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Автоматизация станции по очистке сточных вод сконструированной с применением биореакторов.

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ВЕСТНИК
МГСУ
6/2011
ȺȼɌɈɆȺɌɂɁȺɐɂə ɋɌȺɇɐɂɂ ɉɈ ɈɑɂɋɌɄȿ ɋɌɈɑɇɕɏ ȼɈȾ,
ɋɄɈɇɋɌɊɍɂɊɈȼȺɇɇɈɃ ɋ ɉɊɂɆȿɇȿɇɂȿɆ ȻɂɈɊȿȺɄɌɈɊɈȼ
AUTOMATIZATION OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS
WITH SBR
ə.ɋ. Ʉɢɫɟɥɶ
Y.S. Kisel
ɎȽȻɈɍ ȼɉɈ "ɆȽɋɍ"
Ʉɥɸɱɟɜɨɣ ɰɟɥɶɸ ɩɪɨɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɬɚɧɰɢɢ ɩɨ ɨɱɢɫɬɤɟ ɫɬɨɱɧɵɯ ɜɨɞ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ
ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɢɟ ɜɨɞɵ, ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɟɬ ɧɨɪɦɚɦ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɟ
ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɨ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɢ ɷɧɟɪɝɨ ɜɵɝɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɩɥɚɧɚ ɷɤɫɩɥɭɚɬɚɰɢɢ. ȼ ɫɬɚɬɶɟ ɨɩɢɫɚɧ
ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ, ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɸɳɢɯ ɚɜɬɨɦɚɬɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɫɬɚɧɰɢɸ ɩɨ ɨɱɢɫɬɤɟ ɫɬɨɱɧɵɯ ɜɨɞ
ɫ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟɦ ɛɢɨɪɟɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ ɢ ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɬɶ ɜɵɫɨɤɢɯ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɟɣ ɨɱɢɫɬɤɢ.
A key objective of designing stations for waste water treatment is to obtain a water
quality that meets the standards and achieve the maximum economically beneficial energy
and operational plan. The article presents a set of systems to automatization the station for
waste water treatment using bioreactors and achieves high levels of purification.
Ɋɟɚɤɬɨɪɵ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ, ɢɧɚɱɟ ɛɢɨɪɟɚɤɬɨɪɵ ɭɠɟ ɞɚɜɧɨ ɲɢɪɨɤɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɫɹ ɤɚɤ ɚɥɶɬɟɪɧɚɬɢɜɧɚɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɱɢɫɬɤɢ ɫɬɨɱɧɵɯ ɜɨɞ ɜ ȿɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɢɯ ɝɨɪɨɞɚɯ ɫ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɢɦ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɟɦ ɢ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɧɟɞɚɜɧɨ ɧɚɱɚɥɢ ɬɨɱɟɱɧɨ
ɫɬɪɨɢɬɶɫɹ ɜ ɝɨɪɨɞɚɯ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ. ɋɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɹ, ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɧɵɟ ɩɨ ɷɬɨɦɭ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɭ, ɨɬɥɢɱɚɸɬɫɹ ɨɬ ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɫɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɣ ɩɪɨɬɨɱɧɨɝɨ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɬɟɦ, ɱɬɨ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫ ɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɨɱɢɫɬɤɢ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɜ ɨɞɧɨɣ ɟɞɢɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɺɦɤɨɫɬɢ. Ȼɢɨɪɟɚɤɬɨɪ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɫɨɛɨɣ ɪɟɡɟɪɜɭɚɪ, ɨɛɨɪɭɞɨɜɚɧɧɵɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɨɣ ɚɷɪɚɰɢɢ, ɦɟɲɚɥɤɨɣ, ɧɚɫɨɫɨɦ
ɞɥɹ ɭɞɚɥɟɧɢɹ ɢɡɛɵɬɨɱɧɨɝɨ ɩɥɚɜɚɸɳɟɝɨ ɢɥɚ, ɞɟɤɚɧɬɟɪɨɦ ɞɥɹ ɫɥɢɜɚ ɨɱɢɳɟɧɧɨɣ ɜɨɞɵ ɢ
ɪɹɞɨɦ ɢɡɦɟɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɩɪɢɛɨɪɨɜ.
Ɂɚɞɚɱɚ ɚɜɬɨɦɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɫɬɚɧɰɢɢ ɩɨ ɨɱɢɫɬɤɟ ɫɬɨɱɧɵɯ ɜɨɞ, ɪɚɛɨɬɚɸɳɟɣ ɩɨ ɜɵɲɟɨɩɢɫɚɧɧɨɣ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɫɯɟɦɟ, ɫɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɡɚɱɚɫɬɭɸ ɤ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɸ ɫɟɬɢ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜ ɚɜɬɨɦɚɬɢɤɢ, ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɯ ɤɚɤ ɮɢɡɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ ɤɚɧɚɥɚɦɢ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɫɛɨɪɚ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ ɢ
ɨɩɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɞɢɫɩɟɬɱɟɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ. ɋ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ ɞɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɧɨɝɨ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɫɜɹɡɶ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɢɪɭɟɦɵɦɢ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɥɟɪɚɦɢ, ɞɚɬɱɢɤɚɦɢ ɧɢɠɧɟɝɨ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ ɢ ɞɢɫɩɟɬɱɟɪɨɦ. ɗɬɚ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɫɜɹɡɶ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɚ ɧɚ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɨɦɚɲɢɧɧɨɦ ɢɧɬɟɪɮɟɣɫɟ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɜ ɫɜɨɸ ɨɱɟɪɟɞɶ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɬɢɡɢɪɭɟɬ ɢ ɨɬɨɛɪɚɠɚɟɬ ɜɟɫɶ
ɨɛɴɺɦ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ, ɩɨɥɭɱɚɟɦɵɯ ɫ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɢɪɭɸɳɢɯ ɢ ɢɡɦɟɪɹɸɳɢɯ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɵɯ ɭɫɬɪɨɣɫɬɜ.
ɇɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɶ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɞɚɧɧɨɣ ɝɪɭɩɩɵ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɨɛɭɫɥɨɜɥɟɧɨ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɦ ɨɛɴɟɦɨɦ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ, ɩɨɫɬɭɩɚɸɳɟɣ ɨɬ ɛɥɨɤɚ ɫɛɨɪɚ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ, ɨɬɪɚɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɧɨ ɦɟɧɹɸɳɢɯɫɹ ɜ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɢ ɤɨɪɨɬɤɢɯ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɨɦɟɠɭɬɤɨɜ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɜ.
Ƚɨɜɨɪɹ ɨ ɬɟɦɟ ɪɟɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ ɩɟɪɢɨɞɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ, ɤ ɞɚɬɱɢɤɚɦ ɧɢɠɧɟɝɨ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ
ɨɬɧɨɫɹɬ ɢɡɦɟɪɢɬɟɥɢ ɪɚɫɯɨɞɚ ɫɦɟɫɢ, ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɹ pH ɫɬɨɱɧɵɯ ɜɨɞ, ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɤɢɫɥɨɪɨ-
586
6/2011
ВЕСТНИК
МГСУ
ɞɚ, ɪɚɫɬɜɨɪɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɜ ɫɬɨɱɧɵɯ ɜɨɞɚɯ, ɞɚɬɱɢɤɢ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ ɠɢɞɤɨɫɬɢ ɜ ɛɢɨɪɟɚɤɬɨɪɟ, ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɢ ɜɡɜɟɲɟɧɧɵɯ ɱɚɫɬɢɰ ɜ ɤɨɬɥɟ, ɞɚɬɱɢɤ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɹ ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɹ ɤɢɫɥɨɪɨɞɚ ɜ ɬɪɭɛɟ
ɞɟɤɚɧɬɟɪɚ, ɞɚɬɱɢɤɢ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ ɢ ɬ.ɞ.
Ʉɚɠɞɵɣ ɢɡ ɞɚɬɱɢɤɨɜ ɩɨɞɤɥɸɱɚɟɬɫɹ ɤ ɪɚɛɨɬɟ ɜ ɬɨɦ ɢɥɢ ɢɧɨɦ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɟ, ɛɭɞɶ ɬɨ
ɧɢɬɪɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɹ, ɞɟɧɢɬɪɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɹ, ɫɟɞɢɦɟɧɬɚɰɢɹ, ɞɟɤɚɧɬɚɰɢɹ ɢ ɬ.ɞ., ɥɢɛɨ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɞɚɬɱɢɤɨɜ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɭɸɬ ɫɨɜɦɟɫɬɧɨ. ȼ ɷɬɨ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɢɯ ɨɩɪɨɫ ɢ ɫɧɹɬɢɟ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɧɢɣ. Ɉɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨ ɫ ɷɬɢɦ ɧɚ ɞɢɫɩɟɬɱɟɪɫɤɨɣ ɫɬɚɧɰɢɢ ɨɬɨɛɪɚɠɚɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫ, ɩɪɨɬɟɤɚɸɳɢɣ ɜ ɪɟɚɤɬɨɪɟ ɢ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɧɢɹ ɩɨɞɤɥɸɱɟɧɧɵɯ ɜ ɪɚɛɨɬɭ ɞɚɬɱɢɤɨɜ. ɍɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɦ ɨɱɢɫɬɤɢ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɢɪɭɟɦɵɦ ɦɨɞɭɥɟɦ, ɱɬɨ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɨɩɬɢɦɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫ ɨɱɢɫɬɤɢ ɫ ɬɨɱɤɢ ɡɪɟɧɢɹ ɷɧɟɪɝɨɡɚɬɪɚɬ ɢ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɚ ɬɟɯɧɢɤɢ, ɜ ɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ,
ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɟɬ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ ɚɜɬɨɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ ɩɟɪɟɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɪɟɠɢɦɚɦɢ, ɥɢɛɨ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬ ɨɬɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟ ɩɪɢ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɢ ɩɪɢɬɨɤɚ ɫɬɨɱɧɵɯ
ɜɨɞ. ɉɪɢ ɩɨɫɬɭɩɥɟɧɢɢ ɫɬɨɱɧɵɯ ɜɨɞ ɜ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟ, ɩɪɟɜɵɲɚɸɳɟɦ ɪɚɫɱɟɬɧɨɟ, ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ
ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬ ɧɚɝɪɭɡɤɭ ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨ ɢ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɛɢɨɪɟɚɤɬɨɪɚɦɢ.
ɉɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɧɚ ɞɢɫɩɥɟɟ ɪɚɛɨɱɟɣ ɫɬɚɧɰɢɢ ɨɬɨɛɪɚɠɚɸɬɫɹ ɮɚɡɵ ɨɱɢɫɬɤɢ ɫɬɨɱɧɵɯ ɜɨɞ, ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɟɦɵɟ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɨɣ ɜ ɞɚɧɧɵɣ ɦɨɦɟɧɬ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ɢ ɤɚɤɢɟ ɚɝɪɟɝɚɬɵ ɩɨɞɤɥɸɱɟɧɵ ɤ
ɪɚɛɨɬɟ.
ɉɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɦ ɫɯɟɦɭ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɫɜɹɡɢ ɞɚɬɱɢɤɨɜ ɧɢɠɧɟɝɨ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ, ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɥɟɪɨɜ ɢ ɞɢɫɩɟɬɱɟɪɫɤɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɨɣ, ɢ ɩɨɣɦɟɦ, ɤɚɤ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɷɬɚ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɫɜɹɡɶ:
ɋɛɨɪ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ ɨ ɪɚɛɨɬɟ ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɨɜ ɫɬɚɧɰɢɢ ɧɚɱɢɧɚɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɚɛɨɧɟɧɬɫɤɨɦ ɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɦ
ɛɥɨɤɟ ɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦ ɞɚɬɱɢɤɨɜ ɧɢɠɧɟɝɨ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɹɬ ɡɚɦɟɪ ɬɪɟɛɭɟɦɵɯ
ɩɚɪɚɦɟɬɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɟɞɢɧɢɰ ɩɪɢ ɬɨɦ, ɢɥɢ ɢɧɨɦ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɟ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɹɳɟɦ ɜ ɛɢɨɪɟɚɤɬɨɪɟ.
Ⱦɚɬɱɢɤɢ ɩɨɫɵɥɚɸɬ ɫɢɝɧɚɥ ɝɪɭɩɩɟ ɩɟɪɜɢɱɧɵɯ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɥɟɪɨɜ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɹɬ ɨɛɪɚɛɨɬɤɭ, ɩɪɟɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɫɢɝɧɚɥɚ. Ⱦɚɥɟɟ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɹ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɦ ɩɪɨ-
587
ВЕСТНИК
МГСУ
6/2011
ɝɪɚɦɦɢɪɭɟɦɵɦ ɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɥɟɪɚɦ, ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɬɢɡɢɪɭɸɳɢɦ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɟ ɞɚɧɧɵɟ, ɚ
ɬɚɤɠɟ ɮɢɤɫɢɪɭɸɳɢɟ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɸɳɢɟ ɫɛɨɢ ɢ ɨɲɢɛɤɢ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɜ. ɉɚɤɟɬɵ ɫɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɣ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ ɨɬɩɪɚɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɶɧɨ-ɚɩɩɚɪɚɬɧɵɣ ɦɨɞɭɥɶ ɞɢɫɩɟɬɱɟɪɫɤɨɣ,
ɜɤɥɸɱɚɸɳɢɣ ɫɟɪɜɟɪɧɭɸ ɛɚɡ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ, ɝɞɟ ɜ ɪɟɠɢɦɟ ɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ
ɚɧɚɥɢɡ ɢ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ, ɚ ɬɚɤ ɠɟ ɩɨɞɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟ ɢ ɨɬɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɦɨɞɭɥɟɣ ɢ ɚɝɪɟɝɚɬɨɜ, ɭɱɚɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯ ɜ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɟ. Ⱦɚɧɧɵɟ ɮɨɪɦɚɬɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ɬɚɤɢɦ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɨɦ, ɱɬɨɛɵ ɨɩɟɪɚɬɨɪ ɞɢɫɩɟɬɱɟɪɫɤɨɣ, ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɹ ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɨ-ɦɚɲɢɧɧɵɣ ɢɧɬɟɪɮɟɣɫ, ɦɨɝ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɶ ɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɟ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɟ — ɤɨɪɪɟɤɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɢɥɢ ɩɪɟɪɜɚɬɶ ɪɟɠɢɦ ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɫɱɢɬɵɜɚɸɳɢɯ
ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜ. ȼɫɹ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɹ ɮɢɤɫɢɪɭɟɬɫɹ ɜ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɛɚɡɚɯ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ,
ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɯ ɫ ɋɍȻȾ, ɞɥɹ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɹ ɬɪɟɧɞɨɜ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɨɣ ɚɧɚɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɨɛɪɚɛɨɬɤɢ ɧɚɤɨɩɥɟɧɧɵɯ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ. ɑɚɳɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɫɹ ɬɪɢ ɛɚɡɵ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ: «ɛɚɡɚ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ ɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ», «ɛɚɡɚ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ» ɢ «ɛɚɡɚ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ ɨɲɢɛɨɤ ɢ ɬɪɟɜɨɝ».
ɋ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ ɢɧɬɟɪɮɟɣɫɚ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɫɟɪɜɟɪɚ ɢ ɪɚɛɨɱɢɯ ɫɬɚɧɰɢɣ ɜ ɞɢɫɩɟɬɱɟɪɫɤɨɣ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɷɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɵɯ ɨɬɱɟɬɨɜ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɨ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɢ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ
ɢ ɜɫɟɣ ɫɟɬɢ ɚɜɬɨɦɚɬɢɤɢ. Ɉɬɱɟɬɵ ɨ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɢ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟ ɭɠɟ ɝɨɬɨɜɵɯ ɛɚɡ
ɞɚɧɧɵɯ ɧɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹ. ɋɢɫɬɟɦɚ ɫɪɚɜɧɢɜɚɟɬ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ ɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɬɭɪɵ, ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɜɡɜɟɲɟɧɧɵɯ ɱɚɫɬɢɰ, pH ɩɪɢ ɧɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɵɯ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɢ ɬɟɤɭɳɢɟ. Ⱦɢɫɩɟɬɱɟɪ ɜ ɥɸɛɨɣ
ɦɨɦɟɧɬ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɫɬɢ ɨɩɪɨɫ ɫɟɪɜɟɪɚ ɛɚɡ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ ɧɚ ɧɚɥɢɱɢɟ ɬɨɣ ɢɥɢ ɢɧɨɣ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ ɨ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɢ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚ. ɉɨɞɨɛɧɵɣ ɡɚɩɪɨɫ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɬɶ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɹ
«ɹɡɵɤ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɡɚɩɪɨɫɨɜ», ɩɪɢɦɟɧɢɦɵɣ ɤ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɦɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɞɚɧɧɵɦɢ. ȼ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɢɹ ɫɛɨɹ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɹ, ɡɚɫɨɪɚ ɧɚɫɨɫɚ, ɜɵɯɨɞɚ ɢɡ ɫɬɪɨɹ ɦɟɯɚɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɦɟɲɚɥɤɢ ɢ ɬ.ɞ. ɞɢɫɩɟɬɱɟɪ ɜ ɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɢɬɶ ɤɨɦɚɧɞɭ ɨ
ɜɵɜɨɞɟ ɢɡ ɪɚɛɨɱɟɝɨ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚ ɬɨɝɨ ɢɥɢ ɢɧɨɝɨ ɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɚ, ɥɢɛɨ ɩɨɞɤɥɸɱɢɬɶ ɪɟɡɟɪɜɧɵɣ ɧɚ
ɫɥɭɱɚɣ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɢ. Ⱦɥɹ ɷɬɨɝɨ ɨɧ ɩɨɫɵɥɚɟɬ ɡɚɩɪɨɫ ɧɚ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɥɟɪɵ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɫɟɪɜɟɪ.
Ɍɟɦ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɟɦ ɛɚɡɚ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ ɨɲɢɛɨɤ ɢ ɚɜɚɪɢɣ ɨɛɧɨɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ, ɞɨɩɨɥɧɹɹɫɶ ɧɨɜɵɦ ɫɨɛɵɬɢɟɦ. ɉɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɦ ɩɨɞɨɛɧɨɝɨ ɬɢɩɚ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɧɨɝɨ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ
ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɹ ɡɚ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚɦɢ ɭɞɚɥɟɧɧɨ ɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦ ɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɢɧɬɟɪɧɟɬ ɫɬɪɚɧɢɰɵ,
ɞɨɫɬɭɩ ɤ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɦ ɤɚɤ ɫ ɥɸɛɨɣ ɪɚɛɨɱɟɣ ɫɬɚɧɰɢɢ, ɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɦɩɶɸɬɟɪɚ, ɥɢɛɨ ɦɨɛɢɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɬɟɥɟɮɨɧɚ, ɩɪɢ ɜɜɨɞɟ ɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɞɚɧɧɵɯ ɞɢɫɩɟɬɱɟɪɚ.
Ⱥɜɬɨɦɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɜɨɞɨɨɱɢɫɬɧɵɯ ɫɬɚɧɰɢɣ, ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɧɵɯ ɩɨ ɞɚɧɧɨɣ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɢ
ɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɚ ɜ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦ ɜ ɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɢɯ ɝɨɪɨɞɚɯ, ɝɞɟ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɟɧɢɹ ɜɨɞɧɵɯ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ ɧɟɜɟɥɢɤɢ. Ɂɚɱɚɫɬɭɸ ɷɬɨ ɝɨɪɨɞɚ, ɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɧɵɟ
ɜɛɥɢɡɢ ɩɢɳɟɜɵɯ ɡɚɜɨɞɨɜ. ɗɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɨɱɢɫɬɤɢ ɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦ ɩɨɞɨɛɧɵɯ ɫɬɚɧɰɢɣ
ɨɱɟɧɶ ɜɵɫɨɤɚ, ɡɚ ɫɱɟɬ ɩɨɥɧɨɣ ɚɜɬɨɦɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɢ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɨɝɨ ɫɭɬɨɱɧɨɝɨ
ɨɛɴɟɦɚ ɨɛɪɚɛɚɬɵɜɚɟɦɨɣ ɫɦɟɫɢ. ɋɬɨɢɬ ɨɬɦɟɬɢɬɶ ɜɵɫɨɤɢɣ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɡɚɳɢɬɵ ɢ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɢɟ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɢ, ɡɚɧɢɦɚɟɦɵɟ ɫɬɚɧɰɢɹɦɢ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɦɨɳɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɜ ɰɟɥɹɯ ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɹ ɷɧɟɪɝɨɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɩɥɚɧɚ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ [1].
ɍɫɩɟɲɧɵɣ ɢ ɨɛɲɢɪɧɵɣ ɨɩɵɬ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɫɢɫɬɟɦ ɚɜɬɨɦɚɬɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɝɨ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɜɵɲɟɨɩɢɫɚɧɧɨɣ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɢ ɧɚɲɢɦɢ ɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɢɦɢ ɤɨɥɥɟɝɚɦɢ ɞɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬ, ɱɬɨ ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɢ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɞɚɧɧɨɣ ɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɢ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɨɱɟɧɶ ɜɵɫɨɤɚ, ɜɜɢɞɭ ɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɹ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɯ ɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɢ ɠɟɥɚɟɦɨɫɬɢ, ɬɚɤɢɯ ɤɚɤ: ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɶ, ɫɚɧɢɬɚɪɧɵɣ ɷɮɮɟɤɬ, ɧɚɞɟɠɧɨɫɬɶ, ɦɚɥɨɷɧɟɪɝɨɟɦɤɨɫɬɶ,
ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɭɬɢɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɨɬɯɨɞɨɜ [2].
Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɧɚ ɞɚɧɧɵɣ ɦɨɦɟɧɬ ɰɟɥɟɫɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɹ ɫɬɚɧɰɢɣ ɫ ɛɢɨɪɟɚɤɬɨɪɚɦɢ ɜ Ɋɨɫɫɢɢ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɢɬɶ ɩɨɞ ɫɨɦɧɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɫɢɥɭ ɪɹɞɚ ɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ, ɫɪɟɞɢ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ
ɦɨɠɧɨ ɨɬɦɟɬɢɬɶ ɭɛɵɬɨɱɧɨɫɬɶ ɧɚ ɭɪɨɜɧɟ ɦɚɥɵɯ ɝɨɪɨɞɨɜ, ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɭɸ ɫ ɧɟ ɨɤɭɩɚɟɦɨɫɬɶɸ,
ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ ɧɟɩɪɢɟɦɥɟɦɨɫɬɶ ɤ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɦ ɦɟɝɚɩɨɥɢɫɚɦ, ɜɜɢɞɭ ɨɬɧɨɫɢ-
588
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МГСУ
ɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɦɚɥɨɝɨ ɫɭɬɨɱɧɨɝɨ ɨɛɴɟɦɚ ɩɪɨɩɭɫɤɚɟɦɨɣ ɫɦɟɫɢ. Ɋɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɚ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɚ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɢɣ ɜ ɰɟɥɹɯ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ ɞɚɧɧɨɣ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɡɚɞɚɱɟɣ,
ɬɪɟɛɭɟɦɨɣ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ.
ɉɨɞɪɨɛɧɨɟ ɨɩɢɫɚɧɢɟ ɚɜɬɨɦɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɫɬɚɧɰɢɢ ɩɨ ɨɱɢɫɬɤɟ ɫɬɨɱɧɵɯ ɜɨɞ, ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɧɨɣ ɫ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟɦ ɪɟɚɤɬɨɪɨɜ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ, ɛɭɞɟɬ ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɨ ɜ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɟɣ
ɫɬɚɬɶɟ.
Ʌɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɚ:
1. ȼɨɞɨɨɬɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ ɢ ɨɱɢɫɬɤɚ ɫɬɨɱɧɵɯ ɜɨɞ. ɋ.ȼ. əɤɨɜɥɟɜ, ɘ.ȼ. ȼɨɪɨɧɨɜ – ɢɡɞ-ɜɨ Ⱥɫɫɨɰɢɚɰɢɹ
ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɜɭɡɨɜ, 2002ɝ.
2. http://www.wehrle-env.co.uk
Literature:
1. Waste water and sewage treatment. SV Yakovlev, Y. Ravens - publ Association for construction of universities, 2002.
2. http://www.wehrle-env.co.uk
Ʉɥɸɱɟɜɵɟ ɫɥɨɜɚ: ɛɢɨɪɟɚɤɬɨɪ, ɪɟɚɤɬɨɪ ɩɟɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ, ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɥɟɪ, ɞɚɬɱɢɤ, ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɨ-ɦɚɲɢɧɧɵɣ ɢɧɬɟɪɮɟɣɫ.
Keywords: bioreactor, sequential batch reactors, controller, sensor, human-machine interface.
Ɍɟɥɟɮɨɧ: +79267119767
e-mail: kiselys@mgsu.ru
Ɋɟɰɟɧɡɟɧɬ: ɑɭɥɤɨɜ ȼ.Ɉ., ɞɟɤɚɧ ɮɚɤɭɥɶɬɟɬɚ ɗɢɉɆ, ɡɚɜ. ɤɚɮɟɞɪɨɣ Ɉɉɍɋ ɆȺɄɏɢɋ, ɞ.ɬ.ɧ.,
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