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вариант 3

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1. ???????? ??????2
2. ??????????? ???? ???????? ????? ??? ?????????? ??????????3
3. ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????3
4. ??????? ??????? ??????????? ?????4
5. ??????? ??????? ?????????? ?????8
6. ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????9
7. ??????????? ????? ???????? ??? ?????????????9
8. ????? ????? ? ??????????10
9. ?????? ????????24
10. ????????? ??????? ?????26
11. ?????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ? ????????? ???????28
12. ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????36
13. ??????????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ????????40
14. ??????????????? ?????42
15. ???????-????????????? ??????????43
16. ???????????-??????????? ???????43
17. ???????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????44
18. ??????? ????????????46
19. ?????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?????????????46
20. ????????????????? ??????51
1. ???????? ??????
?????????? ?????? - ????????????, ????????????.
????? ?????? L?? = 120 ?.?????? ?????? B?? = 50 ? (????????? 54?, ?????? B??).
?????? ??????? B?? = 18?.??? B? = 10 ?.
?????? ?????????? H? = 1,5 ?.
??????? ??????? B?�L? = 3,7�4,2 ?2 (??????? 1)
????? ?????????? B15 ?? ??? (???????????????????) ????? ?300.
????? ?????????? - B7,5.
??????????? ???????????? ?????? 0�C, ????????? ??????? t?.?. = -11,9�C.
???????????? ???? ?????? - ??? ?????? ? ????????.
????? - ???????? ?????? ? ???????? ????? ?? 10% ?? ??????; ???????? ????? ?????? ? = 1,70 ?/?3.
???????????: ????? ???????? ds?=12 ?? ? ????? a?=150 ??, n??=3 ????? ? ???????, ??????????? - ds?=18 ?? ? ????? a?=100 ??, ????? ???????????? ds?=14?? ? ????? as?= 250 ??, n??=3 ????? ?? ?????? (??. ??? ?7).
?????????? ??????????????? ?????? ?? ????? L = 7 ??.
?????????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????, l = 17 ??.
???? ????????????? ????? - 2-3 ??.
???? ?????????? ???????? ????? ????? 30 ??.
???????? ??????? ????????? ????????????? ?????? ??????, ?????????? ?????????? ??????????????. ????? N???? = 52 ??????????? (?????????? ?? ????? ??????? ???????????).
???????? ????. 42 ???? II-23-81* "???????? ???????????" ?????????? ?????????? ????? ?????????????? ????? ?? ????? ????? (L) ??? ????????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? 160 ?, ?? ?????? ????? (B) 110 ?. ??????? ?????? ? ???? 120(L??)�54(B??) ?, ??????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?? ????????????? ?????.
??????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? -0,150 ?. ????? ??????? ??? ????????? (???. 2):
F?? = ?? + F??? + h??? = 2,4 + 0,15 + 0,1 = 2,65 ?.
???. 1. ????????? ??????????
2. ??????????? ???? ???????? ????? ??? ?????????? ??????????
1. ??????????? ?????? ????????? (??. ???. 2):
?? = F?? - h?? - h??? = 2,65 - 0,15 - 0,1 = 2,4 ?.
2. ??????????? ??????????????? ????????? ??????:
d=m x Hk = 0,5�2,4 = 1,2 ?.
??? m - ??????????? ??????, ??? ???????? m = 0, 5
3. ??????????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? (?? ????????) (???. 13, 14):
Lmax = ??? - L? - 2�0,6-2�d = 18,0-4,2-2�0,6-2�1,2 =10,2 ?
4. ??????????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? (?? ????):
Lmin = ???? - ?? - 2�0,6-2�d = 10,0-3,7-2�0,6-2�1,2 =2,7?
5. ??? Lmax =10,2 ? >8,0 ? ? Lmin=2,7? > 0? - ???????????? ????????? ????????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???????????.
3. ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????
????????? ????? ????????? - ??. ???. 5. ??? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ?????? ????????? ?? ?????????? 0,6 ?. ??????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ?????? 0,10 ?.
1. ??????????? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ???? ??????????? (???. 6):
S = (???+20)�(L??+20) = (54+20)�(120+20) = 10360 ?2.
2. ??????????? ?????? ????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ??? = 54 ?:
V??.??? = S�h?? = 10360�0,15 = 1 554 ?3.
??? h?? - ?????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ??????????, h?? = 0,15 ?.
3. ??????????? ?????? ????????? (??. ???. 3):
3.1. ??????????? ????? ????????? ?? ????, ??? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ???????????, ??? ?????????? ????????? ??? ?????????:
? = ?? + 0,6�2 = 3,7 + 1,2 = 4,9 ?.
3.2. ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ????????? ?? ????:
? = L? + 0,6�2 =4,2 + 1,2 = 5,4 ?.
3.3. ??????????? ????? ????????? ?? ?????:
? = ? + 2�d = 4,9 + 2�1,2 = 7,3 ?.
3.4. ??????????? ?????? ????????? ?? ?????:
? = ? + 2�d = 5,4 + 2�1,2 = 7,8 ?.
3.5. ??????????? ?????? ?????????:
V? = ??�(?�? +?�?+(?+?)�(?+?))/6 = 2,4�(4,9�5,4+7,3�7,8+(4,9+7,3)�(5,4+7,8))/6 = 97,78?3.
4. ??????????? ?????? ???????? ?????:
V???.??? = V? �nk= 97,78 � 52 = 5084,5 ?3.
6. ??????????? ?????? ???? ???????????:
V???? = (SV???? + V????)�N???? =
(3,7�4,2�0,3+2,8�3,2�0,3+1,9�2,2�0,3 + 1�1,2�1,5)�52 = 541,01 ?3.
7. ??????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????:
V???.??? = ????�L???�h???�N???? = 3,9�4,4�0,1�52 = 89,23 ?3,
??? ???? - ?????? ???????? ?????????? (??. ??????? (24)):
???? = ??+0,2 = 3,7 + 0,2 = 3,9 ?;
L??? = L?+0,2 = 4,2+0,2 = 4,4 ?;
h??? - ?????? ???????? ??????????, h??? = 0,1 ?.
8. ??????????? ?????? ????? ??? ????????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ???????:
V???.??? = (???? + 0,1)�(L??? + 0,1)�h???�N???? =4�4,5�0,1�52=93,6 ?3.
9. ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????, ??????????????? ? ???????:
S? = (??�h1+L?�h1)�2 + (??1�h2+L?1�h2)�2+ ...+ (??�L? - ??i�L?i) =
(3,7�0,3 + 4,2�0,3)�2 + (2,8�0,3 + 3,2�0,3)�2+ (2,2�0,3 + 1,9�0,3)�2 + (1�1,5+1,2�1,5)�2 +
+ (3,7�4,2 - 1�1,2) = 31,74?2.
10. ??????????? ?????? ????? ??? ???????? ??????? ????? ????????? ???????. ??????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?? ??????? 0,6 ?, ?????:
V???.?.??? = S?�t???�N???? = 31,74�0,6�52 = 990,29 ?3.
11. ??????????? ?????? ????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?????????????????? ???????:
11.4. ??????????? ?????? ????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ???? ??????????? ?????????????????? ???????:
S_(???? )=V_(???.?)/t_?? =4449,89/0,3=14832,97?^2
11.5. ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????:
S???.??? = S???? : N???? =14832,97 : 52 = 285,25 ?2.
12. ??????????? ?????? ???????????????? ?????:
12.1 ??????????? ?????? ???????? ???????:
V???.? = V???.??? - V???? - V???.??? � (V???.??? - V???.???) = 5084,5 - 541,01 -
- 89,23 - (93,6 - 89,23) = 4449,89 ?3.
12.2 ??????????? ?????? ????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????????:
V????? = V???? + V???.??? � (V???.??? - V???.???) =541,01 + 89,23 + (93,6 - 89,23) =
=634,61 ?3.
12.3 ??????????? ?????? ????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ??????? (? ?????), V???, ? ??????????? ?????? ? ?????, V???.:
V??? = V??? = V???.? = 4449,89 ?3.
12.4 ??????????? ?????? ????? ??? ???????? ??????? ????????? ???????????, V???.?.?????:
V???.?.????? = V???.? - V???.?.??? = 4449,89 - 990,29 = 3459,6 ?3.
??????????: ???????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ???? ???????????? ? ????????????? ??????.
4. ??????? ??????? ??????????? ?????
1. ??????????? ?????? ????? ?????????????? ?????? ????????. ??????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ???? ??????? ???????? ???????????, ?? ???? (??. ????. 4.1):
S ???.?? = S??�N???? = 31,74�52 = 1648,92 ?2;
???. 4. ????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ??????????
???. 5. ????? ??????????? ??????????
??????? 4.1
?????????????????? ????,????-??, ????????? ??????????, ??????????????????1 ?????? 1 ????????????? ???????-??, ???????, ?1234567891011????1?? 1,4�0,31,40,3140,425,882129472815,292?? 1,6�0,31,60,340,481,9224692084,993?? 1,1�0,31,10,340,331,3216,5662083,434?? 1,4�0,51,40, 540,72,8351402087,285?? 1,9�0,51,90,520,951,947,5951044,946?? 1�0,510,520,5125501042,67?? 0,9�0,30,90,320,270,5413,5271041,48?? 1,9�0,31,90,320,571,1428,5571042,969?? 1,5�0,51,50,540,75337,51502087,810?? 1,5�0,61,50,640,93,6451802089,3611?? 1,4�0,451,40,4560,633,7831,51893129,8312?? 1,6�0,451,60,4540,722,88361442087,4913?? 1,1�0,451,10,4540,4951,9824,75992085,15 ?????: S??=31,741587??=82,52???????1??-4,34,3 2 30,160,21043,132??-3,83,8 4 26,6106,42085,533??-3,353,35 2 23,4546,91042,444??-2,82,8 2 19,639,21042,045??-2,452,45 2 17,1534,31041,786??-1,81,8 2 12,625,21041,317??-1,551,55 2 10,8521,71041,138??-1,31,349,136,42081,899??-1,11,1 4 7,730,82081,6 ?????: 401,1???=20,86 ?????: ???=103,38?????????1?? 1 96,596,5525,018
?????????? ? ??????? 4.1:
1. ??? ??????????? ????? ???????? - 50 ??/?2, ????? ?????? ????????? ????? ??????? - 7 ??/?.
2. ????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ?????:
L????? = 4,2 + 0,1 = 4,3 ?, ?????? = 3,7+0,1 =3,8 ?
2. ??????????? ?????? ????? ?? ??????? ????????. ? ???? ???????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ? ????????????. ????????? ?? ?????:
2.1. ???????? ?????? ??????? ????????: 8 ????? (???.1) ?????? 34,5 ??, 4 ???? ????? (???.2) ?????? 31,5 ??, 4 ???? (???.9) ?????? 25,5 ??, 2 ??????? ????? ??-4,7 ?????? 32,9 ?? ? 2 ??????? ????? ??-3,5 ?????? 24,5 ??, ????? ????? ?????: ???1=8�34,5+4�31,5+4�25,5+2�32,9+2�24,5=618,8 ??
2.2. ???????? 2 ??????? ????????: 8 ????? (???.3) ?????? 27,75 ??, 4 ???? (???.4) ?????? 24,75 ?? , 4 ???? (???.5) ?????? 21 ?? , 2 ??????? ????? ??-3,2 ?????? 22,4 ?? ? 2 ??????? ????? ??-4,25 ?????? 29,75 ??
???2 = 8�27,75+4�24,75+4�21+2�22,4+2�29,75 = 509,3 ??.
2.3. ???????? 3 ??????? ????????: 8 ????? (???.5) ?????? 21 ??, 4 ???? (???.6) ?????? 18 ?? , 4 ???? (???.10) ?????? 16,5 ??, 2 ??????? ????? ??-2,6 ?????? 18,2 ?? ? 2 ??????? ????? ??-3,35 ?????? 23,45 ??
???3 = 8�21 +4�18 +4�16,5 +2�18,2 +2�23,45 = 389,3 ??
2.4. ???????? 4 ??????? ????????: 8 ????? (???.7) ?????? 14,25 ??, 4 ???? (???.8) ?????? 11,25 ?? , 4 ???? (???.11) ?????? 12 ??, 2 ??????? ????? ?-2,0 ?????? 14 ?? ? 2 ??????? ????? ??-2,45 ?????? 17,15 ?? ???4 = 8�14,25 +4�11,25 +4�12 +2�14 +2�17,15 = 269,3 ??
2.5.???????? ???????????? ??? ??????? ????????: 8 ????? (???.12) ?????? 45 ??, 8 ??????? ????? ??-1,55 ?????? 10,85 ?? ? 8 ??????? ????? ??-1,4 ?????? 9,8 ??, ????? ?????:
???5 = 8�45+8�10,85+8�9,8 = 525,2 ??
????? ???????, ????? ???? ?????? ????????? 50 ?? ? ?????? ???? ??????????? ???????????? ??????.
3. ??????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????:
S??? = S??.???�N???? = 1,68�84 = 1441,12 ?2.
??????? 4.2
???????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ??????????
??????????????,????-??, ?????????, ?2?????, ??????????????????????????? 1 ????????????? 1 ????????.???-??, ???????, ?12345678910111?? 1,1*0,11,10,180,110,885,5444162,2882?? 1,3*0,11,30,160,130,786,5393122,0283?? -4,34,3 230,160,21043,1304??- 3,83,8 226,653,21042,766 ?????: S??.???=1,66 ????=10,213
??????????: ??????????? ????? ???????. ?????? ??????????
??????, ??? ??? ????? ?????: 44+39+60,2+53,2=196,4 ?? - ????? 50 ??.
4. ????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ?????????? (??. ????. 4.1 ? 4.2):
4.1. ????? ??????? ????????:
S?? + S??? = 2993,76 + 141,12 = 3134,88 ?2.
4.2. ????? ????? ????????:
??? + ???? = 194,1996 ? + 17,1696 ? = 211,3692 ?.
5. ??????? ??????? ?????????? ?????
??????? 5.1
??????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????-?? ????????????? ??????????-?? ????????????? 1 ?.?.,??????? ????? ?????(???????) ???????????? ?????????? ?? 1 ????, ??????????-??, ???????, ?1234567891011121314?????1?1122004,55173,35230,888135,072270,1416822,6922?2122003,65142,75190,88891,782183,5616815,4193?3122002,75112,15140,88853,62107,21689,0054?4122001,8581,55100,888272541684,5365?5161000,95201,5830,02390,062527,565?????:m???=704,96????.???=59,217?????????? ???????1?1141002,9251001,21(3,54)354840029,736?????:???=88,953
???????????: ????? ???????? ds?=12 ?? ? ????? a?=200 ??, n??=2 ????? ? ???????, ??????????? - ds?=14 ?? ? ????? a?=100 ??, ????? ???????????? ds?=16?? ? ????? as?= 100 ??, n??=3 ????? ?? ?????? (??. ??? ?7).
1. ??????????? ?????? ????? ?? ?????????? ???????????.
??? ?????? ????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ?? 50 ??. ??? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ????? ?4 ? ?5 ? ?????? 27 ? 30,02 ??, ? ?????????? ??????? ?1, ????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? 3,54 ?? (??. ?. 10 ????. 5.1). ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????, ??????????? ?????? ? ???????.
1.1. ??????????? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ????? 50 ?? (??. ?.12 ????. 5.1):
?? ?_(????.????)=59217�((270,14+183,56+107,2)/704,96)=47,116 ?.
1.2. ??????????? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ?? 50 ?? (??. ?.12 ????. 5.1) ??:
?? ?_(????.???)=59217�((54+90,06)/704,96)=12,101 ?.
2. ??????????? ?????? ????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ?????. ????? ?1, ?2, ?3 ?????? ????? 50 ?? ????????????? ? ????????? ????????? ??????, ????? ????? ?4 ? ?5 - ???????. ?????: (168+168+168) = 504 ????? ????????? ??????, ? (168+252) = 420 ????? ????????? ??????? (??. ?.13 ????. 5.1).
3. ??????????? ?????? ????? ?? ????????? ? ????? ????????? ?????????? ????????. ????? ???????? ?????????? 29,736 ? (??. ?.14 ????. 5.1).
4. ????? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ?? ???????:
M??? = M???.??? + M???.?? = 59,217 + 29,736 = 88,953 ?.
6. ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????
1. ??????????? ?????? ????? ?? ?????? ? ??????? ???????? ????? ?? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ?? ????????:
V?????.???.???? = V???? = 145,152 ?3.
V?????.???.???? = V???? = 1 038,24 ?3.
2. ??????????? ?????? ????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????? ?? ?????????? ?
???????? ?????????? ?? ????????:
V???.???.???? = V?????.???.????�? = 145,152 �1,02 = 148,055 ?3.
V???.???.???? = V?????.???.????�? = 1038,24 �1,02 = 1059,005 ?3.
7. ??????????? ????? ???????? ??? ?????????????
??? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ????? ???????????? ?????? ???????-??????????.
?????? ????? ?? ?4-1-49, ????.1 ???????? ?????????? 4?-1 ???, 2?-1 ???, ?????: 2 ???.
?????????????????? ?????????? ? ????? ??? ??????? ?????:
??? n - ?????????? ??????? ? ?????, n = 2 ???,
??? - ????? ???????, ??? = 0,26 ???�??? (????. 1 ?4-1-49)
??? ????? ?????? ???????? ????? V???? = 1038,24 ?3 ???????????? ???-?? ???????? ?????? ???? ?? ?????:
????????? ???? ????? ????? ?? 21 ????????.(84/21=4 ?????????? ? 1 ????????).
????? ?_??=V_????/N_max =1038,24/21=49,44 ?^3
8. ????? ????? ? ?????????? ??? ???????? ? ????????? ?????
????? ?????????? ??? ??????????
??? ?????????? ????????????? ????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ?? 40-60 ? ????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ??-8 ?? ???? ???????? ?-100 (??. ????. 8.1).
??????? 8.1
??????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??-8
???????????????????1?????? ?????? h,?1,22????? ?????? b,?3,23?????????? ???????,?: ?????/??????/??????5,3/3,2/3,1
4??????????? ???????? ??????????:
???????? ??????? ?????? V? ,??/?
???????? ??? ??????????? ?????? V???. ,??/?
???????? ??? ???????? ???? V???.,??/?
2,9
5,8
7,9
1. ?????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ??-8 ? ?????: ?? =8?�q�??�??�???/t? = 8�2,59�0,75�0,6�0,8/0,0129 = 580 ?3/??,
??? q - ?????? ?????? ????? ???????, ?3:
q = 0,75�h ��b�K?/?? = 0,75�1,2��3,2�0,9/1,2 = 2,592 ?3,
??? ?? - ???????????, ??????????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???????????:
?? =1 - 0,005�l??? = 1 - 0,005�20 = 0,9,
??? l??? - ????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????? ??????:
l??? = 0,25�??? +5 ? = 0,25�60+5=20 ?;
?? - ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????,??? ????????????? ?????? ?? = 1,2;
t? - ????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??????????:
t? =t? + t? + t??? + t??? =0,00186+0,00345+0,00253+0,005 = 0,0129 ?,
??? t? - ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????:
t? =l?/(1000�V?) = 5,4/(1000�2,9) = 0,00186 ?,
??? l? - ????? ???? ??????? ??????:
l? = q/(b�h??) = 2,59/(3,2�0,15) = 5,4 ?;
t? - ??????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ? ????????????? ??????:
t? =l???/(1000�V???) = 20/(1000�5,8) = 0,00345 ?;
t??? - ??????? ??????? ?? ???????? ???:
t??? =l???/(1000�V???) = 20/(1000�7,9) = 0,00253 ?;
????? ????? ?? ?????? ????????????? ???? ??? ?????? h?? = 0,15 ? ??????????: 14400 ?2�0,15 = 2160 ?3. ??? ?????????????????? 580 ?3/?? ????? ????? ????? ???????? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ? 2 ????? ?? 2160/(580�2) =2 ??, ??? ?? ????????? ??????????? ???? ?????????? ????? 2-3 ??.
2. ?????????????????? 580 ?3/?? ????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?-498? ?? ???? ???????? ?-100, ? ???????????? ????? 8 ?3 (??????????????????? ??=593 ?3/??), ? ?-523 ?? ???? ???????? ?-140, ? ???????????? ????? 10 ?3 (??????????????????? ??=696 ?3/??).
3. ????????????? ?????????:
??????? 8.2
???????? ?????????????????????????????,
???, ?3/??I ????????????????? ??-8580II ????????????????? ??????? ?-498? ?? ???? ???????? ?-100593III ????????????????? ??????? ?-523 ?? ???? ???????? ?-140696
??????????? ????????? ?????????? 1 ?3 ?????? (??. ????. 8.17):
?_ =(1,08�?�?_??? )/?_?? , ???.
?_I=(1,08�1450)/580=2,7 ???.
?_II=(1,08�2560)/583=4,74 ???.
?_III=(1,08�3145)/696=4,88 ???.
??????????? ??????????? ????????:
?=1,07/?_?? ?�??_??/t_? , ???.?
?=(1,07�530000)/(580�306)=3,2 ???.
?=(1,07�560000)/(583�172)=6 ???.
?=(1,07�620000)/(696�300)=3,2 ???.
??????????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? 1 ?3 ??????:
? = ? + ??�?
?I = 2,7 + 0,15�3,2 = 3,18 ???/?3;
?II = 4,74 + 0,15�6 = 5,64 ???/?3;
?III = 4,88 + 0,15�3,2 = 5,36 ???/?3;
?II = 5,64 > ?III= 5,36 > ?I=3,18 ???/?3
???????????? ??????? ????????? ??-8.
???????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ??-8.
????? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ??????
1. ??????????????? ????? ??????? ????? ???????????.
??? ?????? ???????? ????? = 127,65 ?3 ????????? ?????????? ??-1514
? ??????? ????? 0,15 ?3.
2. ??????????? ????????? ?????????????????? ???????????:
??? ??? - ???? ?????????? ?????, ??? = 30 ????;
n?? - ????????? ?????, ????????? n?? = 2.
?????????????????? ?? ????? 175,7 ?3/???? ??? 175,7/8? = 22 ?3/? ?????
????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????:
?-3311? (V? = 0,4 ?3) ? ??????????????????? 22 ?3/?;
?-304? (V? = 0,4 ?3) ? ??????????????????? 22 ?3/?;
??-3322? (V? = 0,5 ?3) ? ??????????????????? 44 ?3/?; ??? ??????????????? ?????? ????????? ?????????????:
- ??? ??????????? ?-3311? (V? = 0,4 ?3) ????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ???-???-2505, ????????????????? Q = 3 ?;
- ??? ??????????? ?-304? (V? = 0,4 ?3) ????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ???-53?, ????????????????? Q = 3,5 ?;
- ??? ??????????? ??-3322? (V? = 0,5 ?3) ????????? ???????? ????? ?????-5510, ????????????????? Q = 7 ?;
3. ?????? ?????????? ????? ??? ????????????????? ?????? ?? ?????:
3.1.1 ??????????? ???????????????? ?????????????????? ??????????? ?-3311? (V? = 0,4 ?3):
??? ??? - ????? ??????? ?????? ??????????? (? ???�???) ??? ???????? ?????? ? ?????????, ???=4,5 ???�??? (?2-1-11, ????.3(3?)).
3.1.2. ??????????? ?????? ?????? ? ????? ??????????? ? ??????? ?????????:
??? V? - ?????????????? ????? ????? ???????????, V? = 0,4 ?3;
????.???? - ??????????? ?????????? ???????????, ??? ????? ?????? ????.??? = 27 % (??. ???? ??.2 "???????? ??????").
3.1.3. ??????????? ???? ?????? ? ????? ? ??????? ?????????:
??? ??? - ???????? ??? ?????? - ?????, ??? = 1,8 ?/?3 (?? ???????).
3.1.4. ??????????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?????? ? ???????? ?????????? ???-???-2505 ????????????????? Q = 3 ?:
3.1.5. ??????????? ???????????????? ????????????? ? ?3:
3. 1.6. ??????????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????? ???-???-2505 ? ????????????????? Q = 3 ?:
3.1.7. ??????????? ??????? ?????????????????? ?????????????:
??? ?1 - ????????????????? ????? ??????????????, ?1 = 8 ?;
t - ????? ??????? ??? ????????? ? ??????????, ?;
L - ????????? ??????????????? ?????? ?? ?????, L = 8 ??;
V - ??????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????, V = 18-36 ??/?.
3.1.8. ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????:
3.2.1. ??????????? ???????????????? ?????????????????? ??????????? ?-304? (V? = 0,4 ?3):
??? ??? - ????? ??????? ?????? ??????????? (? ???�???) ??? ???????? ?????? ? ?????????, ???=4,5 ???�??? (?2-1-11, ????.3(3?)).
3.2.2. ??????????? ?????? ?????? ? ????? ??????????? ? ??????? ?????????:
??? V? - ?????????????? ????? ????? ???????????, V? = 0,4 ?3;
????.???? - ??????????? ?????????? ???????????, ??? ????? ?????? ????.??? = 27 % (??. ???? ??.2 "???????? ??????").
3.2.3. ??????????? ???? ?????? ? ????? ? ??????? ?????????:
??? ??? - ???????? ??? ?????? - ?????, ??? = 1,8 ?/?3 (?? ???????).
3.2.4. ??????????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?????? ? ???????? ?????????? ???-53? ????????????????? Q = 3,5 ?:
3.2.5. ??????????? ???????????????? ????????????? ? ?3:
3.2.6. ??????????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????? ???-53? ? ????????????????? Q = 3 ?:
3.2.7. ??????????? ??????? ?????????????????? ?????????????:
??? ?1 - ????????????????? ????? ??????????????, ?1 = 8 ?;
t - ????? ??????? ??? ????????? ? ??????????, ?;
L - ????????? ??????????????? ?????? ?? ?????, L = 8 ??;
V - ??????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????, V = 18-36 ??/?.
3.2.8. ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????:
3.3.1. ??????????? ???????????????? ?????????????????? ??????????? ??-3322? (V? = 0,5 ?3):
??? ??? - ????? ??????? ?????? ??????????? (? ???�???) ??? ???????? ?????? ? ?????????, ???=3,5 ???�??? (?2-1-11, ????.3(4?)).
3.3.2. ??????????? ?????? ?????? ? ????? ??????????? ? ??????? ?????????:
??? V? - ?????????????? ????? ????? ???????????, V? = 0,5 ?3;
????.???? - ??????????? ?????????? ???????????, ??? ????? ?????? ????.??? = 27 % (??. ???? ??.2 "???????? ??????").
3.3.3. ??????????? ???? ?????? ? ????? ? ??????? ?????????:
??? ??? - ???????? ??? ?????? - ?????, ??? = 1,8 ?/?3 (?? ???????).
3.3.4. ??????????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?????? ? ???????? ?????????? ?????-5510 ????????????????? Q = 7 ?:
3.3.5. ??????????? ???????????????? ????????????? ? ?3:
3.3.6. ??????????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????-5510 ? ????????????????? Q = 7 ?:
3.3.7. ??????????? ??????? ?????????????????? ?????????????:
??? ?1 - ????????????????? ????? ??????????????, ?1 = 8 ?;
t - ????? ??????? ??? ????????? ? ??????????, ?;
L - ????????? ??????????????? ?????? ?? ?????, L = 8 ??;
V - ??????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????, V = 18-36 ??/?.
3.3.8. ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????:
4. ??????? 8.3
????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????:
????????
?????????????????????????????,
???, ?3/??I ?????????????????? ?-3311? ?
11 ??????????? ????? ???-???-250522?8=176II ?????????????????? ?-304? ? 8 ??????????? ????? ???-53?22?8=176III ?????????????????? ??-3322? ?
8 ??????????? ????? ?????-551044?8=352
5. ??????????? ????????? ?????????? 1 ?3 ?????? (??. ????. 8.17):
6. ??????????? ??????????? ????????:
7. ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? 1 ?3 ??????:
??????????? III ???????? ?????, ??????????: ?????????? ????? ??-3322? ? ??????? ????? V?=0,5 ?3 ? 8 ??????????? ????? ?????-5510 ????????????????? Q = 7 ?;
??????? 8.4
??????????? ?????????????? ??-3322?
??????????????????????????????1??????? ?????, ?3g0,52????????????????? ???????? ?????, ???t?163?????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????, ?R??7,54????? ???????, ?L?2,25?????????? ?????? ???????? ? ?????????, ?R?5,26?????????? ?? ??? ???? ?? ??? ????????, ?b0,527?????? ?? ??? ???? ??????, ?h2,028?????? ????????, ?H?4,89?????????? ???????, ?: ?????/??????/??????10,4/3,0/3,2
??????? 8.5
??????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????-5510
??????????????????????????????1????????????????, ?Q7,02?????? ????????????? ????????, ?B?2,50
?????? ?????? ??????? ???????? 1. ??????????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????:
2. ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??? ???????? ?????? ? ???????????? ???????? ??? ????????????? ?????:
3. ??????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??? ????????????? ???????? ??????:
???. 6. ????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ????????? (??????? ????????) 1 - ?????????? ?????????? (1?) ?? ?????? ?? ????????? ????? ??????;
4. ??????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??? ????????? ??? ?????????? ???
???????:
???. 7. ????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ??????
?????? ?????????????? ??? ????????? ?????? ? ????? (??????)
??????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????-5510 ??? ????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ?? ??????. ??????? ?????????? ????????????????? ????? ???????? ????? ?????? L?? = 160/2 = 80 ? = 0,08 ??:
?????????: 4 ????????????? ?????-5510 ??? ??????????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ? ????? ? ???? 1-21/? (??. ???? 2) ? 8 ?????????????? ??? ?? ????? ??? ??????????????? ?????? ?? ?????.
????? ????? ??? ????????? ?????:
??? ?????? ????? ??? ???????????? ????? ?? ?????????? ??????????
??????????? ??????????????? ??????????:
???? ????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ??????;
???? ??????????? ??? ?????? ???????? ????? ? ????? ???????;
???? ????????????? ?? ?????? ??????.
??? ????????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ????- ? ??????????????? ?????? ???? 2?? ? 4??. ??????? 8.6
???????????? ????????
????? ??????????????????????, ??????,q?, ????????, h?, ?2??5564,54?20147,84,5
1. ??????????? ????????? ???????????????? ?????:
Q?? = ??? + qc = 2290 + 147,8 = 2 438 ?? = 2,4 ?,
??? P?? - ?????????? ????? ???????????? ????????. ?????????? ????? ????? ???????? 618,8 ?? (??. ?????? ??????????? ?????), ????? ????? (??????? 0,8 ?3) ? ??????? ?????????? 2290 ??. ? ?????? ????????? ????? ?????, P?? = 2 290 ??.
qc - ????? ????????????? ????????, qc = 147,8 ?? (??. ????. 8.6).
2. ??????????? ?????? ??????? ????? ?????:
H?? = ho + h?? + h3 +hc = 2,82+0,5+4,5 =7,82 ?,
??? h? - ?????????? ????? ???????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ????? ?????????????? ?????????, h? = 0 ?;
h?? - ?????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?????????, ?????? ????? ???????? ???????????? 1,8 ?, ?????? ????? 2,82 ?. ? ?????? ????????? h?? = 2,82 ?;
h? - ?????? ?????? ? ??????? ?????????, h? = 4,5 ? (??. ????. 8.6).
??????????? ???????????? ?????? ????? ?????:
L_???=a+3,0+d+0,6+L_?/2=2+3,0+1,5+0,6+2,3=9,4?
??? c - ??????????? ???????? ?????? ????? ???????????? ?????? ????? ? ????????? ????? ???????????? ????????, c=1,5 ?;
d - ????????? ??????;
a - ?????????? ?? ??????? ????????? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ???????? ?????,
4. ??????????? ????? ?????? ?????:
??????? 8.7
????????? ???? ???-25 ?? ??????? ?????? 22,5 ? ??? ??????:
????????? ????????? ???????????????? ????????? ?????Q??, ?H??, ?L??, ?L???, ?Q??, ?H??, ? L??, ?L???, ?2,47,829,410,83,0018,0012,0022,50
??????? 8.8
??????????? ?????????????? ????? ???-10?
???????????????????1??????? ???????? ?? ?????, ???0,132????????, ?: ??????/??????/?????? ???????, r3,21/3,79/4,73????? ? ??????? ?????????, ?9
???????? ????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ??????:
- ??????? ???????????,
??? r - ?????????? ??????, ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????, r = 4,7 ? (??. ???. ?????????????? ?????);
1,0 - ?????????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ? ???????????? ?????????????;
D - ?????????? ????? ??????? ???? ????? ? ????? ???????????
???????????, D = 4,6/2 = 2,3 ?.
????? ????? ??? ?????????? ??????
??????????? ????????? ??????????????????:
????????? 2 ???????????????? ??-4502. ?????????????????? ????? ????? ???=216 ?2/??
??????? 8.9
??????????? ?????????????? ???????????????? ??-4502:
???????????????????1??????? ??????????? ???????, ?20,15752??????? ???????????? ????, ?0,3-0,43????? ? ??????? ?????????, ??81,5
????? ???????????????????
?????????????????? ?????????? ? ?????: ??? = 49,44 ?3/?? (??. ?????? ????? ????????).
1. ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ??????:
??? ??? - ?????????????????? ??????????;
t1, t2 - ????? ???????? ? ????????, ?;
t3 - ????? ????????? ? ???????????, ?;
V1 - ???????? ?????????? ??????????????, V1 = 30 ??/?;
V2 - ???????? ????????? ??????????????, V2 = 40 ??/?;
l - ????????? ????????? ???????? ?????, ?? (?? ???????) l=16??;
? - ????????????????? ??????? ?????, ? = 8 ?;
?? - ??????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?? ???????, ??=0,85;
??????? 8.10
????????? ????????? ?????:
????????????????????????? ????????, ?3?????, ?3I ????????2 ?????? ??-159 5+55+5=10II ??????????-92-1? + ??-1303+63+6=9III ??????????-9??99
2. ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ????? (??. ????. 8.17):
3. ??????????? ??????????? ????????:
4. ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ?? 1 ?3 ??????:
?I = 476,21+0,15�271,32 = 516,91 ???/?3;
?II = 567,96+0,15�328,11 = 617,18 ???/?3.
?III = 371,36+0,15�220,84 = 404,47 ???/?3.
?II = 617,18 ???/?3 > ?I = 516,91 ???/?3> ?III = 404,47 ???/?3;
??????????? III ???????? ?????, ??????????: ??????????????????? ????? ??-9?? ? ???????????? ????????????? ???????? 9 ?3.
??????? 8.11
??????????? ?????????????? ??-9??
???????????????????1??????????? ????????????? ????????, ?392?????????????? ????? ????????????? ????????, ?3153??????? ??????????????-2584?????????? ???????, ?: ?????/??????/??????11,9/2,6/3,85????? ???????????????? ????????????, ?19
????? ????????????????
????????? ?????????????????? ????????????????: ??? = 49,44 ?3/??;
1. ?????? ???????? ????? ? ???????????? ????? ????????????, ?????????????, ???????? ??????????? ? ??????????????????? ?? ????? 49,44 ?3/?? ??? 49,44/8 = 6,18 ?3/?. ??????? 8.12
????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????:
????????????????????????????????, ?3/?I ?????????? 80-205-65II ??????????-126?5-65
2. ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ????? (??. ????. 8.17):
3. ??????????? ??????????? ????????:
4. ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ?? 1 ?3 ??????:
?I = 502,43+0,15�220,84 = 535,56 ???/?3;
?II = 502,43+0,15�233,46= 537,45 ???/?3.
?II = 537,45 ???/?3 > ?I = 535,56 ???/?3;
???????????? ????? ??????? I ???????? ?????, ??????????: ??????????????? ????? ?? 80-20 ??????????????????? 5-65 ?3/?. ??????? 8.13
??????????? ?????????????? ?? 80-20:
???????????????????1????? ?????? ?? ?????????, ?802????????? ?????? ?? ???????????, ?4003?????????? ???????, ?: ?????/??????/??????11,0/2,5/3,5
????? ??????????
????????? ???????????????? ?????????????????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ????? ??? = 61,54 ?3 ? ????? ??? 49,44/8? = 6,18 ?3/?. ??? ??? ? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????? ????? ???????? 2 ?????????, ?? ????????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? 3 ??. (? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ???? ????????? ???????? ????????).
N??? = n + 1, ???,
N??? = 2+1= 3 ???.
??? n - ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????, ??? (??. ?. ?4-1-49);
????? ?????????????????? ?????? ?????????: 6,18 ?3/?/ 2 ?? = 3,1 ?3/?.
??????? 8.14
????????? ????????? ??????????? (??. ????. 21):
??????????????????, ?3/???.?, ?.???I ??????????-752-42,91II ??????????-117?3-63,29III ??????????-1123-431. ????????????? ????????? ???????????? ?? ???. ????????? - ??. ????. 8.17. ???????????? ????? ??????? I ???????? ???????????: 3 ?? ????????? ????????? ????? ??-75 (???? = 2-4 ?3/?).
??????? 8.15
??????????? ?????????????? ????????? ??-75 ???????????????????1??????? ???????????, ??282?????? ????????, ?0,253????? ??????? ?????, ??4104??????? ???????????? ????, ??200-400
??????? 8.16
??????? ??????? ????????????? ?????????? ????? ? ?????????? ??????, ????????????????? ????????? ??????*?????, ????, ?????????????? ????????? ??????, ??.?, ?.?????????????? ????? ???? ?????? ? ????, t?, ????????????? ?, ?????????????? ????????, ?, ?????????????? ???????, ?, ???/?3?????????? ? ??????????-814505303062,73,23,18?-498?25605601724,7465,64?-52331456203004,883,25,36??????????? + ??????????????-3311? (+11 ???? ???-???-2505)1220(+11*821)560(+11*110)300(343)62,932,867,82?-304? (+8 ???? ???-53?)1170(+8*841)540(+8*130)300(343)48,529,452,91??-3322? (+8 ???? ?????-5510)1484(+8*1000)720(+8*310)384(343)29,127,733,26??????????????????-4502-12343-0,26-?????????????????????-159 + ??-15910900 + 109002150+2150343476,21271,32516,91??-92-1?+
??-13010500+155002100+3100343567,96328,11617,18??-9??170003500343371,36220,84404,47?????????????????? 80-20230003500343502,43220,84535,56??-126?230003700343502,43233,46537,45???????????-75-2,91343-0,55-??-117?-3,29343-0,62-??-112-3343-0,57-
9. ?????? ????????
????????? ??????????????????? ????????-??????????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ?????? (t=1,2??) ? ???????.
????????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?????,
?????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ?????
??????????? ???????? ????? ?????? ????????????? ??????
V_h=V_???/(K�N_max�S_min )=1038,24/(8�21�1)=6,18 ?/?
??? Smin - ??????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????(??? ????? ??????????? ??? ?????????????, ?2
K - ????????????????? ?????, ?
Nmax - ???????????? ?????????? ????????
????? P_???=P_max=J�(0,27�V_h+0,45)�K_1�K_2=2500�(0,27�6,18+0,45)�1,2�0,85=5402,43 ??/?^2 ????? ????????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ????? ??????????????? ??? (???. 21). ????????? ????????, ??????????? ?? ????????? ????????:
P_C=P_???+P_B=5402,43+200=5602,43 ??/?^2 ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????:
P_H=(P_B+P_C)/2=(200+5603)/2=2801 ??/?^2 ??????????? ????????? ????????:
P_P=1,3�P_H=1,3�2801=3642 ??/?^2 ??????????? ???? ????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????????? (???. 21):
l_1=v((133�R_?�d^2)/q)=v((133�22,4�?1,2?^2)/(3642�?10?^(-2) ))=10,85 ?? ??? R? - ????????????? ?????? ????????? ???????, ????????? R? =22,4 ??/??2;
d - ??????? ???? ????????, d=1,2??;
q - ???????? ???????? ????????: q=Pp�a=3642 ??/?;
a - ???????? ?????? ????????, a=1?.
??? ??????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ?? ???????????:
l_1=?((3,05�E_ �d^2)/P_H )=?((3,05�85000�?1,2?^2)/(2801�?10?^(-2) ))=23,71 ?? ??? ? - ?????? ?????????, ?=85000 ??/??2 ??? ??????.
????????? ?????????? ????? ????????? l=20??:
23,71??>l=20??>10,85?? ???? ???????? ???????????? ? ?????? ???????, ?????? ?????????? ????? ????????? l1=20??. ?????? ???????? ? ??????? ????????: ???????? ????????: ????????????? ?????? ?3,2.
????????? ??? ??????? ??????? ? 8? ? ????????????? ??????? ????? ???? 8240-97: F2=8,98 ??2; x0=1,38 ??; Ix=89,4 ??4.
??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????:
?) ?????????? ?????? ??????? ???????
y_??=(F_1�y_1 ?�??_1+F_2�y_2 ?�??_2)/(F_1 ?�??_1 ?+F?_2�?_2 )=(20�1,2�0,5�1,2�0,9+8,98�(1,2+0,5�8)�7,85)/(20�1,2�0,9+8,98�7,85)=4,12 ?? ?) ??????????? ?????? ???????:
I_??=I_1+?(y�y_1)?^2�F_1+E_2/E_1 �(I_2+(y�y_2 )^2�F_2 )=(20�?1,2?^3)/12+(4,12-1,2�0,5)^2�20�1,2+(2,06�?10?^6)/(8,5�?10?^4 )�(89,4+(1,2+0,5�8-4,12)^2�8,98)=2,88+297,37+2420=2720 ????^4 ?) ??????????? ?????? ?????????????:
W_??=I_??/y_max =2720/(9,2-4,12)=535 ????^3 ?????????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ?? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????????(???. 24):
l_1=v( &(R�W_??)/(0,125�P_p�l_1 ))=v( &(22,4�535)/(0,125�3642�?10?^(-2)�20))=11,47 ?? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ?? ??????? ?? ???????????:
l_1=?((3656�E_ �I_??)/(l_1�P_H ))=?((3656�85000�2720)/(20�2801))=247,11 ?? ????????? ?????????? ????? ????????? l=50??:
247,11??>l=50??>11,47?? 10. ????????? ??????? ????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????
??????? 10.1
????? ???????????? ??????????.???.???-??12345???????? ??????1?????? ????????????? ???? ?????? ????????????S = (???+20)�(L??+20)1000 ?214,402??????????? ?????????? ??????V??.??? = S�h??1000 ?32,163?????????? ?????? ???????????? ? ????????? ? ?????????V????? = V???? + V???.??? + (V???.??? - V???.???)100 ?311,914?????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? (?????)V??? = V??? = V???.?100 ?395,325??????????? ?????? ? ?????V??? = V??? = V???.?100 ?395,326?????????? ?????? ??????? (?????????)V???.??? = (????+0,1)�(L???+0,1)�h???�N????1 ?3152,37???????? ??????? ????????? ????????????V???.?.????? = V???.? - V???.?.???100 ?377,368???????? ??????? ????????? ????????????V???.?.????? = V???.? - V???.?.???100 ?377,369??????? ??????? ????? ??????? ? ????????? ???????V???.?.??? = S?�t???�N????1 ?31796,2610?????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????---100 ?3011?????????? ?????? ??????????????????S_(???? )=V_(???.?)/t_?? 100 ?2317,74??????????????? ??????12????????? ????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ?????????? + ????100 ?2,1113?????????? ??????????? ??????????? + ?????211,3714?????????????? ?????? ???????S?? + S????23134,88?????????? ???????? ??????????15?????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ? ????? ?????????. ?????? ??????????? ?????100 ?0,1716?????? ???????? ??????????S??? = S??.???�N?????2141,1217????? ???????? ?????V?????.???.???? = V????100 ?31,4518?????? ???????? ????? ? ????? ???????V???.???.???? = V?????.???.????�?100 ?31,4819??????? ???????? ????? ? ???????????V?????.???.???? = V?????3145,1520???????? ??????? ???????? ????????????. ?????? ??????????? ??????2141,1221?????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ???????????????. ?????? ??????????? ?????100 ?0,17?????? ???????? ???????????22?????? ??????????? ??????? ? ????? ?????????. ????. 4.1100 ?1,9423?????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ???????????S ???.?? = S??�N?????22993,7624????????? ??????????? ??? ??????????????. ????.4.1??84???????? ????????25???????? ??????????? ??????? ????????S ???.?? = S??�N?????22993,7626???????? ????????????. ????. 4.1??8427?????? ?????????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ???????????????. ????. 4.1100 ?1,94????????? ????????28????????? ?????????? ?????, ??????????. ????. 5.1100 ?0,8929?????????? ?????????? ?????: ???????47,1230?? ?? ????????12,1031?????? ????? ?????? ? ????? ???????????. ????. 5.1100 ?0,8932????????? ?????????? ????? ????????. ????. 5.11 ?????50433?? ?? ?????????. ????. 5.11 ?????42034????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????. ????. 5.1?29,74?????? ???????? ????? ??????1????? ???????? ????? ?? ??????????????????? ? ???????V?????.???.???? = V????100 ?310,382?????? ???????? ????? ? ????? ??????? ? ???????? ??????V???.???.???? = V?????.???.????�??31059,013??????? ???????? ????? ? ??????????? ??????? ?? 25 ?3V?????.???.???? = V?????31038,24?????? ???????? ????? ????????????????????1????? ???????? ????? ?? ??????????????????? ? ??????? ????????????????V?????.???.???? = V????100 ?310,382?????? ???????? ????? ? ????? ??????? ? ???????? ?????????????????V???.???.???? = V?????.???.????�?100 ?310,593??????? ???????? ????? ? ??????????? ??????? ?? 25 ?3V?????.???.???? = V?????31038,24
11. ?????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ? ????????? ???????
1. ??? ?????? ?????? ????????????? ???? ??? ?????? ? ???????? ??????????? ??-8 ?????? ??????- I (???? ??. 2 "???????? ??????", ????. 1, ?. 6).
2. ??? ????? ?????? (????????? 1,8 ?/?3) ??? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ?????????? - II; ??? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????? - II.
3. ??? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ???? ?????? ???? (?. 2 ????? 1 ???? ??. 2 "???????? ??????"). ?? ???? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????? - II, ??? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?????? - I.
4. ??? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? - II (??. ???? ??. 2 "???????? ??????", ????. 1, ?????? ?????? ???????? ??????).
????????? ? ??????????? (??. ????. 10.1):
??? ???????????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ? ????? (??. ???. 2, 2?) ??????????? "?" ???????????? ? ??????????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? (??. ??????? (7)): ??? =60 ?. ??????????? ?????? ?? 10 ? ??????????? ? ???. 2, ????????? 60 - 10 ? = 50 ? - ??????????? ? ???. 2? ? ?????? ???????????? ? = 50/10 = 5.
??? ?????????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ???? ????????????? ?????? ???????????? ????????, ??? ??????????? ??????? ???????????. ????????? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ?????, ????? ????? ????????? ??????? ????????????:
???/2=0,38/2=0,19 ???�??? (??. ????. 10.1, ?????? 14).
??? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ????????? ?????? ??????, ????? ????? ????????? ???????: ???/2=0,38/2=0,19 ???�???. ?????? ????????????? ???????? ????????. ???????? ???? ?????????, ?????? ?????, ??????????? ???????, ???????, ????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????. ????????? ?????? ?????? 10%, ????? ????? =???�0,1=0,19�0,1=0,019 (??. ????. 10.1, ???. 19, 26).
?? ???????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ????? ?????? ?????:
??? ?? = ???�0,1/2= 0,12�0,1/2 = 0,006 = 0,01 (??. ????.10.1, ???. 23, 28).
?????? 1
?????? ????? ??????? ?? ????????? ??????????????????? ??-9??.
????? ????????? ??????????????????? ?? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????????? 8 ??? ??? 0,133 ?.
???????? ??????????? ???????? 9 ?3. ????? ??????? ?? ????????? 100 ?3 ???????? ????? ????????: (100*0,133)/9 = 1,48 ???*???.
???=1,48 ???*???.
?????? 2
?????? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????? ? ??????????? ????????????????? ?? 80-20.
??????????? ???????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????:
?? = ?? � ?1 � ?2 = 65�0,4�0,65 = 16,9 ?3/?,
??? ?? - ??????????? ?????????????????? ????????????????;
?1 - ??????????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ??????????????????
? ????????????????, ?1 = 0,4;
?2 - ??????????? ???????? ?????????????????? ????????????????, ??????????? ???????????? ????? ??????, ?2 = 0,65;
?????? ????????? ????? ?? ???? ???????: ???????? ?????????????? ????????? 6 ????. - 1 ??? ? ???????? 2 ????.- 1 ???.
????? ??????? ?? ?????? 100 ?3 ???????? ????? ??? ?????? ????????:
(100�1)/16,9 = 5,92 ???�???
??? ?????????: (100)/16,9/1??? = 5,92 ???�???.
????? ???????.???.????? ???????????????? ???????????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ????????????? ????????????????? ????????????*??????*????????*??????*????????.n???n???123456789101112131415??????? ?????????????????????????????.4*?.6?.7/8??????.4*?.9?.10/8?????????? ????????????? ??????1?????? ????????????? ???? ?????? ???????????? (I)1000 ?214,4?2-1-5 (1?)0,8412,011,510,8412,011,51???. 6?10??-82??????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ????? ?????????? ?? 10 ?(I)100 ?321,6?2-1-22 ????.2(2?) (?=0,85)0,5510,11,260,5510,11,26???. 6?10??-82???????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ????? ?????????? 10 ? ????? ?????(I)100 ?321,6?2-1-22 ????.2(2?) (?=0,85; ?=5)0,4844,065,510,4844,065,51???. 6?10??-83?????????? ?????? ???????????? ? ????????? ? ????????? (II)100 ?311,91?2-1-11 ????.5,6,7(3?)3,440,55,063,440,55,06???. 6?10??-3322?4?????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? (?????) (II)100 ?395,32?2-1-11 ????.5,6,7(3?)2,7257,3632,172,7257,3632,17???. 6?5??????????? ?????? ? ????? ?? ?????????? ?? 10 ? (II)100 ?395,32?2-1-22 ????.2(2?) (?=0,85)0,6855,096,890,6855,096,89???. 6?10??-86?????????? ?????? ??????? (?????????) (II)1 ?3152,3?2-1-47 ????.1(1?)1,3197,9924,75000????. 2?01---7???????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?? 5? (II)100 ?377,36?2-1-34 (3?)0,4333,264,160,4333,264,16???. 6?10??-88???????? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ? ??????? ? ???????? (I)100 ?377,36?2-1-13 ????.5 (3?)2,1162,4620,312,1162,4620,31???. 6?10??-3322?9??????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ??????? (II)1 ?31796,26?2-1-58 ????.2 (4?)0,5898,13112,27000????. 2?-1, 1?-102---10?????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????100 ?30---000000---00---10??????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????? ?????100 ?30---00000011?????????? ?????? ?????????????????? (II)100 ?2317,74?2-1-59 ???? 2,3 (2?)1,9603,7175,46000????. 3?01??-4502?????:289,3576,87??????????????? ??????12????????? ????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ???????100 ?2,11?1-5 ????.1,2 (1?,1?)
(?=0,86)2240511202,5?. 2? - 2 ???. 6?12???-2513?????????? ??????????? ?????????211,34?5-1-1 (1,2)0,65137,3717,170,3267,638,45?. 4? - 1, 3? - 1 ???. 6?12???-2514?????????????? ?????? ????????23134,88?4-1-40 (1)0,381191,25148,910,19595,6374,45??. 4?-1, 3? - 1 ???. 6?12???-2515????????? ?????????? ????? ? ????????100 ?0,89?1-5 ????.1,2 (1?,1?)
(?=0,86)2216,832,1118,411,05?. 2? - 2 ???. 6?12???-2516?????????? ?????????? ?????: ???????47,12?5-1-1 (1,2)0,6530,633,830,3215,081,88?. 4? - 1, 3? - 1 ???. 6?12???-2517?? ?? ????????12,10?5-1-1 (3)1012115,13000?. 3?01---?????:192,1488,33?????????? ???????? ??????????18?????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ? ????? ???????100 ?0,17?1-6 ????.2 (17?,17?)
(?=0,86)233,950,4911,151,910,24?. 2? - 2 ???. 6?12???-2519?????? ???????? ???????????2141,12?4-1-34 ????.1,2(4?) (????=0,1)0,4563,57,940,233,250,41?. 4? - 1, 2? - 1, ???. 6?12???-2520????? ???????? ?????100 ?31,45?????? 122,90,36000?. 2?01---21?????? ???????? ????? ? ????? ???????100 ?31,48?????? 29,6214,241,789,6214,241,78?. 2? -1, ???. 6? -111???-25/??-4022??????? ???????? ????? ? ????????????3145,15?4-1-49 ????.1(3)0,3347,95,99000?. 4? - 1, 2? -102---23???????? ??????? ???????? ???????????2141,12?4-1-34 ????.1,2(4?) (????=0,1)0,2636,694,590,131,830,23?. 3? - 1, 2? - 1, ???. 6?12???-2524?????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ?????????????100 ?0,17?1-6 ????.2 (17?,17?)
(?=0,86)233,950,4911,151,910,24?. 2? - 2 ???. 6?12???-25?????:21,642,9?????? ???????? ???????????25?????? ??????????? ??????? ? ????? ???????100 ?1,94?1-6 ????.2 (17?,17?)2344,675,5811,522,332,79?. 2? - 2 ??? 6?12???-2526?????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ????????????22993,76?4-1-34 ????.1,2(4?) (????=0,1)0,451347,19168,40,2368,868,61?. 4? - 1, 2? - 1, ???. 6?12???-2527????????? ??????????? ??? ??????????????84?5-1-2 (4?,4?)0,2722,682,840,1411,761,47?. 4? - 1, 3? -1, ???. 6?12???-25?????:176,8212,87???????? ????????28???????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????22993,76?4-1-34 ????.1,2(4?) (????=0,1)0,26778,3897,30,1338,924,86?. 4? - 1, 2? - 1, ???. 6?12???-2529???????? ????????????84?5-1-2 (4?,4?)
(?=0,8)0,2717,142,270,149,4081,18?. 4? - 1, 3? -1, ???. 6?12???-2530?????? ?????????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ?????????????100 ?1,94?1-6 ????.2 (17?,17?)2344,675,5811,522,332,79?. 2? - 2 ???. 6?12???-25?????:105,158,83????????? ????????31?????? ????? ?????? ? ????? ?????????100 ?0,89
0,88953?1-6 ????.2 (17?,17?)2320,462,5611,510,231,28?. 2? - 2 ???. 6?12???-2532????????? ?????????? ????? ??????1 ?????504?4-1-44 ????.1 (1?)0,42211,6826,460,21105,8413,23??. 4? -1, 2? - 3, ???. 6?14???-2533?? ?? ???????1 ?????420?4-1-44 ????.1 (?)0,24100,812,6000??. 3? - 1, 2? - 203---34????????? ? ????? ?????????? ?????????29,74?4-1-46 ????.1 (1?)8237,9229,74000??. 4? - 1, 2? - 102---?????:71,3614,51?????? ???????? ????? ??????35????? ???????? ????? ?? ??????????????????? ? ???????100 ?310,38??. ?????? 11,4815,381,92000?. 2?01---36?????? ???????? ????? ? ????? ??????? ? ???????? ???????31059,01?1-6 ????.2 (16?,16?)
(?=0,86)0,29264,1233,010,145132,0616,5?. 4? - 1, 2? - 1, ???. 6?12???-2537??????? ???????? ????? ? ??????????? ??????? ?? 25 ?3?31038,24?4-1-49 ????.1(4)0,26269,9433,74000?. 4? - 1, 2? - 102---?????:68,6716,5?????? ???????? ????? ?????????????????38????? ???????? ????? ?? ??????????????????? ? ??????? ????????????????100 ?310,38??. ?????? 11,4815,381,92000?. 2?01---39?????? ???????? ????? ? ????? ??????? ? ???????? ?????????????????100 ?310,59??. ?????? 25,9262,697,845,9262,697,84?. 2? - 1, ???. 6?11??-4040??????? ???????? ????? ? ??????????? ??????? ?? 25 ?3?31038,24?4-1-49 ????.1(4)0,26269,9433,74000?. 4? - 1, 2? - 102---?????:43,57,84????? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????:??????68,6716,5?????????????????43,57,84??????????: ????? ???????????? ? ????????????? ?????900213??????? 11.1
???????? ??????????:
?-?????????; ???-????????; ????-????????; ?-??????????; ?-????????; ??-???????,
??-??????????; ?-???????;
n???-?????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ?????; n???-?????????? ??????? ? ??????? ?????.
?? ???? ???????? ?????? ?????? - ?????? ? ????????????????? - ??????????? (? ??????????? ?????- ? ???????????????) ???????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????????????????.
12. ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ????? (??. ???? 2)
?????? ??????? ????????? ?? ????? ??????? ?????, ?????????? ? ???? (??. ????. 11.1). ?????????? ??????, ??????????? ????? ???????? ???????????? (????????), ????? ????? ?????. ??? ??????????? ????? ????????? ????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ???????.
???????? ????. 6 ???? 3.03.01-87 [7] ??? ???????????????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ???? ?? ????? 30% ?????????. ??? ?????? ?????? ?25 (Rb=14,5 ???) ???? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ????????? - ?? ????? 30% ?? ????????? - ??? ??????????? ?????? �0�? ?????????? t30%R28 = 3 ?????.
??????????: ? ???????? ??????? ??????? ???????????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ? ?????????????? ? ?????????????? ????????????? (?????? ? ?????? ???????), ??? ??? ??????????????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ??????.
?????? ????????????????? ???????? ????? (??. ????. 11.1)
1. ?????????? ????????, ?????? ????????????? ???? ? ??????????? ?????? ? ????? (???. 1, 2, 2?). ???? ?????????? ?????? - 2-3 ???. ?????? ?????????????????:
????????? 2 ?????????? ??-8 ? 2 ?????. ??????? 1: ???. 6? - 2???.
2. ?????????? ?????? ???????????? (???. 3, 4). ????????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?? ?????????? - ?????? ????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???????. ???? ?????????? ?????? ?? ????? 30 ????. ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ? ????????????????? ?????:
????????? 1 ?????????? ??-3322? ? 2 ?????. ??????? 2: ???. 6? -1 ???.
3. ???????? ?????? (???. 38-40). ???? ???????? ????? ???????????? ?? ???????????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ? ?????. ????? ??????????: 2 ??? (4? - 1 ???, 2? - 1 ???):
??????????: ????????????? ?????????? ?? ????????? (????? 21 ???????? (??. ?????? ????????), ????? ????????????????? ??????? ???????? ????? - 8 ????, ????? ? ?????? ???????? ????? - 3 ????). ??????? 3: ???. 6? -1, ???. 4? -1 , 2? -1 ???.
4. ?????? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????????? (???. 25-27, 31-34).
????????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ????? - ?????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? - ?? ????? 10 ? ?? ?????????? ?????. ?????? ????? ???????? ???? - 4 ???.
???? ?????? ????????? ?????????????????? ???????? ?????, ?? ???? ??? � ???? = 11 ??. ??? ????????? ????????, ?????????? ????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????????, ??????? ?????? ????????????????? ?????????? ?? ????????????:
????????? 1 ???? ???-25. ??????? 4: ???. 6?-1, ?. 4?-6, 3?-6 ???.
?????? ????????????????? ??????????????? ?????
5. ???????? ???????? ? ??????????? (???. 28-30). ?????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?? ????? 30% ?? ????????? (t30%R28), ?? ???? - ????? 3 ????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?????. ????????? ?????? - ????? 3 ????? ????? ????????? ???????? ?????, ?? ???? ???? � ???? = 11 ??.
?????? ????????????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????:
??????????? ????????????????? ??????????? ?????:
????????? 1 ???? ???-25. ??????? 5: ???.6?-1, ?. 4?-3, 3?-2 ???.
6. ?????????? ???????? ?????????? (???. 18-24). ?????? ????? - ?? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ??????? ????????. ????????? ????? - ??????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ?? 1-2 ??. ?????? ????? ???????? ???? - 2 ???. ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????????, ??????? ?????? ???????? ?? ????????????:
????????? 1 ???? ???-25. ??????? 6: ???. 6? -1, ???. 4?-1, 2?-1 ???.
7. ????????? ????????? ????????, ????????, ?????????? (???. 12-17).
????????? ????? ?? ?????????, ?????????? - ???????????? ??? ????? ????????? ????????? ????? ????????. ????? ????????????????? ????? ?? ????????? ????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ??????????, ?????????? ??????, ? ????????? ??????? ????????:
?????????? ????? ??? ?????????? ????? ? ???????? ????:
????? ??????????? ????????????????? ????????? ?????:
?????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ???? ?????:
????????? 2 ????? ???-10?. ??????? 7: ???. 6?-2, ? 4?-2, 3?-3 ???.
8. ??????????? ?????? ? ????? (???. 5):
???? = ???? - 0,5�??? = 19 - 0,5�2 = 18 ??;
?????????? ????? ??? ?????????? ????? ? ???????? ????:
????? ??????????? ????????????????? ???????????????? ?????:
????????? 1 ????????? ??-8 ? 1 ?????. ??????? 10: ???. 6? - 1 ???.
9. ???????? ??????? (???. 7, 8). ???????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ????????????. ????????? 1 ?????????? ? 1 ????????? (??????? 10 ? 2). ????????? ?????? ?????? - ????? 1 ???? ????? ????????? ????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ? ????? ????????? ???????? ? ?????? ????????, ?? ???? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ?? ????? 10 ? (??. ???. ?????), ??? ????????????? ??????????? ???????????? (??. ??????? ????????????).
????????????????? ????? ???????????? ? ??????????:
????????? 1 ?????????? ??-3322? ? 2 ????? (??????? 2) ? 1 ????????? ??-8 ? ???? ????? (??????? 10).
10. ?????????? ?????? ??????? (?????????) (???. 6). ????????? ?????? - ??????? ????????? ????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ?? 1 ??. ?????? ?? ????????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????, ?? ???? ???? = ??? = 6 ??. ?????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ???? ?????:
????????? 5 ??? ? 1?????. ??????? 8: ???????? 2? -5 ???.
11. ???????? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????? (???. 9, 11). ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ???????, ????? ????.??? = ????.???:
????????? 10 ??? ? 2 ?????. ??????? 9: ???????? 2? -10 ???.
?????? ??????
? ?????????????
??????????????-?? ??? ? ?????? ?????????????
??????????????-?? ??? ? ?????1???????? ??????????626????????, ????????4/2
61/1
12???????? ???????????617????????? ????????4/3
63/4
23????????, ????????4/2
61/1
18????????254?????????, ????????4/3
66/6
19????????2105?????????, ????????4/3
63/2
110????????61 ??????????: ??????? ? ??????? ????? ????????? ?????????: ?????????? ?????????? ???????????, ???????????, ?????????? ????????.
?????? ??????????? ???????
1. ??????????? ?????????? ????? ?? ???????:
???? =? / ??? =124/31 = 4,
??? ? = 124 ?? (??. ???? 2 ?.12 ?????? ???????????? ?????);
??? = 31 ?? (??. ?????? ???????????? ?????).
2. ??????????? ??????????? ?????????????:
???? = ???? /?? = 689,5 / 900 = 0,77,
??? ???? = 8,28+37,23+6,89+4,16+20,31+194,14+21,64+248,18+105,12+43,5=689,5 ???�??;
S? = 900 ???�?? (??. ?????? ???????????? ?????);
3. ??????????? ??????????????? ???????? ???????:
???? = Nmax / N?? = 53/28 = 2 [????] = 1,5-2,0,
??? N?? = S? / ? = 900/32 = 26,5 ???.
13. ??????????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ????????
???????????????? ??????
?????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????? (?????? ?? ??????????? ? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????????????).
?? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ??????:
1. ???????? ?????????? ???? ? ??????????;
2. ?????????? ???? ???????? ?????, ????? ?????????????, ?????????? ?????????? ????? ? ????????. ???????? ??? ????????????? ?????? ???????????? ? ???? 1-21/?, ??? ????? ?? ????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????? ????? (??. ???? 1).
3. ??????????? ????????? ???????? ? ??????????????;
??????????????? ??????
?????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ??-8 ?? ???? ???????? ?-100 ? ????????????? ???? ? ??????????? ????????? ? ????? (??????) ? ???? 1-21/?.
?? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????? ????? ? ????? ?? ???????? ?????????????, ??????? ????? ?? ?????. ??????? ???????? ?????? ????????: ??? ??????? ? ????????, ????????? ???????? - ?????????????? ?? ?????? ? ????????????. ??????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ????? 1-1,2 ? ?? ?????????? ??????????, ??????? ??????? ?? 5-10 ?????? ????? ??????? ?? ????? 1 ? ? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ????. ???????? ?????????? ?? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????. ?????? ???????? ? ????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????????????? ??????. ??? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ???? ????? ???-25.
???????? ??????
?????????? ?????? ? ????????? ???????????? ???????????? ??-3322?, ????????????? ???????? ??????? ? ?????? ???????????? 0,5 ?3. ?????? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ?? ??? ? - ?? ??? 1 ? ??? 21. ?????? ? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ??????????????? ????? (??. ???? 1). ???????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?? ??????????????? ?????? ? ????? (??????) ??????????????? ?????-5510 (??. ??????). ??????????? ? ????????????? ?????? ? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ??-8. ??? ?????? ?????? ??????? 8 ?????????? ?????-5510 (??. ??????).
?????? ????? ?? ????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? (?? ????? 10 ? ?? ?????????? ??????). ??????????? ?????????? ?????, ??????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ???? ???????????? ?????? ????? ???????????? ???????? ? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????????????.
??????????? ? ?????????? ??????
????????? (????????? ????????, ?????????? ?????, ???????????) ? ??????????? ?????? (?????? ??????????? ? ????????) ????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ????? ???-25 (??. ???. ????? 1, 2).
?????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ?????????. ????????? ?????? ???????? ? ??????????? ? ???? 1-2/? (??. ???. ????? 2), ????? ? ???? 2-1/?. ????? 21 ????????.
???????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????, ?? ???? ????? 3 ????? (t30%R28).
??????????? ?????? ??????????? ? ??????????????????, ????????? ?? ???. ????? 3, 4.
??????? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ???????????:
1. ????????? ???? ? ???????? ?????????? ? ????? ???????, ?????????? ????????? ???????????.
2. ?????????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ??????? (????? ?1) ?? ?????????, ?????????????? ???????? ???? ?????? ?? ????? 50 ?? ?? ??????? ? ?? ????? 25 ?? ?? ??????? ????????????;
3. ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ??????? (????? ?1) ?? ????????, ???????????? ????? ? ????????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ???? ?????? ?? ????? 25 ?? ?? ??????? ????????????;
4. ?????????? ? ????????? ???? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ???-25;
5. ????????? ???? ???????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ?????????;
6. ?????????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? (????? ?2) ?? ?????????, ???????????? ????? ? ????????? ?????????;
7. ?????????? ?????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? (????? ?2) ?? ?????????, ???????????? ????? ? ????????? ?????????;
8. ?? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ???? ???????? ?????? ???????;
9. ?????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ?????? ???????;
10. ? ??? ?? ?????????????????? ?????????? ???? ? ???????? (????? ????? ?3 ? ?4) ??????? ? ????????? ????????;
11. ?????????? ?????????? ??????? (????? ?1) ? ????? (????? ?5) ???????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ??????????.
11. ?? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ???? ??? ????????? ???? ????????????;
?? ?????????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????????????. ? ???????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ????????????. ???????? ???????? ??????????? ? ???????, ???????? ???????.
????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????, ???????? ?? ????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ????????, ?????????? ?????? ????? ? ???? ??????????. ??? ?????? ???????? ????????? ????? ???????? ??-I (1 ?????), ??????? (3-5 ??????) (??. ????. 23).
???????? ??????
??????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ???????? ????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?????, ??? ??? ??? ??????? ?????????? ???? ????????????? ? ??? ??????????? ?????. ?? ?????? ??????? ???????? ????? ????????? ????????? ??????:
1. ????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ? ????????;
2. ????????? ??? ??????? ????????.
?????? ?? ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ???. ????? 3 - ????? ??? ??? ????? ????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?????????. ??? ?????????? ????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ??-75. ????????? ??? ???????????? ????????? ?? 1,5 ??????? ???????? ????????? ? ??????? ?????????? - ????? ??????? ?????????? ???? ??????. ?????????? ???? ??????: ?????????????, ???????????? ?????? (2 ???), ??????????? ? ????????? ???????? ?? ????? ?????????. ?????????? ???? ?? ???????, ??? ????????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ????????????? ???????????.
???????? ???????
???????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ????? ?? ????????? ???????? ???. ????? ?? ????? 2. ??? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?????: ????????????? ?????-5510 ??? ???????? ?????? ? ??????, ????????? ??-8 ??? ??????????? ?????? ? ?????? ??????????, ?????????? ? ????????????? ?????? ??-3322? ??? ?????? ?????? ? ?????????. ? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ???????, ????????? ???????? (???? 300 ??) ?????????????????? ??-4502.
???????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? (?? 600 ??) ????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????? ??-4502.
14. ??????????????? ?????
15. ???????-????????????? ??????????
???????-????????????? ?????????? ???????
???????????? ???????????????????? ???????? ?????,?310722,6????? ???????? ?????,?31038,24????? ????????????, ???�??900??????? ????????? ???????, ???�????213????????????????? ????????, ??32???????????? ?????, ???�??0,87????????? ?????, ?3/??1,15
??????????: ???????????? 1?3 ??????????? ? ????????? ???????? (??. ??????? (81)):
?? = ?? / V???? = 900 / 1038,24 = 0,87 ???�??;
????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ? ????? (??. ??????? (82)):
???? = V???? / ?? = 1038,24 / 900 = 1,15 ?3/??.
16. ???????????-??????????? ???????
???????????? ???????????-??????????? ???????
???????????? ????????????????????? ??????????????????-
??????1234???????????-8???? ??????? ?-1002?????????? ???????????? ?? ?????????????? ??????-3322?????????????? ????????????. ??????????? ????? 0, 5 ?31???? ?????????????-25???????????????? 3,0 ?, ?????
?????? 22,5 ?, ????? ????? 12
?, ?????? ??????? 18 ?.6??????????-????????
?????-5510???????????????? 7 ?12?????????????????????-159???? ?????-5511,??????????? ???????? 5 ?31?????????????????????-130???? ?????-5412,??????????? ???????? 6 ?31????????????????? 80-20?????????????????? 16,9 ?3/?1???????? ????????? ?????? ? ?????? ???????-75?????????????????? 2-4 ?3/?3???????????????? ? ????????????? ??????????-4502???????? 0,4 ???, ????? 75 ??2
17. ???????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????
???????? ???????? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ??????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????. ?????????????? ???????? ???????????? ??? ????????????, ??????? ? ????????? ????????, ????????, ????????????? ???????? ?????, ??????????????? ? ???????, ?????????? ? ????? ?? ???????.
????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ??????, ????????? ??????, ?????????? ?????????????? ????????, ???????? ????????? ???????? ? ????????? ?????????.
??? ??????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ???????? ??????? ???? ? ?? ??????????, ??? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ?? ?????????? ??????????.
????????, ??????????? ?? ???????????? ????????, ?????? ????? ?????????????????????? ?????????: ??????????? ???????????????? ?????????????? ? ????????? ?????, ?????, ???????, ?????? ?????? ????????; ??????-?????????? ??????????????; ????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??? ???????? ??????? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????? ??? ?????? ????????.
????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????? ????????? ???? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ????????, ??????????, ??????????????? ? ??????? ??? ????????????? ? ????????????? ???????.
????????????? ???????? ????? ?????????????? ??????? ?? ????, ??? ??????? ???????? ?????, ??????????? ??????????? ?? ???????, ????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ? ???? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?????????????. ?? ????????? ????????????? ????? ??????????????? ???????? ?? ???? ?????????.
??? ????????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ???????????? ? ?????? ?????????. ??? ???? ?????????????? ????????? ????????? ????? ? ?????, ?? ?????????, ?????????? ??????? ????????? ? ????????? ??????, ? ????? ????????? ????? ?? ??????.
???????????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????: ?????? ???????????, ???????? ?????? ? ?????????.
????? ???????? ???????? ????? ????????? ?? ????????????, ??????????? ? ?????.
??? ?????????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ? ???????? ??????? ?????????????????.
???????? ???????? ??????, ????????????? ? ??????? ???????? ????? ????? ???????????? ????????? ???????.
??????? ?????? ???????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????.
???????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?????, ??????????? ?????? ?? ??? ????????? ??????? ? ????????? ?????????? ??????.
18. ??????? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ?????
??? ???????????? ????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ???? 12-03-2001 ? ???? 12-04-2002 "???????????? ????? ? ?????????????":
1. ??? ??????? ? ?????? ? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ???????, ??? ??????? ????? ????????????? ? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????????, ????????????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ?? ???? 36 ?.
2. ???????? ????. 1 ???? 12-03-2001 ?????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ????????? ?? ????? 3,0 ? ??? ??????? ????????? ?? 4,0 ? ? ?????? - ?????. ??? ?????? ???????????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ????????? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? 1,1 ?.
3. ??? ?????? ? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????, ??????? ????????? ? ????????? ?????????.
4. ????????? ??????????? ????? ? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ? ??????? ???????? (???????????), ??????????? ?? ??????????????? ??????.
5. ??????? ????????????? ??????? ????? ?????????, ?????????????? ???????????, ? ?????????? ???????? ????? - ??????????. ???????? ??????? ??? ?????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ????????? 15 ???., ??????? ????????? ?????????? ????? 10 ? ?? ????????? ????????? ??????????, ? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ???????. ?????? ??????? ??????? ????? ? ?????????? 5-10 ???.
6. ????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ????????, ??????? ????????????.
7. ?????????? ???????? ? ??????????, ????????? ? ????????? ?? ? ???????????, ????? ????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ????????????????? ?????????????? ? ???????????? ???.
8. ?? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????? ? ??????? ? ??? ???????? ?? ??????????? ?????????, ?????? ? ?????, ? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ? ????, ???????? ??????.
9. ????????? ???????? ? ????, ??? ??? ?????????? ???????? ????????, ??????. ? ?????? ????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ??????? ? ??????? ??????.
10. ??? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????, ????????????, ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ???????.
11. ????????? ???????? ???????????????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ???????.
19. ?????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ??????? ????????????? ? ?????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ??? ????????????? ???????????
???????? ??????:
????? ?????? ?25 ?? ?? ????? ?-400, t?.?. = -11 �? (?? ???????).
?????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? "??????"
???? ?? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????????????? - ?????? - ??????????????? ???????? ??????????????? ????????? ?? ????????? ? ???????? ?????????????????????. ??? ???? ?????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ?? ???? ?????????? ? ???? ????? ??? ??????? ???? ? ??????????? ??? ????????????? ???????? ????? ? ???????????????? ?????, ??????????? ??? ?????????????? ??????? ? ?????. ???????? ??????????? ??????, ??? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????????, ?????????????? ??? ????????? ????????????? ????????????.
1. ???????????? ?????? ??????????? ?? ??? ?????: ??? ????????????? ? ????????????? ????????????. ??????????? ???????? ????????????? ?, ?, n ??? ??????? ????????? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ????????????:
??? R3 - ???????????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ????????, R3 = 47 %
(??. ????. 26).
2. ???????? ????. 6 ???? 3.03.01-87 "??????? ? ??????????? ???????????" ????????? ?????? ?????? ?25 ? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ???? ?? ????? R?? = 40%, ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ????? ? ??????? ?????? ? ??????: t?.??.=+35�?.
3. ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ? ???????????:
4. ??????????? ?????? ???????????:
??? S??? - ??????? ?????????????? ???????????, ??????????????? ? ????????, S??? = 35,64 +12 = 36,64 ?2;
V - ????? ??????????, V = 12,36?3.
5. ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????????? ?? 0�?:
6. ????????? ????? ????????? ?????? ? ???????????, ??????????? ??? ?????? R?? ??? t?.??. ??? :
?????? ?????????? ??? ?????? "??????????????? ???????????????"
???????? ?????? ??????????? ? ??????????????? ????????? ???????? ????? ??????????????? ????? ????????. ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????? ? ??????????? ????????, ?????????? ???????????, ??? ? ??????? ?????????????? ? ??????? ???????? ??????????. ???? ????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? 60-70 �?, ??? ???? ??????????? 40-60 ???/? ?????????????? ?? 1 ?3 ??????. ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????????? ????? ?????????? ??????, ??? ??? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ?????, ??? ???????? ? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ???????????.
??????????????? ???????? ? ?????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ? ????? ?????? ??????? ????????????, ?? ? ???????? ?????????? ???????????. ? ???? ?????? ? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????, ??????????? ????????? ??????.
1. ????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ????? ??? ??????????????? ???????? ????. 6 ???? 3.03.01-87 "??????? ? ??????????? ???????????" t??? = +80 �?.
2. ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ? ???????????:
3. ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????????? ?? 0 �?:
4. ????????? ????? ????????? ?????? ? ???????????, ??????????? ??? ?????? R?? ??? t?.??. ??? :
5. ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????? ????????:
????????????? ??????????????? ????????? ?? ?????????.
6. ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?? ?????. . ?????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? (d = 0,012 ?, ? = 0,17 ??/?2��?). ????????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????? (? = 0,046 ??/?2��?):
??? a - ???????????, ????????? ?? ???????? ?????, ??? ????????????? ??? ???????? ????? 3,7 ?/?: a = 20 ??/?2��?;
di - ??????? ??????? ???? ??????????, ?;
?i - ??????????? ???????????????? ????.
??????????????? ???????? ????? ???????????? ? ????????????????????, ??? ??????? ???????? ????? ???????????? ???????????????. ?? ???? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ???????????, ?????????????, ???? ????? ??????????.
?????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? "??????????????"
?????????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ????? ???? ?????????????? ????, ??? ??? ???????? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????????????. ???????? ???????????????? ?????????????? ??????????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????, ??? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ???????????. ??? ???? ????? ??? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ? ????? ? ????? ???????????, ??????? ??????? ?????????????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ???????????. ??????????? ???? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ???? ?????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ????????????? ???.
?????? ?????????????? ?????????? 20 - 100 ???�? ?? 1 ?3 ?????? ? ??????? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ? ????????????????? ????????.
1. ?????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????, ???????? ??????? ??????????? ? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ? ???????????:
????? = 1,48 ??/?2��?; s??? = 5 �?/?; t?.?.= +18,1 �?.
2. ????????? t??, ?????? ?? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? 60 �?, ????? t??= 50 �?;
3. ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????:
4. ??????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????:
5. ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????????? ?? 00?:
6. ??????????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ?? t?? ?? 0 0?:
??? ?? - ???????????? ??????; ?? =1,05;
- ??????????? ???????????????? ??????; =2,6;
- ???????? ????? ??????; =2400 ??/?3.
7. ??????????? ?????????, ??????? ????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?
????????? (? % ?? ?????????):
?????:
?? ???????????? ???? ??????? ??????? ????????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ????? "???????", ??? ??? ????? ????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ??????????:
20. ????????????????? ??????
1. ??????? ?.?. ?????????????? ???????????? ???????? ????? / ?.?. ??-
?????, ?.?. ??????. ?.: ???-?? ?????????? ???????????? ?????, 2005.
2. ??????? ?.?. ?????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ????-
???????? / ?.?. ???????, ?.?. ??????, ?.?. ???????. ?.: ???-?? ????-
?????? ???????????? ?????, 2005.
3. ???????? ?.?. ?????????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? / ?.?.
????????, ?.?. ????????, ?.?. ?????????. ?.: ???-?? ??????????
???????????? ?????, 2006.
4. ???????? ?.?. ???????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ?????? ?? ?????
"?????????? ???????????? ????????? / ?.?. ????????, ?.?. ??????, ?.?.
?????. ?????????: ???-?? ?????, 2004.
5. ????????? ?.?. ????? ?????????????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ??????
? ?????????? / ?.?. ?????????. ????????????: ???-?? ??? ???
"????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ???????????", 2005.
6. ???? 23478-79. ???????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ??-
???????????? ???????????. ????????????? ? ????? ??????????? ?????-
?????. ?.: ???-?? ??????????, 1993.
7. ???? 3.03.01-87. ??????? ? ??????????? ???????????. ?.: ?? ???,
1996.
8. ???? 12-03-2001 ? ???? 12-04-2002 ???????????? ????? ? ???????????-
??. ?.: ?? ???, 2002.
9. ?? 11-06-2007. ???????????? ???????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ???
??????????????? ???????? ? ??????????????? ???? ??????????-
???????????? ?????. ?.: ????????????, 2007.
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