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????? 1. ??????????? ??????-???????????? ????????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????.
???????? ?1, ???? ?????? ?1. ?????? ?? ???????????. ?=15,4 ??/?^3. ????????? ????????????? R_0 ??????? ???? ?????? ?? ???????????.
???????? ?1, ???? ?????? ?2. ????????? ?????. ??????????? ???? ??????:
????? ????????????: I_p=w_L-w_P=18.9-15.2=3.7, 1=3.7=7??????-??????.
??????????? ????????????? ??????: ?????????? ?????????:
I_L=(W-W_P)/I_P =(6.1-15.2)/3.7=-2.4, I_L<0???????-???????.
??????????? ???????????? ??????????:
e=?_s/? (1+0.01W)-1=26.9/20.1 (1+0.01�6.1)-1=0.42
??????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?????????, ??? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ??????. ??????? ????????? ????????????? ????????? ? ???????, ?????? R_0=300 ???.
???????? ?1, ???? ?????? ?3. ????????? ?????.
??????????? ???? ??????:
????? ????????????: I_p=w_L-w_P=21-11=10, 7=10=17??????-????????.
??????????? ????????????? ??????: ?????????? ?????????:
I_L=(W-W_P)/I_P =(15,8-11)/10=0,48, 0,25<0,48<0,5?????????-??????????????.
??????????? ???????????? ??????????, e:
e=?_s/? (1+0.01W)-1=26.5/18,9 (1+0.01�15,8)-1=0.6
??????????? ?????????? ?????????????, R_0:
????????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????????.
???????????? ?? e ???? I?_L=0:
?e=0.7-0.5=0.2 - ?R_0=300-250=50 ?e=0.6-0.5=0.1 - ?R_0=x x=(0.1�50)/0.2=25, R_0=300-25=275 ???
???????????? ?? e ???? I?_L=1:
?e=0.7-0.5=0.2 - ?R_0=250-180=70 ?e=0.6-0.5=0.1 - ?R_0=x x=(0.1�70)/0.2=35, R_0=250-35=215 ???
???????????? ?? ? I?_L ??? e=0.6:
?? I?_L=1-0=1 - ?R_0=275-215=60 ?? I?_L=0.48 - ?R_0=x x=(0.48�60)/1=28.8, R_0=275-28.8=246.2 ???
????????? ????????????? ???????? ??????????????? ? ????????????? ?????????? e=0.6 ? ? ??????????? ????????? I_L=0,48, ????? R_0=246,2 ???.
???????? ?1, ???? ?????? ?4. ???????? ?????, ?.?. ??????????? ?????????????? w_(P ) ? w_L, ?? ?? ??????????.
??????????? ????????????? ??????: - ?? ??????????????????? ???????: 9.5+13.9+25.3+39.6=88.3% , 0.1>75% ?????? ??????.
- ?? ?????????: ???????????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ?.
e=?_s/? (1+W)-1=2,66/1,96 (1+0.027)-1=0,72, 0.6=0,72=0,75.
????? ?????? - ??????? ?????????.
- ?? ??????? ?????????????:
S_r=(?_s�W)/(e�?_w )=(2.66�0.27)/(0.72�1)=0.9975, 0.8<0.9975=1??????????? ?????.
????????? ????????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ????????????? R_0=200 ???.
???????? ?1, ???? ?????? ?5. ????????? ?????.
??????????? ???? ??????:
????? ????????????: I_p=w_L-w_P=46.1-20.5=25.6, 25.6>17??????-?????.
??????????? ????????????? ??????: ?????????? ?????????:
I_L=(W-W_P)/I_P =(26-20,5)/25,6=0.2, 0<0.2<0,25??????-???????????.
??????????? ???????????? ??????????, e:
e=?_s/? (1+0.01W)-1=27.2/19.8 (1+0.01�26)-1=0.73
??????????? ?????????? ?????????????, R_0:
????????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????????.
???????????? ?? e ???? I?_L=0:
?e=0.8-0.6=0.2 - ?R_0=500-300=200 ?e=0.73-0.6=0.13 - ?R_0=x x=(0.13�200)/0.2=130, R_0=500-130=370 ???
???????????? ?? e ???? I?_L=1:
?e=0.7-0.5=0.2 - ?R_0=300-200=100 ?e=0.6-0.5=0.13 - ?R_0=x x=(0.13�100)/0.2=65, R_0=300-65=235 ???
???????????? ?? ? I?_L ??? e=0.73:
?? I?_L=1-0=1 - ?R_0=370-235=135 ?? I?_L=0.2 - ?R_0=x x=(0.2�135)/1=27, R_0=370-27=343 ???
????????? ????????????? ????? ??????????? ? ????????????? ?????????? e=0.73 ? ? ??????????? ????????? I_L=0.2, ????? R_0=343 ???.
??????? ??????? ??????-???????????? ????????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????. ??????? 1
??????????????_sWI_PI_LeS_rfcR_0?????? ?? ???????????15,4---------?????? ???????20.126.96.13.7-2.40.42-23012300???????? ??????????????18.926.515.8100.480.6-17016246.2????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ?????19.626.627--0.720.9975270-200????? ???????????19.827.22625.60.20.73-16036343
?????: ? ?????????? ?????????-????????????? ????? 25 ??????? 2000?. ???? ????????? ??? ???????? ?? ?????????? 48 ? ? 64.5 ?. ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ???????? (???????? ?3) ?????????? 142.7 ?, ??????????? (???????? ?1) - 140.6 ?. ?????????? ???? ???? ???????? ??, ??? ?????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ????????????? ???????, ????????? ?? ???? ?????. ?????? ???? ?????? ????????? 3.1 ? - ?????? ?? ???????????. ?????? ???? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ? ????????? ????????????? ????? ?????? ?? ???????????. ?????? ???? ????????? 1.8 ? ??????????? ????????? ???????. ? ?????????? ???????? ???? ????????, ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ????????? ? ??????, ? ?? ????????????? ???????? ??????? ? ????????? ?????????????? ?????? R_0=300 ???. ?????? ???? ????????? 0.9 ?, ??? ?? ??????????? ????????? ???????. ? ?????????? ???????? ???? ????????, ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????????, ?? ????????????? ????????? ? ??????????????, ? ????????? ?????????????? R_0=246,2 ???. ????????? ???? - ?????????, ????????? 4.2 ? ???????? ???????? ?????. ?? ??????????????????? ??????? ???? ????? ????????? ? ????? ???????, ?? ????????? - ??????? ????????? ? ?? ??????? ????????????? - ?????????? ?????. ????????? ????????????? ??????? ?????? ???? ?????????? ? ?????????? ????????, ? ??? ?????????? R_0=200 ???. ????? ????, ????????? 5.5 ?, ??? ?? ??????????? ????????? ???????. ??? ??????? ?????? - ?????. ?? ????????????? ????? ????????? ? ??????????. ????????? ????????????? R_0=343 ???.
??? ?? ? ?????????? ??????? ???? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ??? ?? ???????: 135.30 ? - ? ???.?1, 136.00 ? - ? ???.?2 ? 136.3 ? - ? ???.?3. (???. 1). ????? 2. ??????????? ????????? ???????? ??? ?????????????? ???????????.
???????? ?? ???????, ??
??????? 2
??????? 1,2,3??????? 6,7??????? 4,5,8????.????.????.????.????.????.55045121090102866
???.2. ???? ????? ??????.
2.1. ?????? ???????? ?? ????????? ?? I ?????? ?????????? ?????????. ??? ?????????? ????????? ???????? N_I ??? ???????? ????????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ????????? (?? ????????? ? ????????????) ???????????? ?? ????????? ???????:
N_I=nN_?+n^' n_? N_?
???, N_? ? N_? - ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ????????? ??????????????. n - ??????????? ?????????? ?? ????????, ??? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? 1.1.
n_?=0.9 - ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ????????.
n^'=1.4 (??? ??????? ??????????? ?????????)
??????? 1,2,3:
N_I=1.1�550+1.4�0.9�45=661.7 ??
??????? 6,7:
N_I=1.1�1210+1.4�0.9�90=1444.4 ??
??????? 4,5,8:
N_I=1.1�1028+1.4�0.9�66=1213,96 ??
2.2. ?????? ???????? ?? ????????? ?? II ?????? ?????????? ?????????. ??? ?????????? ????????? ???????? N_II ??? ???????? ????????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ( ?? ???????????) ???????????? ?? ????????? ???????:
N_I=nN_?+n^' n_? N_?
???, N_? ? N_? - ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ????????? ??????????????. n - ??????????? ?????????? ?? ????????, ??? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? 1.
n_?=0.9 - ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ????????.
n^'=1 (??? ??????? ??????????? ?????????)
??????? 1,2,3:
N_II=1�550+1�0.9�45=590.5 ??
??????? 6,7:
N_II=1�1210+1�0.9�90=1291 ??
??????? 4,5,8:
N_II=1�1028+1�0.9�66=1087.4 ??
??????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? I ? II
??????? 3.
?????????? ????????? I?????????? ????????? II??????? 1,2,3661.7 ??590.5 ????????? 6,71444.4 ??1291 ????????? 4,5,81213.96 ??1087.4 ??
????? 3. ??????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????.
3.1. ??????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ????????????.
??????? ????????? ?????????? d, ?????? ?? ?????????????? ????????????, ???????????? ?? ????????? ? ??????? ?? ?????????????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ???? ??????? ????? (�0,00), ???? ???????, ??????????? ??????????. ? ????? ??????????? ?????? ? ??????? ???? ??????? h_cf (?????? 0,2...0,15 ?) ? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ???? ???? ???????? h?_s. ??? ??????? ???????? 0,4�0,4 ? ? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ???? 2?.
?? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? d ?????? ?? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ???????? ? ????:
d=h_? ?+h?_cf+h_s ?-h?_?, ?
???, h_?- ?????? ??????????? ?????????.
h_?- ?????? ??????.
h_cf-??????? ???? ??????????? ?????????.
h_s- ??????? ???? ?????? ???? ??????? ?????????? (?? ???? ???? ???????)
???. 3. ????????????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ???????.
d=3.1+0.2+0.9-1.05=3.15 ? ??????? ????????? ??????????, ?????? ?? ?????????????? ???????????? ????? d=3.15 ?.
3.2. ??????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?? ??????? ???????????.
? ????????? ???????, ?????? ? ????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ????????????? ???? ????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ? ?????? ????????????? ??????. ??? ????????? ????????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????, ??????? ????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ??????? ???? ??????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ? ????? ?? ??????????, ??? ??? ??? ???? ???????? ???? ???????????? ?? ????????? ??????.
????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? d_f, ? ???????????? ?? ???????:
d_f=d_fn K_h
???, K_h - ???????????, ??????????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??????. ??? ????? ? ???????? ??? ??????????? ????????? K_h= 0,6.
d_fn- ??????????? ??????? ???????????, ??????? ??????????? ?? ???????:
d_fn=d_0 v(M_t )
???, d_0- ??????? ??????????? ??? M_t=1, ???????? ?????? ??? ??????? 0.28 ?.
M_t- ???????????? ????????????? ???????????, ????? ????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ??????, ??????????? ?? ???? ?? ???????????? ???????????? ? ?????????.
??? ?.????? M_t=22.3
d_fn=0.28v22.3=1.3 ?
d_f=1.3�0.6=0.8 ?
??????? ????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ????? d=0.8 ?.
????? 4. ?????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????.
????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????, ??? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????:
P_??<R_????
???, ? P?_?? - ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????;
R_???? - ????????? ????????????? ?????? ????????? (?????? ???????).
4.1. ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????? ?????????.
????????? ????????????? ?????? ????????? ???????????? ?? ????????? ???????:
R_????=(?_c1�?_c2)/k [M_? ?_II k_z b+M_q d_1 ?_II^'+(M_q-1) d_b ?_II^'+M_c c_II ]
???, ?_c1 ? ?_c2 - ???????????? ??????? ??????. ??? ?????? ??????? ? ??????????? ????????? I_L<0, ?_c1=1.25.
?_c2=1.
k- ???????????, ??????????? ?????? 1.0, ???? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????? f ? c ?????????? ??????????????? ???????????.
M_? , M_q , M_c - ????????????, ????????? ?? ???? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ( f=?23?^0- ?????? ???????) ? ??????????? ?? ???????.
M_?=0.69; M_q=3.65; M_c=6.24
k_z- ???????????, ??????????? ?????? ??? b<10 ?, ? k?_z=1.
b- ?????? ??????? ??????????, ?.
?_II- ??????????? ????????? ???????? ??? ???????, ?????????? ???? ??????? ??????????, ??/?^3 . ??? ?????? ??????? - ?_II=20.1 ??/?^3 ?_II^'- ??????????? ????????? ???????? ??? ???????, ?????????? ???? ??????? ??????????, ??/?^3 . ??????????? ?? ????????? ???????:
?_II^'=(?_II1 h_1+?_II2 h_2+...+?_IIi h_i)/(h_1+h_2+...+h_i )
???, h_i - ???????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ? ???????? ??????? ????????? ??????????. ??????????????: h_1=3.1 ? (?????? ????????????? ?_II=15.4 ??/?^3 ), h_2=0.6 ? (?????? ???????).
?_II^'=(15.4�2.9+20.1�0.25)/(2.9+0.25)=15.7 ??/?^3 d_1 - ??????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ???? ???????, ???????????? ?? ???????: d_1=h_s+h_cf (?_cf/?_II )
???, ?_cf- ????????? ???????? ??? ????????? ???? ???????. ?_cf=22 ??/?^3 - ?????.
d_1=0.9+0.2(22/20.1)=1.1 ?
d_b- ??????? ???????, ?????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ?? ???? ???????.
d_b=d-(h_s+h_cf )=3.15-(0.9+0.2)=2.05 ?
c_II- ????????? ???????? ????????? ??????, ??????????? ??????????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? (?????? ???????). c_II=12 ???.
??? ??????? ?????? 1,2,3,4,5,8
????????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????
(??? ??????? ??????)
??????????? ?????? ??????? ??????????.
?????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ???????:
b=v(N_II/(R_0-?_c d)) , ?
?_c- ??????????? ???????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?? ??? ???????, ??????????? ?????? 20 ??/?^3
R_0=300 ???=300 ??/?^2 - ?????? ???????.
b=v(590.5/(300-20�3.15))=1.58 ?
????????? ??????? ?????? b=1.8 ?
????????? ?????????????:
R_????=(1.25�1)/1 [0.69�20.1�1�1.8+3.65�1.1�15.7+(3.65-1)2.05�15.7+6.24�12]=
=347.73 ??? ??????????? ???????? ????????:
P_??=(N_II+G_?+G_??)/?
???, A=b�1
G_?- ??????????? ??? ??????????
G_?=?_?? (G_???????????+G_???????+G_(?????? ? ??) )=24(1.233+0.461+0.654)=56.352 ??/?.?.
G_??- ??????????? ??? ?????? G_??=25.5 ??/?.?.
P_??=(590.5+56.32+25.5)/(1.8�1)=672.32 ???
????????? P_?? ? R_????, ????????:
?P_??>R?_????, 672.32 ???>347.73 ???
???????? ???? 2.02.01-83 ??????? ???????? ?? ????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?_???? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? R_????, ?????????????, ??????? ?? I ??????????? ????????? ?? ???????????.
????????? ?????? ??????? b=2.1 ?
????????? ?????????????:
R_????=(1.25�1)/1 [0.69�20.1�1�2.1+3.65�1.1�15.7+(3.65-1)2.05�15.7+6.24�12]=
=353.47 ???
G_?=?_?? (G_???????????+G_???????+G_(?????? ? ?????????) )=24(1.35+0.461+0.654)=59.16 ??/?.?.
G_??=32.9 ??/?.?.
P_??=(590.5+59.16+32.9)/(2.1�2,1)=325.03 ???
????????? P_?? ? R_????, ????????:
?P_??<R?_????, 325.03 ???<353.47 ???
???????? ???? 2.02.01-83 ??????? ???????? ?? ????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?_???? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? R_????, ?????????????, ??????? ?? I ??????????? ????????? ???????????.
??????? ???????? pII ? R ? ??????? ??? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ????????? 20%, ?????? pII ?????? ?????? ???? ?????? ??? ????? R.
?=(353.47-325.03)/325.03 100%=8.7%
?.?. ??????? ???????? pII ? R ?????????? 8.7 %, ?? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ??????????. ???????????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? 2?21.9-1.
??? ?????????? ?????? 1,2,3,4,5,8.
????????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????
(??? ?????????? ??????)
?_II^'=(15.4�0.65+20.1�0.25)/(0.65+0.25)=16.7 ??/?^3
b=v(590.5/(300-20�3.15))=1.58 ?
????????? b=2,1 ?
????????? ?????????????:
R_????=(1.25�1)/1 [0.69�20.1�1�2.1+3.65�1.1�16.7+(3.65-1)2.05�16.7+6.24�12]=
=360,4 ???
G_?=?_?? (G_???????????+G_??????? )=24(1.35+0.461)=43,46 ??/?.?.
G_??=6,98 ??/?.?.
P_??=(590.5+43,46+6,98)/(2,1�2,1)=305,2 ???
????????? P_?? ? R_????, ????????:
?P_??<R?_????, 305,2 ???<360,4 ???
???????? ???? 2.02.01-83 ??????? ???????? ?? ????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?_???? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? R_????, ?????????????, ??????? ?? I ??????????? ????????? ???????????.
??????? ???????? pII ? R ? ??????? ??? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ????????? 20%, ?????? pII ?????? ?????? ???? ?????? ??? ????? R.
?=(360,4-305.2)/305.2 100%=18%
?.?. ??????? ???????? pII ? R ?????????? 18%, ?? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ??????????. ???????????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? 2?21.9-1.
??? ?????? 6,7
????????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????
??????????? ?????? ??????? ??????????.
?????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ???????:
b=v(N_II/(R_0-?_c d))=v(1291/(300-20�3.15))=2.3 ?
??? ??? ????????? ?????? ?????????? b=2,3 ? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? 2?, ??????? 2,1 ?, ???????????? ????????? ????????? ?? ??????? ????? 2??-12.24 ?, ??????? 30 ?? ? ?????????? ??2, ????????????? ? ???????? ????????????.
????????? ?????????????:
R_????=(1.25�1)/1 [0.69�20.1�1�2.4+3.65�1.1�16.7+(3.65-1)2.05�16.7+6.24�12]=
= 346,8???
??????????? ???????? ????????:
P_??=(N_II+G_?+G_??)/?
G_?- ??????????? ??? ??????????
G_?=?_?? (G_???????????+G_??+G_??????? )=24(0.864+1,728+0.461)=73,27 ??/?.?.
G_??- ??????????? ??? ?????? G_??=0.84�18=15,12 ??/?.?.
??? ???????? ?????????? 2??-12.24 ? ??2.
P_??=(1444.4+73,27+15,12)/(2.4�2.4)=293,5 ???
????????? P_?? ? R_????, ????????:
?P_??<R?_????, 293.5 ???<346,8 ???
???????? ???? 2.02.01-83 ??????? ???????? ?? ????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?_???? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? R_????, ?????????????, ???????
?? I ??????????? ????????? ???????????.
??????? ???????? pII ? R ? ??????? ??? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ????????? 20%, ?????? pII ?????? ?????? ???? ?????? ??? ????? R.
?=(346,8-293,5)/293,5 100%=18,1%
?.?. ??????? ???????? pII ? R ?????????? 18,1%, ?? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ??????????. ???????????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ??
2??-12.24 ? ??2.
????? 5. ?????????????? ??????? ???????????.
5.1 ????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????.
??? ???? ? ??? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?? ??????????, ?????????????? ? ??????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ??? ????????????, ????????? ????????, ??????????? ?? ??????????, ?????????-????????????? ???????, ?????? ?????????? ????, ???????-????????????? ???????????, ??????? ??????? ?????????????. ? ???????? ??????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ?????????-????????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ????. ????? ???? ??????????? ?????? ?? ?????????- ????????????? ???????. ?????? ????? ???? ?????? ??????????? ? ????? ? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????? ?? ??????? ?? ????? 1...1,5 ?. ? ??????? ????????? ??????, ??????? ???????????, ??????? ? ??????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ??????????? ?? 0,5 ?. ?????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ???? ??????? 5.5 ?, ??????????? ??????? 30�30 ?? ????? ?-5.5-30, ? ??????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ? ????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?? ??????? 3.15 ?. ??????? ???? ? ????????, ??? ??? ???????? ?????????? ???????????, ????????? ???????????, ?????? 0,1 ?. ??????? ????? ???? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ????????? ?? ?????? ??????????, ?.?. ??? ????? ????? ??????, ??????? ? ????? ???? ?? ??????. ?????? ?? ????? ????????? ??????? ????? ????
l_(??.)^?=5.5-0.1=5.4 ?
5.2 ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ???? ?? ?????? F_d ?
????????? ???????? ?? P_(??.)???? ????.
??????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ???? ???????????? ?? ???????:
F_d=?_C (?_CR�R�A+u?�??_cf�f_i�l_i ?), ???
?_C-??????????? ??????? ?????? ???? ? ??????, ????? 1
R-????????? ????????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????? ????, ???, ???????????? ?? ??????? 1 .
?????????? ? ??????? ????????????: ??? ????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?? ??????? 8.85 ? R=25323.3???
A - ??????? ??????????? ??????? ????, ?2 : A=0.3�0.3=0.09 ?^2
u - ???????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ????, ?: u=0.3�4=1.2 ?
f_i-????????? ????????????? -?? ???? ?????? ?????????, ?? ??????? ??????????? ????, ???, ??????????? ?? ??????? 2. l_i- ??????? i-?? ???? ??????, ???????????????? ? ??????? ???????????? ????, ?.
?_CR ? ?_cf-???????????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?????????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ? ?? ??????? ??????????? ????, ??????????? ?????? 1.
??????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ???? ? ?????? ??????:
??? ?????? ??????? ??????? I_L=-2.4 ?? ??????? ??????? ???????????? ???? z_1=4.075 ? f_1=64.4 ???
??? ???????? ??????????????? ??????? I_L=0.48 ?? ??????? ??????? ???? z_2=4.95 ? f_2=55.85 ???
??? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????????, ??????????????? ????? ?? ??????? ??????? ???? z_3=6.01 ? f_3=42 ???
??? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????????, ??????????????? ????? ?? ??????? ??????? ???? z_4=7.8 ? f_4=43.8 ???
??????????: ??? ??????????? ???? ????? ?????????? ???? ????????? >2?, ?? ??? ??????????? f_i ???????????? ?? ????? ???????? ?? ????? 2 ?.
?????????? ??????? ???????????:
F_d=1(1�2523.3�0.09+1.2�1(64.4�1.45+55.85�0.3+42�1.825+43.8�1.825))=547.2 ??
????????? ????????, ??????????? ?? ???? ?? ??????, ????????:
P_??=F_d/?_k =547.2/1.4=390.8 ??
?_k-?????????? ?????????? ?? ??????.
5.3 ??????????? ???????????? ????? ???? ? ??????? ??????????,
?????????? ?? ? ?????, ??????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????.
??? ??????? 1,2,3
??????????? ?????????? ???? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ???????:
n=N_I/(P_??-8�d^2�h�?_?? )
???, N_I - ????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ?????????, ???????????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ????? ???????;
d - ??????? ?????????? ???? ?;
h - ?????? ????????? ? ???????? ????? ?????????? (??????????????? ???????????);
?_??- ??????? ???????? ??? ????????? ?????????, ??????????????? ??????????? ? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????????, ??????????? ?????? 22 ??/?3
n=661.7/(390.8-8�?0.3?^2�2.25�22)=1.86 ??.
?????????? ????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?????, ?.?. n=2 .
?????????? ????? ?????? ????????? ?????? 3d, ????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????. ?????????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ???? ????????? - 0,05 ?. ????? ?????? b ? ????? l ?????????????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ?????:
b_????=2�0.05+2�0.15+0.9=1.3 ?
l_????=0.8+2�0.1=1 ?
??? ??????? 6,7
??????????? ?????????? ????:
n=1444.4/(390.8-8�?0.3?^2�2.25�22)=3.7??.
?????????? ????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?????, ?.?. n=4 .
?????????? ????? ?????? ????????? ?????? 3d, ????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????. ?????????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ???? ????????? - 0,05 ?. ????? ?????? b ? ????? l ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ?????:
b_????=2�0.05+2�0.15+0.9=1.3 ?
5.4 ???????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ????
?? ??????? ??????????? ?????????.
??? ????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? F, ???????????? ?? ???? ????, ? ?????????? ?? ? ????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? P?_(??.)
F=(N_I+1.2(Q_P+G))/n
???, Q_P- ??????????? ??? ????????? ? ??????????????? ??????????? (????????????, ???????, ?????????? ???????, ???? ???????):
Q_P=(1.3�1�0.5+?0.8?^2�0.6+?0.4?^2�2.28+0.3�2.25�3)�24+(0.2�0.2�0.8)�22=82.87 ??
G- ??????????? ???????? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ??????????? ?????????.
?G=V?_??�?_??
?_??=(15.4�2.85)/2.85=15.4 ??/?^3
G=0.37�15.4=5.6 ??
1,2 - ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ? ????????? ??? ??????? ??????????? ?????????.
F=(661.7+1.2(82.87+5.6))/2=383.9 ??
F=383.9 ??<P_(??.)=390.8 ??
??????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????.
5.5 ??????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ? ??? ????????
????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ?=R.
??? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? p ?? ????? ??? ???????? ????????? ???????? ??????????, ?? ???? ? ????????? ?????? ?????? ???? ? ?????????, ??? ??? ?? ????????? ?????????? ????????????? R ????? ??????,
p_II=(N_II+Q_?+Q_??)/A_??? =R
A_??? - ??????? ??????? ????????? ??????????.
??? ?????????? ????????????? ?????: A_???=b_???�l_???
5.5.1. ??????????? ?????? ????????? ?????????? b_??? ? ??????? ???
??????? A_???
b_???=C_p+2 d/2+2l_?? tan??f_??/4?
???, C_p- ?????????? ????? ?????? ????.
d- ??????? ?????????? ????.
l_?? - ??????? ????? ????.
f_?? - ??????? ???????? ???? ??????????? ?????? f ????? ?????? ? ???????? ??????? ????? ????.
f_??/4=1/4 ((f_II1�l_1+f_II2�l_2+...+f_IIi�l_i)/(l_1+l_2+...+l_i ))
f_??/4=1/4 ((23�1.45+17�0.3+27�3.65)/(1.45+0.3+3.65))=(25.37�)/4=6.34�
tan??6.34�?=0.1111
b_???=0.9+2 0.3/2+2�5.4�0.1111=2.4 ?
A_???=2.4�1.5=3.6 ?^2
5.5.2. ??????????? ???????? ???????? ? ??? ???????? ????????? ??????????
??? ????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ???? ???? ????????? ?????????, ???????? ? ????? ????????? ??????????: ?????? - Q_?p ,???? - Q_c?, ????????? - Q_p???, ???????????? ? ?????? ?????? ??????? ? ??? - Q_??????. ????? ???? ??????????? ???????? ?? ?????????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????, ??????????? ??? ???????????? ????????? ??????????, ?? ???? ???? ???? ????
???????: ??????? - Q_???, ??????????? ??????? ??????? - Q_???, ? ??? ?? ????????? ?? ???? ??????? - Q_?? ? ?????? ? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? - G. ????????? Q_?? ? G ?????????????? ?? ?? ????????? ? ???????? ??????? ????????? ??????????.
Q_??=V_?? ?_??=(V_(??? ?)-V_??-V_????-V_?????? ) ?_??
???, V_??,V_(??? ?),V_??,V_????, ? V_??????- ?????? ??????????????: ?????? ? ???????? ??????????, ????????? ??????????, ????, ????????? ? ????????????.
?_??-???????????????? ???????? ????????? ???? ?????? ? ?????? ????????? ??????????.
?_??=(?�?_IIi �h_i)/(?�h_i )=(15.4�0.65+20.1�1.9+18.9�0.3+(19.6-10)/(1+0.72)�3.65)/(0.65+1.9+0.3+3.65)=74.24/6.5=11.4 ??/?^3
V_(??? ?)=A_???�h_???=3.6�6.5=23.4 ?^3
V_??=b_??^2 ?�l_??^?�n=0.3?^2�5.4�2=0.972 ?^3 V_????=1.3�1�0.5=0.65 ?^3 V_??????=?0.8?^2�0.6=0.384 ?^3
????? ?????? ? ???????? ??????????:
V_??=23.4-0.972-0.65-0.384=21.4 ?^3 ???????? ?? ????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????:
??? ?????? ? ???????? ??????????:
Q_??=21.4�11.4=243.9 ??
??? ????:
Q_??=V_??�?_(?/?)=0.972�24=23.33 ??
??? ?????????: Q_????=V_????�?_(?/?)=0.65�24=15.6 ??
??? ????????????:
Q_??????=V_??????�?_(?/?)=0.384�24=9.2??
???????? ?? ?????????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ???????? ???????????:
??? ???????:
Q_?=V_?�?_(?/?)=?0.4?^2�3.09�24=11.86 ??
??? ??????????? ?????????? ???????:
Q_???=V_???�?_(?/?)=0.3�3�3�24=64.8 ??
????????? ?? ???? ???????:
Q_??=V_??�?_(?/?)=?(2.4�1.31-0.4?^2)�0.2�24=14.32 ??
????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????: G=V�?_??^II=2.4�0.76�2.25�16.03=65.8 ??
?_??^II=(15.4�2.9+20.1�0.45)/(2.9+0.45)=16.03 ??/?^3 - ??????? ???????? ??? ?????? ? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ????????? ??????????.
??????? ???????????? ???????? ?_II ?? ???? ???????? ??? ???????? ????????? ???????? ??????????.
?_II=(661.7+243.9+23.33+15.6+9.2+11.86+64.8+14.32+65.8)/3.6=1110.5/3.6=308.5 ??? 5.5.3. ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????? R ??? ????????
????????? ???????? ??????????.
????????? ????????????? ?????? ????????? ???????????? ?? ????????? ???????:
R_????=(?_c1�?_c2)/k [M_? ?_II k_z b+M_q d_1 ?_II^'+(M_q-1) d_b ?_II^'+M_c c_II ]
???, ?_c1 ? ?_c2 - ???????????? ??????? ??????. ??? ????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??????????????? ?_c1=1.3.
?_c2=1.
k- ???????????, ??????????? ?????? 1.0, ???? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????? f ? c ?????????? ??????????????? ???????????.
M_? , M_q , M_c - ????????????, ????????? ?? ???? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ( f=?27?^0- ????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ??????????????) ? ??????????? ?? ???????.
M_?=0.91; M_q=4.64; M_c=7.14
k_z- ???????????, ??????????? ?????? ??? b<10 ?, ? k?_z=1.
b- ?????? ????????? ??????????, ?.
?_II- ??????????? ????????? ???????? ??? ???????, ?????????? ???? ??????? ??????????, ??/?^3 . ??? ????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??????????????? - ?_II=19.6 ??/?^3 ?_II^'- ??????????? ????????? ???????? ??? ???????, ?????????? ???? ??????? ????????? ??????????, ??/?^3 . ??????????? ?? ????????? ???????:
?_II^'=(?_II1 h_1+?_II2 h_2+...+?_IIi h_i)/(h_1+h_2+...+h_i )
???, h_i - ???????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ? ???????? ??????? ????????? ??????????. ??????????????: ?_II^'=(15.4�0.65+20.1�1.9+18.9�0.3+(19.6-10)/(1+0.72)�3.65)/(0.65+1.9+0.3+3.65)=11.4 ??/?^3
d_1 - ??????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ???? ???????, ???????????? ?? ???????: d_1=h_s+h_cf (?_cf/?_II )
???, ?_cf- ????????? ???????? ??? ????????? ???? ???????. ?_cf=22 ??/?^3 - ?????.
d_1=5.4+0.2(22/19.8)=5.6?
c_II- ????????? ???????? ????????? ??????, ??????????? ??????????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? (????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ??????????????). c_II=0.
R_????=(1.3�1)/1 [0.91�19.6�1�2.4+4.64�5.6�11.4+(4.64-1)3.09�11.4+7.14�0]=607.4 ???
????????????? ?_II=308.5=R_????=607.4 ???. - ??????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????.
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