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? ????????? ??????? ?? ??????????
"??????? ?????????? ? ???????????????? ???????????"
??????????: ??????? ?????? ?-219 ?.?. ????????? ????????????: ?.?. ???????
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2012 ?.
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?? ??????? ??: 50 ?., 27 ???., 6 ??????, 9 ??????????.
????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????????.
???? ?????? - ???????? ? ?????????? ??????, ?????????? ? ????? "?????????????? ?????????????? ????????????", ? ???????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ? ??????????????? ????????????.
? ?????? ???????? ??????? ? ???????????? ? ????????? ??????? ??????????:
?????????????? ????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????;
??????? ? ?????????? ???????? ???????????????? ????????????????? ?????;
?????????????? ? ?????????? ?? ??? ????????? ?????;
?????????????? ????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ? ???????? ?????????;
?????????????? ?????? ??? ????????? ???????? ??????;
?????????????? ? ?????????? ????? ??? ????????? ????????? ????????? ??????;
?????????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ??? ????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????.
???????? ?????:
??????????, ?????, ?????, ?????????, ??????, ????????, ???????????????? ????, ????? ?????????????, ??????? ?????, ????? ????????????, ??????, ???????.
??????????
???????? 4 1. ?????????????? ???????? ???????? 5
1.1.????????? ??????6
1.2. ???????? ????????6
1.3. ?????? ???????? ???????? 7 1.4. ??????????? ???????????? ???????? 13 2. ?????????????? ?????????14
2.1. ????????? ??????15
2.2. ???????? ?????????15
2.3. ?????? ?????????16
2.4. ??????????? ???????????? ?????????18
3. ?????????????? ?????? ?19
3.1. ????????? ??????19
3.2. ???????? ???????19
3.3. ?????? ??????? 20
3.4. ??????????? ????????????? ??????? 25 4. ?????????????? ????????? ?????? 26
4.1. ????????? ?????? 26
4.2. ???????? ??????27
4.3. ?????? ????????? ?????? 27
4.4. ??????????? ????????????? ?????? 33 5. ?????????????? ????????????????? ?????34
5.1. ????????? ??????34
5.2. ???????? ?????????35
5.3. ?????? ????????????????? ?????35 5.4. ??????????? ????????????? ????????????????? ????? 38
6. ?????????????? ????? ? ???39
6.1. ????????? ??????40
6.2. ???????? ?????40
6.3. ?????? ????? ? ???40
6.4. ??????????? ???????????? ????? ???41
7. ?????????????? ????????? ?????42
7.1. ????????? ??????42
7.2. ???????? ?????42
7.3. ?????? ????????? ?????43
7.4. ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????48
?????????? 49
?????? ???????????? ?????????? 50 ????????
? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??????????????? ???????, ?????????????? ??????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????. ????????? ??????? ??? ?????????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ??????-???????????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ????????????? ????????????. ????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ???? ????????? ????????? ????? ?????????????????????? ????????????, ? ?. ?. ?????????????? ?????, ??????? ? ???, ????????????????, ?????????? ????????????????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????????????? ?????????? (???) ? ?????? ???????????????? ?????? (???), ??????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ????? ???????.
??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ???????????????? ????????, ?????????? ?????????? ???????????, ?????????????? ???????????, ???????????????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????????? ???????, ??? ????????????? ??? ????? ???????????? ???? ?????????????????????? ???????????. ??????? ???????????, ??????? ????????? ???????? ? ????????????????????? ???????? ??????????????, ?????? ????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ???? ????????????, ? ?. ?. ? ???????????????? ???????? ??? ???????-?????????, ?????????????? ?????, ??????? ? ???, ?????????????????????? ??????????????? ?????? ? ?????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ???????, ???????????? ???????????? ? ????????????? ????????????.
????? ???????, ??????????? ????? ???????? ?????????????? - ??????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ? ???????????? - ??????? ?????? ? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????????, ??????????????? ???????? ????????????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????????.
1. ?????????????? ???????? ????????
???????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????????, ???????????? ??? ????????? ?????????, ????? ? ???????? ???????????? ? ??????? ??? ???????????? ???????? ????????. ??? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ????, ?????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????????, ???????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ???????. ???????? ?????? ???????????, ? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????????????? ?? ???? ?????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ???? ???????????? ??????????? ???? ????????.
???? ???????? ????? ?????????????? ?? ???? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ???? ?? ????????? ? ???????????, ?? ????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ?????????. ???? ????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????, ? ???????? ??????? ????? ????? ?????????? ??????, ?? ????????? ????? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ???? ?? ????????? ? ???????????, ?? ????? ????? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????. ? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ????? ???????, ??????? ??????? ?????? ???? ???????????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ???????.
???????????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????, ? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ? ??????? ???????? - ???????? ?????????????.
???????? ???? ?????????? ???????? ?????????: ??????? - ??? ????????? ??????? ?????????; ?????????? - ??? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ????????; ????????? - ??? ????????? ????????? ???????; ???????? ?????? ??? ?????????? - ??? ????????? ?????????????? (????????) ?????????; ???????? (????????????, ????????????-???????? ? ?. ?.) - ??? ????????? ????????? ????????? ???????; ??????????????? ? ?. ?. ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ?????:
?????????, ??????????????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ? ???????;
?????, ? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ? ???????? ???????????? ??????;
???????? ????????????, ?????????????? ????????????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ? ????????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??????;
??????? ?????, ????????? ?? ??????? ??????;
??????????? ?????, ????????? ?? 4-8 ??????????? ??????;
?????? ???????????? ?????, ??????????????? ??? ????????? ? -????????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?? ???????? ????????? ??????;
?????? ?????????, ??????????????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????? ?? ??????? ??? ??????????????? ????????????.
???????? ???? ? ???????? ???????? ? ?????????, ?????????? ? ??????? ??????. ??? ?????? ???????? ????, ??? ?????? ???? ????????????. ????????????? ???????? ????????? ???? (??????? ????????) ??????? ?? ??????????????? ????????? ? ???? ??????.
?????? ???? ? ???????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?????????, ??????????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ????????????. ??????? ???????? ?????? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ???????? ? ???? ?????? ?? ????????.
??????????? ????? ?? ????? ??????? ???? ? ?? ??????? ???????. ?? ???? ?????? ? ????????? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ??????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ????? ?????????.
??? ?????????? ????????????? ? ????????? ??????? ???????? ? ????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ??????.
?? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??? ????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?? ???????? ?? ??????? ??????????????? ?????????????????? ???????. ???? ????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ?? ???????? ???????? ? ???????? ?? 45 ?? 60�.
???????? ???????? ????????????? ??? ????????? ???????? ?????????. ? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ? ?? ????? ???????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ???????. ??????????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ???? . ????????? ???????? ??????? ?????, ???????? ? ?????? ???????????? ?????. ???????? ??????? ? ????????? ???????? ????? ????????, ??????? ??????????????? ????? ??????? ??????. ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ????? ???????. ??? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ??????. ??????????? ????? ? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ? ???????????? ? ?????? ????????? ?????????.
1.1. ????????? ??????
???????11
???????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????: D-6x28H11x34H7x7F8
????? ?????????: L=34??
???????? ??????: ????? 35
????????? ??????: 7?510
1.2.???????? ????????
??? ????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ????? 35 ????????? ???????????????? ????? ? ????????????? ?????. ? ???????? ?????????????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????????? ????? 9???, ???, ??. ??? ??????????????? ? ????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ?????, ???????? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ?????????: ?9, ?12 ? ?18. ? ???????? ? ?????????????? ???????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ????????? ????????????? ????? ????? ?6?5, ?9?5, ?9?5, ?9?5?5 ? ??. (???. 463, [4]).
????? ???????, ??? ????????? ???????? ??????, ????????????? ?? ????? 35, ?????????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????????? ????? ???, ??????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????. ????? ?? ????????? ??? ??????? ???????? ??????, ??? ????? ???????, ????????????? ?????, ?? ??????? ???? ? ???????? ?????????????? ????????????.
1.3. ?????? ???????? ????????
???????? ?????? ??? ???????:
???????? ??????? ????????? ?????????: DH=34+0,025??.
?????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????: dB=28+0,130??.
?????? ??????: b?=7+0,035+0,013??.
????? ??????????????? ?????????: L=34??.
????????? ??????????????? ????????: 163??.
??????? ???? ??????: ??=102??.
??????? ??? ???????: 1250??.
?????????? ?? ??????? ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ????? ?????????????? ????????? ? ????? ???????? ??????? ?????? (??? ?????? 7?510 ??? ???????? 280??) (???. 201, [1]):
L1=280+L,
L1=280+34=314??.
??????? ??? ???????????? (???. 201, [1]):
?=0,
?.?. ????????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????????? ?? ????????????, ?????????????? (???. 201, [1]):
D01=28 ??.
??????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????, ??????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?????????, (???. 188 [1]):
D1=25??,
??????????????, ??????? ??????? (???. 202, [1]):
FX=283,5??2.
??? ??????? ?????? (???. 202, [1]):
tP=mL0,5 , ???:
m=1,25...1,5 - ??????????, ??????????????? ????????? ????? ???????,
L=34?? - ????? ?????????, ?????:
tP=(1,25...1,5) �340,5 =7,29...8,75??.
???????? ??????? 8.6 [1] ?????????:
t=8??,
hK=3??,
C=3??,
r=1,5??,
R=5??,
FK=7,07??2.
?????????? ????? ??????, ??????????? ? ?????? (???. 203, [1]):
Zmax=L/tP+1,
Zmax=34/8+1=5.
??????????? ?????????? ???????, ???? 8.8, ??? ????? [1] ?????????:
?=4. ??????? 1 - ??????? ?????????? ???????. ??????, ?????????? ?? ?????????? ??????? (???. 203, [1]):
SZK=FK/(KL), ???:
FK=7,07 - ??????? ?????????? ???????, ?????:
SZK=7,07/(4�34)=0,052??/???.
?????????? ???? ??????? ?? ?????????? (??????? 8.9 [1]):
PX=FX?X, ???:
?X=250??? - ?????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ?????, ?????:
PX=283,5�250=70875?.
?????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????? ???? (??????? 8.9 [1]):
P1=?1p(D01-2 hK)2/4, ???:
?1=300??? - ?????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ?????,
hK=3?? - ?????? ????, ?????:
P1=300�3,14(28-2�3)2/4=114039H.
????????? ???? ??????? ?? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ????? ?1, ??, 0,9*?? (???. 202, [5]):
0,9�?? =0.9�102000=91800?,
PX=70875?,
P1114039H, ?????:
??=??=70875?.
???????, ????????? ????????? ??????? (???. 205, [1]):
?=dBmin+2f+0,3+D01, ???:
f=0,4+0,2?? - ?????? ?????,
dBmin=28?? - ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????, ?????:
?= 28+0,4�2+0,3-28=0,8??.
????? ???????? ?????? (???. 202, [1]):
Z?= ?/(2� SZK)+1,
Z?=0,8/(2�0,052)+1=8.
????? ??????? ????? ???????? ?????? (???. 205, [1]):
L??=tp(Z? -1),
L??= 8(8-1)=56??.
D?1D?2D?3D?4D?5D?6D?7D?828,028,128,228,328,428,528,628,7 ??????? 1 - ???????? ???????? ??????.
??????? ???????? ?????? (???. 206, [1]):
D?1=d + 2 f,
D?1=28 + 2�0,4 = 28,8??.
????? ???????? ?????? (???. 206, [1]): Z?.?. = + 1, ???:
DHmax=34,025?? - ?????????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ?????????,
D?max=28,7?? - ?????????? ??????? ???????? ??????, ?????:
Z?.?.=+1 = 53 ??????.
? ??????????????? ???????? ??????? ????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ???????????, ?? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? (????????) ??????, ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ?? 0,025-0,015 ??. ???????? ????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ? ????? ???????????? ? ????????? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????, ?? ????? ?????????? ?? 2 ?? 5. ??? ?????? ???? ??? ??????, ??? ?????? ??????, ?? ??? ? ???? ?????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ???????????. ?????????:
Z?.?. ????.=4, ?????:
Z?.?. ????.=51.
????? ??????? ????? (???. 206, [1]):
lp.? = tp ?Z?.? ,
lp.? = 55?8 = 440??.
??????? 2 - ???????? ???????? ???????? ??????.
D?1D?2D?3D?4D?5D?6D?7D?828,828,929,029,129,229,329,429,5
D?9D?10D?11D?12D?13D?14D?15D?1629,629,729,829,930,030,130,230,3
D?17D?18D?19D?20D?21D?22D?23D?2430,430,530,630,730,830,931,031,1
D?25D?26D?27D?28D?29D?30D?31D?3231,231,331,431,531,631,731,831,9
D?33D?34D?35D?36D?37D?38D?39D?4032,032,132,232,332,432,532,632,7
D?41D?42D?43D?44D?45D?46D?47D?4832,832,933,033,133,233,333,433,5
D?49D?50D?5133,633,733,8 ??????? 3 - ???????? ???????? ???????? ??????.
D?1D?2D?3D?433,8833,9333,9734,0 ??? ??????????? ?????? (???. 207, [1]):
t? = 0,7? tp ,
t? = 0,7*8?6??,
?????????????:
h=2.5 ??,
?=2??,
R=4??,
r=1.25??.
????? ??????????? ?????? (???. 207, [1]):
Z? = 7
????? ??????????? ????? (???. 207, [1]): l? = t?? Z?,
l? =6?7 =42??.
??????? ??????????? ?????? (???. 207, [1]):
D? = Dmax, ???:
Dmax=34,025 - ???????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????,
?=0,02 - ?????? ?? ??????, ?????:
D?=34,025 0,02.
????? ?????? ???????????? (???. 208, [1]): l? = L = 34 ??.
????? ????? ???????? (???. 208, [1]): L??. = ,
L??. =314 + 56 + 440+ 42 + 34 = 886??.
?????????? ????? ???????? (???. 208, [1]): L??.max =40 ?D0 , ???:
D0=34?? - ??????????? ???????? ??????? ????????, ?????:
L??.max =34�40=1360??.
??????????? ????? ???????? ???? (???. 208, [1]): lp.? = ++ L,
lp.? = 56 + 440 + 42 + 34=572??.
??????????? �10 (???. 210, [1]): �1 = 450 - arcsin, ???:
??=7?? - ?????? ?????,
d?=28?? - ?????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????, ?????:
�1 =450 - arcsin = 30.520.
??????????????? ???????? N (???. 210, [1]): N = ,
N ==13,97.
???????? ? (???. 210, [1]): ?= N?sin�1+ ,
?= 13,97?sin30.520+*cos30.520= 7,2+2,54= 10,11??.
???? � (???. 210, [1]):
� = +2? �1 , ???:
n?=6 - ?????????? ??????, ?????:
� = +2�30.520 = 121,040.
?????? ???????? (???. 210, [1]): ? = -?? - 2 ?h - 2f -0,5 , ???:
?h=0,8?? - ?????? ????????, ?????:
? = -7 -2�0,8 - 2�0,4 - 0,5 = 4,76??
??????? 2 - ???????? ????? ??????? 3 - ????? ???????? ???????? ????????. ???????? ??????? ????? 1.5 ??
??????? ?????? ???????????? (???. 211, [1]): D?.? = D?-(0,5...0,8),
D?.? = 34 - 0,7 =33,3??.
?????? ????? 1,5?450 (???????? ???? 24818-81)
????????? ???????? ???? ???????? ??? ??????????????? ???????? ? (??<190 [2], ???. 171):
?=16...200,
?=200.
????????? ?????? ???? ? ??? ?????? ([2], ???. 170):
????????: 30
????????: 20
???????????: 10
???????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ???? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????????, ?????????????? ????????????????: ??????? ????????????????????? ??????? hk = (0,4...1 )??, ? ?? ?????? Sk = (0,6...1,2) ??. ??????? ????????????????????? ??????? ????? ???? ????????????? ? ??????? ? ????? ? = 45...60�. ?????? ??????????? ??? ??????? rk = (0,2...0,5) ??.
?????????:
hk =0,6??,
Sk =0,8??,
rk =0,4??,
?=600.
??????? 4 - ????????????????????? ???????
?????????? ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???? ?? ????? 2...2,5 ??, ??? ??? ??? ??????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ? ???? ??????? ?????? ????????????. ?=4,5??.
??????? 5 - ?????????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????, ???? 4044-70
?????????:
d1=25??,
d2=19??,
d4=25-0,5-1,0 ??,
l1=140??,
l2=25??,
l3=25??,
l4=16??,
l5=120??,
r1=0,3??,
r2=1??,
c=1??,
?=30?.
1.4. ??????????? ???????????? ????????:
????? ???????, ? ?????????? ??????????????, ???????? ???????? ????? ???????? ??:
??????????,
???????? ????????????,
???????? ??????,
???????? ??????,
??????????? ??????,
?????? ????????????.
???????? ???????? ????? ????? ???????? ???????? 886??. ??????????? ????? ???????? ????, ??? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? 572??. ????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? 1 ?? ???? 4044-70. ??????? ??????, ????????????????????? ???????, ???????? ? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ???? ???????. ??? ???????? ?????? ????? ??????? ????. ???????? ??????????????? ? ??????????? ??????, ?? ????????? ??????. ??? ??? ???????? ????? ?????? ???? ?????????, ?? ??????????????? ?????? ?? ?????.
2. ?????????????? ?????????
????????????? ???????????? ????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ? ????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ????????. ????????? - ??? ?????????? ??????????, ??????? ??????? ?????? ? ??????? ? ???????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ????? ??? (??????? ????????) ? ????????????? ???????????? ????? ???, ???????? ???????? ??????.
????????????? ????????? ???????? ????????? 2-3-?? ?????? ???????? ? 7-8-?? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????.
??? ????????? ??????? ?? ??? ????????? - ????????? ?????? ? ????????? ????????:
?????? ????????? ????????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ???????. ?? ??????? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ???????, ? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????,
???????? ????????? ????????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ?? ??????. ??? ?????? ?????????, ??? ? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ?????????.
?? ????? ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ????? ????????? ??: ??????????????, ??????????? ??? ????????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????, ??????????, ???????????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ????????? . ?? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ????:
?????????,
????????.
?? ??????????:
???????,
???????.
????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ? ?????????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????, ??????? ?????? ??? ?? ??????????? ?? ??????, ???? ? ??????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ???????.
????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????, ????? ? ?????????? (???.1). ?????????? ????? ? ?????????? ? ????????? ????? ?? ??? ? ????? ? ????????.
??????? ????? ???????? ??????? ? ??????????? ????? ? ???????????? ?????, ??????? ?????? ??? ????????????? ?? ??????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ? ?????????.
??????? (????????) ????? ????????? ???????????? ????? ?????, ?? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????.
???????? ???? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ????, ????????? ????????? ???????? ? ???? ????? ?????? ?????????? ????, ???????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?? ?? ????????? ????, ? ?? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ??????. ?? ???????? ?????????? ? ??? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ????? 5-10�. ?????? ???? ? ????????? ?????????? ? ???????? 4-8�.
??????? 6- ???????? ?????????????? ?????????
??????????? ????? ??????? ?? ??????????????? ??????? ? ??????? ? ???????? ???????????. ???????? ? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ??? ?? ??????? ?????, ??? ? ?? ??????????? ?????, ??????????? ????????.
2.1. ???????? ??????:
-??????? ?????????: 20?7,
-???????? ?????????: ?????10?,
??? ?????????: ??????????????, ?????????, ????????.
2.2. ???????? ?????????
??? ????????? ????????? ?? ????????? ?????10? , ??????? ????? ????????? ??????????? ?? ????????????? ????? ????? ?6?5, ?9, ?18, ???????????? ????? ????? 9??, ??? ???????? ?????? ????? ??6, ??6?, ??8, ??10 (???. 415, [4]).
??? ????????? ????????? ?? ????????? ?????10? ???????? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ????? ?6?5. ????????????? ????? ???? ? ?????? ????????????, ?? ??? ????????? ?????? ? ? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ????? ?????????????, ???????????? ????? ? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ??????. ?6?5 ????? ??????? ????????? ? ??????????????? (????? ?? ?????? ? ?18 ?? ????????? ???????) ?? ?? ??????? ?????????, ??? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ??? ????????? ?? ??????? ?????????.
2.3. ?????? ?????????
????????? ???? ??? ???????:
??????? ?????????: D=20?7
?????????? ?????? (???. 90, [6]):
Z=1,5D0,5+(2...4)
Z=1,5�200,5+2=8
????? ??????? ????? (???. 86, [6]):
Lp=(1,3...1,4) �h�ctg?
? =15? - ??????? ???? ? ?????,
h =0,3?? - ??????? ??? ??????????????, ?????:
Lp=1,4�0,3�ctg15=2,5??
?????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ????? ????????? (???. 82, [6]):
D=20+0,017+0,009
???????? ???? 1672-80 ???????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ??? ???????? 20??:
??????? 7 - ??????????? ?????????.
L=228??,
l=60??,
d=20??,
????? ?2.
??????? 8 - ?????????????? ????????? ?????????.
?=1??,
f1=1??,
l3=2,5??,
f=0,2??,
l2=4??,
d2=d-0,05??
?=10?2?.
??????? 9 - ??????? ??????? ?????????.
f1=1,4??,
r=0,5??,
?=80?.
??????? 4 - ???????? ????? ??????.
??? ????????? ? 8 ?????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????, ??????????????:
???????? ???? 13779-77 ?????????? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ??? ????????? ???? ??????? ?7 ??????????: ?20+0,017+0,009 ??.
?????????????? ????????? ?????? (???. 85, [6]):
?????????? 1:20
d=17,78??
d1=18??
d2=14??
l=80??
l1=16??
l2=5??
R=6??
??????? 10 - ????? ?????
2.4. ??????????? ???????????? ?????????:
????????????? ???????? ????????? ????? ??????? ????? (2,5 ??), ??????????? ????? ? ???????? ??????? (4??), ????? ????? ??????? ????? 60??. ? ??????? ????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ? ??????? ????? ?2, ??????? ??????????????? ? ???????. ????? ????? ????????? 228??. ?????????? ????? 8 ??????, ???????? ?? ????? ?????????? ? ???? ??????????????.
3. ?????????????? ???????
?????? - ??????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ?????? ? ?????????????? ????????????? ?????????. ?????? ???????????? ????? ?????????????? ?????, ??????? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ??????. ?????? ????? ??????? (?????????) ???????????? ??? ??????????? ? ??????? ??? ????????? ??? ? ??????? ?? ????? ??????. ???????? ???? ????????.: ?????? - ????????????? ??? ????????? ????? ??????? ??????????, ????????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ????; ??????? - ??? ????????? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ? ???????? ??????????; ???????? - ??? ????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ? ?????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ???????, ????????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? (? ???????? ??????????? ???????, ?? ?????? ? ? ????????? ?? 2-? ??? 3-? ????);
????????? - ??? ????????? ?????? ? ???????? ?????????? ?? ????????????? ???????; ????????????? (??????????) - ??? ????????? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ? ???????? ??????????; ?????????? - ??? ????????? ?????? ? ?????? ?? ????????????? ?????????; ??????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????. ??????????? ????? ?????? ??? ???????? ? ???????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????. ??? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????.
????????? ????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ????????, ????? ?????????? ? ??????, ? ?????? ? ???????? ???????? ????? ????? ????????.
??????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ????????? ?????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????. ???????? ???? ??????? ? = 5-10� ??? ????????? ?????, 0-5� ??? ????????? ?????? ? 10-25� ??? ????????? ??????? ???????? ? ???????.
?????? ???? a = 4-12� ???????? ?????????? ??????? (????????) ????? ?? ????????? ????????.
?????? ??????? ????????????? ? ??????? ?????????, ?? ??? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ? ????? ??????? e = 8-15�.
3.1. ????????? ??????:
??????: ?16x2-7h(7H),
???????? ?????????: ????? 15??,
3.2. ???????? ???????
????????? ????????? ????? 15?? ????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ? ????????????? ??????.
??????? ??????????????? ?? ????? ?18, ?9, ?6?5 ??? ??, ??? ? ????????????? ??? ?????: ??????????? - ?? ?52, ???????? ?????? - ?16 (???. 421, [4])
????????? ??? ????????? ?????? ?????????, ?? ????????? ????? 15??, ????????????? ????? ?18. ???????????? ????? ????? ??????? ?????????????????? ?? ????????? ? ????????????? ??????, ? ????? ?????? ????????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????????? ? ????????? ????? ????? ?18, ??? ??? ? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????, ??? ???? ?????? ????? ? ???????? ?????? ? ????????, ?????????????? ????????????. 3.3. ?????? ???????
????????? ???? ??? ???????:
D=16??,
?=2??,
TD=0,019??.
??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????(???. 144, [3]):
D2=D-2+0,701,
D1=D-3+0,835,
D2= 16-2+0,701=14,701??,
D1= 16-3+0,835=13,835??.
???? ??????? ??????????? ??????:
?=60?
??? ???????: ???????-?????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ??????, ????????? ? ? ????????? ?? 2? ????, ??? ???????? ? ?????? ?????????.
????????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ? ????????? ??????????? ????? ???????? ??????? (???. 436, [4]):
M?????, ???:
M? - ???????? ?????? ???????????????,
??? - ??????????? ???????? ??????.
???????? ?????? ???????????????(???. 17, [5]):
??=Cm*Dqm*Pym*K?m*K?, ???:
Cm=0,27 - ??????????? ? ?????????? ???????, ??????????? ???????? ????????? ? ??????? ????? ???????,
qm=1,4 - ??????????? ? ?????????? ???????, ??????????? ???????? ????????? ? ??????? ????? ???????,
ym=1,5 - ??????????? ? ?????????? ???????, ??????????? ???????? ????????? ? ??????? ????? ???????,
K?m=0,8 - ???????????, ??????????? ??? ??????? ? ?????????????? ????????,
K?=2,5 -???????????, ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????, ?????:
??= 0,27�161,4�21,5�0,8�2,5=74,08 ??.
??????????? ???????? ??????, ??????????? ?????????? ???????(???. 17, ????. 1.5, [5]):
M??=104 ??,
?????:
74?104
M?????,
??????? ???????????, ????????????? ????????? ?????????? ???? ????????????.
????? ?????? (???. 21, ????. 1.10, [5]):
Z=3.
????? ??????? ????? (???. 21, ????. 1.9, [5]):
L1=(6?8)P,
L1=7�2=14??.
??????? ????????? ????? ??????? (???. 20, [5]):
Dt=D1-(0,1?0,15),
Dt= 13,835-0,1=13,735??.
??????? ???? ? ????? (???. 18, [5]):
?=arctg[(D-Dt)/2L1],
?=arctg[(16-13,735)/2�14]=4,62?.
??????? ????????? ??????? (???. 18, [5]):
Az=(P/Z) �sin?,
Az=(2/3) �sin4,62=0,05??.
????? ??????????? ????? (???. 22, ????. 1.11, [5]):
L2=16??.
?????? ??????????? ????? ????????? ? ???????? ??????????? (?????????? ????????? D, D1, D2 ? ??????????? ? ??????????) ? ???????? (0,04?0,08)?? ?? 100??. ????????? ???????? 0,05??.
??????? ?????????? ? ?????? ???? (???. 22, ????. 1.12, [5]):
d?=(0,38-0,40)d,
b=(0,30-0,32)d,
d?=0,4�16=6,4??,
b=0,32�16=5??.
???????? ???? ??? ??????? (???. 27, ????. 1.14, [5]):
?=10?
?????? ???? (???. 27, ????. 1.14, [5]):
?=5?
????????? 2? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????:
??????? 11- ??????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ? ?????? ???????? ????
??????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? (???. 23, ????. 1.13, [5]):
dC=9,0,
z=4,
x=4,32,
y=2,0,
r=2,0,
H=6,53,
X1=3,1,
Y1=10,4,
r1=10,5.
???????? ???? ????? ???????????? ?? ??????? (???. 25, [5]):
?=arctg (H/(L1+P)), ???:
? = (0,5 - 0,7)� b - ?????? ?????, ?????:
? = 0,5�4,8=2,4??,
?= arctg (2,4/(14+2))=8,53?.
???????? ??????? ??????? ???????????? (???. 27, [5]):
K = (p �D/Z) �tga,
K = (3,14�16/3) �tg5=1,46??.
??????? ????????? D = 3 � 52 ?? ?????????? (?????????) ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?????? ?? ???????? K1 = 0,01- 0,1 ?? ?. ?. ?????????? "???????". ??? ???? ?????????? ?????? ???? ? ?? ??????? ???????? ??????. ??? ???????? ? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????? ???????, ???????? ???? ?????? ? ?????????? ????????? ???????. ?????????:
K1 = 0,05??.
????? ???????? ??????? - 4 (???. 30, ????. 1.15, [5]).
???? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????? ???????? 7H ?? ???? 16093-2004:
TD2(7)=0,265??.
?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??????? (???. 30, [5]):
TD2 = 0,2�TD2(7),
TD2 = 0,2�0,265=0,053??.
?????? ?????????? ?? D2 ???????? 4 ?????? ???????? (???. 33, ????. 1.18, [5]):
eiD2 = +0,7 TD2(7),
eiD2 = 0,7�0,265=0,1855??.
??????? ??????? ?????? ??????? (???. 30, [5]):
D2 = (D2+ eiD2+ TD2 ) - TD ,
D2 = (14,701+0,1855+0,053)-0,053=14,8865??.
??????? ?????????? (???. 33, [5]):
esD2 = eiD2 + TD2,
esD2 = 0,1855+0,053=0,2385??.
??????????????? ????? ?? ????? ?? ???????? ???????? (???. 34, [5]):
?2 = esD2 - eiD2 ,
?2 = 0,2385-0,1855=0,053??.
???????? ?????? (???. 34, [5]):
d2 = D2max - esD2, ???:
D2max= D2+ESD2 - ???????????? ???????? ???????? ????????, ?????:
D2max =14,701+0,265=14,966??,
d2 = 14,966-0,2385=14,7275??.
?????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? (???. 35, [5]):
eiD = 0,4�TD2(7),
eiD=0,4�0,265=0,106??.
?????? ?? ???????? ??????? ?????? ??????? (???. 35, [5]):
TD = 0,3� TD,
TD =0,3�0,018=0,0054??.
???????? ??????? ?????? ??????? (???. 35, [5]):
d = (D + eiD + TD ) - TD,
d = (16+0,106+0,0054)-0,0054=16,106??.
?????????? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ???????, ? ??????? ??????? ?????????? esD1 < 0. ?????? ?????????? eiD1 ?? ???????????????, ???????:
D1 max = D1=13,835??.
?????????? ?? ???? ??????? ?????? ????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????? (?????? ????????? ?? ???????? ???? a/2. ??? ???? ?????? 0,25-5,0 ?? ?????? ?? ???????? ???? Ta/2 = � (40...15)� ??? ???????? ?????? ???????? 1, 2, 3 ? ?a/2 = � (80...20)� ??? ???????? ?????? ???????? 4.
??? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ???? ????? � 0,05 ?? ??? ????? ????????? ????????? ? ?????.
???????? ??????? (???. 36, ????. 1.20, [5]):
D= 16,106+0,173+0,068.
??????? ??????? (???. 36, ????. 1.20, [5]):
D2= 14,8865+0,119+0,051.
?????????? ??????? (???. 36, ????. 1.20, [5]):
D1= 13,835-0,1100.
??? ?????? (???. 36, ????. 1.20, [5]):
P=2?0,050??.
?????????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ??????? (???. 36, ????. 1.20, [5]):
a/2=?25?.
??????? 12 - ????? ? ??????????? ???????? ? ?????? ????? ? ?????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ? ????????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ???????.
??????? ?????????? (???. 40, ????. 1.22, [5]):
D3=12??.
??????? ???????? (???. 40, [5]):
a= 10??.
????????????? ???????-?????? ??????? ? ????????? D > 12 ?? ? ??????? ????????? D = 10 ?? ???????? ????????. ??????? ??? ????????????? ?? ?????????? LC ?? ????????? ?????:
LC = L1 + L2 + 20 ,
LC = 16+14+20=50??.
????? ???????-?????? ???????? L ? ???????????? ? ???? 3266-81:
L=102??.
????? ????? (???. 40, [5]):
L?=14??.
?????? ??????? ??? ?????? ????????????? ????? (???. 40, [5]): L?=0.
??????? ????????? (???. 40, [5]):
L1=0.
????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ?? ????????? (???. 40, [5]): L?=6??.
????? ?????? ? ?????? ???????? ? ????????? (???. 40, [5]):
L? =16??.
?????????? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ????????? (???. 40, [5]):
L?=10??.
????? ??????????, ??????????? ? ??????? ??? ? ????? (???. 40, [5]):
L??=29??.
????? ???????-?????? ???????? L ????????? (???. 40, [5]):
L = L?+ L?+ L1+L?+L?+L?+L?n,
L = 14+6+16+10+29=75??.
???? ?????????? L ?????? ?????????? ?? ????, ?? ????????? ?????????? ????????. ?????????:
L=102??.
??????? 13 - ????? ? ??????? ????? ??????? ??? ????????? ?????? ? ???????? ?????????
??????? 14 - ?????????????? ??????? ???????
??????? 15 - ?????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ??????? ?????? 5??
L=102?? ,l=32??,
t1=12??,?=6?,
l3=20?? ,d1=12,5??,
R=6?? ,d3=11??.
3.4. ??????????? ????????????? ???????:
??????? ????? ????????????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ????? ?18, ?????? 38?? , ????????? ?? ????? 40?. ????? ????? ??????? 102??. ?????? ????? 3 ????, ??????? ????? ???? ??????????????? ???????? ??????. ?????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?16?2. ?? ????? ??????????, ????????? 12??, ??????? ??????????????? ? ????????????????, ???????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ???????, ???????? 10?10??. ??? ???????????????? ??????????????? ? ??????.
4. ?????????????? ????????? ??????
???????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????, ??????????? ? ??????????, ?? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????. ??? ?????? ? ??????????????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????????? ???????. ??? ????????? ????? ? ?????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ???????? ????????. ????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ? ????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????, ?????????? ?? ???????, ???????? ????????????? ? ???????. ??? ????????, ???????? ???? ??????????????? ???????? ????????? ??????, ?. ?, ?????????? ????????? ????? ??????? ? ???????? ???????, ??????? ????? ??????????? ?? ?? ?????, ??? ??? ???????????? ??????, ? ? ????? ?????. ????? ????????, ??????????? ? ????????? ??????? ???????, ???????? ?? ??????????? ???? ?????, ?????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ?? ??? ??????? ?? ??????? ????. ??? ????? ???????? ? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ???? ?????? ? ??????. ???????, ????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????, ??????????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ????? ????? ???. ????? ??????? ???????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????, ?. ?. ??? ?????? ? ?????? ?????????? ?? ??? ???, ???? ??????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ?????????.
??????? 16 - ??????? ?????? ????????? ??????
4.1. ????????? ??????
???? ???????: ?=20?,
??????????? ???????? ????????? ???????: ?=0,
??????: m=2,25??,
????? ??????: z1=52
????? ??????:z2=36
???? ??????? ??????? ??????: ?=0
4.2. ???????? ??????:
?????? ??????????????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ????? ????? ?18, ?6?5, ?6?5?5 (???. 629, [4]).
??? ??? ???????? ?????????????? ?????? ?? ?????, ?? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ?6?5?5, ??? ??? ??? ????? ?????????? ???????????????, ????????? ? ??????????????? ?? ????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ????? (?? ?? ?????????? ? ??? ????????? ? ????????), ? ?????? ?? ????? ?????????? ???? ???????????????????? ?????????, ?? ????? ?????????, ??? ?? ?? ???????????? ???????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ????? ??????, ??? ????????????? ????.
4.3. ?????? ??????:
???? ????? ????? ?????? (???. 413, [6]):
?=10?.
???? ??????? ???????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ???????? (???. 413, [6]):
?0=?+?,
?0=0+10=10?.
?????????? ?????? ?????? (???. 413, [6]):
Z0=(dmax-3m)cos?0/m, ???:
dmax=180?? - ???????????? ??????? ?????? ??? ?????? 2,25 ???????? ???? 8570-80, ?????:
Z0=(180-3�2,25)cos10/2,25=75??????.
??????????? ??????? ?????? (???. 413, [6]):
D?0=m�Z0/cos?0,
D?0=2,25�75/cos10=171,35??.
???????? ?????????? ???? ?????? (???. 413, [6]):
?0=arctg(tg?/cos?0),
?0= arctg(tg20/cos10)=20.283?.
??????? ????????? ???????? ?????? (???. 413, [6]):
Db0= D?0�cos?0,
Db0=171,35�cos10=160,72??.
???? ??????? ???????? ????? ?? ???????? ???????? ?????? (???. 413, [6]):
?0=arcos(cos?�sin?0),
?0= arcos(cos20�sin10)=80,61?.
??? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ????????????? ??? ?????????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ????????? ????????. ???? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ???? ?? ??=1? ??? ?=20?. ? =90 ??? ??????.
??????????? ???? ?????????? ?? ????????? ???????? ?????? ?????? (???. 413, [6]):
?01=?+ ??,
?01=20+1=21?.
???? ??????? ?????? ?? ????????? ???????? ?????? (???. 413, [6]):
?01=arcsin(cos?0/ cos?01),
?01=arcsin(cos80,61/ cos21)=10,66?.
???????? ???? ???????? ?????????? ????? ?????? (???. 414, [6]):
?t0=arctg(tg?01/cos?01),
?t0=arctg(tg21/cos10,66)=21,29?.
??????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? (???. 414, [6]):
D0= Db0/ cos?t0,
D0=160,72/ cos21,29=172,49??.
???? ??????? ?????? ?? ????????? ???????? ?????? (???. 414, [6]):
?1=arcsin(cos?/cos?01),
?1=arcsin(cos90/cos21)=0.
???????? ???? ???????? ?? ????????? ???????? ?????? (???. 414, [6]):
?t1=arctg(tg?01/cos?1),
?t1=arctg(tg21/cos0)=21?.
??????????? ???????? (???. 414, [6]):
D?=m�z,
D?1=2,25�52=117??,
D?2=2,25�36=81??.
???????? ???????? ????????? (???. 414, [6]):
Db= D?�cos?,
Db1= 117�cos20=109,94??,
Db2= 81�cos20=76,11??.
???????? ????????? ????????? (???. 414, [6]):
D= Db/cos?t1,
D1= 109,94/cos21=117,76??,
D2= 76,11/cos21=81,52??.
????? ????? ?????????? ? ???????? ???????????? (???. 415, [6]):
L=v(?D_1?^2-?D_b1?^2 )/2sins+v(?D_0?^2-?D_b0?^2 )/2sins0,
L=v(?117,76?^2-?109,94?^2 )/2sin90+v(?172,49?^2-?160,72?^2 )/2sin80,61=52,74??.
????????? ?????????? (???. 415, [6]):
?=0,5m(z1+z2),
?=0,5�2,25� (52+36)=99??.
???? ?????????? ? ???????? ???????? (???. 415, [6]):
?t=arcos[(Db1+Db2)/2A],
?t=arcos[(109,94+76,11)/2*99]=20?.
????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ? ???????? (???. 415, [6]):
l=0,5(v(?D_a1?^2-?D_b1?^2 )+v(?D_a2?^2-?D_b2?^2 ))-A sina_t, ???:
Da= D?+2m, ???:
Da - ???????? ??????? ??????, ?????:
Da1=117�2�2,25=121,5??,
Da2=81�2�2,25=85,5??, ?????:
l=0,5(v(?121,5?^2-?109,94?^2 )+v(?85,5?^2-?76,11?^2 ))-99*sin20=11,48??.
?????? ???????? ? ????? ?????? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????? (???. 415, [6]):
?_1=0,5v(?D_a1?^2-?D_b1?^2 )-l,
?_1=0,5v(?121,5?^2-?109,94?^2 )-11,48=14,38??.
??????????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ? ???????? ???????????? (???. 415, [6]):
?l=0,15m/sin?t,
?l=0,15�2,25/sin20=0,9868??.
?????????? ?????? ??????? ????? ?????? ? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????? (???. 415, [6]):
?0=sin?0(L-(?1-?l)/sin?),
?0=sin90(54,33-(14,38-0,9868)/sin80,61)=40,76??.
??????? ????? ???????? ?????? (???. 415, [6]):
D_a0=v(?D_b0?^2+??_0?^2 ),
D_a0=v(?160,72?^2+?40,76?^2 )=178,65??.
???????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ??????? ? ????????? (???. 416, [6]):
2?r=0,2m,
2?r=(D?+D?0)-(Da0+Df), ???:
Df=D?- 2�1,2�m, ???:
Df - ??????? ?? ????????, ?????:
Df1=117-2�1,2�2,25=111,6??,
Df2=81-2�1,2�2,25=75,6??, ?????:
2?r=0,2�2,25=0,45,
2?r1=(117+171,35)-( 178,65+111,6)=0,97,
2?r2=(81+171,35)-( 178,65+75,6)= 0,97, ?????:
0,97?0,45, ??????? ???????????.
??? ?? ??????? ?? ????????? ????????? ?????? ? ?????? (???. 416, [6]):
P=p�cos?�D1/z1,
P=p�cos0�117,76/52=7,11??.
??????? ???? ?????? ?? ???????????? ?????, ?????:
S?0=0.5�p�m,
S?0=0,5�p�2,25=3,53??.
?????? ??????? ????? ?????? (???. 416, [6]):
Ha0=1,1m,
Ha0=1,1�2,25=2,75??.
???????? ???? ???????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????? (???. 416, [6]):
?at0=acrcos(Db0/Da0),
?at0=acrcos(168,75/187,41)=25,76?
???? ??????? ????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????? (???. 417, [6]):
?a0=arctg(Da0�tg?0/D?0),
?a0=arctg(178,65�tg10/171,35)=10,92?.
??????? ????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????? (???. 417, [6]):
Sa0=Da0 cos?a0 (S?0/(D0�cos?01)+inv ?to-inv ?at0),
Sa0=187,41� cos10,92� (3,53/(181,04�cos8,76)+inv 21,23-inv 25,76)=1,79??.
??? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????:
???? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ???????? ?02=?-??:
?02=19?
???? ??????? ?????? ?? ????????? ???????? ?????? (???. 417, [6]):
?01?=arcsin(cos?0/ cos?02),
?01?=arcsin(cos80,61/ cos19)=9,94?.
???????? ???? ???????? ?????????? ????? ?????? (???. 417, [6]):
?t0?=arctg(tg?01/cos?01),
?t0?=arctg(tg19/cos9,94)=19,27?.
??????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? (???. 417, [6]):
D0?= Db0/ cos?t0?,
D0?=160,72/ cos19,27=170,25??.
???? ??????? ?????? ?? ????????? ???????? ?????? (???. 417, [6]):
?1?=arcsin(cos?/cos?01?),
?1?=arcsin(cos90/cos19)=0.
???????? ???? ???????? ?? ????????? ???????? ?????? (???. 417, [6]):
?t1?=arctg(tg?01?/cos?1?),
?t1?=arctg(tg19/cos0)=19?.
??????????? ???????? (???. 417, [6]):
D??=m�z,
D?1?=2,25�52=117??,
D?2?=2,25�36=81??.
???????? ???????? ????????? (???. 418, [6]):
Db?= D?�cos?,
Db1?= 117�cos20=109,94??,
Db2?= 81�cos20=76,11??.
???????? ????????? ????????? (???. 418, [6]):
D?= Db/cos?t1?,
D1?= 109,94/cos19=116,27??,
D2?= 76,11/cos19=80,49??.
????? ????? ?????????? ? ???????? ???????????? (???. 418, [6]):
L?=v(?D_1??^2-?D_b1??^2 )/2sins+v(?D_0??^2-?D_b0??^2 )/2sins0,
L?=v(?116,27?^2-?109,94?^2 )/2sin90+v(?172,49?^2-?160,72?^2 )/2sin80,61=52,14??.
????????? ?????????? (???. 418, [6]):
??=0,5m(z1+z2),
??=0,5�2,25� (52+36)=99??.
???? ?????????? ? ???????? ???????? (???. 418, [6]):
?t?=arcos[(Db1?+Db2?)/2A?],
?t?=arcos[(109,94+76,11)/2*99]=20?.
????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ? ???????? (???. 418, [6]):
l?=0,5(v(?D_a1??^2-?D_b1??^2 )+v(?D_a2??^2-?D_b2??^2 ))-A? sina_t?, ???:
Da?= D??+2m, ???:
Da - ???????? ??????? ??????, ?????:
Da1?=117�2�2,25=121,5??,
Da2?=81�2�2,25=85,5??, ?????:
l?=0,5(v(?121,5?^2-?109,94?^2 )+v(?85,5?^2-?76,11?^2 ))-99*sin20=11,48??.
?????? ???????? ? ????? ?????? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????? (???. 418, [6]):
?_1?=0,5v(?D_a1?^2-?D_b1?^2 )-l,
?_1?=0,5v(?121,5?^2-?109,94?^2 )-11,48=14,38??.
??????????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ? ???????? ???????????? (???. 418, [6]):
?l?=0,15m/sin?t?,
?l?=0,15�2,25/sin20=0,9868??.
?????????? ?????? ??????? ????? ?????? ? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ?????? (???. 418, [6]):
?0?=sin?0(L-(?1?-?l?)/sin?),
?0?=sin90(52,14-(14,38-0,9868)/sin80,61)=38,6??.
??????? ????? ???????? ?????? (???. 419, [6]):
D_a0?=v(?D_b0??^2+?(2?_0?)?^2 ),
D_a0?=v(?160,72?^2+?(2�38,6)?^2 )=178,29??.
???????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ??????? ? ????????? (???. 419, [6]):
2?r=0,2m,
2?r=(D??+D?0?)-(Da0?+Df?), ???:
Df?=D??- 2�1,2�m, ???:
Df - ??????? ?? ????????, ?????:
Df1?=117-2�1,2�2,25=111,6??,
Df2?=81-2�1,2�2,25=75,6??, ?????:
2?r=0,2�2,25=0,45,
2?r1=(117+171,35)-( 178,29+111,6)=0,91,
2?r2=(81+171,35)-( 178,29+75,6)= 0,91, ?????:
0,91?0,45, ??????? ???????????.
??? ?? ??????? ?? ????????? ????????? ?????? ? ?????? (???. 419, [6]):
P?=p�cos?�D1?/z1,
P?=p�cos0�116,27/52=7,02??.
??????? ???? ?? ???????????? ?????, ?????:
S?0?=0.5�p�m,
S?0?=0,5�p�2,25=3,53??.
?????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? (???. 419, [6]):
?02=?0?-(l?+?l?)�sin?0/sin?,
?02=38,6-(11,48+0,9868) �sin80,61/sin90=26,3??.
??????? ????? ? ????? ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????? (???. 419, [6]):
D03=v(?D_b0?^2+?(2?_02)?^2 ),
D03=v(?160,72?^2+?(2�26,3)?^2 )=169,11??.
??????? ????? ????? ?????? (???. 419, [6]):
Df0=D03-a, ???:
?=2 ??? m?3, ?????:
Df0=169,11-2=167,11??.
???????? ???? ???????? ?? ????? ?????? (???. 419, [6]):
?ft0=arcos(Db0/Df0),
?ft0= arcos(160,72/167,11)=15,79?.
???????? ??????? ????? ???? (???. 420, [6]):
Sft0=Df0(S0?/(D0?�cos?0)+inv ?t0+inv ?ft0),
Sft0=167,11 � (3,46/(170,25�cos0)+inv 19,27+inv 15,79)=4,06??.
?????? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ????? (???. 420, [6]):
Tf=pDf0/Z0-Sft0,
Tf=p�167,11/75-4,06=2,94??.
??????? ?????? ??? ????????? ????????? ??? ???? ???????? (???. 420, [6]):
D??=Tf+(2...2,5),
D??=2,94+(2...2,5)=5??.
?????? ?????? ??? ????????????? ?????? ????????????, ??? ???????? ?????? 180?? (???. 420, [6]):
?=20??
??? ??? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?????? - 7, ?? ????? ?????? ?, ????? ????????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? Ra 0.4 , ??????? ???????? ???????????? Ra 0.4, ??????????? ??????????? ????????? Ra 0.32 (???. 429, [6]).
??????? 17- ?????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????, ???? 8570-80
??????? 18 - ????? ? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ???????
????????? (???. 431, [6]):
n=10,
l=0,6??.
4.4. ??????????? ????????????? ??????:
?? ??????????? ???????, ????????????? ????? ????? 75 ??????, ? ??????? 2,25. ????????, ??????????? ???????, ??????? ?????? ? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ? ???? ??????????????. ?????????? ????????? ? ????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ???? 8570-80. ????? ????? ??????????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ??? ? ??????????? ???????. ??????????? ?????? ??????????????? ???????? ? ??????? ? ??????????? ? ?????? ? ??????????? ??? ???????? ??????? ???????.
5. ?????????????? ????????????????? ?????
??????? ???????????????? ???????? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????? - ???????????????? ?????? (?????????? ???????? ? ???????????????? ???????????), ?????? ?? ??????? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??????. ?????? ?????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ??????.
????? ???????????? ????? ???????????????? ????????? ???????, ?????????????? ??????? ????? ?? ? ????????? ? ???????? ???????????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?????????.
???????????????? ?????, ??????????????? ? ????????, ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????, ??????????? ? ?????? ??????? ??????, ? ???????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????? ???????????. ??????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?? ????? 18??? ? ??????????? ? ???????? ?? 53...57 HRC. ????? ? ????? ?????? ?? ????? 40? ? ??????????????? ?? ????????? 37...41,5 HRC. ?????? ????????????????? ????? ? ??????? ????????????? ????????????? ?? ?????? 45 ??? 40?.
???????????????? ???? ??????? ?? ??????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? 7:24 ??? ????????? ? ????????, ? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ? ??? ??????? ? ???????? ???????? ???????. ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ?? ???? ????????? ?????????????? ????? ? ??????????????? ???????. ???????? ????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ???????????????? ??????. ???????? ???????????????? ?????? ???????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????. ??? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? 0,071 ??.
??????????? ???????? ????? ???? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ? ???????? ???????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ??? ??????????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ???????????. ?????? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??????????????? ??? ?????????? ????? ? ??????? ????????? ????, ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???????????????? ???????????.
5.1. ???????? ??????
?????????? - ?????????,
D0=?34?6,
L0=40??,
?????????????? ???????? - C???? 35X,
L1=195??,
L2=230??,
L3=220??,
K???? 7:24 - ?50,
T??????? ?????? 7:24 - ??4,
T??????? ??????????????? ?????????? 7:24 - IT4,
T0=0,15??,
S0=1,4??/??.
5.2. ????? ?????????
?????? ???????????????? ???? ???????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ????????? 34??. ?????????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?? ????? 35?. ???????? ???????? ????????? ??? ????????? ??????? ????????? ????? ??????????????? ?? ????????????? ????? ?6?5, ?9, ?18, ??? ? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????? ??6, ??8, ?5?6 (???. 404, [4]).
????? ???????, ?????????? ????????? ????????? ????? ??????? ?? ????????? ? ??????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????. ?? ???????? ????????? ?????? ????? ?18, ??? ??? ??? ????? ?????????? ??????????????? ? ??????? ????????? ?? ????????? ? ?????????????????? ??????? ?? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ???.
5.3. ?????? ????????????????? ?????:
??????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? 7:24 - ??4. ?????? ??????????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????? 7:24 ?? ??????? ??????? 0,062 ??.
?????????? ?????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????????? ?????????????:
- ??????? ??????????? ????????? ? ???????? (??????????? ?????????, ?????? 0,004 ??, ?????????? ?????, ??????? , ???????????? ????????? ?=1);
- ????????? ??? ???????? ??? ?????? 220 ??, ?????? (??????????? ???????, ??????????? ???????? - ??????????????, ??????? , ???????????? ????????? , ?????????????? ????? ???????? 220 ??);
- ??????? ??????????????? ????????? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ? ??????????? 7: 24 (??????????? ????????? 0,001 ??, , );
- ??????? ??? ??????? ??? ????????? ?? ? ??????? (??????????? ??????? , , ).
??????? 4 - ?????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??????? (???. 390, [9]):
????? ????????? ???????????????, ?????????:
1.??????????? ????????? ????????
2.???????? ?? ???????? ???
3. ??? ??????????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? 7:24
4.??????? ??? ??????? ??? ????????? ?? ? ???????
?????????
???????
???????
?????????
4
1
1
1,2
1,17
1,09
1,09
1,09
1
0,89
1
1 ???????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ????? (???. 388, [9]):
??, ???: - ??????????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????????? ????? (???. 388, [9]):
, ???:
- ???????? ?? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ???? ???????????? ????????? ,
- ??????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ??????????? , ?????:
??,
??.
?????? ????? (???. 389, [9]), ??? ?????? ??????? ??, ??? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??.
??????? 22 - ?????????????? ????????? ????????? ?????
???????? (???. 322, [9]):
d=Tr 48x3
D=66,6
H=14
???????? (???. 361, [9]):
a=3,2?0,1
b=25,7H12
d1=69,85
d2=M24
d3=25H7
d4=28
d5=107,25?0,05
d6=97,5-0,1
d7=91,25-0,5
d8=80
f1=11,1?0,1
f2=35
f3=19,1-0,1
l1=101,75-0,3
l2=11,5+0,5
l3=47
l4=61,5
l5=30-0,3
l6=35,8-0,4
l7=37,7-0,4
R1=2,5-0,5
R2=1,5-0,5
t=0,2
??????? 23 - ????????? ??????????? ? ??????????? 7:24 ??? ?????????????? ????? ?? ????????? ISO 7388/1
5.4. ??????????? ????????????? ????????????????? ?????:
????????????? ???????????????? ???? ??????????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ? ??????? ?????????? ? ??????????? 7:24, ???????????? ?? ????????? ISO 7388/1. ?????? ???? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????, ? ??????, ?????????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ?? 195...230??. ??????????? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ????????? ????? ? ???? ???????? ??????, ??????????? ?? ??????? ?????. ?? ??????? ????? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????? ????? 1:30 ??? ??????????? ?? ??? ???????? ???????? ?????????. ????? ??????? ????? ?????????????? ????? 295...330??. ? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ???????? ?????????, ????????? 34 ??, ??????????? ?? ???? 20392-74.
6. ?????????????? ???????? ????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????
?????????? ??????????????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????. ????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????????????? ??????????, ??????????? ??????????????? ? ???????. ?????????????? ???????? ????? ????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????, ???? ???? ?????????. ????????? ????????????? ???????????? ????????? ????? ? ?????????? ?? ???? ?????????? ???????. ??????? ? ??? ???????, ????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ? ???????? ???????? ????????, ?? ????? ???? ???????????? ????????? ???????. ????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ???? ????????????????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ? ????????? ???????.
????? ? ?????????? ??????????????? ??????????: ???????? ????? ? ??????????????? ??????????; ?????????????? ????? ? ????????? ??????????. ??????????????? ????? ? ??????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ???????????, ??? ??? ???????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ????? ??? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ?????.
???????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????, ??? ??????????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ??????. ??????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????? ??????? ????? ?? ????????? ??????.
????, ?????????? ??????? ???????, ???????????? ? ????? ??????? ???????????. ?? ????? ??????????? ???? ?????????? ????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ??????. ??????????????? ??????? ????? ????? ?????????????? ???????? ?? ???????, ? ????????????? - ? ????????? ????.
? ????????? ????? ??????? ??????????????? ???????? ????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ??????? ???????????????? ????????? ???????? ??????. ????? ????? ?????? ? ????????????, ???????????? ????????? ?????????, ?????????? ?????? ?? ??????????.
????? ??????? ?? ???????, ??????, ???????? ????? ? ??????????????? ????????, ?? ??????? ???????? ????? ??????? ????????? . ??? ??????????? ?????? ???? ???????????? ? ?????? ???????????, ????????? ???? ????????? ??????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ???????. ??? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ? ??????? ?????????. ????? ?????? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ????? ??? ? ?????? ? ?????? ???????????? ????? ??????? ??????. ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ???????. ????????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ?? ???????? ? ?????.
??? ?????? ????? ?? ??????? ?????? ????????? ?????????????? ? ? ?????? ???????? ????????? ?????. ???????? ??? ???????????? ????????? ????? ??????????????? ?? ??????.
??? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????. ???????????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ???????? ?????. ?? ??? ????? ?? ????? ???????? ?????????? ??-?? ????????? ???????. ????? ?????????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ?????????. ????? ??????? ?? ???????, ? ??????? ??????????? ??????, ??????????? ???????. ???? ????? ??????, ?? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ????????. ????????? ? ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ??????. ??? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ???????. ???? ??? ????????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ????????????????? ?????????. ??????????? ????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????, ??????????? ??????????????? ?????? ???????????, ??? ???????? ????? ??? ????, ?????????? ??????? ???????.
6.1. ????????? ??????:
???????? ????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????.
???????? ?????????: ????? 70?.
?????? ????????????: ?=125??.
6.2. ????? ?????????:
??? ????????? ????????? ?? ????? 70? ???????? ??????? ?????? ??????-???????????????????? ??????: ?30?4, ?15?6, ?14?8, ?5?10, (???. 209, [9]). ?????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ?15?6, ? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????????? ? ??????????????? ? ?????????????????? ??????????, ?? ????????? ? ??????? ???????? ???? ?????? ?? ?? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ??????.
6.3. ?????? ?????
??????? ????? (???. 244, [6]):
D=(1,2...1,4) �B,
D =1,25�125=156,25??.
????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ?????, D=160?? .
?????? ????? ????? ????? ???? ?????????? (???. 244, [6]):
?= 3�D1/3+25,
?= 3�1601/3+25=62,94??
????????? ???? (???. 326, [7]):
?=60?,
?1=12?,
?=11?,
?1=10?,
?=8?.
????? ?????? ???????? (???. 244, [6]):
N=360/(?+?1),
N=360/(60+12)=5.
???????? ???? 19064-70:
l=13,8??,
d=19,05??,
m=21,019??,
r=1,2??,
s=6,35??,
d1=7,93??.
??????? 24 - ???????? ??????? ????????
??????? ???? ? ?????:
e=180-?-?1,
e=180-60-12=108?.
????????? ????????? NN ???????????? ??????? ??????? ??????, ???. 25 (???. 81, [1]):
?=arctg((tg?�sine)/(tg?1+ tg?�cose)),
?=arctg((tg11�sin108)/(tg10+ tg11�cos108))=57,8?.
???? ??????? ???????? (???. 81, [1]):
�=arctg(tg?/sin?),
�=arctg(tg10/sin108)=12,8o.
???? ????? ?????????? NN ? ???? ????? (???. 81, [1]):
?=f+�-90?,
?=60+57,8-90=27,8?.
?????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ???? (???. 81, [1]):
?1=arctg(tg ��sin ?),
?2=arctg(tg ��cos ?),
?1=arctg(tg 12,8�sin 27,8)=6,04o,
?2=arctg(tg 12,8�cos 27,8)=11,36o.
???? ??????? ???????? (???. 81, [1]):
?=arctg(tg?2�cos?1),
?=arctg(tg11,36�cos6,04)=10.94?.
???????? ???? ??? ???????? (???. 81, [1]):
E=0,5D�sin?1-s�cos?,
E=0,5�160�sin6,04-6,35�cos10,94=2,18??.
???????? ??????? (??????????? ?????????? ???? ???????????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ???????, ????????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ? ??? ????) (???. 286, [8]):
V=Cv�Dq/(Tm�tx�Sy�BU�zP) �Kv, ???:
Cv=332,
Q=0,2,
t=1?? - ??????? ???????,
M=0,2,
X=0,1,
S=1,5??/?? - ??????,
Y=0,4,
U=0.2,
P=0,
T=180??? - ?????? ?????????, Kv=Kmv�Knv�Kuv, ???:
Kv - ????? ??????????? ??????????, Kmv=0,659 - ????., ??????????? ???????? ???????????,
Knv=0,8 - ????., ??????????? ????????? ???????????,
Kuv=1- ????., ??????????? ???????? ???????????, ?????:
Kv =0,659�0,8�1=0,53,
V =332�1600,2/(1800,2�10,1�0,150,4�1250,2�100) �0,53=139,75?/???.
??????? 25 - ???????????? ??????? ???????????
??????? 26 - ????? ? ??????? ??????????????? ???????
???????? ???? 19064-70:
d=19,05??,
b=4??,
R1=1,6??.
Z=10
6.4. ??????????? ???????????? ????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????:
?????? ?????, ????????? 160 ??, ??????? 63??, ? ??????? ????????? 10 ???? ??? ?????????. ????????? ??????????????? ?? ????????, ? ???????????? ??????. ?????????, ? ????? ???????, ????????? ? ?????? ?????, ? ? ?????? ????????? ?????? ? ????????? ???????????? ??????. ?????????, ???????????, ????????? ?? ???? 19064-78. ????? ????? ????? ??? ???????? ??????, ??????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ???????????. ????? ??????????? ? ??????? ? ???????????? ??????, ??? ??????????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ??????.
7. ?????????????? ????????? ???????? ?????
????????? ???????? ?????, ??? ??????????, ??????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????. ?? ????? ???????? ??????, ?? ?????? ????????? ???????, ????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ??? ?????? ???????. ????? ?????????? ? ????? ????????? ??????? ????. ????????? ????? ?????? 2 ????? - ??? ????????? ???????? ????? ? ???????????? ? ?????????? ????????. ??? ????? ???????????? ??? ????? ? ??????? ?????? ????????????? - ?? ???????? ???? ??????????? ????????, ???? ?? ??????? ??????. ??? ????????? ???????? ????? ? ?????????????? ????????????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ????? ? ???????, ??????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ????, ? ?????????? ?? ??????? ? ????????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??????????. ??? ????????? ???????? ????? ? ?????????????? ?? ???????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ????? ??? ??????. ????????? ????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ?? ????? ???? - ??????, ???????, ??????? ? ??????????????? ????????? ??????? ????????:
????? ? - ??? ????????? ????????? ???????? ?????,
????? ? - ??? ????????????? ????????? ?????,
????? ?- ??? ???????? ????????? ?????.
?? ??????????? ????????? ????? ??????:
???????,
???????,
????????.
?? ???? ?????????:
????????,
????????,
??????.
?? ???? ???????:
????????????,
??????????,
???????????.
7.1. ????????? ??????:
???????? ???: D-6x23x28e8x6h8,
?????: 0,4+0,2??,
???????? ??????: ????? 40.
7.2. ????? ?????????:
??? ????????? ?????? ??????, ????????????? ?? ????? 40, ????? ???????????? ????? ?6?5, ?9, ?18, ?6?5?5, ??? ??????? ????? ?? 6, ??8, ?15?6, ???????????????? ??-332 (???. 331, [4]). ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????????? ????? ?18, ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????, ? ????? ??????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????????. ? ?? ?? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ????????? ? ??????? ??????? ?, ????????, ?? ????????? ? ?????????????????.
7.3. ?????? ???????? ????????? ?????:
???????? ?????? ??? ???????:
d=23a11-0,270-0,330
D=28e8-0,014-0,028
b=6h8-0,014
z=6
fmin=0,3+0,2
?????? ????????? ???????? ????? ?????? ????????? ? ????????? ???????:
????????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?????? (???. 353, [6]):
Dmax=D+es,
Dp=Dmax-2fmin,
Dmax=28-0,014=27,986??,
Dp=27,986-2�0,3=27,386??.
????????? ?????????? ??????? (???. 353, [6]):
dmin=d+ei,
dp=dmin+0,25Td,
dmin=23-0,330=22,630??,
dp=22,630+0,25�0,06=22,780??.
????????? ?????? ????? (???. 353, [6]):
bmin=b+ei,
bp=bmin+0,25Tb,
bmin=6-0,014=5,986??,
bp=5,986+0,25�0,014=5,9895??.
??????? ???????? ????? ????????? ?????? (???. 353, [6]):
Dw=dw=v(?Dp?^2-?0,75bp?^2 ),
Dw=dw=v(?27,386?^2-?0,75�5,9895?^2 )=26,89??.
???? ??????? ?? ????????? ????? (???. 353, [6]):
?w=arcsin(bp/Dw)
?w=arcsin(5,9895/26,89)=12,87?=0.2246???.
??????????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ?a (???. 353, [6]):
?a=arcsin(0,5sin?w)
?a=?1=arcsin(0,5sin12,87)=6,35?=0.1108???.
???????????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ?f (???. 353, [6]):
?f=arccosv(?dp?^2-?bp?^2 )/dw
?f=?5=arccosv(?22,780?^2-?5,9895?^2 )/26,89=38,18?=0.6138???.
??????? ???????? ??? ?????? ????? (???. 353, [6]):
?2=?w
?2=12,87?=0.2246???.
??????? ???????? ??? ?????? ????? (???. 353, [6]):
?3=(?f+2?w)/3
?3=(38,18+2�12,87)/3=21,31?=0.3718???.
??????? ???????? ??? ????????? ????? (???. 353, [6]):
?4=(2?f+?w)/3
?4=(2�38,18+12,87)/3=29,74?=0.5190.
???????? ????? ??????? ????? (???. 353, [6]):
X=0,5Df[(?a-?w)-cos?a(sin?a-sin?w)]
X1=0,5�26,89 [(0.1108-0.2246)-cos6,35 (sin6,35 -sin12,87)]=-0,0315
X2=0,5�26,89 [(0.2246-0.2246)-cos12,87 (sin12,87 -sin12,87)]=0
X3=0,5�26,89 [(0.3718-0.2246)-cos21,31 (sin21,31 -sin12,87)]=0,2182
X4=0,5�26,89 [(0.5190-0.2246)-cos29,74 (sin29,74 -sin12,87)]=0,7676
X5=0,5�26,89 [(0.6138-0.2246)-cos38,18 (sin38,18-sin12,87)]=1,3502
???????? ????? ??????? ????? (???. 354, [6]):
Y=0,5dw�sin?a(sin?a-sin?w)
Y1=0,5�26,89 �sin6,35 (sin6,35 -sin12,87)=-0,1667
Y2=0,5�26,89 �sin12,87 (sin12,87 -sin12,87)=0
Y3=0,5�26,89 �sin21,31 (sin21,31 -sin12,87)=0,6866
Y4=0,5�26,89 �sin29,74 (sin29,74 -sin12,87)=1,8226
Y5=0,5�26,89 �sin38,18 (sin38,18 -sin12,87)=2,7357
??????? ?????? ???????? ???????? (???. 354, [6]):
X0=((?X5?^2+?Y5?^2 )Y3-(?X3?^2+?Y3?^2 )Y5)/(2(X5Y3-X3Y5)),
X_0=((?1,3502?^2+?2,7357?^2 )0,6866-(?0,2182?^2+0?,6866?^2 )2,7357)/(2(1,3502�0,6866-0,2182�2,7357))==7,5281??.
???????? ?????? ???????? ???????? (???. 354, [6]):
Y0=((?X5?^2+?Y5?^2 )X3-(?X3?^2+?Y3?^2 )X5)/(2(X5Y3-X3Y5)),
Y_0=((?1,3502?^2+?2,7357?^2 )0,2182-(?0,2182?^2+?0,6866?^2 )1,3502)/(2(1,3502�0,6866-0,2182�2,7357))=2,0111??.
?????? ???????? ???????? (???. 354, [6]):
R_0=v(?X0?^2+?Y0?^2 ),
R_0=v(?7,5281?^2+?2,0111?^2 )=7,7921??.
???????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? (???. 354, [6]):
A=(0,5d_w�a_w+X_0)/(d_w+2/3 Y_0 )
B=Y_0/(0,5d_w+1/3 Y_0 )
????, ??????????????? ?????????? ??????????? (???. 355, [6]):
a_m1,2=A�v(A^2+B^2 )
?????????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ?????? (???. 355, [6]):
??_1,2=v(?(X_1,2-X_0)?^2+?(Y_1,2-Y_0)?^2 )-R_0
????????? ?????????? (???. 355, [6]):
??=???1+ ??2?
?????????? ???????? ?????????? (???. 355, [6]):
[??]=2/3�Tb
?????????? ??? ?????? ????? (???. 355, [6]):
Pn0=pdw/z
??????? ???? ?? ?????????? ?????? (???. 355, [6]):
S=dw(p/z-?w)
??????? ???? ??? ?????? ? ????????? ????????? ????? ??????? ???? ????? (???. 355, [6]):
S3=S-2X3
S4=S-2X4
?????? ??????? ???? ????? (???. 356, [6]):
Ha=Y5
?????? ????? (???. 356, [6]):
H?=2f�tge
???????? ???????? ????? ?? ????????? ?????? (???. 356, [6]):
Hf=?Y1?
?????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ????? (???. 356, [6]):
L2=P?0-(S+4f)
?????? ?????? ???? (???. 356, [6]):
H=Ha+Hf+H?+?
?????? ??????????? ????? ???? (???. 356, [6]):
H??= Ha+Hf+H?
??????? ???????? ???????? ???? ???? (???. 357, [6]):
?n=arctg(Y0/X0),
?n=arctg(2,0111/7,5281)=14,96.
???????? ??????????? (???. 357, [6]):
K=pDa0�tg?/z
?????? ??????????? ??????? (???. 357, [6]):
R=p(Da0-2H)/10z
??????? ??????? (???. 357, [6]):
h=H+0,5(K+K1)+R
??????? ???? ????? (???. 357, [6]):
C=(1...0,8)h
???? ??????? ?????? ????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ???????? (???. 358, [6]):
t=arcsin(P0/pdp)
???? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? (???. 358, [6]):
O=R
??? ???????? ?????????? ??????? (???. 358, [6]):
Sk=pdp�*tg?
?????? ??? ?????? (???. 358, [6]):
Px0=P0/cost
????? ????? (???. 358, [6]):
L1=2(Ra2-Rf2)0,5+(1...2)P0+(3...5)
????? ????? (???. 358, [6]):
l=3...5
??????? ??????????? ????????? (???. 358, [6]):
Dot=0,55(Da0-2H)
??????? ????? (???. 358, [6]):
D6=Da0-2H-3
??? ????????????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ????????:
???????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ??????:
Dmax=27,986??
??????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ??????:
dmin=22,630??
?????? ?? ?????????? ???????:
Td=0,06??
??????????? ?????? ?????:
bmin=5,986??
?????? ?? ?????? ?????:
Tb=0,014??
??????????? ?????? ????? ?? ??????? ? ????????? ????????:
fmin=0,3??
????? ??????:
Z=6
???????? ??????? ?????:
D=70??
????? ?????? ?????:
Z?=10
??????? ???????? ???????? ??? ??????????:
?=0,3??
?????? ???? ?? ??????? ??????? ???????:
?n= 14,96?
?????? ???? ????? ?? ???????? ????????:
?=10?
??????? 27 - ??????? ?????? ?????
??????? 6 - ?????????? ??????? ?? ???
7.4. ??????????? ???????????? ?????:
????????????? ????????? ???????? ????? ??? ????????? ????????? ???? D-6x23x28e8x6h8 ????? ??????? 70??, ??????? ? 56?? ? ????? 10 ??????. ???? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? 3,995?. ?????????? ?????????, ? ??????? ??????????????? ???????, ????????? ???????? ???? 8027-86. ??????? ??????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ? ???? ?????????????? ? ????????????? ???????.
??????????
? ?????????? ????????? ?????????????? ???? ???????? ?????? ??????????????? ?????? ??? ?????????????? ?????????????? ????????????. ??? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ???? ???????????? ?? ???????? ??????, ?????????? ??? ???????? ??????????????? ? ??????????? ????????? - ?????? ? ?????????????? ??????????, ?????????????? ? ????????????? ?????????, ????????????? ??????????, ?????? ??????? ? ?. ?.
?????, ?????????????? ? ?????? ???????????? ???? ???????????? ? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ? ??????????????? ??????????????? ???????????. ??? ???? ????? ???? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ? ???????????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ? ???.
??? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ? ??????? ????? ????????????, ???:
???????? ????????, ??? ???????????? ????????? ?????????: D-6x28H11x34H7x7F8, ???????, ? ????????? ?????? ???????.
????????? ??????????????, ??? ?????????????? ????????? ????????? 20?7?? ? 8 ???????.
??????, ??? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ?16x2 ? 3?? ???????.
???????? ????? ??? ????????? ???????? ????? ? ??????? 2,25 ? 75 ???????, ????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? 0??, ??? ???????? ????? ? ????? ??????? ?????? 00.
???????????????? ????, ? ??????????? ?????????? 7:24, ???????????? ??????? ??????????? ?? 0...35??, ??? ? ???????? ??????????? - ???????? ?????????.
???????? ????? ? 16 ???????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ?????????????? ????????????.
????????? ????? ??? ????????? ????????? ???? D-6x23x28e8x6h8 ? 10 ??????? ? ????? ??????? ?????? 3.9950.
??????? ???? ??????? ????????? ?, ??? ?????????, ????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????????.
?????? ???????????? ??????????
1. ???????? ?.?. ? ??. ??????????? ?? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????????? / ?.?. ????????, ?.?. ???????, ?.?. ??????? ? ??. - ?. : ??????????????, 1986. - 288 ?.
2. ??????? ?.?. ? ??. ?????????????? ?????????? / ?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????, ?.?. ??????? ? ??. - ?. : ??????????????, 1989. - 328 ?.
3. ?????? ?.?. ? ??. ??????? ? ??????? / ?.?. ??????, ?.?. ?????, ?.?. ??????? ? ??. - ?. : ??????????????, 1983. - 448?.
4. ?????????? ?.?. ? ??. ?????????? ????????????????? / ?.?. ??????????, ?.?. ????????, ?.?. ???????? ? ??. - ?. : ??????????????, 1987. - 846 ?.
5. ?????? ?. ?. ?????????????? ???????? ? ??????? ??????: ??????? ???????/ ?????????: ?????, 2008. - 107 ?. 6. ?????? ?.?. ????????????? ???????????. ????????????? /?????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?. ? ??. - "????????? ???????????'', 2003. - 556 ?.
7. ????? ?.?. ????????? ???????? ???????? / ????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. ? ??. - ?. : ??????????????, 2004. - 784 ?.
8. ???????? ?.?. ?????????? ?????????-???????????????, ??? 2 / ???????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. - ?. : ??????????????, 1986. - 496 ?.
9. ???????? ?.?. ???????? ??? ??????? ? ??? / ???????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. - ?. : ??????????????, 1990. - 512 ?.
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