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159
“paint” – «»):
? S
S
’S
(e)D– `
`
ING– :
boy
S :
paint
S :
my mother
’
S Michael
’
S :
paint
ED :
paint
ING . :
;
;
«»:
\
,
\
;
;
;
;
1.
1.
1.
2.
3.
161
160
(II) I:→ II: .:
→I was born `
→Stronger than me.
→ !
Let him do it
→ ...I have ...
→ …I’ve got …
→ ...He has ...
→ …He’s got
– No, I DIDN’T DO that ...
→
I was punishe
d `
→
He was offende
d `
1 2 3
→ \
=
My mother
’
s flat.
→ (-).
I want to be rewarde
d.
M
→ I will be an artist `
:
;
´
;
;
;
« ...»:
;
,
.
? ————————————————————————————————
!!!
)
!!!
————————————————————————————————
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
LY– Y– TH– ER– EST– :
quick
L
Y .:
time
L
Y day
L
Y :
wind
Y :
seven
TH :
smart
ER :
earli
ER :
the smart
EST :
the earli
EST 163
162
«
«/»)
«/»)
)
beaten
shaven
thrown
taken
arisen
risen
chosen
drunk
grown
grown
graved, graven
learned
rotten
driven
given
forgotten
bound
bounden
frozen
frozen
sunk, sunken
known
sought
spoilt, spoiled
laden
written
drawn
begun
borne
worn
swallen
melted, molten
shaven
`
√
`
`
θ
√
`√
`
`
`
√
`√
`
√
`
`, `
œœ√
`√
`
`√
`
√
`
√
`
`
√
`
`, √
`
√
`
`, √
`
`√
`
`
`
`M
`M√
`
, `
U→ () …
I will be able (to) …
…→ () (-) …
I have bough
t … `
→ .
I should go.
.
I’d like to eat an apple;
2) .
I should eat an apple.
→ I was tol
d … `
→ I want (to) ...
→ / ...
I like (to) ... `
————————————————————————————————
165
164
←
«! »
.
NB 1: `
!!!
“-
n”
!!!).
,
() `
( “eaten”) !!!
NB 2:
]>AEC^
←
]A=JA^
]>AECA=JA^
↓
0A
15
*-1/-)
6-HECDJM
U
)
«»)
laden
shown
forsaken
got, gotten
torn
hewn
sown
sewed, sewn
spoken
staved
sprung
drunk
broken
torn
cleft
melted, molten
swallen
strewn
born
rotten
rotten
done
mown
broken
woven
shaken
sung
sawn
hidden
shorn
sewn
eaten
slain
seen
struck
stolen
bit, bitten
fallen
gone
`
`
`
√
`, √
`√
`
`
`
, `
√
`
`
`√
`
√
`√
`
`
, `M√
`
`√
`√
`
`√
`
`
√
`M
`
`√
`
`√
`
`
`√
`
`
`, `
√
`, √
`√
`, √
167
166
= , 3 (
´´
)
´´
/
)
beat
took
shaved
threw
chose
drank
grew
grew
graved
learned
rotted
drove
rotted
spoke
laded
gave
did
ate
forgot
bound
froze
froze
sank
knew
sought
spoiled
clave,
cleft
mowed
stole
bit
broke
froze
froze
laded
wrote
drew
began
bore
wore
swelled
fell
sang
drank
sawed
wrote
melted
shaved
laded
showed
forsook
took
saw
arose
rose
got
tore
hewed
sowed
sheared
sewed
spoiled
sprang
hid
broke
tore
clave, cleft
`
`
`
`
θ
`
`æ
`
`
`√
`
œœ
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`æ
`
`√
`
`,
`√
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
æ
`√
`M
`M
`
`æ
`æ
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
√
`
`
`
`
√
`/
`
`
√
`
`
√
`
`
`æ
`
`
`
`, √
/-
()
169
168
´´
, melted
swelled
strewed
tore
drew
bore
grew
hewed
sowed
rotted
rotted
did
mowed
wove
sang
sawed
hid
sheared
ate
sewed
drew
wove
shook
slaid
saw
hit
stole
bit
fell
sank
learned
went
went
sewed
`
`M
`√
`
`
`√
`
`
√
`
`
`
`
`
`M
`æ
`
`
`
√
`
`
`
`M
`
`√
`
`
`
`
`
`æ
`
œœ
`M
`M
`
“be”, «:
, ...
,
(-)
,
be anxious
be afraid (of)
be scared (of)
be in
be back
be out
be exhausted
be over
be aware (of) ...
be on
be in love with ...
be silent
be able to
be about
be nervous
be late
be well away
be absent
be away
be after
be present
be hungry
` æ .. ` (
`
()
` ` æ
` ` ` ` M
()
` `
M
ð
` `
`
`
œœ
` `M
M
` æ
`M
`
` `
171
170
`
`
>AJ>AJ>AJ`
>KHIJ>KHIJ>KHIJ`
œœ
?=IJ?=IJ?=IJ`
?IJ?IJ?IJ`
?KJ?KJ?KJ`
DEJDEJDEJ`
DKHJDKHJDKHJ`
œœ
EJEJEJ`
AJAJAJ`
FKJFKJFKJ`
GKEJGKEJGKEJ`M
HE@HE@HE@`
IAJIAJIAJ`
IDA@IDA@IDA@`
IDHA@IDHA@IDHA@`
IDKJIDKJIDKJ`
IEJIEJIEJ`
IFEJIFEJIFEJ`
IFHA=@IFHA=@IFHA=@`
IMA=JIMA=JIMA=J`M
JDHKIJJDHKIJJDHKIJ`
θ
...
...
...
...
...
...
be upset
be jealous
be angry
be sorry for ...
be sorry about ...
be in a hurry
be crazy about ...
be in a hurry
be hungry
be thirsty
be asleep
be in for ...
be tired
`
`
` æ
`
`
`
` ` `
`
θ
œœ
`
`
`
173
172
↓ !
↓
]J^
>KH>KHJ>KHJ`
œœ
œœ
?HAAF?HAFJ?HAFJ`
@A=@A=J@A=J`U
@MA@MAJ@MAJ`M
M
BAABAJBAJ`
AAFAFJAFJ`
AAAJAJ`
A=A=JA=J`
AAJAJAJ`
IDJIDJIDJ`
IAAFIAFJIAFJ`
IAIAJIAJ`
IFAIFAJIFAJ`
IFEIFEJIFEJ`
IMAAFIMAFJIMAFJ`M
M
´
MAAFMAFJMAFJ`M
M
!
` %
*
`
!`
= !
↓
>AA@>A@>A@`
>HAA@>HA@>HA@`
BAA@BA@BA@`
A=@A@A@`
IFAA@IFA@IFA@`
D=LAD=@D=@`ææ
↑]LA^]@^
↓ `
`
]@^→]J^
>A@>AJ>AJ`
>KE@>KEJ>KEJ`
A@AJAJ`
IA@IAJIAJ`
IFA@IFAJIFAJ`
175
174
↓ `
!
↓
`
!
→]KCDJ^
>HEC>HKCDJ>HKCDJ`
>KO>KCDJ>KCDJ`
?=J?D?KCDJ?KCDJ`æ
IAAIKCDJIKCDJ`
JA=?DJ=KCDJJ=KCDJ`
JDEJDKCDJJDKCDJ`
θ
θ
aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
*
#
MMM@H=CKEHK
!
`&$
!↓
´
!
?EC?KC?KC`
@EC@KC@KC`
BECDJBKCDJBKCDJ`
BE@BK@BK@`
CHE@CHK@CHK@`
D@DA@DA@`
I=OI=E@I=E@`
↑]O→E^
IAI@I@`
↑]@^
IDEAIDAIDA`
IEJI=JI=J`æ
IE@AIE@IE@`
IFEIFKIFK`
IJ=@IJ@IJ@`æ
IJE?IJK?IJK?`
IJECIJKCIJKC`
IMECIMKCIMKC`MM
MEMM`M
M
ME@MK@MK@`M
M
177
176
=HEIA=HIA=HEIA`
>A=H>HA>H`
>A=H>HA>HA`
>A=J>A=J>A=JA`
>ACE>AC=>ACK`
æ
>M>AM>M`
>HA=>HA>HA`
?DIA?DIA?DIA`
@@E@@A`
@H=M@HAM@H=M`
@HELA@HLA@HELA`
A=J=JAA=JA`
B=BAB=A`
BOBAMBM`
BH>A=HBH>HABH>HA`
BHCAJBHCJBHCJJA`
BHAAABHABHA`
CELAC=LACELA`
CMAJCA`
M
CHMCHAMCHM`
MAMM`
EA=O=E`
HE@AH@AHE@@A`
HECH=CHKC`æ
HEIAHIAHEIA`
IAAI=MIAA`
ID=AIDID=A`
!`##
!
↓
`!
>A?A>A?=A>A?A`
?A?=A?A`
HKH=HK`æ
↓
`],^
!`]^
=@A=@A@=@A`
MMA@M`
HELAHELA@HELA`
I=MI=MA@I=M`
ID=LAID=LA@ID=LA`
IDMIDMA@IDM`
IMIMA@IM`
IJHAMIJHAMA@IJHAM`
IMAIMAA@IMA`M
M
M
179
178
'
!`
`
``
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
!
=M=A=MA=M=A@=MA
M
M
M
M
>E@>E@>=@A>E@>E@@A
>E@>K@>K@>K@A
>EJA>EJ>EJ>EJJA
IECI=CIKC`æ
I=OIAMI=E`
IFA=IFAIFA`
IFHECIFH=CIFHKC`æ
IJA=IJAIJA`
IJEIJ=IJK`æ
IJHE@AIJH@AIJHE@@A`
IJHELAIJHLAIJHELA`
IMA=HIMHAIMHA`M
M
M
IMEIM=IMK`M
M
M
J=AJJ=A`
JA=HJHAJH`
JDHMJDHAMJDHM`
θ
θ
θ
MA=HMHAMH`M
M
M
MA=LAMLAMLA`M
M
M
MHEJAMHJAMHEJJA`
]C^
]MAJ^`M
`
`]MA@^``
` &
%
aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa
181
180
AJAJA@AJA@JA
MAMA@KCDJMA@
GKEJGKEJJA@GKEJGKEJJA@GKEJ
MM
M
M
M
HJHJJA@HJJA@HJJA
IAAJDAIAAJDA@IAAJDA@I@@A
ð
ð
ð
IAMIAMA@IAMA@IAM
IDHEIDH=IDHKIDHKA
æ
IEI=IKIKA
æ
IFEJIFEJIF=JIF=J
ææ
IFEIFEA@IFEJIFEA@IFEJ
IJHEAIJHK?IJHK?IJHE?A
?A=LA?=LA?ABJ?ABJ
@=HA@=HA@@KHIJ@=HA@
œœ
@HA=@HA=A@@HA=J@HA=A@@HA=J
@HE@H=@HK@HKA
æ
CAJCJCJCJJA
CH=LACH=LA@CH=LA@CH=LA
D=CD=CA@DKCD=CA@DKC
æææ
DE@ADE@DE@DE@@A
A=A=A@A=JA=A@A=J
A=HA=HA@A=HA@A=HJ
œœ
œœ
œœ
œœ
ECDJECDJA@EJECDJA@EJ
183
182
=>E@A`
=>@A=>@A
>ACAJ`
>ACJ>ACJJA
>AD@`
>ADA@>ADA@
>AIAA?D`
>AIKCDJ>AIKCDJ
?DE@A`
?DE@?DE@?DE@@A
BEC`
BKCBKC
BHI=A`
BHIBHI=A
CE@`
CE@A@CE@A@CEJ
CEH@`
œœ
CEH@A@CEHJCEHJ
œœ
œœ
œœ
DAM`
DAMA@DAMA@DAM
A`
AJAJ
JDHELAJDHELA@JDHLAJDHELA@JDHELA
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
JHA=@JH@JH@JH@@A
MHMHA@MHKCDJMHA@MHKCDJ
M
œœM
œœ
M
œœ
)
57-IDEF
)
-)46I?D=H
947/06EH
)DHHH
5641+-=
æ
æ
185
184
]52-1/^
]JIFA^
])22-^
]@K>A^`
8
19
3
,4;M
5
6
/7
a) “s”, “es”:
book
→
books;bus
→
buses;shoe
→
shoes;
]^ “-ies”:
lady
→
ladies;fly
→
flies;city
→
cities;
“-f” “-ves”:
half
→
halves;knife
→
knives;leaf
→
leaves;
HA@`
HAJHAJ
IDA=H`
IDA=HA@IDA=HA@IDH
IEC`
IKCIKC
IE`
IKIK
IEJA`
IJAIEJIEJJA
IJ=LA`
IJ=LA@IJLAIJ=LA@IJLA
IJHEC`
IJHKCIJHKC
MA@`M
MAJMAJM
MHEC`
MHKCMHKC
!
]MAJ^
]C^
187
186
news–
/
nonsense–
rogress–
]>KIEAII^
]>KIEAIIAI^`
archives–
>E?K=HI–
clothes–
,
C=IIAI–
A=I–
F=JI–æ
FO==I–
æ
I?EIIHI–
IDHJI–
JECDJI–
]JHKIAHI^`
]JHKIAH^`
“(e)S”):
JDAJE?I–æ6
>EE=H@I–
@H=KCDJI–
A?E?I–
CO=IJE?I–
æ
child`
→
children–
=
foot`
→
feet–
goose`
→
geese–
louse`
→
lice–
man`æ
→
men–
mouse`
→
mice–
ox`
→
oxen–
tooth`6
→
teeth–6
woman`M
→
women–M
aircraft–
/
deer–
/-
fish–
grand–æ
quid–M
salmon–
/
sheep–
trout–
/
“S”):
advice–
craft–/
evidence–
/
furniture–
œœ
hair–-
information–
knowledge–
/
luggage–
money–
189
188
3. H
::
My:It’smycar.Mine:It’smine.
Your:It’syourcar.Yours:It’syours.
His:It’shiscar.His:It’shis.
Her:It’shercar.Hers:It’shers.
Its:The bird hurt its wing.Its:It’sits.
Our:It’sourcar.Ours:It’sours.
Your:It’syourcar.Yours:It’syours.
Their:It’stheircar.Theirs:It’stheirs.
4. ( «», «-c»):
myself–
–Ilookedatmyself.
yourself–
–Youlookedatyourself.
himself–
–Helookedathimself.
herself–
œœ
–Shelookedatherself.
itself–
–Itlookedatitself.
ourselves–
–Welookedatourselves.
yourselves–
–Youlookedatyourselves.
themselves–,
–Theylookedatthemselves.
5. all–, :
He worked all year round.
either–
,
Either plan is corect.
.
DOIJAHE?I–
=JDA=JE?I–æ
6
æ
FDOIE?I–
politics–
IJ=JEIJE?I–
::
arm–
arms–
colour`
colours`
custom`
customs`
good`goods`
iron`
irons`
pain`pains`
part`
parts`
scale`I?=AI`
2. C::
I:IlikeAnn.me:Annlike
sme.
you:YoulikeAnn.you:Annlike
syou.
he:Helike
sAnn.him:Annlike
shim.
she:Shelike
sAnn.her:Annlike
sher.
it:Itlike
sAnn.it:Annlike
sit.
we:WelikeAnn.us:Annlike
sus.
you:YoulikeAnn.you:Annlike
syou.
they:TheylikeAnn.them:Annlike
sthem.
191
190
% SOME:ANY:NO:EVERY:
:somebodyanybodynobodyeverybody
someoneanyoneno oneeveryone
IAJDEC=OJDECJDECALAHOJDEC
IAMDAHA=OMDAHAMDAHAALAHOMDAHA
:sometimesat any timeneverevery time.
&
!#
JMFKIJDHAAAGK=IHEIBELA
M
$` "
IENEKIJMAGK=IHEIBKH
×!$
JMJEAIJDHAAAGK=IHEIIEN
& "
AECDJ@ELE@A@>OJMAGK=IHEIBKH
%
JDAHAIKJEI%
" BKHIGK=HA@
"!
BKH?K>A@
""
BKHJJDABKHJD
"
BKHJJDAJD
either … or …–
,UU … …:
Either you are wrong or I am.
neither–
,
Neither of the two is happy.
neither … nor … –
, … … ..., ...:
neither drinks, nor smokes.
every–
:
She visits them every third week.
each–
They cost a pound each.
no
6. “OTHER” – ,
other pen
another pen
the other pen
other boys
the other boys
others* are swimming/
the others* went
* –
193
192
p.m. [pi: əm]:
5 p.m.17:00«5
10 p.m.22:00«10
at9inthe morning9
at5inthe afternoon5 at7inthe evening7
at11atnight11
::
8th June 1986 the eighth of June nineteen eighty-six
June 8th 1986 June the eighth, nineteen eighty-six.
10. 1?=1?K@1?=
1==>AJU1M=I=>AJU1ME>A=>AJU
0A
1?=J1?=J1?K@J1?K@J1?=J1?=J
1=J=>AJU1M=IJ=>AJU1MEJ=>AJU
,:
I may–I may
I am allowed to …I was allowed to …I will be allowed to …
"
JDAIGK=HAHJBBKH
"
JDA?K>AHJBBKH
"
JDAJDHJBBKH
AD=B
!
AJDEH@
!
AALAJDEHJAAJDI
'
?What is the time?
What time is it now?
l:00it’s one o’clock3:30it’s half past 3
3:00it’s three o’clock3:35it’s 25 to 4
3:05it’s 5 past 33:40it’s 20 to 4
3:10it’s 10 past 33:45it’s a quarter to 4
3:15it’s a quarter past 33:50it’s 10 to 4
3:20it’s 20 past 33:55it’s 5 to 4
17
00
I’ll meet you at 5 p.m.
ææ
I’ll meet you at seventeen 00.
æ
a.m. [eiəm]:
5–5
10 a.m.–10
195
194
12. said, “I study English every day”.
He said, “I studied English”.
He said, “I will study English”;
:
He said (that) he studied English every day.
said he had studied English.
0AI=E@JD=JDAMK@IJK@O-CEID
!
and
as well as ... ...
both ... and … ... ...; ..., ...
but, either ... or … ..., ...
for
however
neither ... nor … ..., ...
nevertheless
or
so
still
therefore
thus
yet :
I may not–I may not
I must not–I must not
I am not toI was not to–
I am not allowed toI was not allowed toI will be not allowed to
:
I must–I must
I have to …I had to …I will have to …
I am to …I was to …I’ll be to ...
:
I must notI don’t have to …I will not have to …
I am not to …I was not to …–
I don’t have to …I didn’t have to …I will not have to …
:
I need not/needn’t …–I need not/needn’t …
I don
’
t need to …I didn
’
t need to …I won
’
t need to ...
NB.
↑
!!!
11. !"#$
-LAHO>@OIJK@EAI=CK=CAIEJAIELAO=JI?DM
IFA-CEIDBKAJO=JKHAIIOAIJAH@=O
197
196
wherever
whether
while ... ...
15. ``
`
`
=@H>KJBHHAEJDAHOAJ
– Mary works hard, but her sister is lazy.
– NB:
– Mary studied and John played.
`
– The date of Easter, as is well known, changes from year to year.
`
"
after
as ...; ...
as ... as ... ...,U
as if (as though) ...U
as long as …UU
as soon as …U
because
before
if
in order that …
...
in spite of …...
(the fact that) ... (
lest
no sooner ... than … ...,
...
not as (not so) ... as … ..., ...
provided (that …) ...;
...
sinceU
...;
...
so that …U
so ... that … ...
such ... that … ...
supposing (that) …... , ...
till, until ...,
= ...
... than ......
that
though, although
unless ......
when
where
199
198
- Come in, John!
... cars, lorries, ships and planes ... - :
– When she returned, I made a cup of coffee.
– $
– Mr. Green, the headmaster of our school, told me to write to him.
– Mp.
%
– came here, having first parked his car.
– 8) :
– She said, “It’s none of your business!”.
– – “By mistakes we learn!”, said John.
– `
– “In my view”, said the judge, “he is innocent!”.
– « – –
!
however
nevertheless ...
in opinion
therefore
indeed
evidently obviously
well ...
– In my opinion, he was guilty.
–
– The judge’s opinion, however, was that he was innocent.
– Ho no , "
– His name is Michael, not John.
– 5)
“PLEASE”:
– Can you lend me the book, please?
– ?
“YES” “NO”:
– Yes, I can.
– – No, I cannot.
– 201
200
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at–æ
before–
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beside–
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}
'
` left May 10, 1998 to go to London.
– 10 1998 – There he met a young woman from Cincinnati, Ohio.
– – Outside, a lot of people were waiting for me.
– – This house is theirs, isn’t it?
– ?
– John wasn’t ill, was he?
– ?
– Jack didn’t find the key, did he?
`?
16. about–
above–
across–
after–
against–
along–
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203
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2twothe second
3threethe third
4fourthe fourth
5fivethe fifth
6sixthe sixth
7seventhe seventh
8eightthe eighth
9ninethe ninth
10tenthe tenth
11eleventhe eleventh
12twelvethe twelfth
13thirteenthe thirteenth
14fourteenthe fourteenth
15fifteenthe fifteenth
16sixteenthe sixteenth
17seventeenthe seventeenth
18eighteenthe eighteenth
19nineteenthe nineteenth
20twentythe twentieth
21twenty-onethe twenty-first
30thirtythe thirtieth
40fortythe fortieth
50fiftythe fiftieth
60sixtythe sixtieth
70seventythe seventieth
80eightythe eightieth
90ninetythe ninetieth
100one hundredthe hundredth
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–
a few–
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several–
several oranges–
many – many oranges–
a number of –
a number of oranges–
a great deal of –a great deal of sugar–
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a little–
–a little sugar
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an orange – æ orange
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the dog – , the dog
S – ,
the orange – , the orange
S – , (
213
212
24. January–
æ
February–
March–
April–
May–
June`
July–
August–
September–
October–
November–
December–
NB: in June
#:
spring–
summer–
autumn–
fall (US)–
winter–w
NB: in summer
26. 312-59-36 three - one - two - five - nine - three - six
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6
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extension number three - five - eight
6
all–
all orangesall sugar
most–
most orangesmost sugar
´
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plenty of orangesplenty of sugar
lots of–
lots of orangeslots of sugar
a lot of–
a lot of orangesa lot of sugar
some–some orangessome sugar
not any/–
not any oranges/not any sugar/
no–
no orangesno sugar
23
Sunday–
Monday–
Tuesday–
Wednesday–M
M
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Saturday–
æ
æ
NB: on Friday
214
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