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??? 141.31
??????? ?????. ???. 17. 2015. ???. 1
?. ?. ????????
????? ??????????????? ?????? ?????
???????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ???????????*
? ?????? ????????????, ??? ?????????, ??????? ????????????? ?а???????????? ?????? ??
?????????? ???? ?????????? ?а????? XVIа? ?????? XVIIа?., ?а????? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????? л?????????????╗ ?а??????, ????? ???? ???????? ?а??? ?????????? ?????? ??????????.
??????????? ?????? ??????????а? ??? ????????? ??????????????? ?а??????????, ????????????? ????????????? ???????? ?а?????? ?а?????, ????????? ??????????? ?а????????. ??? ?????
??????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ?а?????? ??????????? ?а?????? ?????????? ????????, ??????? ????????????? ????????? ?? ????????????? ???????????
??????? ???????????. ? ?а???????? ??????, ? ?а?????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ?ал????
??????????? ??????????╗. ?а?? ?? ????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ?а???????????? ??????
???? ?????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ?а??
?????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ???????????.
???????? ?????: ??????, ???????, ???????????, ?????? ??????????, ???????????, ?????????? ??????????.
A. I. Brodsky
THE TIME OF TRANSUBSTANTIATION OF THE HOLY SACRAMENT
Kiev?s theology and Russian Enlightenment
This article argues that the philosophy that was taught in Orthodox schools in Rzeczpospolita in the
late XVIа? early XVII century, and then became the ideological basis of the movement ?Latinism? in
Moscow, can be attributed to the so-called second scholasticism. Features of the second scholasticism
are the denial of predestination in theology, the use of probabilistic approaches in logic and ethics, the
opposition to absolutism in politics. These features make the second scholasticism unacceptable for
arising in Europe of that time of absolute monarchies, including the Russian empire, which was ideologically based on universal rationalism of early Enlightenment. In Western Europe and in Russia the
second scholasticism has become ?a cultural exclusion zone?. However, the dominance of the second
scholasticism in Orthodox schools of Rzeczpospolita coincided with the formation of cultural identity
in Ukraine and in many ways defined the characteristics of the Ukrainian mentality.
Keywords: Russia, Ukraine, Orthodox Church, second scholasticism, Enlightenment, cultural
exclusion.
? ???????????? ????? ????????? ??????????????, ??? ??????? ???????? XVIIа?.
????????????? ??? ??????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ????????-????????? ???????????, ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?а???????? ??????? ??а????????, ????????? ???? ?а?????????? ??????? ?а??????????. ??????????????? ???????? ?а??????
????? ???? ?????? ?а????? XVIа?. ?? ?????????????? ??????, ????????? ????? ?а?????? ???? ??????????, ?а?? ?????? ???????? XVIIа?. ?????????????? ?? ??????????
???????? ????????? ????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ????, ?????????, ?????-?????????????
??????????????? ???????????, ?????????? ?????????, 199034, ?????-?????????, ???????????????
???., 7?9.
Brodsky Alexander I. ? Doctor of Philosophy, Professor, Saint Petersburg State University, 7?9,
Universitetskaya nab., St. Petersburg, 199034, Russian Federation; abrodsky59@mail.ru
* ???????????? ????????? ??? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ????? (?????? ?а1418-00192), ?????.
89
??????????? ?????????. ????? XVII ???????? ?а ?????? ????????????? ????????
??????? ????? ???????? л?????????????╗ ?а л?????????????╗, ??????? ???????
??????? ???? ????????????? ?????? ?а??????? ??????????????? ?????? ?????. л?????? ?а??????????????? ?????? ?????,а? ????? ?а????? XIXа?. ??????? ?. ????????,а? ??? ?????????? ???????, ????????? ??? ?????? ???? ??????????????? ?????, ???? ?????????, ???? ???????????. <?> ?????? ??? ????????? ????? ???????
??????? ????????????? ???????????, ?????????? ????? ?а?????? ?????????? ???????????, ?а??????????????, ?????????? ????? ?а?????? ??????-????????? ???????????╗а[1, ?. 10]. ?????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ?а???????????????
??????? ???????? ????? ????? I ??????? ?? ??????????????, ?а????? ?? ???????????????? ???????. ?а???? ?????????, ???????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?а?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????????, ?? ????????-????????
???????, ??????, ???????? ????????? ?а???? л??????????? ??????????╗1.
?? ???? ???? ??????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????.
??-??????, ?? ?????? ????, ??? ???????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ?а ??? ????????-???????? ??????????? ??????????, ????????, ?? ????????-???????????? ???
????????-????????????. ??-??????, ?? ?????? ???????, ?????? ?????? ?????? ?а??????? ??????????????? ?????? ????? ???? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ????? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ???????????. ?-???????, ?????????? ???-?? ?????????,
?????? ????????-???????? ??????????? ??? ?а ?? ????????? ?а ??????, ??????? ????? ???????-??????????????. ???????, ?-?????????, ????? ????????, ???????? ??
???-?????? ??? ?????????? ????????-???????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ????????
??????? ???????? ? ?а????? ???? ??? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ?а???????. ????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ??? ???????, ??а????? ?????
?????????? ???????????? ?????? ?а???????????? ????????????? ????? ???????.
?????? ??????????
?????????? ?а ??????????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ????? XVIа ?
?????? XVIIа?., ?. ?. ?? ????? ??????????????? ?а??? ?????????? ?????? ??????????. ??????????? ????? ???????????? ?????? ?а?????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ???? ??? ?????????????? ????????, ??а?а??????? ?????? ?????
?? ??????? ????? ????????? ?а???????? ?? ??????-??????? ??????, ????? ?? ????????? ???? ???????. ?? ????? ?????????????? ???????, ??? ?????????? ??????????????? ???? ???????????? ?????????? ???? ??????????. ????? ???????, ?а?????
XVIIа ?. ?????? ??????????, ??????????? ?? ????????? ???????? ??????????????
?а????????????, ????????? ???? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ????????? ???????? ??????а? ?а??????? ? ?а??????.
? ????????????? ????????-??????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????
????? ??????????????? ??? ??????? ????????????? ??????????????, ??????????
????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ??????. ?????? ?а????????? ???????????
?????? ????? ???????? [3; 4]. ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ?а????? ??? ?????? ??????? ????. ?????? ????????????
???????, ??? ?????????? ????? XVIа? ?????? XVIIа?. ????????? ????? ?? ?????????
1
90
? ????? ??????????, ?????????????? ?а?????????????? ?а???????? ??.:а[2].
?? ?????????????? ???? ?а???????. ?? ??? ??????, ???? ????? ???? ?а?????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ????????, ??????? ?? ?????
????????????? ?????????? ?????? ???? ?????????-???????????? ?????????????,
??а????????? ??????? ??? ????? ???? ??????????? ?а??????? [5].
?? ????? ???? ???? ???????????? ?а??????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????
????????? ???? ??????? ????????, ??????? ??????????????????? ??????????????
????????? ???????????????. ???????? ????????????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????, ????????????? ?????????? ???? ?????????????? ?а?????????? ?????,
?а?? ???????????; ???????? ????? ????????? ?а?????????????? ????? ????????
?????? ????????, ????????? (distinctio rationis)а? ?а???????? ????? ????? ????????
???. ??? ?????????????? ?а?????????? ????? ?????????? ???? ??????????????, ??
????? ?????????? ??????? [6]. ??????? ??? ???????????? ????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ???????, ?????????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????, ?а??????? ??????????, ?а????????? ????????????????, ?а??????? ???? ????? ??? ?????????? ?а????????????????. ????????? ?а??????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????????
??????, ??????? ?????????? ?????? ?а????????? ??????? ????????????. ?а???????? ??? ??????????????????? ??????????????? ????? ?????????????? ??? ???????
????. ??????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????????? ???????????????
(praedestinatio) ??? ???????????? ?????????? (praescientia), ???????? ????? ?????????? ????????????? ?а???????????????.
????? ?????????? ???? ??????? ?а????? ????????????? ????, ????????? ??????
???? ?? ?????? ????????? ????????? л???????? ??????╗ (scientia media): ??? ??????? ?????, ??? ??????? ???????, ??? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ???????, ????????? ?а???????; ??а?? ?? ?????????? ??????, ?? ???????????? ?????? ????? ?? ?? ?? ????
??????????? ?????????, ?а ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ???? ????????. ????? ???????, л??????? ??????╗ ???????? ?????????????
????? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ?а????????????? ??????? ??????????.
????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ????? ??????? ????????? ??????
?????????? ? ?а????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????? ???????? ????????.
??????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?а ?????????????? ??????,
??а ? ?а ?????? ?????????????? ??????. ???????? ??????????, ??????????????
??????а ? ??? ??????, ??????? л??????? ?????????? ???? ??? ??????????? ????? ??? ??????а? ???? ??? ??????????? ??а??? ??? ????? ????????? ?а???????╗
[7, ?. 349]. ??????, ????? ??а ?????????????? ?????? ??????? ???????????, ?????
???? ????? ?? ?????????? ?а?????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????????, ??????????
??а????. ??????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ?ал??????╗, ??????? ??????????
?а????????? ?????. ?? ???????? ?а????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????? ????????
??????????? ????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ???????, ?????? ?????????? ?а????????? ????????? ????? ??????.
?????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?а?????????? ???? ?а????? ????? ??????? ?а???????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ????????????. ????????? ????????????
(?. ??????, ?. ???????-?-???????, ?. ?????????, ?. ????? ?а??.) ??????????? ????????, ??? ???? ?? ??????? ?а????? ????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ???? ?? ??????????? ?а???????????? ?????????, ?? ?? ????? ?? ??? ?? ????????? ???????
?????????. ?а ???????????? ????? ?? ????? ???? ?? ?а ????????? ?а ???????????? ????????, ?а???? ?а????? ??? ????? ???????????? ????????, ?. ?. ?а????????,
91
??????? ???? ??????????? ???????????? ?????, ???? ????????? ?? ?????-?????? ?????????. ???????? ?а?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ???? ?????
?а ???? ???????? ???? ??а ???? ??????, ???????? ?? ???? ??? ??????????????? ??
??????????? ????? ????????2.
????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????
???????? ??????, ?????? ??????? ???? ???? ?????????????? ??. ????????. ???????? ???? ????????, ???????? ???? ???????????? ????????? ????????, ??? ????????
?? ???? ?? ????? ?, ?????????????, ???????????? ????? ???????????? ????????????. ????????, ?а???? ???????, ?? ????? ???????????? ??? ??????, ?а???? ??????
?????? ??????а? ?? ????. ?? ??????????? ??? ?????? ????? ????????, ?а????????
???? ???? ????????? ?? ?????????????. ??????а ? ??????? ??????, ?а ?? ????????????? ????, ?а???? ?????? ???????? ???????, ?? ????? ?????? ????????? ??? ?????????????, ?????? ?? ????????? ?а????????. ?? ???????? ??????????? ????????????
???????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????????. ???????????? ?? ?????? XVI?
XVIIа??. ???????? ?????????? ????????? ?а??????????? ?а???? ????????а? ???????
III ?а??????? VI ?? ??????? ???? ??????????????? ??????? ?а???? ?????????.
???? ???????????? ???????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ?а???????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????? ???????????.
??????????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????? ????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ?а????????????. ??????????????? ???????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ??а???-????? (?. ????, ?. ??????, ?. ??????? ?а??.), ??????? ???????????????? ???????????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ???????????,
?????????? ?а ?????????????? ?????? ?? ???????????????? ???????? [9]. ?????
?????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а?? ????? ?а???????????? ???????????????. ???????? ?????????, ????????? ??? ???? ?а????? ?? ?????? ??????
?? ?а ??????? ??????? ????????, ? ?а ?????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ?????
?а?????? ?????. ??? ???? ?? ????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ??? ??????. ????
????? ???? л?? ??????????╗ ?? ?????? ???? ???? ?ал???????? ?а????????╗, ????,
?????? ??????????? ??????, ?????? ?? ?а????????? ?? ???? ????? ?а???? ????.
?? ?? ????????? ??а???-????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ????????????3. ?????? ??? ?????????????? ????, ??? ?а??????????? ????????
?????? ?????????? ??? ?а????? ??????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????.
?????????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ???? ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ?. ?. ?????????. ?ал????????╗ ??????? ????????????? ????????? ????
л???????? ??????╗ ?, ???????? ?? ?? ?? ????? ???????????????? ????? ???????????? ?????????, ?????????? ???? ????????? ????????????? ???? ??????? ?а???????, ?? ??????? ????? ?????????? ???? ?????? л????????????????? ????????╗
[10, ?. 154?157].
??? ?? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ????????, ?? ??? ?? ?????? ???? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ???????????, ??а?а?? ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ???????? ???????? ??а??? ??? ???? ????? ?
?а????? ?????? ??????? ?а?????????? ??????? ??????.
2
? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ??.: [8].
???? ???? ?а ????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????, ??? лTeologie morale des Jesuits╗
?алFactum pour les cures de Paris╗, ?а????? ?а?????????? л??????? ???????????╗ ?. ???????.
3
92
????? ???????, ?а????? XVIIа?. ??????, ??? ??? ???? ???????, ???????? ????
?? ?? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ??????????, ?а??, ??? ?а?????? ???????? ????????-???????? ????????????, ?а ???????????????? ???????????? ????? ?? ???
????, ??? ?????????? ???????????????. ?а ?????? ???????? ???????? XVI?XVIIа ??.
(M. Smiglecki, W. Sokolowski, T. Elzanowski, T. Mlodzianowski ?а??.) ?? ?????? ???? ???????? ????????????? ???? ???? (??. ?????????: [11]). ???????, ???????????? ???????, ?? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ???? ?а ??????, ????
???????????? ???????? ????????????. ?????? ??а???????????? ????????? ??????
?а ??????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ??????????, ????????? ??????????? ?а???? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????. ?? ?? ????? ??????
?? ????? ??????????????, ??? ??? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??????
?????????????? ???????? ?????? ?а ???? ?????????? ??? ?а л??????? ?????????╗
?а?????????? ????????. ???? ????????? ????????, ??? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????, ??? ???
?а????? ?????? ???????? ???? ?????????????. ?а???? ??? ??? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ???????????, ?? ?, ?а???? ????? ?? ??????????, ??????? ???? ?????????
?? л???????????? ??????╗ ?а????????, ??? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ????????
??????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?. ?. ?????? ?а????? ??????????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ?а?????? [12].
???????? ???????
?? ?????????? ??????????????? ?а???????? XVIа?. ???????-?????????? ??????????? ???? ?????????? ????????? ????? ???????? ????? ????????????? ???????????????. ??????? ????? ????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ????, ???????????????
??????????? ??????????? ????????? ?а ??????? ?????????? ?????????, ????????
?????????? ?а?????????? ??????????? ????, ??????? ????? ??????? ????????????
?а ???? ??????-???????????? ??????. ??? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????
???????? ???????????? ??????????. ????? ?????????????? ????????????????
?????????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ????? ?????? л?
???????? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????????╗ (1577). ??????????? ???? ?????
???????? ?а???, ??? ?????? ?а??? ??? ?????? ?? ??????? ?? ????????????? ?????????
????? ???????????? ?а?????????????, ??????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ????????
л??????????╗ ???? ????????????. ????? ??????????, ?? ?????? ??????, ????????
?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????. л?? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ??????. ?? ???? ????? ??? ?? ??????????, ?? ????????, ?? ?а ?? ????? ????.
?????? ??-?? ??????????? ????? ?а???????????? ??? ???? ????, ????? ?????????,
??? ???????? ???????. ?????? ????? ?????????? ?а???????????╗ (???. ??: [13, ?. 41]).
??? ???? ?????? ??????, ??? ????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ?а??????????
??? ?? ???????????? ?????, ?а ?? ?? ????????? ??? ??????, ???? ??????? ??????
?а?????????? ?а??? ????? ????????? ?? ????? ???????? ?????? ??? ????.
????? ??????????? ??????????? ?а???? ??????????, ?????????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????, ?????? ?????? ???????????????? ???-?? ????????????? ???????????. ?????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ????
???????? ?а??????? ?????? ?а????????? ????????? ??????????? ?а?????????? ?????????, ??? ????? ??? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ???????? ??а ??????, ????????????
93
?? ?????? ??????????????: ????? ?????? ????????, ???????? ???? ???????, ?????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ???????, ??? ?????? ???? ?а??. ??????????
???????????, ??? ????????? ????? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ???????? ?????????????
???????????. ???????????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ?а?????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ????, ?????????? ?а?????????
?а1580а?. ?????????? ???????? ?а???????????? ??????????????? ?а1631а?. ????????
???????? ????? ?а ?????????? ?????-??????????? ????????. ??? ????????, ?????????? ???? ???????? ???? ???????? ???????????? ????? ???? ???????????????? ????????? ?а?????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ???????? XVIIа? ?????? XVIIIа?.
??????????, ???????? ??? ??????? ???????????? ???? ???? ??????? ?????
????? ???? ???????????? ??????? ?????????, ??????? ??????????? ???????????
?а???? ??????? ?????????. ??????? ???????????, ??????? ????????? ?? ?????? XVI?
XVIIа??. ?а?????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ?а????????? ?? ?????????? ????
??????????, ????? ????????? ??????????????? ??????? ???????????, ????????
?а?????????? ??????. ?а?????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ?????
(???????? ?а??????? ???????????, ??????? ??????????, ??????? ??????????????????????????, ??????? ?а ????????? ????????, ?????????? ?????? ?а ??.) ?????
?????????? ????? ??? ????????????? ???? ???? ?????? ??????????, ??????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????а? ????? ????????????. ?????? ?? ??????? ????, ??????????, ????????? ??????????????? ?а????????? л????????? ???????╗, ?????? ?????
??????? ?а?????????а? ??? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????
?????????????? ???????? ?????? XVI?XVIIа??., ?а??????? ??????????? ??????????
?а?????????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????, ????????, ?? ??? ??????, ????????? ???????????? ?????? ??????????.
???????? ????? ???????????, ??? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????????
???????? ?????????? ?а ???? ????? ?а ???????????? ?а ?????????? ???????????????? ??????? ?, ????????, ??????? ???????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ??????
??????????? ???????????. ?а????? ?а???? ???????? ?? ?? ?????????? ???? ??????????? ???????. ??? ?а???????? ???????? ???? ??????? ????????? ?. ????????? ???????, ??? ??????? ??? ???????а? ??? ?? ?????? ????? ????????? ?а???? ?? ??????
???????????? ?????, ?а?????? ????? ??????????? ??????????? [14]. ? ?а???????????
?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?ал????????╗ ??????? ??????????? ???????????
????? ????? ???????????? (??., ????.: [15?17]). ?????????, ??? л????? ????????????
??????? ?а???????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?а??????, ???????????? ??????????? ?а?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ????? ???????????????
?????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????? ?а?V????V??Iа??.╗ [17, ?. 5].
?а ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????, ????????, ?????? ?а ?????????????, ?????????????, ???????????????, ?????????????
?а???? ??? ?а?????? ?а?. ?. ??? ?? ????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????
???????. ???????, ?? ??? ??????, ????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ????????,
??? ?а???? ????????????? ??????? л???????╗ ?? ????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????, ???????? ????????????????? ?а???????????????. ????? ???? ???? ?а???????????, ????????????? ????????????, ??????? л???????????????╗ ??? л?????? ??????????╗ ??????? ?????????? ?а?????? ???????? ???? ????. ???????, ???????????? ?????
????? ?????????? л?????? ??????????╗ ?а ?????????? ??????? ??????????, ??а ???
????? ????????? ?а???????????, ????????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ???????.
94
????????????? ??????
??? ????????, ?????????? ??????? ?????? ???????? XVIIа?., ????????? ?????? ?а?????????? ???????, ???????????? ???????????? ?а?????? ??а????? ??????
?????? ?? ????? ?а????????? ???????????. ?????? ?????? ????????????, ??? ?????
?????????? ?????? ???? ??? ??????? ????????. ?а60-? ????? ??? ??????????? ?? ???
?????????? л?????????????╗ ?ал?????????????╗. ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ?????, ?а??????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????????????? ?? ??????, ??????? ?????????????а? ????????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????, ??? ???????????? ?????? ?а???????? ?? ?????????. ??? ????? ???? ???????????? ?????-???????????
????????, ?а???????? ????? ???? ??????? ?. ???????? ???????? ???, ??? ????????
?????? ?а?????? ??? ????????? ????????, ???????????? ???????? ?????? ????????
????????????? ?????, ??? ??????????? ????????? ???? ?а????????? ??????????, ?????? ?? ?????? ?а???????? ???????, ????? ?????? ????????????, ?? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?а???????? ?????, ????? ?????? [1, ?. 37]. ????? ???????? ????????
?а ????????? ??????????? ?а ????????? ???? ?а ??????? ??????????????? ??????
?????, ??????? ????? ??? ????????? ?? ??????? л?????????????╗а? ???????????
?????????? ?а??????????? ????????????, ?а?? ??????? л?????????????╗а? ?????? ???????? ?а ???????? ???????? ?а ??????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????
????????? (1691а?.) ?а???????? ??????? ??а?????? (1694а?.).
? ??? ???????? ???? ?????? ? ???????????? ????????? ?????????, ??? ??????????? ????? ?а???? ?а????? ?а????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????????? ?а??????
???????????? ??????????? ???? ??????: л????????, ?????, ??? ???? ???? ????╗.
?а??????????? ?? ?? ????????????? ???? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???? ?а??????????? ??????? ????, ?а ?????????, ??? ??????????? ????? ?а ???? ??????????? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ???????. ????????, ??? ??? ????????????? ??????????? ???????
?а ???????? ????????????? ????????? ????? ???????????? ?а ?????????????а ?
?а???????? ?а???????????? ??????? ????. ??? ??????????? ????? ?а???? ?а?????
?а????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ????. ???????? ????????????
?????????, ?????? ??? ????????? ?? ?????? ?? ????, ??а?а?? ???? (filioque), ???????
??????????? ????? ?а???? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ????? ???? ?????? (verba
consecrationis); ???????? ???????????, ?????? ??? ????????? ?????? ?? ???? ?а???
??????????? ????? ?а???? ????????? ??? ?????? ????????? ?а??????? ????.
?????? ?а?????????????? ???????????? ?????? ?а????? XVIа?. ??????????? ?????? ?а???, ??? ??????????????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ?а?????? ???????????? ???? ??????, ?а??????????? ??????? ??????????????? ???? ??? ????????
?а?????? ?????????. ??? ?????? ???? ?????????? ?а????????? ??????, ????????
?а?????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? 1617а?., ?а?????-????????? ??????????? 1620а?а1629а??. ?????? ?? ?????? ?????????????? ?а?????????? л?????????????╗. ?? ?а ??????? ?а ???????????? ??????? ???? ?а ??????????????, ?а ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ?аfilioque ??
??????????. ??? ?? ?а????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????? ?а????????? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ?а????????? ?????? ??????????.
? ???????????? ?????? ?а??????? ??????????????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?? ????? ???????????? ??????, ???????????
95
?????? ??????????????? ?а?????? ??????????. ??? ??????????? ?????????? ?а?????? ????? ?а??????? ?? ???????????????? ?а???????????? ?????, ???????? ????????
?а????????????? ?а??????? ????. ?????????????? ?а?????????? ????? ????? ????
?????????? ?????? ????? ????????????, ?????????? ????????????. ????????????? ?а???????? ??? ????????, ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ??а?????
?????, ?????? ?????????. ?????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?????а? ?????
???????????а? ???????? ?а?????? ?????а? ????? ???????????а? ??????. ??? ?????????? ????? ????? ???????? ???????? ???? ?а????, ?а????? ??????а? ????? ??????.
?а?????????? ?????????? ???? ??????? ?а????? ????????? ????? ????????а? ?????
?а????? ????????. ?????-?? ?????????????? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ???????????. ?? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ????????? ??????? ????? ??? ???????????????? ????????? ??????????, ???, ??? ??????? ????????, ??? ???????????????
????????. ???? ?а?????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ??????????, ?? ?а??????????????? ?? ??????????. ?а???? ????? ??????, ??????????????? ??????? ?? ???? ??????????, ??????? ????? ?????? ??????????????? ?? ??, ????????? ???????? ??? ???.
??????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?а???? ?????????? ??? ?????????,
??? ?а??????????? ???????????. ?? ????? ??????????, ????????, ?а????? ???????
????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????????-????????????? л????????? ??????????╗ ??? ?а????? ??????? ?????-??????????? ???????? ??????????
?????? л??? ?а????? ????????╗. ?????? ?а??????????????? ?????? ????? ?? ?????
???????????? ???? ?????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????? ?? ??????-??????????????, ??а ?? ?? ????????????? ????????????. ????????? ?????? ??????????
???? ??????? л??????????????╗ ?????? ???????????????? ????????. ?а????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????????. ??? ?????????? ?а?? ??????????, ??????? ??????? ?а???? л?????????????╗ ?? ??????? ???????? ????????????, ???????
л????????? ????????? ??????????? ????????????╗.
?????? ?? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ?а ??????? ???????,
??? ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ???????????, ?а???????????? ????????. (?? ????????
?????????? ????????? ?а????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?? ??? ??????????? ?????????, ?а??
????????????? ????????? ?а????? ?а??????? ?????????? ?а???????? ?????? ????
????? ???????????.) ????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а????? ???????????? ?а???????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ????????????. ?? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ???? ?а????????? ?? ?????? ?а?????. ?а ?????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ???????????????
?????? ?????????????? ?????? ?а????????????? ????? ????????, ?а????????????????
???? ?а????????? ?а????????????? ?????? ??????. ??????? ?а??????, ??? ?а?? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ???????, ?а?????? XVIIIа?. ?????? ??????????, ???????, ??? ?
??????? ????????, ???????????? ????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ?а?????????, ??а??????????????? ???????, ???????????? ?????? ???????????, ????? ??????????????,
?????? ???????? ?а?. ?., ????????? ?а???? л??????????? ??????????╗.
?? ?а ????????? ???? ???? ???????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????,
???????????? ???????????? ?? ???? ???????????? ??????. ?а?????????? ??????? ?????????? XVIIIа?., ?а????? ?? ??? ?а??? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ?а??????? ??????????? ???????????????? ?? ????????????? ?а ???????????????? ???????????
??????????????? ?????.
96
????? ??????
? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ? ?а???? ???а? ????? ???????? ?а????? ????????? ????????? ????? ??????. ????? ???????? ???? ?????
????????? ??????, ???, ???????, ??? ????? ?а???? ??????-???????????? ??????? ??
?????????? ????? ??????????? ?а????????, ??? ?а??????. ????????? ?? ?????????
??? ???????? ?? ??, ??? ????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ?? ????????? ?????????
??? ????????? ????????? ??????? ??а?. ????? ????????? ??????????? ?а?????????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ?а?????? ?????? ??????? ?а????? ????? XVIа? ?????? XVIIа?.
????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ??а????? ????? ?????????. л? ????????? ?????? ???????,а? ??????? ?. ??????????,а? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ??? (??????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????
????????). ????? ????, ?????? ?а??????, ??????????? ?а?????????????? ???????,
?а??? ????? ????????? ????? ??????? ????????╗а[18, ?. 159]. ?????? ????????? ???
?а??????, ?? ?????? ???????????, ?? ?а????????? ??????? ?????????????? ??, ??? л?
??????? ?? ?????????????, ??????? ?????????? ???????????, ?а????? ????? ???????
??????????? ?????????????? ?а?????????????????? ?????╗а[18, ?. 161]. ?а???? ????? ?????? ???? ??????????, ?????????? ?а????? XVIIа?. ???? ?? ?? ????????????
?а?????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????, ?????? ?? ??????????? ?????????
?а?????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????????, ??????? ????????? ????? ???????????? ???? ?????????? XXа?.
??????? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ?а ?????????????? ????????????
??????. ??? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ???? ??????? ?????? ????????? л??????
?а??????╗, ?а??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ?ал??????????╗ ?????????, ?а???????? ??? ?????? ????????? ????????? ???????????????
????????? ?. ???????????? л? ??????????╗. ??? ?? ???????? ?????-???????????
????????, ??, ??? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?. ?. ???????, ????? ????
?????????? ????????? ???? ??????????? ????????????, ????????: л??????????,
??????? ????, ?????? ?????! ??????? ????????? ???????, ???????? ????????? ???????, ???? ???????? ???? ?а????? ????? ????????╗а[19, ?. 76]. ?? ??? ??????, ??
????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????, ??? ?????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ?а????????? ????? ?????????? ???????? (?. ?. ??????, ?. ?. ??????? ?а??.) ????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????
???????-??????????????? ???????????, ??????????? л?????????????? ???????╗4.
??? ????????? ??????, ??? ?????? ?а?????? ????? ?? ??????, ??????????? ?а????? XVа ?., ???? ???????? ???????? ?а ??????? ??????????? ???? ?а ????????? ???
?????????? л?????????????╗. ? ?аXIX?XXа??. ????????????? ????????? ?а?????????? ?????? ????? ???? ?? ?? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?????????.
?????? ???? ?? ?????? ?а ???, ??? ???????????? ?????? ??? ????????????
??????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????. ??????????
?????????????? ????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ?а ????????????? ?а XX ????????
?????????? ????????-?????????? ?????. ???????? ???????? ??? ????? ?? ???????
?????? ??а????? ????????????? ?????????? ???? ?????а? ???????????? ??????
??? ??????????.
4
? ?????????????? ?????? ??? ?????????????? ??????????? ??.: [20].
97
??? ??? ???? ???????, ??????? ??????? ?????????, ?????? ?а????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ????????, ?????? ?а ????? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ???????????
?а???????????? ??????????????, ?а?????????????? ???????? ???????????, ?????????????????, ???????????????? ?а???????. ????? ???????, ????????????? ????????? ????????? ??? ?а ??????? ????????????, ?а ?????? ??????????а ? ?а ??????? ??????????.
? 1918а ?. ?? ????????? ?????? ?а ??????? ??????????? ????????????, ??? ???
??????? ????????? ?а?????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????, ?а??????? ????????
????????????? ???????? ????? л???????╗ ?ал?????╗, ???????????????? ??? л????????╗. ??? ????? ???? ??? ????????? ???????? ???? ??????????? ?????? ?? ????
n-??????? ??????, ??? л0а???????????????? ??? ????, 1а? ??? ??????, ?а?????? ?????
?а????????? 0?1а? ??? ??????? ???????????, ??????????????? ????????? ????????????╗а[21, ?.а130]. ???? ???????????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ?а??????? ?????
??????? ???????? ??????. ??? ????????? ?????????, ??? ?????????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????????, ??????? ??? ?????????????
??????????? ?а ????????? ????????? ???????????? ?а ??????? ??? ???????? ???
??????, ?. ?. ???? ?а ?????????? ????????????? ??? ??? ???? ???????. л???? ???,
??? ?????????? ?а ?????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?????, ???????? ????????
??? ??????? ?а???? ??????? ???????, ????? ??????? ???????? ????? ?? ?????????????, ??? ?а???????, ?а?????????? ?? ???????? ?????? ???, ??? ??? ??? ?? ?????????╗а[22, ?.а113]. ????? ???????. ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ??
?????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ??????????: ??????, ????????????? ????? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ?а ????????????? ???????
??????????, ?? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ???????? ??? ??????а? ??? ?????? ??????????? ??? ????????? ?а????????? ?? 0а?? 1.
???? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ????????? ???????? ?????? ?а ???, ???
???????? ??????????? ?????? ?а ????????? ????? ????? ????????? л?????? ?? ???????????? ????????????? ????╗. ?????????????, ?а ????????? ??????, ????????,
???????????? ??????, ?????? ?а??????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????, ???????????? ?????????????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?ал?????????????? ???????╗,
????????? ??? ????????? ????? ?????????-?????????? ?????????? ??? ???????,
?????????? ?а ????????????, ?? ??????? л?????????????? ??????╗ ?????????????.
?а????? 1980-? ????? ???? ????????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ????? ????????? ?????? ?а?????????????? [23]. ????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????, ??? ???????????? ?а???????
??? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????. ?? ???? ???????? ???? ?а???????????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????????????? ???????, ?а??? ?????????а? ???? ?а????????????? ?а?????????????? ????????????? ????????? ?а????. ???????????? ??????,
????????, ??????????? ?????????????? ???????????????? ???????? ? ?а???? ?????
?????? ?????????????? ????? ???????????? ?????????. ????? ???????, ???????
???? ??? ?аXVIIа?. ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????????? ???????????, ?аXXа?. ???????????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????????
???????????.
???????, ?????? ?????? ??????????? ?? ??????????????, ?а ???????????????
???????? ?????? ??????????. ??????????????, ??? ???? ?а???????? ????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????, ????98
???, ???????? ??????????? ??????, ???????????? ?а????????, ??? ?????? ????????? ??? ???? ??????????? ??????????5.
??????????
1.а???????? ?. ?а??????? ???????????????? ?????? ?????. ????, ?????? ?а?????? ?? ??????
???????? XVIIа?. ??????: [?. ?.], 1886. 254а?.
2. Troitskiyа S., Begun B., Voloshuk E., Chertenko A. Strategies of studying zones of cultural exclusionа//аModern Studies of Russian Society: A collective monograph. Helsinki: Unigrafia, 2014. P. 79?94.
3.а Verbum. ?????? 1. ????????? ?????? ?а ??????????? ???????? XVI?XVII ?????. ???.: ?????????????????? ??????????? ????????, 1999. 212а?.
4.а?????? ?. ?. ?а???? ??????????: ?????? ?????????? ?а???????. ???.: ???-?? ?.-??????. ??-??,
2006. 277а?.
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????????. ???. 25. ??????? ????????? ??? ?????????. ????????? ???????????. ????? 2. ???.:
?????-????????????? ????? ??????? ????, 2003. ?. 38?47.
6.а?????? ?. ?????????????? ???????????. ??????????? I?V. ?.: ???????? ?????????, ????????,
?а??????? ??. ????, 2007. 776а?.
7.а??????????. ??????а//а???.: ?а4а?. ?. 2. ?.: ?????, 1978. ?. 347?532.
8.а???????? ?. ?. Casus conscientiae. ?????????? ?а??????????? ?а????? ?????? ??????????? ???????а//аHomo philosophans. ?а60-????? ????. ?. ?. ????????. ???.: ?????-????????????? ??????????? ????????, 2002. ?. 279?294.
9. ???? ?., ?????? ?. ??????, ??? ????????? ???????. ?.: ?????, 1991. 412а?.
10. ??????? ?. ?. ????????а//а???.: ?а4а?. ?. 4. ?.: ?????, 1989. ?. 49?467.
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WAM, 1999. 302а?.
12.а?????? ?. ?. ????? ??????? ??????????????? ???????? ?а???????????? ??????? ?а??????.
??????: [?. ?.], 1886. 192а?.
13.а?????????? ?. ???? ???????? ??????????. Paris: YMCA-PRESS,а1988. 600а?.
14.а?????????? ?. ?????????? ??????????? ??????: ??????? ????? ? ??????? ??????????.а????: ???????, 2003. 466а?.
15. ????? ?. ?? ??????? ??? ???????? ???????????? ?????????а//аMediaevalia Ucrainica. ?. 1. ????:
?? ???????, 1992. ?. 104?116.
16.а???????????? ?. ???????: ??????? ?а?????????а//а??????????? ? ???????????? ?????. 1993. ?а6.
?. 99?114.
17.а ????????? ?. ?. ????????? ????????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ?а ????????? ??????????? ???????а//а??????? ?а?????????? ?а??????? ??????? ????????: ????????? ????????. ????.
????. ???.: ?????-????????????? ??????????? ????????, 2001. ?. 5?8. (????? лSymposium╗. ???. 17).
18.а ?????????? ?. ??? ????????. ??????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????????. ?.: ????????,
1993. 187а?.
19.а???????? ?. ?. ??????? ??????????? ?????????. ????: ??????? ?????,1997. 239а?.
20.а ???????? ?. ?. ????? ?????????????? ??????. ??????????? ?????????? ?а ????????? ??????а//а??????? ?а??????????? ?????????: ???? ?????????: ??. ?????????? ???????????. ???.: ?????????????????? ??????????? ????????, 1999. ?. 172?181.
21.а Lukasiewicz J. A numerical interpretation of theory of propositionа //а Selected works. Amsterdam;
Warszawa: North-Holland Publishing Companyа? Polish Scientific Publishers, 1970. P. 129?130.
22.аLukasiewicz J. On determinismа//аSelected works. Amsterdamа? Warszawa: North-Holland Publishing Companyа? Polish Scientific Publishers, 1970. P. 110?128.
23.а???????? ?. ?. ???????? ?а??????????? ????????: ?????????? ??????. ?.: ?????, 1990.а214а?.
24.а??????? ?. ?. ????????? ??????????. ???.: ??????, 2001. 334а?.
?????? ????????? ? ???????? 15 ???????? 2014 ?.
5
?? ???? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ??., ????.: [24].
99
Iа? ?????? XVIIа?., ?а????? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????? л?????????????╗ ?а??????, ????? ???? ???????? ?а??? ?????????? ?????? ??????????.
??????????? ?????? ??????????а? ??? ????????? ??????????????? ?а??????????, ????????????? ????????????? ???????? ?а?????? ?а?????, ????????? ??????????? ?а????????. ??? ?????
??????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ?а?????? ??????????? ?а?????? ?????????? ????????, ??????? ????????????? ????????? ?? ????????????? ???????????
??????? ???????????. ? ?а???????? ??????, ? ?а?????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ?ал????
??????????? ??????????╗. ?а?? ?? ????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ?а???????????? ??????
???? ?????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ?а??
?????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ???????????.
???????? ?????: ??????, ???????, ???????????, ?????? ??????????, ???????????, ?????????? ??????????.
A. I. Brodsky
THE TIME OF TRANSUBSTANTIATION OF THE HOLY SACRAMENT
Kiev?s theology and Russian Enlightenment
This article argues that the philosophy that was taught in Orthodox schools in Rzeczpospolita in the
late XVIа? early XVII century, and then became the ideological basis of the movement ?Latinism? in
Moscow, can be attributed to the so-called second scholasticism. Features of the second scholasticism
are the denial of predestination in theology, the use of probabilistic approaches in logic and ethics, the
opposition to absolutism in politics. These features make the second scholasticism unacceptable for
arising in Europe of that time of absolute monarchies, including the Russian empire, which was ideologically based on universal rationalism of early Enlightenment. In Western Europe and in Russia the
second scholasticism has become ?a cultural exclusion zone?. However, the dominance of the second
scholasticism in Orthodox schools of Rzeczpospolita coincided with the formation of cultural identity
in Ukraine and in many ways defined the characteristics of the Ukrainian mentality.
Keywords: Russia, Ukraine, Orthodox Church, second scholasticism, Enlightenment, cultural
exclusion.
? ???????????? ????? ????????? ??????????????, ??? ??????? ???????? XVIIа?.
????????????? ??? ??????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ????????-????????? ???????????, ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?а???????? ??????? ??а????????, ????????? ???? ?а?????????? ??????? ?а??????????. ??????????????? ???????? ?а??????
????? ???? ?????? ?а????? XVIа?. ?? ?????????????? ??????, ????????? ????? ?а?????? ???? ??????????, ?а?? ?????? ???????? XVIIа?. ?????????????? ?? ??????????
???????? ????????? ????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ????, ?????????, ?????-?????????????
??????????????? ???????????, ?????????? ?????????, 199034, ?????-?????????, ???????????????
???., 7?9.
Brodsky Alexander I. ? Doctor of Philosophy, Professor, Saint Petersburg State University, 7?9,
Universitetskaya nab., St. Petersburg, 199034, Russian Federation; abrodsky59@mail.ru
* ???????????? ????????? ??? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ????? (?????? ?а1418-00192), ?????.
89
??????????? ?????????. ????? XVII ???????? ?а ?????? ????????????? ????????
??????? ????? ???????? л?????????????╗ ?а л?????????????╗, ??????? ???????
??????? ???? ????????????? ?????? ?а??????? ??????????????? ?????? ?????. л?????? ?а??????????????? ?????? ?????,а? ????? ?а????? XIXа?. ??????? ?. ????????,а? ??? ?????????? ???????, ????????? ??? ?????? ???? ??????????????? ?????, ???? ?????????, ???? ???????????. <?> ?????? ??? ????????? ????? ???????
??????? ????????????? ???????????, ?????????? ????? ?а?????? ?????????? ???????????, ?а??????????????, ?????????? ????? ?а?????? ??????-????????? ???????????╗а[1, ?. 10]. ?????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ?а???????????????
??????? ???????? ????? ????? I ??????? ?? ??????????????, ?а????? ?? ???????????????? ???????. ?а???? ?????????, ???????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?а?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????????, ?? ????????-????????
???????, ??????, ???????? ????????? ?а???? л??????????? ??????????╗1.
?? ???? ???? ??????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????.
??-??????, ?? ?????? ????, ??? ???????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ?а ??? ????????-???????? ??????????? ??????????, ????????, ?? ????????-???????????? ???
????????-????????????. ??-??????, ?? ?????? ???????, ?????? ?????? ?????? ?а??????? ??????????????? ?????? ????? ???? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ????? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ???????????. ?-???????, ?????????? ???-?? ?????????,
?????? ????????-???????? ??????????? ??? ?а ?? ????????? ?а ??????, ??????? ????? ???????-??????????????. ???????, ?-?????????, ????? ????????, ???????? ??
???-?????? ??? ?????????? ????????-???????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ????????
??????? ???????? ? ?а????? ???? ??? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ?а???????. ????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ??? ???????, ??а????? ?????
?????????? ???????????? ?????? ?а???????????? ????????????? ????? ???????.
?????? ??????????
?????????? ?а ??????????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ????? XVIа ?
?????? XVIIа?., ?. ?. ?? ????? ??????????????? ?а??? ?????????? ?????? ??????????. ??????????? ????? ???????????? ?????? ?а?????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ???? ??? ?????????????? ????????, ??а?а??????? ?????? ?????
?? ??????? ????? ????????? ?а???????? ?? ??????-??????? ??????, ????? ?? ????????? ???? ???????. ?? ????? ?????????????? ???????, ??? ?????????? ??????????????? ???? ???????????? ?????????? ???? ??????????. ????? ???????, ?а?????
XVIIа ?. ?????? ??????????, ??????????? ?? ????????? ???????? ??????????????
?а????????????, ????????? ???? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ????????? ???????? ??????а? ?а??????? ? ?а??????.
? ????????????? ????????-??????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????
????? ??????????????? ??? ??????? ????????????? ??????????????, ??????????
????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ??????. ?????? ?а????????? ???????????
?????? ????? ???????? [3; 4]. ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ?а????? ??? ?????? ??????? ????. ?????? ????????????
???????, ??? ?????????? ????? XVIа? ?????? XVIIа?. ????????? ????? ?? ?????????
1
90
? ????? ??????????, ?????????????? ?а?????????????? ?а???????? ??.:а[2].
?? ?????????????? ???? ?а???????. ?? ??? ??????, ???? ????? ???? ?а?????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ????????, ??????? ?? ?????
????????????? ?????????? ?????? ???? ?????????-???????????? ?????????????,
??а????????? ??????? ??? ????? ???? ??????????? ?а??????? [5].
?? ????? ???? ???? ???????????? ?а??????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????
????????? ???? ??????? ????????, ??????? ??????????????????? ??????????????
????????? ???????????????. ???????? ????????????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????, ????????????? ?????????? ???? ?????????????? ?а?????????? ?????,
?а?? ???????????; ???????? ????? ????????? ?а?????????????? ????? ????????
?????? ????????, ????????? (distinctio rationis)а? ?а???????? ????? ????? ????????
???. ??? ?????????????? ?а?????????? ????? ?????????? ???? ??????????????, ??
????? ?????????? ??????? [6]. ??????? ??? ???????????? ????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ???????, ?????????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????, ?а??????? ??????????, ?а????????? ????????????????, ?а??????? ???? ????? ??? ?????????? ?а????????????????. ????????? ?а??????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????????
??????, ??????? ?????????? ?????? ?а????????? ??????? ????????????. ?а???????? ??? ??????????????????? ??????????????? ????? ?????????????? ??? ???????
????. ??????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????????? ???????????????
(praedestinatio) ??? ???????????? ?????????? (praescientia), ???????? ????? ?????????? ????????????? ?а???????????????.
????? ?????????? ???? ??????? ?а????? ????????????? ????, ????????? ??????
???? ?? ?????? ????????? ????????? л???????? ??????╗ (scientia media): ??? ??????? ?????, ??? ??????? ???????, ??? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ???????, ????????? ?а???????; ??а?? ?? ?????????? ??????, ?? ???????????? ?????? ????? ?? ?? ?? ????
??????????? ?????????, ?а ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ???? ????????. ????? ???????, л??????? ??????╗ ???????? ?????????????
????? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ?а????????????? ??????? ??????????.
????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ????? ??????? ????????? ??????
?????????? ? ?а????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????? ???????? ????????.
??????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?а ?????????????? ??????,
??а ? ?а ?????? ?????????????? ??????. ???????? ??????????, ??????????????
??????а ? ??? ??????, ??????? л??????? ?????????? ???? ??? ??????????? ????? ??? ??????а? ???? ??? ??????????? ??а??? ??? ????? ????????? ?а???????╗
[7, ?. 349]. ??????, ????? ??а ?????????????? ?????? ??????? ???????????, ?????
???? ????? ?? ?????????? ?а?????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????????, ??????????
??а????. ??????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ?ал??????╗, ??????? ??????????
?а????????? ?????. ?? ???????? ?а????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????? ????????
??????????? ????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ???????, ?????? ?????????? ?а????????? ????????? ????? ??????.
?????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?а?????????? ???? ?а????? ????? ??????? ?а???????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ????????????. ????????? ????????????
(?. ??????, ?. ???????-?-???????, ?. ?????????, ?. ????? ?а??.) ??????????? ????????, ??? ???? ?? ??????? ?а????? ????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ???? ?? ??????????? ?а???????????? ?????????, ?? ?? ????? ?? ??? ?? ????????? ???????
?????????. ?а ???????????? ????? ?? ????? ???? ?? ?а ????????? ?а ???????????? ????????, ?а???? ?а????? ??? ????? ???????????? ????????, ?. ?. ?а????????,
91
??????? ???? ??????????? ???????????? ?????, ???? ????????? ?? ?????-?????? ?????????. ???????? ?а?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ???? ?????
?а ???? ???????? ???? ??а ???? ??????, ???????? ?? ???? ??? ??????????????? ??
??????????? ????? ????????2.
????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????
???????? ??????, ?????? ??????? ???? ???? ?????????????? ??. ????????. ???????? ???? ????????, ???????? ???? ???????????? ????????? ????????, ??? ????????
?? ???? ?? ????? ?, ?????????????, ???????????? ????? ???????????? ????????????. ????????, ?а???? ???????, ?? ????? ???????????? ??? ??????, ?а???? ??????
?????? ??????а? ?? ????. ?? ??????????? ??? ?????? ????? ????????, ?а????????
???? ???? ????????? ?? ?????????????. ??????а ? ??????? ??????, ?а ?? ????????????? ????, ?а???? ?????? ???????? ???????, ?? ????? ?????? ????????? ??? ?????????????, ?????? ?? ????????? ?а????????. ?? ???????? ??????????? ????????????
???????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????????. ???????????? ?? ?????? XVI?
XVIIа??. ???????? ?????????? ????????? ?а??????????? ?а???? ????????а? ???????
III ?а??????? VI ?? ??????? ???? ??????????????? ??????? ?а???? ?????????.
???? ???????????? ???????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ?а???????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????? ???????????.
??????????????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????? ????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ?а????????????. ??????????????? ???????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ??а???-????? (?. ????, ?. ??????, ?. ??????? ?а??.), ??????? ???????????????? ???????????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ???????????,
?????????? ?а ?????????????? ?????? ?? ???????????????? ???????? [9]. ?????
?????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????? ?а?? ????? ?а???????????? ???????????????. ???????? ?????????, ????????? ??? ???? ?а????? ?? ?????? ??????
?? ?а ??????? ??????? ????????, ? ?а ?????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ?????
?а?????? ?????. ??? ???? ?? ????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ??? ??????. ????
????? ???? л?? ??????????╗ ?? ?????? ???? ???? ?ал???????? ?а????????╗, ????,
?????? ??????????? ??????, ?????? ?? ?а????????? ?? ???? ????? ?а???? ????.
?? ?? ????????? ??а???-????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ????????????3. ?????? ??? ?????????????? ????, ??? ?а??????????? ????????
?????? ?????????? ??? ?а????? ??????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????.
?????????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ???? ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ?. ?. ?????????. ?ал????????╗ ??????? ????????????? ????????? ????
л???????? ??????╗ ?, ???????? ?? ?? ?? ????? ???????????????? ????? ???????????? ?????????, ?????????? ???? ????????? ????????????? ???? ??????? ?а???????, ?? ??????? ????? ?????????? ???? ?????? л????????????????? ????????╗
[10, ?. 154?157].
??? ?? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ????????, ?? ??? ?? ?????? ???? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ???????????, ??а?а?? ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ???????? ???????? ??а??? ??? ???? ????? ?
?а????? ?????? ??????? ?а?????????? ??????? ??????.
2
? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ??.: [8].
???? ???? ?а ????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????, ??? лTeologie morale des Jesuits╗
?алFactum pour les cures de Paris╗, ?а????? ?а?????????? л??????? ???????????╗ ?. ???????.
3
92
????? ???????, ?а????? XVIIа?. ??????, ??? ??? ???? ???????, ???????? ????
?? ?? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ??????????, ?а??, ??? ?а?????? ???????? ????????-???????? ????????????, ?а ???????????????? ???????????? ????? ?? ???
????, ??? ?????????? ???????????????. ?а ?????? ???????? ???????? XVI?XVIIа ??.
(M. Smiglecki, W. Sokolowski, T. Elzanowski, T. Mlodzianowski ?а??.) ?? ?????? ???? ???????? ????????????? ???? ???? (??. ?????????: [11]). ???????, ???????????? ???????, ?? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ???? ?а ??????, ????
???????????? ???????? ????????????. ?????? ??а???????????? ????????? ??????
?а ??????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ??????????, ????????? ??????????? ?а???? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????. ?? ?? ????? ??????
?? ????? ??????????????, ??? ??? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??????
?????????????? ???????? ?????? ?а ???? ?????????? ??? ?а л??????? ?????????╗
?а?????????? ????????. ???? ????????? ????????, ??? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????, ??? ???
?а????? ?????? ???????? ???? ?????????????. ?а???? ??? ??? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ???????????, ?? ?, ?а???? ????? ?? ??????????, ??????? ???? ?????????
?? л???????????? ??????╗ ?а????????, ??? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ????????
??????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?. ?. ?????? ?а????? ??????????????? ???????????? ??????????????? ?а?????? [12].
???????? ???????
?? ?????????? ??????????????? ?а???????? XVIа?. ???????-?????????? ??????????? ???? ?????????? ????????? ????? ???????? ????? ????????????? ???????????????. ??????? ????? ????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ????, ???????????????
??????????? ??????????? ????????? ?а ??????? ?????????? ?????????, ????????
?????????? ?а?????????? ??????????? ????, ??????? ????? ??????? ????????????
?а ???? ??????-???????????? ??????. ??? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????
???????? ???????????? ??????????. ????? ?????????????? ????????????????
?????????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ????? ?????? л?
???????? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????????╗ (1577). ??????????? ???? ?????
???????? ?а???, ??? ?????? ?а??? ??? ?????? ?? ??????? ?? ????????????? ?????????
????? ???????????? ?а?????????????, ??????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ????????
л??????????╗ ???? ????????????. ????? ??????????, ?? ?????? ??????, ????????
?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????. л?? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ??????. ?? ???? ????? ??? ?? ??????????, ?? ????????, ?? ?а ?? ????? ????.
?????? ??-?? ??????????? ????? ?а???????????? ??? ???? ????, ????? ?????????,
??? ???????? ???????. ?????? ????? ?????????? ?а???????????╗ (???. ??: [13, ?. 41]).
??? ???? ?????? ??????, ??? ????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ?а??????????
??? ?? ???????????? ?????, ?а ?? ?? ????????? ??? ??????, ???? ??????? ??????
?а?????????? ?а??? ????? ????????? ?? ????? ???????? ?????? ??? ????.
????? ??????????? ??????????? ?а???? ??????????, ?????????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????, ?????? ?????? ???????????????? ???-?? ????????????? ???????????. ?????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ????
???????? ?а??????? ?????? ?а????????? ????????? ??????????? ?а?????????? ?????????, ??? ????? ??? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ???????? ??а ??????, ????????????
93
?? ?????? ??????????????: ????? ?????? ????????, ???????? ???? ???????, ?????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ???????, ??? ?????? ???? ?а??. ??????????
???????????, ??? ????????? ????? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ???????? ?????????????
???????????. ???????????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ?а?????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ????, ?????????? ?а?????????
?а1580а?. ?????????? ???????? ?а???????????? ??????????????? ?а1631а?. ????????
???????? ????? ?а ?????????? ?????-??????????? ????????. ??? ????????, ?????????? ???? ???????? ???? ???????? ???????????? ????? ???? ???????????????? ????????? ?а?????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ???????? XVIIа? ?????? XVIIIа?.
??????????, ???????? ??? ??????? ???????????? ???? ???? ??????? ?????
????? ???? ???????????? ??????? ?????????, ??????? ??????????? ???????????
?а???? ??????? ?????????. ??????? ???????????, ??????? ????????? ?? ?????? XVI?
XVIIа??. ?а?????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ?а????????? ?? ?????????? ????
??????????, ????? ????????? ??????????????? ??????? ???????????, ????????
?а?????????? ??????. ?а?????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ?????
(???????? ?а??????? ???????????, ??????? ??????????, ??????? ??????????????????????????, ??????? ?а ????????? ????????, ?????????? ?????? ?а ??.) ?????
?????????? ????? ??? ????????????? ???? ???? ?????? ??????????, ??????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????а? ????? ????????????. ?????? ?? ??????? ????, ??????????, ????????? ??????????????? ?а????????? л????????? ???????╗, ?????? ?????
??????? ?а?????????а? ??? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????
?????????????? ???????? ?????? XVI?XVIIа??., ?а??????? ??????????? ??????????
?а?????????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????, ????????, ?? ??? ??????, ????????? ???????????? ?????? ??????????.
???????? ????? ???????????, ??? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????????
???????? ?????????? ?а ???? ????? ?а ???????????? ?а ?????????? ???????????????? ??????? ?, ????????, ??????? ???????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ??????
??????????? ???????????. ?а????? ?а???? ???????? ?? ?? ?????????? ???? ??????????? ???????. ??? ?а???????? ???????? ???? ??????? ????????? ?. ????????? ???????, ??? ??????? ??? ???????а? ??? ?? ?????? ????? ????????? ?а???? ?? ??????
???????????? ?????, ?а?????? ????? ??????????? ??????????? [14]. ? ?а???????????
?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?ал????????╗ ??????? ??????????? ???????????
????? ????? ???????????? (??., ????.: [15?17]). ?????????, ??? л????? ????????????
??????? ?а???????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?а??????, ???????????? ??????????? ?а?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ????? ???????????????
?????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????? ?а?V????V??Iа??.╗ [17, ?. 5].
?а ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????, ????????, ?????? ?а ?????????????, ?????????????, ???????????????, ?????????????
?а???? ??? ?а?????? ?а?. ?. ??? ?? ????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????
???????. ???????, ?? ??? ??????, ????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ????????,
??? ?а???? ????????????? ??????? л???????╗ ?? ????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????, ???????? ????????????????? ?а???????????????. ????? ???? ???? ?а???????????, ????????????? ????????????, ??????? л???????????????╗ ??? л?????? ??????????╗ ??????? ?????????? ?а?????? ???????? ???? ????. ???????, ???????????? ?????
????? ?????????? л?????? ??????????╗ ?а ?????????? ??????? ??????????, ??а ???
????? ????????? ?а???????????, ????????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ???????.
94
????????????? ??????
??? ????????, ?????????? ??????? ?????? ???????? XVIIа?., ????????? ?????? ?а?????????? ???????, ???????????? ???????????? ?а?????? ??а????? ??????
?????? ?? ????? ?а????????? ???????????. ?????? ?????? ????????????, ??? ?????
?????????? ?????? ???? ??? ??????? ????????. ?а60-? ????? ??? ??????????? ?? ???
?????????? л?????????????╗ ?ал?????????????╗. ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ?????, ?а??????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????????????? ?? ??????, ??????? ?????????????а? ????????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????, ??? ???????????? ?????? ?а???????? ?? ?????????. ??? ????? ???? ???????????? ?????-???????????
????????, ?а???????? ????? ???? ??????? ?. ???????? ???????? ???, ??? ????????
?????? ?а?????? ??? ????????? ????????, ???????????? ???????? ?????? ????????
????????????? ?????, ??? ??????????? ????????? ???? ?а????????? ??????????, ?????? ?? ?????? ?а???????? ???????, ????? ?????? ????????????, ?? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?а???????? ?????, ????? ?????? [1, ?. 37]. ????? ???????? ????????
?а ????????? ??????????? ?а ????????? ???? ?а ??????? ??????????????? ??????
?????, ??????? ????? ??? ????????? ?? ??????? л?????????????╗а? ???????????
?????????? ?а??????????? ????????????, ?а?? ??????? л?????????????╗а? ?????? ???????? ?а ???????? ???????? ?а ??????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????
????????? (1691а?.) ?а???????? ??????? ??а?????? (1694а?.).
? ??? ???????? ???? ?????? ? ???????????? ????????? ?????????, ??? ??????????? ????? ?а???? ?а????? ?а????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????????? ?а??????
???????????? ??????????? ???? ??????: л????????, ?????, ??? ???? ???? ????╗.
?а??????????? ?? ?? ????????????? ???? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???? ?а??????????? ??????? ????, ?а ?????????, ??? ??????????? ????? ?а ???? ??????????? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ???????. ????????, ??? ??? ????????????? ??????????? ???????
?а ???????? ????????????? ????????? ????? ???????????? ?а ?????????????а ?
?а???????? ?а???????????? ??????? ????. ??? ??????????? ????? ?а???? ?а?????
?а????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ????. ???????? ????????????
?????????, ?????? ??? ????????? ?? ?????? ?? ????, ??а?а?? ???? (filioque), ???????
??????????? ????? ?а???? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ????? ???? ?????? (verba
consecrationis); ???????? ???????????, ?????? ??? ????????? ?????? ?? ???? ?а???
??????????? ????? ?а???? ????????? ??? ?????? ????????? ?а??????? ????.
?????? ?а?????????????? ???????????? ?????? ?а????? XVIа?. ??????????? ?????? ?а???, ??? ??????????????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ?а?????? ???????????? ???? ??????, ?а??????????? ??????? ??????????????? ???? ??? ????????
?а?????? ?????????. ??? ?????? ???? ?????????? ?а????????? ??????, ????????
?а?????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? 1617а?., ?а?????-????????? ??????????? 1620а?а1629а??. ?????? ?? ?????? ?????????????? ?а?????????? л?????????????╗. ?? ?а ??????? ?а ???????????? ??????? ???? ?а ??????????????, ?а ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ?аfilioque ??
??????????. ??? ?? ?а????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????? ?а????????? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ?а????????? ?????? ??????????.
? ???????????? ?????? ?а??????? ??????????????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?? ????? ???????????? ??????, ???????????
95
?????? ??????????????? ?а?????? ??????????. ??? ??????????? ?????????? ?а?????? ????? ?а??????? ?? ???????????????? ?а???????????? ?????, ???????? ????????
?а????????????? ?а??????? ????. ?????????????? ?а?????????? ????? ????? ????
?????????? ?????? ????? ????????????, ?????????? ????????????. ????????????? ?а???????? ??? ????????, ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ??а?????
?????, ?????? ?????????. ?????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?????а? ?????
???????????а? ???????? ?а?????? ?????а? ????? ???????????а? ??????. ??? ?????????? ????? ????? ???????? ???????? ???? ?а????, ?а????? ??????а? ????? ??????.
?а?????????? ?????????? ???? ??????? ?а????? ????????? ????? ????????а? ?????
?а????? ????????. ?????-?? ?????????????? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ???????????. ?? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ????????? ??????? ????? ??? ???????????????? ????????? ??????????, ???, ??? ??????? ????????, ??? ???????????????
????????. ???? ?а?????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ??????????, ?? ?а??????????????? ?? ??????????. ?а???? ????? ??????, ??????????????? ??????? ?? ???? ??????????, ??????? ????? ?????? ??????????????? ?? ??, ????????? ???????? ??? ???.
??????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?а???? ?????????? ??? ?????????,
??? ?а??????????? ???????????. ?? ????? ??????????, ????????, ?а????? ???????
????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????????-????????????? л????????? ??????????╗ ??? ?а????? ??????? ?????-??????????? ???????? ??????????
?????? л??? ?а????? ????????╗. ?????? ?а??????????????? ?????? ????? ?? ?????
???????????? ???? ?????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????? ?? ??????-??????????????, ??а ?? ?? ????????????? ????????????. ????????? ?????? ??????????
???? ??????? л??????????????╗ ?????? ???????????????? ????????. ?а????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????????. ??? ?????????? ?а?? ??????????, ??????? ??????? ?а???? л?????????????╗ ?? ??????? ???????? ????????????, ???????
л????????? ????????? ??????????? ????????????╗.
?????? ?? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ?а ??????? ???????,
??? ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ???????????, ?а???????????? ????????. (?? ????????
?????????? ????????? ?а????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?? ??? ??????????? ?????????, ?а??
????????????? ????????? ?а????? ?а??????? ?????????? ?а???????? ?????? ????
????? ???????????.) ????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а????? ???????????? ?а???????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ????????????. ?? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ???? ?а????????? ?? ?????? ?а?????. ?а ?????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ???????????????
?????? ?????????????? ?????? ?а????????????? ????? ????????, ?а????????????????
???? ?а????????? ?а????????????? ?????? ??????. ??????? ?а??????, ??? ?а?? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ???????, ?а?????? XVIIIа?. ?????? ??????????, ???????, ??? ?
??????? ????????, ???????????? ????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ?а?????????, ??а??????????????? ???????, ???????????? ?????? ???????????, ????? ??????????????,
?????? ???????? ?а?. ?., ????????? ?а???? л??????????? ??????????╗.
?? ?а ????????? ???? ???? ???????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????,
???????????? ???????????? ?? ???? ???????????? ??????. ?а?????????? ??????? ?????????? XVIIIа?., ?а????? ?? ??? ?а??? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ?а??????? ??????????? ???????????????? ?? ????????????? ?а ???????????????? ???????????
??????????????? ?????.
96
????? ??????
? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ? ?а???? ???а? ????? ???????? ?а????? ????????? ????????? ????? ??????. ????? ???????? ???? ?????
????????? ??????, ???, ???????, ??? ????? ?а???? ??????-???????????? ??????? ??
?????????? ????? ??????????? ?а????????, ??? ?а??????. ????????? ?? ?????????
??? ???????? ?? ??, ??? ????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ?? ????????? ?????????
??? ????????? ????????? ??????? ??а?. ????? ????????? ??????????? ?а?????????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ?а?????? ?????? ??????? ?а????? ????? XVIа? ?????? XVIIа?.
????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ??а????? ????? ?????????. л? ????????? ?????? ???????,а? ??????? ?. ??????????,а? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ??? (??????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????
????????). ????? ????, ?????? ?а??????, ??????????? ?а?????????????? ???????,
?а??? ????? ????????? ????? ??????? ????????╗а[18, ?. 159]. ?????? ????????? ???
?а??????, ?? ?????? ???????????, ?? ?а????????? ??????? ?????????????? ??, ??? л?
??????? ?? ?????????????, ??????? ?????????? ???????????, ?а????? ????? ???????
??????????? ?????????????? ?а?????????????????? ?????╗а[18, ?. 161]. ?а???? ????? ?????? ???? ??????????, ?????????? ?а????? XVIIа?. ???? ?? ?? ????????????
?а?????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????, ?????? ?? ??????????? ?????????
?а?????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????????, ??????? ????????? ????? ???????????? ???? ?????????? XXа?.
??????? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ?а ?????????????? ????????????
??????. ??? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ???? ??????? ?????? ????????? л??????
?а??????╗, ?а??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ?ал??????????╗ ?????????, ?а???????? ??? ?????? ????????? ????????? ???????????????
????????? ?. ???????????? л? ??????????╗. ??? ?? ???????? ?????-???????????
????????, ??, ??? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?. ?. ???????, ????? ????
?????????? ????????? ???? ??????????? ????????????, ????????: л??????????,
??????? ????, ?????? ?????! ??????? ????????? ???????, ???????? ????????? ???????, ???? ???????? ???? ?а????? ????? ????????╗а[19, ?. 76]. ?? ??? ??????, ??
????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????, ??? ?????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ?а????????? ????? ?????????? ???????? (?. ?. ??????, ?. ?. ??????? ?а??.) ????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????
???????-??????????????? ???????????, ??????????? л?????????????? ???????╗4.
??? ????????? ??????, ??? ?????? ?а?????? ????? ?? ??????, ??????????? ?а????? XVа ?., ???? ???????? ???????? ?а ??????? ??????????? ???? ?а ????????? ???
?????????? л?????????????╗. ? ?аXIX?XXа??. ????????????? ????????? ?а?????????? ?????? ????? ???? ?? ?? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?????????.
?????? ???? ?? ?????? ?а ???, ??? ???????????? ?????? ??? ????????????
??????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????. ??????????
?????????????? ????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ?а ????????????? ?а XX ????????
?????????? ????????-?????????? ?????. ???????? ???????? ??? ????? ?? ???????
?????? ??а????? ????????????? ?????????? ???? ?????а? ???????????? ??????
??? ??????????.
4
? ?????????????? ?????? ??? ?????????????? ??????????? ??.: [20].
97
??? ??? ???? ???????, ??????? ??????? ?????????, ?????? ?а????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ????????, ?????? ?а ????? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ???????????
?а???????????? ??????????????, ?а?????????????? ???????? ???????????, ?????????????????, ???????????????? ?а???????. ????? ???????, ????????????? ????????? ????????? ??? ?а ??????? ????????????, ?а ?????? ??????????а ? ?а ??????? ??????????.
? 1918а ?. ?? ????????? ?????? ?а ??????? ??????????? ????????????, ??? ???
??????? ????????? ?а?????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????, ?а??????? ????????
????????????? ???????? ????? л???????╗ ?ал?????╗, ???????????????? ??? л????????╗. ??? ????? ???? ??? ????????? ???????? ???? ??????????? ?????? ?? ????
n-??????? ??????, ??? л0а???????????????? ??? ????, 1а? ??? ??????, ?а?????? ?????
?а????????? 0?1а? ??? ??????? ???????????, ??????????????? ????????? ????????????╗а[21, ?.а130]. ???? ???????????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ?а??????? ?????
??????? ???????? ??????. ??? ????????? ?????????, ??? ?????????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????????, ??????? ??? ?????????????
??????????? ?а ????????? ????????? ???????????? ?а ??????? ??? ???????? ???
??????, ?. ?. ???? ?а ?????????? ????????????? ??? ??? ???? ???????. л???? ???,
??? ?????????? ?а ?????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?????, ???????? ????????
??? ??????? ?а???? ??????? ???????, ????? ??????? ???????? ????? ?? ?????????????, ??? ?а???????, ?а?????????? ?? ???????? ?????? ???, ??? ??? ??? ?? ?????????╗а[22, ?.а113]. ????? ???????. ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ??
?????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ??????????: ??????, ????????????? ????? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ?а ????????????? ???????
??????????, ?? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ???????? ??? ??????а? ??? ?????? ??????????? ??? ????????? ?а????????? ?? 0а?? 1.
???? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ????????? ???????? ?????? ?а ???, ???
???????? ??????????? ?????? ?а ????????? ????? ????? ????????? л?????? ?? ???????????? ????????????? ????╗. ?????????????, ?а ????????? ??????, ????????,
???????????? ??????, ?????? ?а??????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????, ???????????? ?????????????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?ал?????????????? ???????╗,
????????? ??? ????????? ????? ?????????-?????????? ?????????? ??? ???????,
?????????? ?а ????????????, ?? ??????? л?????????????? ??????╗ ?????????????.
?а????? 1980-? ????? ???? ????????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ????? ????????? ?????? ?а?????????????? [23]. ????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????, ??? ???????????? ?а???????
??? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????. ?? ???? ???????? ???? ?а???????????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????????????? ???????, ?а??? ?????????а? ???? ?а????????????? ?а?????????????? ????????????? ????????? ?а????. ???????????? ??????,
????????, ??????????? ?????????????? ???????????????? ???????? ? ?а???? ?????
?????? ?????????????? ????? ???????????? ?????????. ????? ???????, ???????
???? ??? ?аXVIIа?. ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????????? ???????????, ?аXXа?. ???????????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????????
???????????.
???????, ?????? ?????? ??????????? ?? ??????????????, ?а ???????????????
???????? ?????? ??????????. ??????????????, ??? ???? ?а???????? ????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????, ????98
???, ???????? ??????????? ??????, ???????????? ?а????????, ??? ?????? ????????? ??? ???? ??????????? ??????????5.
??????????
1.а???????? ?. ?а??????? ???????????????? ?????? ?????. ????, ?????? ?а?????? ?? ??????
???????? XVIIа?. ??????: [?. ?.], 1886. 254а?.
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4.а?????? ?. ?. ?а???? ??????????: ?????? ?????????? ?а???????. ???.: ???-?? ?.-??????. ??-??,
2006. 277а?.
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????????. ???. 25. ??????? ????????? ??? ?????????. ????????? ???????????. ????? 2. ???.:
?????-????????????? ????? ??????? ????, 2003. ?. 38?47.
6.а?????? ?. ?????????????? ???????????. ??????????? I?V. ?.: ???????? ?????????, ????????,
?а??????? ??. ????, 2007. 776а?.
7.а??????????. ??????а//а???.: ?а4а?. ?. 2. ?.: ?????, 1978. ?. 347?532.
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9. ???? ?., ?????? ?. ??????, ??? ????????? ???????. ?.: ?????, 1991. 412а?.
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????. ???.: ?????-????????????? ??????????? ????????, 2001. ?. 5?8. (????? лSymposium╗. ???. 17).
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