species structure
For studying (revealing) of number and distribution of Shorebirds was spent
(
carried out) the absolute account of worrying birds by routes in potentially suitable places for birds (
Tomkovich
, 1999). N
umber of fed birds
are marked
s
eparately.
The fauna of Shorebirds
of the Tambov region are
represent
28 species
. From them are most usual: Vanellus vanellus
, Tringa ochorpus
, Actitis hypoleucos
, Scolopax rusticola
, Gallinago gallinago
. Seven species
are brought
(signed)
in the Red book of the Tambov region (disappearing)
:
Tringa totanus
, Limosa limosa
, Numenius arquata
,
Xenus cinereus
, Tringa stagnatilis
, Tringa glareola
, Pluvialis dominica
(the Red book of the Tambov region
, 2000).
From facts of V. I. Schegolev (1988), near the river of Forest
Voronezh in vicinities
of settlement of
Panskoe
at the end of 19
70 -
the beginning 1980 (years)
of XX century
,
before
(earlier)
spent (
carrying out
)
of meliorative
(economic)
works
,
annually nested
50
-
55 pairs of lapwing
(
Vanellus vanellus
)
, 8
-
10 pairs of redshank (
Tringa totanus
)
, 6
-
10 pairs of Limosa limosa
, 10
-
15 pairs of Gallinago gallinago
, 3
-
4 pairs of Tringa stagnatilis
. However
,
already in 1993
-
1996 (years)
n
umber of lapwing
(
Vanellus vanellus
) was reduced up to 30 pairs, redshank (
Tringa totanus
)
-
up to 4 pairs, and Tringa stagnatilis
have disappeared at all (
Okolelov
, Skrilyova
, 1996).
Territorial and ecological distribution of Shorebirds
In 2002 number of a lapwing (
Vanellus vanellus
) was higher on a site
of Panskoe near the river of
Forest
Voronezh
, than on a site
of Zavoronezhskoe
near the river, and
number of redshank
(
Tringa totanus
) –
opposite, was higher
on settlement of Zavoronezhskoe
. Galinago galinago
was marked (found out) only on a site
of
Panskoe near the river of Forest
Voronezh in period from April till June (tab. 1).
Table 1. Number of Shorebirds in places of research in April -
June of 1999* and 2002
.
*
-
the data for 1999 year on Okolelov
(1999)
**
-
a
ccounts of birds on a site
of Zavoronezhskoe near the
river
in 1999 were not carried out
(not
spent)
.
# -
years of birds accounts
№
Area of accounts of birds
Vanellus vanellus
Tringa
totanus
Gallinago gallinago
1999
#
2002
#
1999
2002
1999
2002
1
Settl. of Panskoe
6
14
6
2
4
2
2
Settl
. of Zavoronezhskoe
**
6
–
4
–
–
Table 2. Ecological
distribution of Shorebirds
near the river of Forest
Voronezh in April –
June of 1999* and 2002 years (number of individuals
/ km
2
)
Place , in which birds inhabit
Vanellus vanellus
Tringa
totanus
Gallinago gallinago
1999
2002
1999
2002
1999
2002
Arable land
2,0
2,5
Meadow of pasture land
2,0
**
Meadow of flood by river water (with small hummocks), but now is dry
0,5
4,5
1,0
0,5
Bog (marsh) meadow with many small hummocks
0,5
1,0
0,5
1,0
1,25
0,5
Silt coast of river
1,0
**
1,0
**
Sh
allow water of river
1,0
**
0,5
*
-
the data for 1999 year
o
n Okolelov
(1999)
**
-
d
ensity of birds on a site of Zavoronezhskoe near the river of Forest
Voronezh
Dark cells
of table designates absence of birds in the given habitat.
Thus, the tendency of reduction of Shorebirds number near the river of Forest
Voronezh
is traced
(revealed)
. For different species
of Shorebirds typically unequal
(different)
territorial and ecological
distribution
, that, first of all, depends on biological and ecological features
of the given species,
produced
(origin)
during evolution
.
On a site of Panskoe
near the river of Forest
Voronezh was possible to establish interannual dynamics
(changes) of Shorebirds number
, which are nesting. In 2002 redshank (
Tringa totanus
)
and Gallinago gallinago
have reduced, but
a lapwing (
Vanellus vanellus
)
have increased t
heir
number
s
in comparison with 1999. As a whole the given tendency
are
coordinated to results of long
-
term supervision of a
condition of birds complex of
this site near river of
Forest
Voronezh, confirming reduction of number of water birds
, and also who live near water,
in connection with drainage
(drying)
of inundated
lakes and constant
bogs
(marshs)
. From 17 surveyed platforms
(places, sites) near the river of Forest
Voronezh the Shorebirds
have been found out only in 10
. Thus, distribution of these birds was non
-
uniform
(distinguished)
.
Lapwings (
Vanellus vanellus
) gravitated
(relation)
to territories of a meadow, which bordered on boggy (marsh) sites: on Panskoe
meadow
-
territory of dried and burnt grass
with many small hummocks
, on Zavoronezhskiy meadow
-
the part of meadows
of pasture land
, remote from anthropogenous (human) objects
. Apparently from table 2 the basic fo
od
habitats
(territoryes of nourishment)
of a lapwing (
Vanellus vanellus
) are were an arable land (on
a site
of
Panskoe
near the river
) and the dried up coast and Sh
allow water of river (on a site
of Zavoronezhskoe
near the river
).
Redshank (
Tringa totanus
)
were fed in parts of river coast
, preferring silt coast of riverand s
h
allow water of river (tab. 2). Ecological
preferences of Charadrius dubius
and redshank
(
Tringa totanus
)
are similar. Charadrius dubius
was marked
(revealed)
on silt and sandbank of the river
. Gallinago gallinago
it was fed in places with complex
of higher grass
, a cane. It was usually marked
(foun out)
on boggy (marsh) meadow with many small hummocks
(tab. 2).
Influence of ecological factors of environment on distribution and
number of Shorebirds
Ecological factors, their classification and the general (common) laws of action on an organism
In researched territory we had been allocated (are different) 7 types
of potentially suitable habitats of Shorebirds
: a
meadow
of pasture land
, dr
ied
meadow
(but flooded by river water and with many small hummocks)
, boggy (marsh) meadow (with many small hummocks)
, parts of meadow
with burnt
grass (near the water)
, an arable land, silt coast of river
, sites of shallow water of river (
Okolelov
, 2000). In the given habitats have been chosen
17 trial
(
sample) platforms
(sites
),
in which spent (
carried out) account
of
birds
in view
, and in parallel
with it various parameters of environment
were estimated by standard techniques
.
"Environment"
usually is understand as a natural bodies and the phenomena, with which the organism (organisms) is in direct or indirect mutual (cooperate) relations. Separate elements of environment, to which organisms react by adaptive reactions (adaptations), carry names of "factors" (
Voronkov
, 1999).
Influence of environment on organisms usually is estimate (measuring) through separate factors. "Ecological factors"
understand as a some element or a condition of environment, to which organisms react by adaptive reactions (adaptations). Outside adaptive reactions lay lethal (disastrous for organisms) values of factors.
More often factors divide into three groups:
Factors of the lifeless nature (
abiotical
or physical and chemical). To them carry
(include)
climatic, atmospheric, soil (
edaphical
), geomorphical
, hydrological, etc.
2. Factors of wildlife (
biotical
) –
influence of one organisms or their communities on others. These influences can be on the part of plants (phytogenous), animals (
zoo
genous), microorganisms, mushrooms, etc.
3. Factors of human activity (
anthropogenous
). Among them distinguish direct influence on organisms (for example, hunting) and indirect –
influence on a habitat (for example, pollution of environment, destruction of territory
of fodder (food
, nourishment
), construction of dams on the rivers and so on
) (
Chernova
, Bilova
, 1988).
It is possible to allocate (distinguish) some laws of action of factors, which are universal (general (common)) in relation to organisms. The rule of an optimum, a rule of interaction of factors, a rule of limiting factors and some other are relate to such laws.
Rules of an optimum.
According to this rule for ecological system
, an organism or the certain
(definite)
stage of his(its) development there is a range of more optimum (
normal, good)
value of factors
. Outside
a zone of an optimum the zones
of oppression
lay
,
passing in critical points
,
behind
which existence is impossible
. The maximal density of a population
is usually dated for a zone of an optimum
. Zones of an optimum for various organisms are different
. For one they have a significant range (
everybionts
), for others -
a narrow range of adaptations to factors (
stenobionts
). A range between critical points
name ecological valency
(tolerance, plasticity). So, for example, Shorebirds
differ on the ecological valency (plasticity). There are species, which have
a narrow spectrum of territorial preferences which, for example, gravitate to boggy
(marsh)
habitats (
Gallinago gallinago
, Limosa limosa
). At the same time some species of Shorebirds
show high ecological plasticity in a choice of places
of dwelling, in which inhabit
(lapwing
-
Vanellus vanellus
). As a rule, in connection with anthropogenous transformations of water
-
marsh ecological places, birds of the first group
(
stenobionts
)
reduce the number
,
while
a species of everybionts
not only increases
number, but also
extend
areas
.
Rule of interaction of factors.
The essence of it(him) consists, that some factors can strengthen or soften force of action of other factors
. So, for example, remoteness of the ploughed up ground area (arable land) from the river is compensated for a lapwing (
Vanellus vanellus
)
by a high
er
abundance of ground
(soil)
insects (
beetles -
Carabidae, Staphylinus) and their good availability
(access) for the lack of a vegetative cover (Goss
-
Custard et al., 1977; Vladishevskiy
, 1975). Also, for example, near the river of
Forest
Voronezh exist biotops (different ecological places)
with the big abundance of unvertebrate
animal and organic substances, but in these boggy
(marsh)
sites redshank
(
Tringa totanus
)
and Gallinago gallinago
were not marked, though for them by a major factor causing distribution, there was an abundance of invertebrate
animal (that will be discussed later). Probably, other factors of the given habitat (the area of s
hallow water of river
, an abundance of vegetation, affinity to anthropogenous objects) in aggregate are interfered to use given natural sites by birds. Rule of limiting factors.
The essence of this rule consists, that the factor
which is taking place in lack or a lot
(near to critical points) negatively influences
on organisms and besides limits
an opportunity of display (express) of force of action of other factors
, which can take place in an optimum. So, for example, the basic limiting factor for Shorebirds is anthropogenous transformation of habitats as a result of drainage (drying) of water
-
marsh ecological places
, them plough
ing as arable land or
use as a haymaking and pastures.
Photoperiodism (
reaction of an organism to a light interval of time
). Alive organisms react to length of light day
by the behaviour, physiological processes
. It as the factor -
a signal
for approach of the certain (definite) phases
of development of organisms. So, for example, animals during evolution
have developed adaptation to rhythm of the natural phenomena
. For birds typically certain (definite) time of the beginning and the end of the migratory period, a season of nesting, etc. But other factors (for example, the temperature, climatic changes) can provoke approach at birds of any phases or the phenomena prematurely or with delay (Chernova, Bilova, 1988; Shilov
, 1997; Voronkov
, 1999).
Influence of abiotical factors of environment on distribution of Shorebirds
With the help of the correlation analysis had been appreciated character and a degree of influence of separate parameters of environment, including abiotical factors (climatic conditions, the area of habitats, properties of a ground and water reservoirs) on distribution of Shorebirds near the river of Forest Voronezh (tab. 3).
Ecological factors
Species of Shorebirds
Vanellus vanellus
Tringa
totanus
Charad
-
rius dubius
Gallinago gallinago
I
II
III
I
II
III
II
I
Area (size) of territory
+0,86
+0,34
–
0,23
–
0,21
–
0,35
Area (size) of s
h
allow water of river
+0,97
+0,23
+0,42
Properties of a ground (soil)
:
Mechanical (physical) structure
:
Physical sand
(
0,01 мм)
+0,38
+0,30
Physical clay (silt)
(
0,01 мм)
+0,50
+0,54
+0,54
+0,66
+0,25
Table 3. Correlation of Shorebirds number with abiotical (physical) factors of environment
Humidity
–
0,44
+0,44
–
0,26
Density of ground
(soil)
–
0,38
–
0,58
–
0,45
+0,42
+0,39
+0,42
+0,45
+0,60
Properties of a
water in river:
Maximal
d
epth
+0,88
+0,32
Transparency of water
+1,00
+0,75
+0,73
Temperature
of water
+0,78
+0,40
+0,46
Table 3. Correlation of Shorebirds number with abiotical (physical) factors of environment
(c
ontinuation
)
Designations
. Habitats
: I –
a site of Panskoe near the river Forest
Voronezh; II –
a site of Zavoronezhskiy near the river
; III –
the incorporated data on two habitats.
Values of factor of correlation (r
) were taken into account: First of all, in places potentially suitable for dwelling (inhabit) of Shorebirds
and there
,
where they was really fed, taken into account
such significant factor for birds as the area
(size) of biotop (territory, which birds inhabit)
and area (size) shallow water of river
(Yates, Goss
-
Custard et al, 1993).
Thus, key (basic) abiotical (physical) f
actors
of environment for a lapwing (
Vanellus vanellus
)
were the area (size) of ecological places (+0,86) (in which its individuals inhabit)
and prevalence of physical sand (+0,38) in ground
(soil)
; for
redshank
(Tringa
totanus
)
–
the area (size) of shallow water of river (+0,97), all parameters of water (depth, a transparency, temperature) and prevalence of physical clay (silt) (+0,54) in ground (soil) (which provided the certain humidity and density of ground or soil
, its soft); for Charadrius dubius
–
prevalence of physical clay (silt) (+0,66) in ground (soil) (near the river of Forest
Voronezh). Distribution of Galinago galinago
also depend on presence
of loamy soil
(+0,25), but in the greater degree from density of a ground
(soil)
(+0,60) (
soft soil)
.
Influence of biotical (alive) factors of environment on Shorebirds
d
istribution Among significant for Shorebirds
biotical (alive)
factors
of environment had been allocated
(distinguished)
the following parameters: properties of vegetation (h
e
ight, an abundance, density of a projective covering), an abundance
of
invertebrate
animals (
inhabit in water, silt
, soil, ground) (Goss
-
Custard et al., 1977; Yates et al., 1993; Okolelov
, 2003; Okolelov
, Shubin
, 2003).
The researches
, which were spent by us
, have allowed to reveal interrelation between properties of vegetation, an abundance of forages
(food)
and number of Shorebirds near the river of
Forest
Voronezh (tab. 4).
Table 4. Correlations of Shorebirds number with biotical (alive)
factors of environment
Ecological factors
Species of Shorebirds
Vanellus vanellus
Tringa
totanus
Charad
-
rius dubius
Gallinago gallinago
I
II
III
I
II
III
II
I
P
roperties of vegetation
:
He
ight
-
0,58
+0,20
+0,43
A
bundance
-
0,24
-
0,59
-
0,44
-
0,39
+0,36
D
ensity of a projective covering
+0,40
+0,56
+0,43
-
0,33
Table 4. Correlations of Shorebirds number with biotical (alive)
factors of environment
(c
ontinuation
)
Categories of food (fodder)
:
3 W
+0,86
+0,45
5 W
0,98
4 S
+0,94
+0,55
+0,55
5 S
+0,47
+0,64
+0,59
+0,45
2 G
+0,56
+0,39
1 SG
+0,35
+0,22
2 SG
+0,25
+0,32
3 SG
+0,36
4 SG
+0,43
+0,21
+0,34
3 TG
+0,45
5 TG
+0,25
Ecological factors
Species of Shorebirds
Vanellus vanellus
Tringa
totanus
Charad
-
rius dubius
Gallinago gallinago
I
II
III
I
II
III
II
I
Categories of a forage (food
).
Localization
: W -
thickness of water, S -
silt, G
-
a grass, SG
-
a surface of a ground (soil),
TG -
thickness of a ground (soil)
(Okolelov, 2000)
.
Dimensional classes (groups
): 1
(2
-
3 mm); 2
(4
-
5 mm); 3
(6
-
8 mm); 4
(9
-
20 mm); 5
(20
-
50 mm).
Values of factor of correlation (r
) were taken into account: The abundance of unvertebrate
animal
s (
potential forages
or food
of birds) was
the key
(basic)
factor of distribution of the majority of Shorebirds species
(Goss
-
Custard et al., 1977; 1988; Yates et al, 1993; Okolelov
, 2000; Okolelov
, Shubin
, 2003). Distribution of potential objects
of fodder
(food) of
Shorebirds
near the river of Forest Voronezh (on
settlements of Panskoe
and
Zavoronezhskoe
near the river
) are marked in table 5. Table 5. Distribution of potential objects fodder (food) of Shorebirds
near the river of
Forest
Voronezh
Group (taxon) of animals
Categories of food
Ecological places, where birds inhabit
Ecological group
Dimensio
-
n
al classes
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Snails
(Mollusca)
W
, S
2; 3; 4; 5
+
+
+
Beetles (Coleoptera)
W
,
G, SG
2; 3; 4
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
Spiders
(Aranei)
G
, SG
1; 2; 4; 5
+
+
+
Brookers (larvas)
(
Trichoptera)
W
4; 5
+
Bewingeds (flyes)
(
Diptera) (larvas)
G
, SG
, S
1; 2; 3; 4; 5
+
+
+
+
+
+
Dragonflyes (larvas)
(Odonata)
W
3; 4; 5
+
Grasshoppers
(Orthoptera)
G
, SG
3; 4; 5
+
+
+
+
+
Rain worms
(Annelida)
TG
, S
4; 5
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
Mosquitos (larvas)
(Chironomidae)
S
3; 4; 5
+
+
Table 5. Distribution of potential objects of fodder (food) of Shorebirds
near the river of
Forest
Voronezh
(c
ontinuation
)
Group (taxon) of animals
Categories of food
Ecological places, where birds inhabit
Ecological group
Dimensio
-
n
al classes
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Bed
-
bugs
(
Hemiptera)
W
, G
1; 2; 3; 4
+
+
+
+
+
+
Frogs
(larvas)
(
Amphibia)
W
4; 5
+
Swimmers “to side”
(
Amphipoda)
W
2; 3
+
+
As brookers (larva)
(
Ephemeroptera)
W
3; 4
+
Ants
(Formicidae)
G
, SG
1; 2
+
+
+
The note.
Ecological groups of forages (food
): W -
water; S -
silt
; G
-
living in a grass; SG
-
living on a surface of a ground (soil); TG
-
living in a thickness of ground (soil).
Dimensional classes
or groups
of forage
s (food
)
: 1
(2
-
3 mm); 2
(4
-
5 mm); 3
(6
-
8 mm); 4 (9
-
20 mm); 5
(20
-
50 mm).
Microhabitats
(ecological places
)
. 1
-
sites of shallow water or river, 2
-
a silt coast of river, 3
-
an arable land, 4
-
dried meadow
,
but flooded by river water (with small hummocks),
5 -
boggy (marsh) meadow (with small hummocks)
, 6
-
a meadow
of pasture land
, 7
-
parts of meadow
with burnt grass (near the water) (Okolelov, 2000)
.
Thus, the correlation analysis allows to draw a conclusion about key (basic) parameters of biotical (alive)
factors, influencing on distribution of Shorebirds in the greater degree . For a lapwing (
Vanellus vanellus)
such factors are: density of a projective covering
(+0,43), h
e
ight of vegetation
(
-
0,58)
(
the low
grass
) and an abundance of unvertebrate animals
, living in a grass
of the second
(4
-
5 mm) dimensional group
(+0,56) (tab. 5).
For redshank
(
Tringa
totanus
)
the key
(basic)
factor appeared: an abundance of potential forages
or food
(
invertebrate animals
), living in silt
coast of river
of the
fourth
(9
-
20 mm) (+0,55) and the fifth
(20
-
50 mm) (+0,59) dimensional groups (tab. 5).
On distribution of Charadrius dubius
near the river Forest
Voronezh influenced
is absence of vegetation
in the greater degree (negative correlation
to its(her) abundance is revealed) (
-
0,33) and an abundance of potential forages
(food)
, the arthropods
animals
(insects and spiders),
living on a surface of a ground
(soil
) of the
fourth
(9
-
20 mm) (+0,34) dimensional classes
. For Galinago galinago
the most significant there was only an abundance of invertebrate animals
, living in water
of the fourth
(9
-
20 mm) (+0,57) dimensional classes
and an abundance of invertebrate animals
, living in a thickness of a ground
(soil
)
of the third
(6
-
8 mm) (+0,45) dimensional classes
.
Influence of anthropogenous (human) factors of environment
on distribution of Shorebirds
At meaning the first place among the factors of human activity
,
influencing on change of structure of birds complex
,
present
destruction of habitats of birds, as a result of their anthropogenous
(human)
transformation. Modern reduction of
Shorebirds number in many respects is caused by the following kinds of economic activities of people
: drainage (drying) and ploughing of the river meadows and cutting down of woods
(forests)
, excessively high pasturable loading on inundated meadows, early haymaking
, drainage (drying) of bogs
(marshs)
, a construction overland (roads) and water (channels) of means of communication (Buturlin, 1948). Changing natural places, the person (human) reduces resources of fodder (food) for one species, increasing them for others. Concerning (relation) to birds all these circumstances have special meaning, if to take into account their conservatism in a choice of nested habitats
. Each species meets in certain (determined) biotops (ecological places)
, that is connected to opportunities of nesting
, a feed
(
nourishment
)
, with security
(defence)
of nestlings
. Some species
thus are adapted to different and various enough conditions (so
-
called everybionts
), others, on the contrary, are less plastic
(changeable)
in the ecological attitude
(relation) and meet only at presence of a rare combination of external conditions (so
-
called stenobionts
) (Buturlin, 1948). Estimation of anthropogenous (human) loading (forces, pressing) on a Shorebirds habitat near the river of Forest
Voronezh was carried out
(was spent) on the following parameters: remoteness of biotop (ecological place)
from anthropogenous (human) objects (roads, inhabited and industrial constructions, etc.), c
haracter of land making
(a haymaking, a pasture, an arable land, etc.), quantity
(amount) of pasture
cattle, attendance biotops (ecological place) by
the person
(people)
at one o'clock. At the correlation analysis was taken into account
the score of all anthropogenous
(human)
loading
(forces, pressing)
,
by which
a investigat
e
ecological places are exposed
(tab. 6).
Apparently from table 6
, number of lapwings (
Vanellus vanellus
) insignificantly correlated with total anthropogenous (human) loading (forces, pressing). Distribution of Galinago galinago
also depend on this factor a little, moreover the factor of correlation between number of Galinago galinago
and total
(united)
value of the anthropogenous (human) factor was even positive (r =0,35). But number of redshank (
Tringa totanus
) and Charadrius dubius
had significant negative correlation connection(r =
-
0,56;
-
0,44). And on a site
of Zavoronezhskoe
near the river,
the value of negative correlation
was higher (r =
-
0,62).
Ecological factors
Species of Shorebirds
Vanellus vanellus
Tringa
totanus
Charad
-
rius dubius
Gallinago gallinago
I
II
III
I
II
III
II
I
A
nthropogenous (human) factor
-
0,56
-
0,62
-
0,56
-
0,44
+0,35
Table 6. Correlations of Shorebirds number with anthropogenous (human) factor of environment
Designations
. Habitats
: I -
a site of Panskoe near the river of Forest
Voronezh; II -
a site of Zavoronezhskiy near this river ; III -
the incorporated data on two habitats.
Values of factor of correlation were taken into account: Thus, the anthropogenous (human) factor not strong (weak
)
influenced
on a choice of a habitat of a lapwing
(
Vanellus vanellus
)
and a place of feeding
(nourishment) Galinago galinago
, but strongly influenced
on character of distribution
of redshank (
Tringa totanus
)
and Charadrius dubius
, which gravitated (have relation) to places with the seldom visited person
(people)
, and also removed from anthropogenous
(human)
objects
near the river of Forest
Voronezh.
With the purpose of specification (determination) of force of influence of various kinds of economic activities
on Shorebirds distribution, we have allocated
(distinguished)
a number
(line
, row
) of parameters of the anthropogenous
(human)
factor and have carried out
(spent)
the correlation analysis
(tab. 7).
Species of Shorebirds
P
arameters of the anthropogenous
(human)
factor
R
emov
ing
from anthropogenous
(human)
objects
Character of economic land making
Quantities of pasture
cattle
Visit
ing place by
person
(people)
I
II
III
I
II
III
I
II
III
I
II
III
Vanellus vanellus
-
0,2
+0,37
+0,26
+0,23
-
0,25
-
0,56
Tringa
totanus
-
0,41
-
0,43
Charadrius dubius
-
0,20
Gallinago gallinago
+
0,53
+0,31
Table 7. Influence of various kinds of economic activities on Shorebirds distribution near the river of Forest
Voronezh
Designations
. Habitats
: I -
a site of Panskoe near the river of Forest
Voronezh; II -
a site of Zavoronezhskiy near this river ; III -
the incorporated data on two habitats.
Values of factor of correlation were taken into account: Thus, on the basis of the correlation analysis it is possible to draw a conclusion about key (basic) anthropogenous (human) factors, which influenced on distribution of Shorebirds near the river of Forest
Voronezh. For
a lapwing (
Vanellus vanellus
)
and redshank (
Tringa
totanus
)
is an attendance
(visiting)
of biotops (place of inhabitat) by the person
(people
)
(r =
-
0,56;
-
0,43). For Charadrius dubius
and Galinago galinago
-
remoteness
(distance) of
biotops (place of inhabitat)
from anthropogenous
(human)
objects
(earth roads, houses, a farm, an arable land, meliorative water channels).
Mechanisms of ecological differentiation of Shorebirds
Ecological
distribution of Shorebirds near the river of Forest
Voronezh is characterized by essential inter
species specific distinction. So, if the lapwing
(
Vanellus vanellus
)
was marked
(found out)
in territory of pasture
meadow
, dr
ied
meadow
flooded by river water (
with many small hummocks
)
and in arable land
, while
redshank (
Tringa totanus
)
gravitated
(have relation)
to sh
allow water of river
and silt coast of river
. But at
postnesting
period
, the
distinction
of
ecological
distribution
of redshank (
Tringa totanus
)
and a lapwing (
Vanellus vanellus
)
has decreased
, as the lapwing was marked (found out) on the dried
up
(drying)
silt coast of river
.
Galinago galinago
met (found out) on boggy
(marsh)
meadow
with many small hummocks
. Thus
,
ecological
distribution of Shorebirds near the river of Forest
Voronezh was characterized by precise (determinate) ecological differentiation
,
because each
species
gravitated (have relation) to habitats with the certain
(definite)
ecological conditions. Though thus during the different periods
were formed
inter
species
specific similarities
in ecological
distribution at redshank
(
Tringa totanus
)
and Galinago galinago
, at redshank
(
Tringa totanus
)
and Charadrius dubius
, at redshank
(
Tringa totanus
)
and a lapwing
(
Vanellus vanellus
)
.
Ecological differentiation of Shorebirds
is directly connected to development of the certain reactions of an organism
, of his(its) morphological qualities
to ecological conditions
of a habitat
, with an exit from competitive attitudes
(relations) with other species
and development
or occupation
of the certain ecological niche
(
Chernova
, 1988).
The key (basic) factor
of Shorebirds distribution
was the abundance of objects
of fodder (food)
(Goss
-
Custard et al., 1977; Okolelov
, 2000; Okolelov
, Shubin
, 2003). Th
us
,
the distribution
of
potential forages
(food)
and fodder
(food)
preferences
(at nourishment)
of birds
in the greater degree
influences
on ecological
distribution
and ecological differentiation
of Shorebirds
as a whole.
Different species of Shorebirds
during evolution
(
ecological differentiations
) have developed the species
-
specific forms
of fodder (food) behaviour
,
according
to features
of getting of necessary
objects
of fodder
(food
)
. For redshank
(
Tringa totanus
)
and Galinago galinago
,
sounding (
penetrate
)
of a ground
(soil and silt)
is typical
on shallow water of river
, silt coast of the river (
redshank -
Tringa totanus
) and in boggy (marsh) meadow with many small hummocks (
Galinago galinago
). But бекас is capable to penetrate more deeply into a ground
(soil and silt)
and to extract soil invertebrate animals
and the vegetative re
mainders
. Redshank
(
Tringa totanus)
can conduct hunting
on water
invertebrate animals
and the
ir
larvas (or larvers of frogs -
Amphibii)
(
Holodkovskiy
, 1962; Vodolazhskaya
, 2000; Okolelov
, 2000).
Charadrius dubius
finds and takes
objects
of fodder
(food)
from a surface of a ground
(soil)
usually
at
large s
andbanks or silt
(
shallow water
) (coast
of river or lake) (
Holodkovskiy
, 1962; Semago
, 1986). At a lapwing
(
Vanellus vanellus
) the extractions
(taking from surface) of objects
of fodder
(food
)
always prevailed
, than
sounding (penetrate
) of soil
, that can testify about
more consumption by birds of i
nvertebrate animals
, living on a surface
of a ground (soil
)
and on vegetation (
Okolelov
, 2000). On our data it there can be representatives group (order) of
Beetles
(Coleoptera), group (order) of
Grasshoppers
(Orthoptera), group (order) of Flys
(Diptera). It is necessary to note, that feeding (food)
activity
of a lapwing (
Vanellus vanellus
) (quantity
(amount) of taking food objects by beak
during
one minute) was different in
various biotops (ecological places
)
, that is reflected in table 8
. From table 8 it is visible, that the greatest
fodder (food or feeding) activity
at a lapwing (
Vanellus vanellus
) was on an arable land
(ploughed soil) (3,66), and the least
(0,16) -
on dried meadow
with many small hummocks, but flooded by river water
, for which is characteristic the high density
of projective covering of grassy vegetation
.
Table 8. The comparative characteristic of fodder (feeding, food) activity of a lapwing (
Vanellus vanellus
) on different ecological places of
a site of Panskoe near the river of Forest Voronezh
Ecological place
D
ensity of projective covering
, %
Quantities individuals of lapwing
Total quantities of taking food
Total time of taking food, sec
Time of one taking food, sec
Intervals between taking food, sec
Feeding (food) activity
Dried meadow
75,5
5
3
60
2
18
0,16
Parts of meadow with burnt grass
15
1
10
120
2
10
0,5
Arable land
7,5
5
11
60
2
3
3,66
Fodder (feeding, food) activity can be defined (determined) by the attitude(relation) of total of taking food
in unit of time and frequency of taking food
(intervals between taking food
):
Feeding (food) activity
=
Total quantities of taking food
Frequency
of taking food
It is possible to draw a conclusion, that in ecological places, where
thin
(rare)
grassy vegetation
the lapwing
(
Vanellus vanellus
)
, probably, can quickly reveal or discover
(
f
i
nd
) and free
ly (accessible) to take
necessary objects
of fodder
(food
)
.
Thus, at degradation of grass vegetation
sharply
have increased
the access
of fodder (food) objects
(
invertebrate animals
) ,
that according to
literary data
(
Vladishevskiy
, 1975; Dolnik
, 1982).
The interrelation of fodder (
feeding, food)
activity of a lapwing with a different ecological, dimensional groups of invertebrate animals
is reflected in table 9.
Dimensional classes
(group) of
invertebrate animals
(
cm
)
Parameters Ecological place
Dried meadow
Meadow with burnt grass
Arable land
Pasture meadow
0,2 –
0,3 12
2
4
5
0,4 –
0,5 28
2
5
22
0,6 –
0,7
3
3
5
2
0,8 –
1,0
3
–
6
1
1,0 –
2,0
–
–
2
–
Quantities individuals of lapwing
5
1
5
–
Total quantities of taking food at one minute
3
5
11
–
Intervals between taking food orf
requency
of taking food, sec
18
10
3
–
Feeding (food) activity
0,16
0,5
3,66
–
Table 9. The comparative characteristic of fodder (feeding, food) activity of a lapwing (
Vanellus
vanellus
) and abundances of invertebrate animals
, living in a grass and on a surface of a ground
(soil) i
n different ecological places of Panskiy meadow
The note
. The dark background
of some cells
of table designates quantity (amount) of invertebrate animals
in air
-
ground (soil) samples (living in a grass and on a surface of a ground or soil).
On
arable land
,
where fodder
(feeding, food)
activity
of a lapwing
(
Vanellus vanellus
)
was the greatest
, the quantity
of
i
nvertebrate animals
(in air
-
ground
(soil)
samples
), living on a surface of a ground
, the size 0,4 -
1,0 cm
(representatives of group (orders) of
Beetles
-
Coleoptera
, group (orders) of Grasshoppers
-
Orthoptera
, group (orders) of Flys
-
Diptera
). It is possible to assume
, that the data invertebrate animals
were potential forages
(food
)
of a lapwing
(
Vanellus vanellus
)
, the probability of taking and eating
of
which was the greatest
.
It is possilble to draw conclude, that the feeding (food) activity
of a lapwing
(
Vanellus
vanellus
)
the greatest degree depended
from access of fodders (foods
) and their features
(
Goss
-
Custard et al
., 1977; Dolnik
, 1982). Therefore, drying of meadow
and oppressing of grass vegetation
on pasture meadow, ploughing of soil (ground
) frequently were successful (advantageous
) for lapwing (
Vanellus
vanellus
) (its inhabitat
). Thus, the significant mechanism of differentiation
equally with ecological distribution
of Shorebirds is appeared feeding (food) behaviour
, which represent a some (number) of fixed (traditional) behaviour reactions
of extractions (taking and eating) of food (fodders) in ecological specific conditions
.
Conclusion
Contemporary fauna of Shorebirds near the river of Forest Voronezh
in neighborhood of city of Michurinsk (
Tambov region
) are present by 4 species
: Vanellus vanellus
, Tringa totanus
, Galinago galinago
, Charadrius dubius
. Decrease of species complex
and forming of contemporary structure of Shorebirds population in a site of Panskoe near the river of Forest Voronezh was the result of drying (drainage) of given territory
at second parts of XX century.
Investigated ecological places
present different meadows
, flooded by water of the river of Forest Voronezh, each of which in area (size) are about 1 km
2
, r
emoved from each other
on distance of 5 km
. The territory near the river is transformation enough by making of human (people
) –
in basis use for haymaking and ploughing of ground (soil), pasture of cattle.
Key (basic) influence on Shorebirds, nesting (inhabit) near the river of Forest Voronezh was the abundance of object of fodder (food).
Distribution of a laprwing (
Vanellus vanellus
)
was is definitude by invertebrate animals, which inhabit in a grass
and relation to second dimensional group (4
-
5 mm) (r =0,56) and by invertebrate animals
of forth dimensional group (9
-
20 mm) on a surface of ground (soil)
(r = 0,43).
Distribution of redshank (
Tringa totanus
)
was is definitude by invertebrate animals
, which inhabit in silt
of shallow water of the river
of forth (9
-
20 mm) and fifth (20
-
50 mm) dimensional groups (r=0,55
; 0,59) and by water invertebrate animals
of third (6
-
8 mm) dimensional group (r = 0,45). Distribution of Galinago galinago
was is definitude by water invertebrate animals
of forth (9
-
20 mm) dimensional group (r = 0,57) and by silt
invertebrate animals
of fifth (20
-
50 mm) dimensional group (r=0,45). Features of ground (soil)
, structure character of vegetation
, temperature
, depth and transparency of water
at coast of the river as a rule less influenced
on Shorebirds. And only at redshank (
Tringa totanus
)
was found out (revealed) strong correlation
connection in relation to water
transparency
(r = 0,73) of shallow water of the river and in constant marshes (bogs). On distribution of a lapwing (
Vanellus vanellus
) had strong influence are area (size) of ecological place (habitat) (r = 0, 86) (wider territories) and height of grass vegetation (r = -
0,58) (the low grass). Distribution of Galinago galinago
had been determinate by thickness of soft stratum of soil (ground
).
On character of Shorebirds distribution
influenced factors of environment
, which determinates an
access of objects of food (fodder
). Therefore, birds gravitated (relation
) to territories of wider area (size
) and oppressing vegetation
(meadow, pasture land, coast, shallow water of rivers, lakes), or to ecological places with soft soil (ground
) (for example, meadows flooded by water with many small hummocks).
Antropogenius (human) factors
-
remoteness of ecological place from anthropogenous (human) objects (roads, inhabited and industrial constructions, etc.), c
haracter of land making
(a haymaking, a pasture, an arable land, etc.), quantity
of pasture
cattle, attendance biotops (ecological places) by
people, negative influenced
only on redshank (
Tringa totanus
) (r = -
0,56) and Charadrius dubius (r = -
0,44),
which
gravitated (relation)
to territories
with less (smaller)
antropogenius (human) loading (forces, pressing).
Significant mechanism of ecological differentiation
of Shorebirds, nesting (inhabit) near the river of Forest Voronezh, was difference on feeding (food) behaviour
at birds, which gave them exist from competition relations for trofical (food) resources.
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Summary
Influence of environmental factors on number and distribution of Shorebirds near the river of Forest Voronezh
Astakhova
О. А.
Moscow State University of M. V. Lomonosov
Faculty of biology, department of vertebrate zoology
Clearing
up
(revealing)
of
quality
influence
of
separate
factors
of
environment
on
birds
distribution
are
represent
actual
direction
of
contemporary
ecological
researches
.
Representatives
of
suborder
Shorebirds
can
serve
by
successful
and
access
model
for
similar
works
.
The
Shorebirds
represent
numerous
group,
which
occupies
a
wider
spectrum
of
open
habitats,
that
give
easily
observations
of
birds
.
These
birds
very
sensitively
react
on
antropogenius
(human)
influence,
and
thus
different
species
shows
various
degree
of
stable
to
change
factors
of
environment
.
For
researches
are
chosen
species
of
birds
–
a
lapwing
(
Vanellus
vanellus
L
.
),
redshank
(
Tringa
totanus
L
.
)
and
Gallinago
gallinago
L
.
–
the
most
common
species
of
Shorebirds
in
central
parts
of
Russia,
which
characteristic
by
different
demands
to
environment
.
During
investigate
are
revealed
(found
out)
a
number
and
distribution
of
these
Shorebirds
at
the
same
sites
near
the
river
of
Forest
Voronezh
(Tambov
region)
in
different
years,
are
estimated
interannual
distinctions
of
significant
for
Shorebirds
environmental
parameters,
are
establishment
of
interannual
distinctions
of
connections
between
Shorebirds
and
ecological
factors
.
Abundance
of
fodder
(food)
was
appeared
a
basic
key
factor
of
distribution
at
the
most
species
[
1
]
.
Features
of
ground
(soil)
and
vegetation
are
weakly
influenced
on
distribution
of
Shorebirds,
than
abundance
of
fodder
(food)
.
Antropogenous
(human)
factor
(pressing)
had
negative
influence
only
on
distribution
of
redshank
(
Tringa
totanus
),
which
gravitated
(relation)
to
places
with
smaller
antropogenius
loading
(forces,
pressing)
[
2
]
.
1. Shubin
А. О. Microhabitat distribution of Shorebirds in places of fodder (food) aggregates on south
-
west coast of Caspian sea // Zoology journal
, 1998, V
.77, № 3, P
. 325
-
336.
2
.
Okolelov
А
.
Yu
.
Nesting
Shorebirds
of
Tambov
region
//
Nesting
Shorebirds
of
East
Europe
,
1999
,
V
.
2
,
P
.
45
-
53
.
Автор
Olesya Astakhova
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