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Russia's Seven Wonders
Prepared by Davidenko Yuliya, the 3th year student of the Department of the sphere of foreign languages, The Teacher's Training school of Far Eastern Federal University
Lake Baikal is a rift lake in the south of the Russian region of Siberia, between the Irkutsk Oblast to the northwest and the Buryat Republic to the southeast.
Lake Baikal is the most voluminous freshwater lake in the world, containing roughly 20% of the world's unfrozen surface fresh water, and at 1,642 m (5,387 ft), the deepest. It is also among the clearest of all lakes, and thought to be the world's oldest lake at 25 million years.
Lake Baikal is rich in biodiversity. It hosts 1,085 species of plants and 1,550 species and varieties of animals. More than 80% of the animals are endemic. Epischura baikalensis is endemic to Lake Baikal and the dominating zooplankton species there, making up 80 to 90 percent of total biomass. The Baikal Seal or nerpa (Pusa sibirica) is found throughout Lake Baikal. It is one of only three entirely freshwater seal populations in the world, the other two being subspecies of Ringed Seal. Perhaps the most important local species is the omul (Coregonus autumnalis migratorius), a smallish endemic salmonid. It is caught, smoked and then sold widely in markets around the lake.
Of particular note are the two species of golomyanka or Baikal oil fish (Comephorus baicalensis and C. dybowskii). These long-finned, translucent fish normally live in depths of 200-500 m (650-1,600 ft) and are the primary prey of the Baikal seal, representing the largest fish biomass in the lake. The Baikal grayling (Thymallus arcticus baicalensis), a fast swimming salmonid, popular among anglers and the Baikal sturgeon (Acipenser baerri baicalensis), are both important endemic species with commercial value. The lake also hosts rich endemic fauna of invertebrates. Among them turbellarian worms, snails and amphipod crustaceans are particularly diverse.
The watershed of Lake Baikal has numerous flora species represented. The marsh thistle, Cirsium palustre, is found here at the eastern limit of its geographic range.
The Valley of Geysers is a geyser field on Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia, and has the second largest concentration of geysers in the world. This 6 km long basin with approximately ninety geysers and many hot springs is situated on the Kamchatka Peninsula in the Russian Far East, predominantly on the left bank of the ever-deepening Geysernaya River, into which geothermal waters flow from a relatively young stratovolcano, Kikhpinych. Temperatures have been found to be 250 �C, 500 m below the caldera ground. It is part of the Kronotsky Nature Reserve, which, in turn, is incorporated into the World Heritage Site "Volcanoes of Kamchatka". The valley is difficult to reach, with helicopters providing the only feasible means of transport.
On June 3, 2007, a massive mudflow inundated two thirds of the valley. Oleg Mitvol of Russia's Service for the Oversight of Natural Resources said "We witnessed a unique natural event, but the consequences of such a natural catastrophe are irreversible". The World Heritage Site also expressed its deep concern over the issue. "This is tragic for humankind, in that we have lost one of the great natural wonders of the world", the World Wildlife Fund spokesman commented. On June 5, it was reported that a thermal lake was forming above the valley.
The extent of permanent change is not yet clear, but may be less than was originally thought. As of June 9, 2007, waters have receded somewhat, exposing some of the submerged features. Velikan (Giant) Geyser, one of the field's largest, was not buried in the slide and has recently been observed to be active.
Mamayev Kurgan is a dominant height overlooking the city of Volgograd (formerly Stalingrad) in Southern Russia. The name in Russian means "tumulus of Mamai".
The original Mamayev Kurgan was a Tartar burial mound 102 metres high. The current formation is dominated by a memorial complex commemorating the Battle of Stalingrad (August 1942 to February 1943). The battle was a decisive Soviet victory over Axis forces on the Eastern front of World War II and arguably the bloodiest battle in human history. At the time of its installation in 1967 the statue named The Motherland Calls formed the largest free-standing sculpture in the world. After the war, the Soviet authorities commissioned the enormous Mamayev Kurgan memorial complex. Vasily Chuikov, who led Soviet forces at Stalingrad, lies buried at Mamayev Kurgan, the first Marshal of the Soviet Union to be buried outside Moscow. Soviet sniper Vasily Zaytsev was also reburied there in 2006.
The monumental memorial was constructed between 1959 and 1967, and is crowned by a huge allegorical statue of the Motherland on the top of the hill. The monument, designed by Yevgeny Vuchetich, has the full name "The Motherland Calls!" (Russian: ??????-???? ?????! Rodina Mat Zovyot!). It consists of a concrete sculpture, 52 metres tall, and 82 metres from the feet to the tip of the 27-metre sword, dominating the skyline of the city of Stalingrad (later renamed Volgograd).
The construction uses concrete, except for the stainless-steel blade of the sword. The statue is held on its plinth solely by its own weight. The statue is evocative of classical Greek representations of Nike, in particular the flowing drapery, similar to that of the Nike of Samothrace
The Motherland Calls , also called Mother Motherland, Mother Motherland Is Calling, simply The Motherland, or The Mamayev Monument, is a statue in Mamayev Kurgan in Volgograd, Russia, commemorating the Battle of Stalingrad. It was designed by sculptor Yevgeny Vuchetich and structural engineer Nikolai Nikitin. Declared the largest statue in the world in 1967, it is the last non-religious statue to be declared the largest; every record holder since has been a Buddhism-related sculpture. Compared with the later higher statues, The Motherland Calls is significantly more complex from an engineering point of view, due to its characteristic posture with a sword raised high in the right hand and the left hand extended in a calling gesture. The technology behind the statue is based on a combination of prestressed concrete with wire ropes structure, a solution which can be found also in another work of Nikitin's, the super-tall Ostankino Tower in Moscow.
The Peterhof Palace is a series of palaces and gardens located in Saint Petersburg, Russia, laid out on the orders of Peter the Great. These Palaces and gardens are sometimes referred as the "Russian Versailles". The palace-ensemble along with the city centre is recognised as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The dominant natural feature of Peterhof is a sixteen-metre-high bluff lying less than a hundred metres from the shore. The so-called Lower Gardens (Nizhny Sad), at 1.02 km� comprising the better part of Peterhof's land area, are confined between this bluff and the shore, stretching east and west for roughly 200 metres. The majority of Peterhof's fountains are contained here, as are several small palaces and outbuildings. East of the Lower Gardens lies the Alexandria Park with 19th-century Gothic Revival structures such as the Kapella.
Atop the bluff, near the middle of the Lower Gardens, stands the Grand Palace (Bolshoi Dvorets). Behind (south) of it are the comparatively small Upper Gardens (Verhnyy Sad). Upon the bluff's face below the Palace is the Grand Cascade (Bolshoi Kaskad). This and the Grand Palace are the centrepiece of the entire complex. At its foot begins the Sea Channel (Morskoi Kanal), one of the most extensive waterworks of the Baroque period, which bisects the Lower Gardens.
The Cathedral of the Protection of Most Holy Theotokos on the Moat or Pokrovsky Cathedral are official names for a Russian Orthodox church in Red Square in Moscow. The church is also called the Cathedral of St. Vasily the Blessed, anglicized as Saint Basil's Cathedral. It was built from 1555-61 on orders from Ivan the Terrible and commemorates the capture of Kazan and Astrakhan.
St. Basil's marks the geometric center of Moscow. It has been the hub of the city's growth since the 14th century and was the city's tallest building until the completion of the Ivan the Great Bell Tower in 1600. The original building, known as "Trinity Church" and later "Trinity Cathedral", contained eight side churches arranged around the ninth, central church of Intercession; the tenth church was erected in 1588 over the grave of venerated local saint Vasily (Basil). In the 16th and 17th centuries the church, perceived as the earthly symbol of the Heavenly City, as happens to all churches in Byzantine Christianity, was popularly known as the "Jerusalem" and served as an allegory of the Jerusalem Temple in the annual Palm Sunday parade attended by the Patriarch of Moscow and the tsar. The building is shaped as a flame of a bonfire rising into the sky, a design that has no analogues in Russian architecture. Dmitry Shvidkovsky, in his book Russian Architecture and the West, states that "it is like no other Russian building. Nothing similar can be found in the entire millennium of Byzantine tradition from the fifth to fifteenth century ... a strangeness that astonishes by its unexpectedness, complexity and dazzling interleaving of the manifold details of its design." The cathedral foreshadowed the climax of Russian national architecture in the 17th century. As part of the program of state atheism, the church was confiscated from the Russian Orthodox community as part of the Soviet Union's anti-theist campaigns and has operated as a division of the State Historical Museum since 1928.[13] It was completely and forcefully secularized in 1929and, as of 2012, remains a federal property of the Russian Federation. The church has been part of the Moscow Kremlin and Red Square UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1990. It is often mislabelled as the Kremlin owing to its location on Red Square in immediate proximity of the Kremlin. The Manpupuner rock formations or the Seven Strong Men Rock Formations or Poles of the Komi Republic are a set of 7 gigantic abnormally shaped stone pillars located north of the Ural mountains in the Troitsko-Pechorsky District of the Komi Republic. These monoliths are around 30 to 42 m high and jut out of a hilly plateau formed through the weathering effects of ice and winds. According to a local legend, the stone pillars were once an entourage of Samoyeds giants walking through the mountains to Siberia in order to destroy the Vogulsky people. However, upon seeing the holy Vogulsky mountains, the shaman of the giants dropped his drum and the entire team froze into the stone pillars. Deemed one of the Seven Wonders of Russia, the Manpupuner rock formations are a very popular attraction in Russia, though not well known internationally and relatively unspoiled by tourism. Their height and abnormal shapes supposedly make the top of these rock giants inaccessible even to experienced rock-climbers.
Mount Elbrus is a dormant volcano located in the western Caucasus mountain range, in Kabardino-Balkaria and Karachay-Cherkessia, Russia, near the border of Georgia. Mt. Elbrus's peak is the highest in the Caucasus, in Russia. While there are differing authorities on how the Caucasus are distributed between Europe and Asia, many sources agree that Elbrus is also the highest mountain in all of Europe, or the highest in western Asia, narrowly exceeding (by 32 meters/106 feet) another volcano, Mount Damavand in the Alborz range in Iran. Mt. Elbrus (west summit) stands at 5,642 metres (18,510 ft); the east summit is slightly lower at 5,621 metres (18,442 ft).
Eruptive history The volcano is currently considered inactive, as no eruptions have ever been recorded. Still Elbrus was active in the Holocene. According to the Global Volcanism Program the last eruption took place between 0 and 100 AD. Evidence of recent volcanism includes several lava flows on the mountain, which look fresh, and roughly 260 square kilometres (100 sq mi) of volcanic debris. The longest flow extends 24 kilometres (15 mi) down the northeast summit, indicative of a large eruption. There are still more various signs of activity still present on the volcano, including solfataric activity and hot springs. The western summit has a well preserved volcanic crater about 250 m in diameter.
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?????? ????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ????, ?????????? ???????? 20% ??????????? ??????????? ? ???? ??????? ????, ? ? 1642 ? (5387 ?????), ????? ????????. ?? ????? ???? ?? ????? ????? ???? ????, ? ????????? ????????? ?????? ? ???? ?? 25 ????????? ???.
????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????????????????. ?? ??????? 1085 ????? ???????? ? 1550 ????? ????????. ????? 80% ???????? ???????? ???????????. ??????? baikalensis ???????? ???????????? ????????????, ????? ?????? ? ???????????? ????? ???????????? ???, ???????????? ?? 80 ?? 90 ????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????????. ??????????? ??????, ??? ????? (Pusa ?????????) ??????????? ?? ???? ????? ??????. ??? ???? ?? ???? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ? ????, ??? ?????? ??????? ????????? ???????. ????????, ???????? ?????? ??????? ????? ???????? ????? (Coregonus autumnalis migratorius), ????????? ?????????? ?????????. ??????, ????????, ? ????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ?????.
??????? ???????? ??????????? ??? ???? ????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????? (Comephorus ???????????? ? ?. ?????). ??? ??????? ????????, ?????????????? ???? ?????? ????? ? ???????? 200-500 ? (650-1,600 ?????) ? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ?????, ?????????????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ? ?????. ??????????? ?????? (Thymallus ??????? ????????????), ??????? ????????? ????????, ?????????? ????? ????????? ? ??????????? ????? (Acipenser baerri ????????????), ???????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ????????. ????? ????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ??????????????. ????? ??? ??????????? ??????, ?????? ? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????.
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???????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??????? 102 ??????. ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ????? (?????? 1942 ?? ??????? 1943). ????? ???? ???????? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ??? ?? ????????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????? ?, ????????, ????? ???????? ????? ? ???????????? ???????. ?? ????? ??? ????????? ? 1967 ?. ?????? ????? ??????-???? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ? ????.
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??????-???? ?????, ??????? ????? ?????????? ??????-????, ??????-???? ?????, ?????? ??????, ??? ???????? ??????, ???????? ?????? ? ???????? ??????? ? ??????????, ??????, ??????????? ?????????????? ?????. ??? ???? ??????????? ?????????? ?. ?. ???????? ? ???????? ??????? ????????. ???????? ?????????? ?????? ? ???? ? 1967 ????, ??? ????????? ????????????? ?????? ???? ????????? ????????????; ?????? ??????????, ??? ??? ??? ??????? ????????? ??????????. ?? ????????? ? ????? ???????? ???? ??????, ??????-???? ????? ??????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ????? ??????, ??-?? ?????? ???????????? ???? ? ????? ?????? ?????? ? ?????? ????, ? ????? ????? ??????? ? ?????????? ????. ??????????, ??????? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ?? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ??????? ?????????, ???????, ??????? ????? ???? ??????? ????? ? ?????? ?????? ????????, ?????-??????? ???????????? ????????? ? ??????. ????????????? ?????? ???????????? ????? ??? ??????? ? ????? ??????????? ? ?????-??????????, ??????, ???????? ?? ??????? ????? ????????. ??? ?????? ? ???? ?????? ???????? "??????? ????????". ??????-???????? ?????? ? ??????? ????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ??????.
???????????? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ???????????-???????? ???? ????? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ??????. ??? ?????????? ?????? ???? (?????? ???), ? 1,02 ?? � ?????????? ??????? ????? ??????? ? ?????????, ?????????? ????? ???? ?????? ? ???????, ?????????? ?????? ? ????? ? ??????? ???????? 200 ??????. ??????????? ???????? ?????????, ?????????? ?????, ??? ? ????????? ????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ?????????. ?. ?? ??????? ???? ????????? ???? ??????????? ? 19-?? ???? ?????????? ?????? ???????????, ????? ??? ???????.
?? ??????? ??????, ???????? ?? ???????? ?????? ???? ????? ???????? ?????? (??????? ??????). ?? (??) ????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ??? (Verhnyy ???). ?? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ??????? ?????? (??????? ??????). ??? ? ???????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ????? ?????????. ? ??? ???? ???????? ???????? ?????? (??????? ?????), ???? ?? ????? ???????? ???????????????? ?????????? ????? ???????, ??????? ????? ?????? ????.
????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ??? ??? ?????????? ????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ? ??????. ??????? ????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ??????????, ??? ????????? ????? ??????? ??????????. ?? ??? ???????? ? 1555-61 ?? ??????? ????? ???????? ? ? ?????? ? ?????? ?????? ? ?????????.
??????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????. ??? ???? ??????? ????? ?????? ? 14-?? ???? ? ??? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ? 1600 ????.
???????????? ??????, ????????? ??? "??????", ? ????? "???????? ?????", ???????????? ?????? ??????? ???????, ????????????? ?????? ????????, ??????????? ??????? ???????, ??????? ??????? ???? ????????? ? 1588 ???? ??? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? (???????). ? 16 ? 17 ????? ???????, ?????????????? ??? ?????? ??????? ????????? ??????, ??? ??? ??????, ????? ??? ?????? ? ???????????? ????????????, ? ?????? ????????? ??? "?????????" ? ?????? ? ???????? ????????? ?????????????? ????? ? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ? ????.
?????? ????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ? ????, ??????, ??????? ?? ????? ???????? ? ??????? ???????????. ??????? ???????????, ? ????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ? ???????, ?????????, ??? "??, ??? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????. ?????? ????????? ?? ????? ???? ??????? ? ????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ?????? ?? ??????????? ??? ... ??????????, ??????? ???????? ????? ?????????????, ????????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ??? ???????. " ????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ? 17 ????.
? ?????? ????????? ???????????????? ??????? ??????? ???? ???????????? ?? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ? ?????? ????-??????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ? ???????????? ???? ???????????? ??? ????????????? ???????????????? ????????????? ????? ? 1928 ????. ??? ???? ????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ? ??1929and, ??????? ? 2012 ????, ???????? ? ??????????? ????????????? ?? ??????. ??????? ???? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ? 1990 ????. ????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ??? ????????? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ? ???????????????? ???????? ?? ??????.
??????????? ???? ??? ???? ??????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ???? ???????????? ????? ????? ?? 7 ?????????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ? ?????? ?? ????????? ??? ? ???????-????????? ?????? ?????????? ????. ??? ???????? ?? 30 ?? 42 ? ? ?????? ? ?????? ?? ????????? ????? ??????????? ?? ???? ???????? ???????????? ???? ? ?????.
???????? ??????? ???????, ???????? ?????? ???? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????? ???? ? ??????, ????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????. ??????, ?????? ?????? ?????????? ????, ????? ?? ???????? ?????? ??????? ? ??? ??????? ??????? ? ???????? ???????.
??????????????? ? ???????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ??????, ??????????? ???? ???????? ????? ?????????? ? ??????, ???? ?? ????? ?????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ????????. ?? ?????? ? ?????????? ????? ????? ????? ? ??????? ????? ???? ???????? ??? ?????????? ???? ??????? ?????????.
??????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ??????, ? ?????????-???????? ? ?????????-????????, ??????, ???????? ?? ??????? ? ???????. ???? ??????? ???????? ????? ??????? ?? ???????, ? ??????. ? ?? ????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ? ???, ??? ?? ??????? ?????????????? ????? ??????? ? ?????, ?????? ????????? ???????????, ??? ??????? ????? ????? ??????? ???? ? ??????, ??? ????? ??????? ? ???????? ????, ???? ??????????? (?? 32 meters/106 ?????) ??????? ??????? , ???? Damavand ? ????????? Alborz ? ?????. ???? ??????? (???????? ???????) ?????????? 5642 ?????? (18510 ?????); ??????? ????? ????????? ????????? ????, ?? 5621 ?????? (18442 ?????).
????????????? ??????? ??????? ? ????????? ????? ????????? ??????????, ??? ??? ?? ?????????? ?????-???? ???? ????????. ??? ?? ????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ? ????????. ???????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ????? 0 ? 100 ???? ????? ???. ????????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ???? ????????? ??????? ???? ?? ????, ??????? ???????? ???????, ? ???????? 260 ?????????? ?????????? (100 ?????????? ????) ????????????? ????????. ????? ??????? ????????????? ?????? 24 ?? (15 ????) ?? ??????? ??????-??????, ??? ??????????????? ? ??????? ??????????. ???? ??? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ??-???????? ???????????? ?? ???????, ? ??? ????? ???????????? ???????????? ? ???????? ???????????. ???????? ??????? ????? ?????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????? ????? 250 ? ? ????????.
?????? ??????????
1. ???? ????? ?????? // ???????? ?? ????????? - ????????? ???????????? - http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D1%E5%EC%FC_%F7%F3%E4%E5%F1_%D0%EE%F1%F1%E8%E8.
2. Russia's Seven Wonders - ???? ????? ?????? // http://www.alleng.ru/engl-top/193.htm 1
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yuliyadavidenko
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