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Russian cuisine

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1
Russian cuisine
Prepared by Kalashnikova Lyubov’ the 3th year student of the Department of Education in the sphere of Chinese and English languages, the Teachers Training of Far Eastern Federal University Russian cuisine
is diverse, as Russia is by area
the largest country in the world. Russian cuisine derives its varied character from the vast and multi
-
cultural expanse of Russia. Its foundations were laid by the peasant food of the rural population in an often harsh climate, with a combination of plent
iful fish, poultry, game, mushrooms, berries, and honey. Crops of rye, wheat, barley, and millet provided the ingredients for a plethora of breads, pancakes, cereals, beer, and vodka.
Soups and stews full of flavor are centered on seasonal or storable prod
uce, fish, and meats. This wholly native food remained the staple for the vast majority of Russians well into the 20th century.
Russia's great expansions of culture, influence, and interest during the 16th
–
18th centuries brought more refined foods and culi
nary techniques, as well as one of the most refined food countries in the world. It was during this period that smoked meats and fish, pastry cooking, salads and green vegetables, chocolate, ice cream, wines, and juice were imported from abroad. At least f
or the urban aristocracy and provincial gentry, this opened the doors for the creative integration of these new foodstuffs with traditional Russian dishes. The result is extremely varied in technique, seasoning, and combination.
Soups
Soups have always played an important role in the ussian meal
he traditional staple of soups su h as bors ht sh hi ukha rassolnik solyanka botvinya okroshka and tyurya ) was enlarged in the 1
8th to 20th centuries by both European and Central Asian staples like clear soups, pureed soups, stews, and many others.
Russian soups can be divided into at least seven large groups:
1
-
Chilled soups based on kvass, such as tyurya, okroshka, and botvinya.
2
-
Light soups and stews based on water and vegetables, such as swekolnik.
2
3
-
Noodle soups with meat, mushrooms, or milk.
4
-
Soups based on cabbage, most prominently shchi.
5
-
Thick soups based on meat broth, with a salty
-
sour base like rassolnik and solyanka.
6
-
Fish soups such as ukha.
7
-
Grain
-
and vegetable
-
based soups.
Cold soups
Okroshka
is a cold soup based on kvass or,sour milk. Okroshka is also a salad. The main ingredients are two types of vegetables that can be mixed with cold boiled meat or fish in a 1:1 proportion . Thus vegetable, meat, and fish varieties of okroshka are made.There are typically two types of vegetables in okroshka. The first must have a neutral taste, such as boiled potatoes,turnips,rutabagas,carrots, or fresh cucumbers. The second m
ust be spicy, consisting of mainly green onion as well as other herbs
–
greens of dill,parsley,chervil, celery, or tarragon. Different meat and poultry can be used in the same soup. The most common ingredient is beef alone or with poultry. If it is made with
fish, the best choice would be tench, European perch, pike
-
perch, cod, or other neutral
-
tasting fish.The kvass most commonly used in cooking is white okroshka kvass, which is much more sour than drinking kvass. Kvass is also very sweet. Spices used includ
e mustard, black pepper and pickled cucumber (specifically, the liquid from the pickles), solely or in combination. For the final tou h boiled eggs and Smetana sour ream similar to rème fraî he are added.For sour milk based okroshka, well shaken up n
atural sour milk(often with the addition of seed oil) is used with the addition of pure water and ground garlic. Sometimes manufactured kefir is used instead of natural sour milk for time saving reasons, though some say it detracts from the original taste of okroshka.
Tyurya
is very similar to okroshka, the main difference being that instead of vegetables, bread is soaked in kvass. It is was
commonly consumed during rough times (the Russian Revolution, WWI, WWII) and by poor peasants. Also, due to its simplicity, it was very common as a meal during religious fasting.
3
Botvinya
is another type of cold soup. The name of the soup comes from the Russian word botva, which means "leafy tops of root vegetables", and, true to its name, it is made with the leafy tops of young beets, sorrel, scallions, dill, cucumbers, and two types of kvass. Mustard, garlic, and horseradish are then added for flavor. T
he vegetables are rubbed through a sieve and kvass is poured over.
Hot soups
Shchi
had been the predominant first course in Russian cuisine for over a thousand years. Although tastes have changed, it steadily made its way through several epochs. Shchi
knew no social class boundaries, and even if the rich had richer ingredients and the poor made it solely of cabbage and onions, all these "poor" and "rich" variations were cooked in the same tradition. The unique taste of this cabbage soup was from the fa
ct that after cooking it was left to draw (stew) in a Russian stove. The "Spirit of shchi" was inseparable from a Russian izba (log hut). Many Russian proverbs are connected to this soup, such as Shchi da kasha pishcha nasha (Russian: Щ д –
п "Sh hi and porridge are our staples" It an be eaten regularly, and at any time of the year. The richer variant of shchi includes several ingredients, but the first and last components are a must: 1
-
Cabbage.
2
-
Meat (very rarely fish or mushrooms).
3
-
Carrots, basil or parsley roots.
4
-
Spicy herbs (onions, celery, dill, garlic, pepper, bay leaf).
5
-
Sour components (smetana, apples, sauerkraut, pickle water).
When this soup is served, smetana is added. It is eaten with rye bread. During much of the year when the Orthodox Christian Church prescribes abstinence from meat and dairy, a vegan version of shchi is made. "Kislye" (sour) schi are made from pickled cabbage (sauerkraut), "serye" (grey) schi from the green outer leaves of the cabbage head. "Zelyonye"
(green) schi are made from sorrel leaves, not cabbage, and used to be a popular summer soup.
Ukha
is a warm watery fish dish, however calling it a fish soup would not be absolutely correct. "Ukha" as a name for fish broth was established only in the late 4
17th to early 18th centuries. In earlier times this name was first given to thick meat broths, and then later chicken. Beginning from the 15th century, fish was more and more often used to prepare ukha, thus creating a dish that had a distinctive taste amo
ng soups.A minimum of vegetables is added in preparation, and in classical cooking ukha was simply a rich fish broth served to accompany fish pies (rasstegai, kuliebiaka, etc.). These days it is more often a fish soup, cooked with potatoes and other vegeta
bles. A wide variety of freshwater fish is traditionally used.
Rassolnik
is a hot soup in a salty
-
sour cucumber base. This dish formed in Russian cuisine quite late
–
only in the 19th century. About this time the name rassolnik was attached to it, originatin
g from the Russian word "rassol" which means brine (pickle water). Pickle water was known to be used as base for soups from the 15th century at the latest. Its concentration and ratio with other liquids and soup components gave birth to different soups: so
lyanka, pohmelka, and of course rassolnik. The latest are moderately sour
-
salty soups on pickled cucumber base. Some are vegetarian, but more often with products like veal or beef kidneys or all poultry giblets (stomach, liver, heart, neck, feet). For best
taste there has to be a balance between the sour part and neutral absorbers (cereals, potatoes, root vegetables).
Typical rassolnik is based on kidneys, brine (and pickles), vegetables and barley.
Solyanka is a thick, piquant soup that combines components from schi (cabbage, smetana) and rassolnik (pickle water and cucumbers), spices such as olives, capers, tomatoes, lemons, lemon juice, kvass, salted and pickled mushrooms make up a considerably strong sour
-
salty base of the soup. Solyanka is much thicker than other soups, about 1/3 less liquid ratio. Three types are distinguished: meat, fish, and simple solyanka. The first two are cooked on strong meat or fish broths, and the last on mushroom or vegetable br
oth. All the broths are mixed with cucumber pickle water.
Lapsha
(noodle soup) was adopted by Russians from Tatars, and after some transformation became widespread in Russia. It comes in three variations: chicken, mushroom, and milk. Cooking all three is s
imple, including preparation of noodles, cooking of corresponding broth, and boiling of noodles in broth. Noodles are based 5
on the same wheat flour or buckwheat/wheat flour mix. Mixed flour noodles go better with mushroom or milk broth.
Main dishes
Meat
In
traditional Russian cuisine three basic variations of meat dishes can be highlighted:
1
-
a large boiled piece of meat cooked in a soup or porridge, and then used as second course or served cold (particularly in jellied stock
–
see Kholodets' below)
2
-
offal d
ishes (liver, tripe, etc.), baked in pots together with cereals;
3
-
whole fowl dishes or parts of fowl (legs or breasts), or a large piece of meat (rump) baked on a baking tray in an oven, so
-
called "zharkoye" (from the word "zhar" ж meaning "heat" The 16th century "Domostroi" aimed at affluent households also mentions sausage
-
making, spit
-
roasted meats, stews and many other meat dishes.As a garnish to meat dishes in the past the most common were porridges and cereals, in which the meat was boiled, later
on boiled or rather steamed and baked root vegetables (turnips, carrots) as well as mushrooms; additionally the meat, without taking account its type, was garnished with pickled products
–
pickled cabbage, sour and "soaked" (marinated) apples (mochoniye yab
loki), soaked cranberries, "vzvar"s. Pan juices, alone or mixed with sour cream or melted butter is used as gravy to pour on garnishing vegetables and porridges. Meat sauces i.e. gravies based on flour, butter, eggs and milk, are not common for traditional
Russian cuisine.
Kholodets (or Studen'): Jellied chopped pieces of pork or veal meat with some spices added (pepper, parsley, garlic, bay leaf) and minor amounts of vegetables (carrots, onions). The meat is boiled in large pieces for long periods of time,
then chopped, boiled a few times again and finally chilled for 3
–
4 hours (hence the name) forming a jelly mass, though gelatine is not used because calves' feet, pigs' heads and other such offal is gelatinous enough on its own. It is served with horseradi
sh, mustard, or ground garlic with smetana.
6
Pelmeni
are a traditional Eastern European (mainly Russian) dish usually made with minced meat filling, wrapped in thin dough (made out of flour and eggs, sometimes with milk or water added). For filling, pork, lamb, beef, or any other kind of meat can be used; m
ixing several kinds is popular. The traditional Ural recipe requires the filling be made with 45% of beef, 35% of lamb, and 20% of pork. Traditionally, various spices, such as pepper, onions, and garlic, are mixed into the filling.Russians seem to have lea
rned to make pelmeni from Finnic and Tatar peoples of the Taiga, the Urals and Siberia. The word means "ear
-
shaped bread" in Finnic languages such as Udmurt and Komi. In Siberia they were made in large quantities and stored safely frozen outside for severa
l winter months. In mainland Russia, the term "Siberian Pel'meni" refers to pel'meni made with a mix of meats (whether the 45/35/20 mix mentioned above, or another ratio), rather than a single meat. By the late 19th century, they became a staple throughout
urban European Russia. They are prepared immediately before eating by boiling in water until they float, and then 2
–
5 minutes more. The resulting dish is served with butter and/or sour cream (mustard, horseradish, and vinegar are popular as well). Some re
cipes suggest frying pelmeni after boiling until they turn golden brown.
Kotlety
(cotelettes, meatballs), a Western European dish popular in modern Russian households, are small pan
-
fried meat balls, not dissimilar from Salisbury steak and other such dishe
s. Made primarily from pork and beef (sometimes also from chicken or fish), they are easily made and require little time. Ground beef, pork, onions and bread are put in a bowl and mixed thoroughly until it becomes relatively consistent. Once this effect is
achieved, balls are formed and then put into a hot frying pan to cook.
Shashlyk
is a form of Shish kebab (marinated meat grilled on a skewer) popular in former Soviet Union countries, notably in Georgia, Russia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Uzbekistan. It oft
en features alternating slices of meat and onions. Even though the word "shashlyk" was apparently borrowed from the Crimean Tatars by the Cossacks as early as the 16th century, kebabs did not reach Moscow until the late 19th century, according to Vladimir Gilyarovsky's "Moscow and Moscovites". 7
From then on, their popularity spread rapidly; by the 1910s they were a staple in St Petersburg restaurants and by the 1920s they were already a pervasive street food all over urban Russia. Shashlik is also used in Ru
ssia as a food to be cooked in outdoor environment, similarly to barbecue in English
-
speaking countries.
Fish
Fish was important in pre
-
revolutionary cuisine, especially on Russian Orthodox fast days when meat was forbidden, similar to the Catholic custom of eating fish instead of meat on Fridays. Strictly freshwater fish such as carp and sudak (Sander lucioperca, Zander) were commonly eaten in inland areas, as well as anadromous sturgeon and in northern areas salmon, pike and trout. A greater variety of fi
sh
–
including saltwater species
–
were preserved by salting, pickling or smoking and consumed as "zakuski" (hors d'oeuvres).
Pies and pan cakes
Pirozhki
(singular: pirozhok; diminutive of "pirog" [pie]) are small stuffed buns (pies) made of either yeast dough
or short pastry. They are filled with one of many different fillings and are either baked (the ancient Slavic method) or shallow
-
fried (known as "priazhenie", this method was borrowed from the Tatars in the 16th century). One feature of pirozhki that sets
them apart from, for example, English pies is that the fillings used are almost invariably fully cooked. The use of chopped hard
-
boiled eggs in fillings is another interesting feature. Six typical fillings for traditional pirozhki are:
1
-
Chopped boiled me
at mixed with sautéed onions
2
-
0Rice and boiled eggs with dill
3
-
Fish sautéed with onions and mixed with hard
-
boiled chopped eggs and rice
4
-
Mashed potatoes mixed with dill and green onion
5
-
Sautéed abbage
6
-
Sautéed mushrooms with onions and sometimes ar
rots
Blini
are thin pancakes made with yeasted batter which are often served in connection with a religious rite or festival. The word "blin" (singular of blini) comes 8
from Old Slavic "mlin", which means "to mill". Blins had a somewhat ritual significance for early Slavic peoples in pre
-
Christian times since they were a symbol of the sun, due to their round form. They were traditionally prepared at the end of the winter to honor the rebirth of the new sun during Maslenitsa М е ц Butter Week; also know
n as Pancake Week). This tradition was adopted by the Orthodox Church and is carried on to the present day, as the last week of dairy and egg products before Lent. Bliny are still often served at wakes, to commemorate the recently deceased. Blini can be ma
de from wheat, buckwheat, or other grains, although wheat blini are most popular in Russia. They may be topped with butter, smetana (sour cream), fruit preserves or caviar. The word "blin" is also often used as a soft curse word, expressing frustration.
Sy
rniki are fried curd fritters, garnished with sour cream, jam, honey, and/or apple sauce.
Vatrushka is a kind of cake with a ring of dough and tvorog (cottage cheese) in the middle, often with raisins or bits of fruit, from about five inches to two and a h
alf feet in diameter.
Russian traditional cuisine in general is really diverse. It
’
s
very
beautiful
! 9
Национальная Русская кухня
Р з з Р ч е д й з м й й п п д е ей ег м Из з г ф ч е Р д е м -
ым п м ед е г д э м еде м Р п ч е ые з з ц е О ы ц й ы з же ы д з е й п е е п ж ы че ы й п цей д ч г г д еч же мед Т же п е ы ж п е цы п же з м з ч ы й м же г ед е д е п д же д С пы е ые д з п д ы й же м м п з ез И ё же ц ед д Р 20
-
г е е м й г й й Р –
е е е з же е ем её г м ы е е де 16
-
г 18
-
г -
г е э пе д п е ф ы п д же ы е еч же м й зы й п ём м е Име э пе д пче е м ы д е е зде ы зе е ые д м же е ы мп ы з
-
з еж П й ей ме е д г д й п ц г д э ы д е д че й ег ц э ы п е ы п д д ц ым м д м Т же ез е чег ы з зе ы п п з ч ы е м ц й д Супы егд г ж ж з й Т д ц е е пы : е э д ы п п ы 18
-
м д 20
-
м е Е пе Це й Аз ы п е ые пы е е м д Р е пы м ж зде п й ей ме е ем г пп:
10
1
-
О жде ые пы е -
2
-
ег е пы е ые д е ды ей
-
е 3
-
п п й м м г м м м 4
-
С пы е п ы
-
5
-
Г ые пы е м г е -
й п й
-
6
-
Ры ые пы
-
7
-
С пы з з ч ы зе е Холодные супы
Окрошка
п ед е й д ый п е г м О же м же ы м О ым г ед е м д д ей ые м ж ме й з ч ым д м м ы й п п ц 1:1 П г е м ж ч ы д п п г е В пе ы д м де д ж ы п е фе еп м еж е г цы д д ж ме ей ый В ы д ж м з зе ё г зе е п е е пе е де е д ж ы п й Т же м г п з з ч ые м д ч д м ей п цей же ы з Е д де ы й ч м ы м де е пей д е д г е ы ы С мым п ё ым д м е е м е ее ей чем п ыч ый Т че д д е д д м же пец й ч ы з д г п е г ч ц чё ый пе ец же ё ые г цы Н еч же д йц же ж ей м мп е м д г д 11
Тюря
д че п жее г е ч е м ч ме г ч ы з м з м ч е Э д че п д ые пе ды ж з д Р Ре ц Пе М В й д Б г д ей п е д е д че ч п ме Р й м зе е
м Ботвиньи
же д з д д ы п Н з е п п д г «Б » ч з ч е " еп д " е ый ем з э п де з ы м д й е ы е зе е г п г ц Т же д г ч ц че е д м О п че ез з м Горячие супы
Щи Д ый д д ы д м з п е д м д м е ей ы п же м г е Из з г ч Щ д з мы д е д п д е че эп ег ы зме Щ е з е ц ы г ц г ы ед ые ё г д е д з д е же г ед е : п ы п г е е д г д е д м п де ж д ц ы г ц У ый э г п г д п д ч п е п г е д печ м д г п д з ч е ый м д Д же м же Р п ц з э м д м Щ д -
п п К мп е ы д :
1
-
п 2
-
м че ед ы г ы 3
-
м з е пе 4
-
п ые ы е де ей п че пе ец ый 12
5
-
ые мп е ы ме е п м ые ы К гд э п п д ё д ме Б д ед ж ым е м Т же де п еге м д гд ече е м г е п це п едп ы зде ж е м м ч ы п д Уха э г ч й ы е д д зы ег ы ым п м ы ы е п "У " че е з д ы г ы зд це 17
-
г ч е 18
-
г е Р е з е д г д ме е ы м ые ые Н ч 15 е ы е ч е ч е п з д п г е зд ем мым д м е ы е ым ед п В э д ей д е п м м м п м м м ы В д э ч е ы ый п д е ем фе д г ей Д п г е п з з ч ые п е д й ы ы Рассольник п ед е г ч й п ё -
ым г ц м Д е д ф м е е з ч е п зд ег 19
-
м е е Н з е д п д г « » Р м з е е й д п г е м г п ч 15
-
г е п ей де Д ый п м же че з ч ым д м м же д ж п це ц п Д з ч ые пец Солянка
С е п ым п м ый че е е е мп е ы з п ме м ые г цы д пец е пе ы п м д ы м м ый е ые м ые г ы С дей е ее п ый п ж д п е 1/3 з ег д Р з ч д : м ы п Пе ые д д г 13
м м м ы м е п ед ее е г ей В е ы ме г еч ым м Лапша (суп с лапшой)
Д е д ы пе е м п епе п ч г м е п е е е Р П е ё : ц г ы м Л п п д ы Л п м же ы п е ч й г еч е й Основные блюда
Мясо
В д ц й й е м ж ыде ые ц м ы д:
1
-
й е г м п г е ые пе е з ем п з е е д д м де е з й 2
-
п д ые д пече ец д з пече е г ч ме е е ым з м ;
3
-
Б д з це ы п ц г г д й м г з з пече ые п е д ыпеч д е Т же з ч ые ды пчё ей М м же ы п г е д з з ч ы ецеп же м же че з ч ым г м е м С е же з ч ые м ые ы е м ц м д же м ые д ц ым Холодец
з ые ез ые ч ы е ы д е ем е ы пец й пе ец пе че ый ез ч е ые че ей м М п ым м ече е д е г еме з ем ез п е з п ец жд ече е 3
-
4 ч д з е з е м же е же е п з е п м ч г 14
е г ы ей д г п д ы ч ей д ч де ым м п е е О п д е е м г ч цей че м же ме й Пельмени
д ц ым д м О ыч де м ые з ё ые е е е з п е ые й й г д й й д г й д м же м г ы ме ые В е д е д е д ц ым д м В ч й Е пы Р е д же д же ч де пе ме д з д ц й Т С У С пе ме з ч е « де е »В С д м г де пе ме м че м з м ж д г е ем К ц 19
-
г е пе ме п п ым д м п ей Р О еп ед е г п ей де п е п ы з ем е ё п 2 5 м ы Т же п ед г ж е ые пе ме п е й з й ч й ж е ые м че е м
Котлеты
з п д е пей е д е п п еме м м д м ем з й е Э м е е ж е ые м ые е ч С е ей д г п д ы д Сде м з ы г д ы гд же з цы
ы ы че ег де е е м г еме Г д е п ж м е пе еме п е е п К э эффе д г е ы ф м з ем ж г ч д д п г е Шашлык
е д й з ф м м г м ж е г е е е п п ый ы ег С е г С з ч Г з Р А ме Азе йдж Уз е Э ч пе еме ые ч м Х " ы " д м з м ым з В ч е 16
-
г е ы е д г ей п п М е д ц 19
-
г е п м В д м 15
Г г "М м ч " С е п п п ы п 1910
-
г д ы ы г ым п д м С -
Пе е ге е К 1920 же ы п ё ч ед п ей Р Ш ы же п з е Р че е п м же ы п г е ы м же е Аме е А г п Рыба
г е ж д е ц й е е п ые д п гд м ы з п е е п ж е че е ыч е ы ме м п п ц м С г п е д ы ы п д ыч ед е й же п д ы е ы е е ы ф е Б м з з ем ы м ч е м е ды
-
ы е ы Пироги и блины
Пирожки
м е е ф ые ч п г де ы
е д жже м е е пе ч м е е О п е ы з ым ч м з пече ые Од й з е ей п ж ч е п ме г й п г м ч ч п з п ч егд п й г Ше п ч ы ч д п ж д ц й :
1
-
е е е е м ме ж е ым м
2
-
Р е ые йц м п м
3
-
ы ж е м ме ым е ым йц м м
4
-
К фе е п е ме п м зе е ым м
5
-
С е п ы
6
-
ж е ые г ы м м 16
Сырники
егд ж е ые е ые ме й е ем мед м ч ым м Ватрушки
е ег д п г ц м з е г е ед е ч з м м ф м е е д ме е В е дей е з з Э п е !
17
Список литературы
1.
Russian cuisine // From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia –
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_cuisine
.
2.
Blog Russian Chef | Russian Cuisine | Easy Russian Cooking
–
http://russianchef.blogspot.ru/
3.
Оче д м ей ж з е г д XVI
XVII
ѣ
і –
http
://
qps
.
ru
/
WxisF
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