TEACHING GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY Калинина Е.А., К.п.н., доцент кафедры филологического образования It Takes Two to Tango… English Idiom Grammar - Translation The Direct Method Audiolingualism Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) “PRESENT - PRACTISE CYCLE” 1. LEAD - IN 2. TEACHER CLARIFICATION 3. RESTRICTED OUTPUT (oral and written practice) 4. AUTHENTIC OUTPUT (communicative activities) Basic Principles for Grammar Teaching: Efficiency = economy +ease Appropriacy TWO MAIN APPROACHES: A Deductive approach - rule - driven learning An inductive approach - discovery learning SITUATIONAL PRESENTATION 1. ESTABLISH THE CONTEXT 2. ESTABLISH THE MEANING OF THE TARGET ITEM 3. INTRODUCE AND PRCTISE THE TARGET LANGUAGE 4. GENERATE MORE SENTENCES FROM THE CONTEXT CATEGORIES OF CLARIFICATION: TEACHER EXPLANATION(T tells the learner) GUIDED DISCOVERY (T helps the learner to tell himself) SELF - DIRECTED DISCOVERY (the learner tells himself) GUIDED DISCOVERY. THE TEACHER’S ROLE: 1. TO SELECT APPROPRIATE TASKS 2. TO OFFER GOOD INSTRUCTIONS, QUESTIONS , HELP, FEEDBACK 3. MANAGE AND STRUCTURE THE LESSON SO THAT ALL THE LEARNERS ARE INVOLVED AND DRAW THE MOST POSSIBLE FROM THE ACTIVITY GUIDED DISCOVERY. TYPICAL QUESTIONS: QUESTIONS ABOUT FORM: What word goes in this space? How many words are there in the sentence? How do you spell that? Is that a verb? QUESTIONS ABOUT FUNCTION: Do they know each other? Is this formal or informal? Where do you think they are speaking? How does he feel? PROBLEMS AND PUZZLES: Put these words in the right order. Fill in the spaces. Change this into the past simple tense. Write this sentence again, with exactly the same meaning, but only using seven words. REFLECTING ON USE: Write down some of the sentences you heard. Why did you use that tense? Which of those two sentences is correct? SENTENCE ANALYSIS: Mark all the prepositions. Mark the main stress in the sentence. How many auxiliary verbs are there? Cross out any unnecessary words. CONTEXTS AND SITUATIONS: This is Paul. Where does he work? Tell me what he does every day. Look at this picture. What is going to happen? If I throw this pen at the picture on the wall, what will happen? RESTRICTED OUTPUT: Drills.(substitution drills, transformation drills, true sentences) Elicited dialogues. GRAMMAR PRACTICE ACTIVITIES AND GAMES. SPLIT SENTENCES, GRAMMAR QUIZ, MEMORY TEST, PICTURE DICTATION, MIMING AN ACTION, GROWING STORIES. HOW TO INTEGRATE GRAMMAR The PPP model PRESENTATION --- PRACTICE ---- PRODUCTION TASK - BASED MODEL TASK --- TEACH --- TASK ESA ENGAGE STUDY ACTIVATE Indicate steps of teaching grammar. What do you start with? What do you do next? COMMUNICATIVE GRAMMAR. WHAT IS IT? Lexis include: SINGLE WORDS, COLLOCATIONS, CHUNKS= MULTIWORD ITEMS ( SOMEONE YOU CAN TALK TO, ON - THE – SPOT DECISIONS) STAGES OF LEARNING LEXIS: Meeting new lexical items and understanding them and their use, Practising using them, Memorising them, Recalling and using them. Memory in Language Acquisition: Encoding Storage Retrieval PRESENTATION TECHNIQUES FOR LEXIS: Gloves mime putting them on Disgusting mime and make a facial expression Swimming translate it Café draw or show a flashcard or a picture Frightened tell a personal anecdote Window – sill point to the object Hope read out a dictionary definition LEXICAL PRACTICE ACTIVITIES: 1. Matching pictures to lexical items, 2. Matching lexical items to others (collocations, synonyms, opposites) 3. Using prefixes or suffixes to build new lexical items from given words, 4. Classifying items into lists 5. Filling in crosswords, grids or diagrams, 6. Filling in gaps in sentences, 7. Memory games. ACTIVITIES FOR TEACHING VOCABULARY MEANING INTERPRETATION: pictures, gestures, context, synonyms, antonyms, descriptions, guessing, translation. WORD REINFORCEMENT: associations, rating, recalling, transformation, combination COMMUNICATIVE USE: context, drama, imaging, prose(cloze), poetry (cloze), story - telling, games. MNEMONIC EXECISES: paired associates,rhyme, rhythm, location. THANKS FOR ATTENTION!