TEACHING VOCABULARY Калинина Е.А. доцент кафедры филологического образования СарИПКиПРО How many words are there and how many do we need to teach? Estimates for native speakers vary between 12000 and 20000 depending on the level of education. Learners can understand a large proportion of texts with a relatively small vocabulary. Learners who know the most frequent 2000 words will understand almost 80 % of the words in an average text. 1. It is important to identify the most frequent 2000 - 5000 vocabulary items and give them priority in teaching. 2. Students need to become self - sufficient learners. A corpus is a collection of texts which is stored in a computer. What can we learn from the Corpus about vocabulary? • Frequency • Differences in speaking and writing • Contexts of use • Collocation • Grammatical patterns • Strategic use of vocabulary What do we need to teach about vocabulary? • The meanings of the word • Its spoken and written forms • What “word parts” it has • Its grammatical behaviour • Its collocations • Its register • What associations it has • What connotations it has • Its frequency How can we help learners learn vocabulary? • FOCUS ON VOCABULARY “…without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed” • OFFER VARIETY • REPEAT AND RECYCLE • PROVIDE OPPORTUNITIES TO ORGANIZE VOCABULARY: REAL - WORLD GROUPS LANGUAGE - BASED GROUPS PERSONALIZED GROUPS • Make vocabulary learning personal • Don’t overdo • Use strategic vocabulary in class HELPING STUDENTS BECOME INDEPENDENT LEARNERS: • Vocabulary notebooks • Research tools • Everyday usage Learner’s word list Lexic al item Pro nunci ation Trans lation Gram mar Collo catio n Exam ple Idea Things you can know about a lexical item: • Spelling • The number of syllables • Phonemes • Which syllables are stressed • What part of speech it is • Grammatically related forms • The basic meaning • Other meanings • The semantic space it occupies (where the meaning of one word ends and another begins) • Metaphorical meanings • Collocational field • Translation • False friends (words which in translation suggest a wrong meaning) • True friends • Lexical families • Synonyms • Homonyms (words that have the same spelling but different meanings) • Homophones (words that are pronounced the same but have a different meaning) • Antonyms • Suffixes or prefixes that can be added to the word • The visual image people have for this word • Personal feelings about this word • Mnemonics (things help you remember the word).