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Can Government Catalyze Clusters?
Presentation to Russian Delegation
Canada-Russia Northern Development Partnership Program
Toronto, Ontario
November 6, 2009
2
Context
Policymakers need to understand how competitiveness occurs,
produces jobs and higher wages, and relates to innovation. States need to foster competitiveness by adopting regional and economic growth policies within their boundaries.
Innovation America: A Public-Private Partnership, 2008
There is room for governments to show great entrepreneurial
acumen and zeal in providing support to clusters … Governments should seek out cluster participants and proactively understand their needs at a time when early action can have a transformative impact. Michael Porter and Roger Martin
, 2000
…
it is a mistake to think that government should simply stay on the sidelines and focus only on keeping a lower tax base and social services. In other words, the private sector can’t do it all
Arthur J. Carty, National Advisor to the Prime Minister, 2004
3
Rol e of the Publ i c and Pri vate Sector
i n Cl uster Devel opment
Government
•
Plays a pivotal role as ‘facilitator’ to bring partners together in a productive dialogue
•
Promotes clusters through legislation, policies and incentives
•
Encourages public/private partnerships to enhance clusters
•
Conducts ongoing cluster assessments to determine the influence clusters have on improving competitiveness of industries
•
Provides “seed” funding to identify new and potential clusters
Examples
•
The French Government committed €
500 M for cluster development over a three year period
•
Nati onal Research Counci l of Canada committed C$550 M to catalyze 11 clusters
•
Ottawa-Carl eton Regi on’ s
Economic Generators Initiative (Based on Cluster Approach)
•
Quebec Government’ s
adoption of cluster-based economic development
•
Ari zona’ s
Bill to Promote Cluster- Based Economic Development.
4
Rol e of the Publ i c and Pri vate Sectors
i n Cl uster Devel opment (Cont’ d)
Education and R&D Institutions •
Act as catalyst in the development of new and better products, processes and technology
•
Improve commercial awareness and entrepreneurship among researchers by supporting new start-ups
•
Create value for the private sector -- applied research, commercially relevant research
•
Lead relationship building between education/R&D, government and industry
•
Strengthen regional economic development - cluster analysis, consulting services
Examples
•
Queens, Uni versi ty of Toronto, and Waterl oo’ s programs,
i.e. geophysics, remote sensing and environmental applications all contribute to the strength of Ontario’s mineral industry cluster
•
Uni versi ty of Waterl oo’ s
focus on applied research contributes to Canada’s Triangle Park.
•
Nati onal Research Counci l ’ s
research plays a very critical role in Silicon Valley North’s success in Ottawa.
•
Stanford Uni versi ty’ s
highly educated and skilled pool of researchers plays a pivotal role in Silicon Valley.
•
Uni versi ty of Guel ph’ s
R & D contributes to the Agriculture & Food cluster
5
Rol e of the Publ i c and Pri vate Sectors
i n Cl uster Devel opment (Cont’ d)
Business and Industry •
Lead & participate in cluster development
•
Propose legislative & policy changes - identify barriers/opportunities to cluster expansion
•
Increase investment in workforce development, new technologies and R&D
•
Nurture supplier industries and establish stronger links with firms in related industries
•
Forge closer ties with research & educational institutions to translate R&D advances into commercial applications
•
Provide financial capital such as venture and ‘angel’ financing for start-up companies
Examples
•
Val e Inco and Xst rata contributed C$10 M to the Centre for Excellence in Mining Innovation in Ontario
•
Tel us Corporat i on’ s
C$225,000 financial contribution for the Greater Edmonton Competitiveness Strategy
•
Gl obal Mi ni ng Ini ti at i ves
- contribution of US$3 million by multinationals towards sustainable economic development
•
Noki a & Eri csson’ s
leadership in experimenting with mobile telephony - resulting in lasting economic impact
•
Genzyme & Bi otechnol ogy Cl ust er i n Massachusett s
- Genzyme built critical mass for its cluster with the help of city and government
6
Government Rol e i n the Producti ve Economy
1.
Achieve macroeconomic and political stability – low inflation & deficits 2.
Improve microeconomic business environment – improve infrastructure and R & D capacity
3.
Provide incentives that encourage productivity and innovation 4.
Foster and reinforce the cluster formation process
5.
A long-term economic vision that mobilizes government, business, and citizens
7
Ways for Government to Catal yze Cl usters
•
Explicit policy statement regarding the cluster approach to economic development
•
Play a role as ‘broker’, ‘facilitator’, ‘initiator’, ‘participant’ and ‘listener to’
•
Engage partners in a productive dialogue and create a sense of urgency to cause action.
•
Conduct ongoing cluster assessments to determine their viability and relative strength to ensure global competitiveness.
•
Institutionalize cluster upgrading (e.g. restructuring government programmes and services, diffusing new knowledge, and collecting and disseminating data/information by clusters).
•
Sponsor cluster conferences and forums to promote ‘social capital’ opportunities for participants.
•
Provide platform for collaboration through establishment of cluster leadership councils •
Provide secretarial and logistical support to cluster leadership councils
•
Establish not-for-profit think tanks, such as the Ontario Institute for Competitiveness and Innovation
8
Three Case Studi es of Cl uster-based Approaches
#1 National Research Council’s
Technology Clusters
•
The Impetus - Build competitive advantage in the technology clusters through research and innovation
•
The focus is on technology clusters located throughout Canada
#2 Ottawa-Carleton Region’s
The Economic Generators Initiative followed a systemic approach to cluster development as shown starting on Slide 22
:
•
The impetus - Expand and Grow
•
The focus was the entire region without reference to a particular cluster
#3 Ministry of Northern Development and Mines’
Ontario Mineral Industry Cluster focused a cluster distributed throughout the entire Province of Ontario:
•
The Impetus - Significant loss in employment and need for economic diversification
9
Case Study #1: The Nati onal Research Counci l ’ s Technol ogy Cl usters
“…
is encouraging research between federal, provincial,
and municipal governments, industry, and the higher-education
sector. This initiative is accelerating the commercialization of new technologies produced by small and medium-sized firms. It
is also building regional S&T capacity in key sectors and
industries across Canada”
Government of Canada, 2007
•
Investment of C$554.2 M between 2000 and 2010
•
Integration of key players across a Canadian innovation system
•
Contributing to a stable market place across regions by providing stable funding to the private sector and clustering projects
•
Maintaining commercialization performance in the cluster communities
•
Serving as a proxy for access to global markets
10
Case Study #1: The Nati onal Research Counci l ’ s Technol ogy Cl usters (Cont’ d)
Clusters:
1)
Vancouver-Fuel Cells & Hydrogen Technologies
2)
Edmonton-Nanotechnology
3)
Regina-Sustainable Urban Infrastructure
4)
Saskatoon-Plants for Health and Wellness
5)
Winnipeg-Biomedical Technology
6)
Ottawa-Photonics Institute
7)
St. John’s-Ocean Technologies
8)
Saguenay-Aluminium Transformation
9)
Charlottetown-Nutrisciences & Health
10)
Fredericton/Moncton- Information Technology & e-Business
11)
Halifax-Life Sciences Source: National Research Council of Canada Technology Cluster Initiatives: Update 2007
11
Case Study #2: Ottawa-Carl eton Regi on’ s
“The Economi c Generator Ini ti ati ve” 12
Case Study #2: Ottawa-Carl eton Regi on’ s
“The Economi c Generator Ini ti ati ve”
Mobilization Phase:
•
The Economic Generators Initiative was launched to ensure that the Region kept its eye on the drivers required to remain competitive and to expand and grow
•
The Ottawa Partnership (TOP), a group of public and private leaders committed to advancing the local economy was established •
The municipal government provided a number of opportunities for networking
Assessment Phase:
•
International expertise in cluster development was retained to conduct quantitative and qualitative assessments of the economy
•
The assessments revealed that Ottawa has seven clusters in its economy, each at a different point in its life cycle
Strategy Formulation Phase:
TOP, as part of moving forward, developed three strategies:
•
Accelerated Cluster Development
•
Enhanced Economic Foundations
•
Balance economic growth with social equity and environmental sensitivity
13
Case Study #2: Ottawa-Carl eton Regi on’ s
“The Economi c Generator Ini ti ati ve” (cont’ d)
Implementation Phase:
•
The Economic Generators Initiative identified 30 initiatives for specific clusters and 9 flagship initiatives for all clusters
•
The initiatives have champions and funding from both the public and private sectors; the champions come from civic leadership, federal and provincial government and private sector.
Monitoring Phase:
•
The Steering Committee met on a quarterly basis and monitored and reported on progress
•
Accelerating cluster development allowed the Ottawa community to recover more quickly than other places from the economic downturn
Jocelyn Ghent-Mallet, ITAC
14
Case Study #3: Cl uster Approach to Ontari o’ s Mi neral Industry
•
The Ontario Ministry of Northern Development, Mines and Forestry established a formal project to determine applicability of the cluster based approach to its mining and mineral development sector
•
Quantitative assessment using techniques such as Location Quotient, Share Matrix Growth, and Porter’s Diamond Model of Competitiveness was conducted •
The assessment revealed: low employment growth, weak linkages across sub-sectors, and a lack of strategy to optimise Ontario’s strengths
•
Consultations were held with various stakeholders to solicit their feedback on and to seek their support for a cluster -based approach to Ontario’s mining and mineral sector 15
Case Study #3: Cl uster Approach to Ontari o’ s Mi neral Industry (Cont’ d)
•
A cluster forum was convened (the first ever) to bring stakeholders together to explore how to overcome challenges and leverage strengths & comparative advantage, i.e. Ontario’s rich mineral endowment
•
Private sector leadership emerged to lead a collaborative organization
•
The Government of Ontario established a private sector led Ontario Mineral Industry Cluster Council (OMICC) to catalyze the Ontario mineral industry cluster
16
Case Study #3: Cl uster Approach to Ontari o’ s Mi neral Industry (Cont’ d)
Catal yzi ng the Mi neral Cl ust er Through Col l aborati on:
Vi si on:
•
Unleashing the province’s mineral potential to promote sustainable growth and create prosperity
Mandat e:
•
Foster a sustainable and rising standard of living from Ontario's rich mineral endowment
•
Lever the current mineral industry assets to create a larger and more globally competitive cluster of mineral and related industries and organizations •
Bring together the cluster of mineral-related industries and organizations that must compete and cooperate to win more prosperity
Membershi p:
•
Leaders from mine operators, exploration companies, financial sector, suppliers, research institutions, associations, universities and colleges, environmental groups, and officials from three levels of government 17
Case Study #3: Cl uster Approach to Ontari o’ s Mi neral Industry (Cont’ d)
Achi evements to Date:
•
Modernization of the Mining Act - Bill 173
•
Commitment to Resource Benefit Sharing between Ontario and Aboriginal/Indigenous peoples
•
Ontario’s Mineral Development Strategy
•
Commercialization and Export Strategy
•
Centre for Excellence in Mining Innovation
•
Federated School of Mines
•
Tools to profile mineral cluster
–
An OMIC website
–
The Rehabilitated Mines Calendars
–
A Guide for Junior Exploration Companies: Building a Dialogue With Aboriginal Communities
–
Ontario’s Mineral Industry Cluster: An Economic Powerhouse brochure
18
Case Study #3: Cl uster Approach to Ontari o’ s Mi neral Industry (Cont’ d)
Government Support:
•
The Deputy Minister and the Assistant Deputy Minister, Mines and Minerals Division are Standing Members of OMICC and the OMICC Executive Committee
The Mi ni stry al so provi des the fol l owi ng servi ces to OMICC:
•
Advice to the Minister, Deputy Minister, Assistant Deputy Minister, and OMICC Co-Chairs
•
Develops reports, proposals, business cases, briefings, and manages correspondence •
Manages projects, develops and monitors OMICC and its Working Groups Work Plans
•
Plans and organizes OMICC meetings, forums, workshops, and populates the web presence
•
Keeps OMICC abreast of policies, programs, global trends impacting the cluster
•
Serves as a conduit between OMICC and Ministry
19
Catalyzing the Ontario Mineral Industry Cluster Through Collaboration (Cont’d)
Achi evements to Date:
•
Modernization of the Mining Act - Bill 173
•
Commitment to Resource Benefit Sharing between Ontario and Aboriginal/Indigenous peoples
•
Ontario’s Mineral Development Strategy
•
Commercialization and Export Strategy
•
Centre for Excellence in Mining Innovation
•
Federated School of Mines
•
Promoted Collaboration Through Cluster Forums
•
Tools to profile mineral cluster
–
An OMIC website
–
The Rehabilitated Mines Calendars
–
A Guide for Junior Exploration Companies: Building a Dialogue With Aboriginal Communities
–
Ontario’s Mineral Industry Cluster: An Economic Powerhouse brochure
20
Critical Success Factors in Catalyzing Clusters
•
Private Sector Leadership
•
Strong bias towards action
•
Engage consultants with experience in cluster development
•
A shared vision of the cluster among the cluster participants
•
Wide involvement of cluster participants and associated institutions
•
Platform for cluster participants to come together to network and build trust and relationships
•
Government provides ‘seed’ funding for cluster assessment and strategy development
21
Lessons Learned
•
Government and private sector have separate, but equally important roles in catalyzing clusters
•
Focus simultaneously on both short-term needs and long-
term priorities
•
Cluster forums can serve as galvanizing events
•
Comparative advantages - best geology - will not guarantee sustainable growth
•
Innovation is not limited to high-tech and bio-tech
•
There is no single cookie cutter approach to cluster development, but the essential elements must be present
•
Cluster development can take decades before it reaches maturity
•
Patience and persistence are required to sustain momentum
22
Recommended Approach for Cluster Policy Development and Strategy
1)
Identify clusters/cluster mapping
2) Cluster assessment: qualitative and quantitative 3) Develop technology road map
4) Establish cluster leadership council
5) Identify strategic and tactical issues and priorities for the cluster council
6) Development and implement a plan with responsibilities, timeframes, and associated costs
7) Monitor, evaluate, and report on performance 23
Thank You
Indira Singh,
Director, Executive Projects Office
Ontario Ministry of Northern Development,
Mines, and Forestry
Executive Director,
Ontario Mineral Industry Cluster Council
For more information on the Ontario Ministry of Northern Development, Mines and Forestry, visit: www.mndm.gov.on.ca/
For more information on the Ontario Mineral Industry Cluster, visit: www.omicc.ca
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