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 ?????? ?1
?????????? ????????? ??????? ?19R7 /h6; ???????? ??? ???? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ??????????????? ? ??????? ????????; ?????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ????????? ? ???? ???????? ???????; ???? ??????? ??????? ????????.
??? ??????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? ? ??????? ????.
?????????? ????????? ? ???? ?? ???? 25347-82
?S=-20 ????s= 0 ???
?I= -41 ????i= -13 ???
????? ???????????? ????? ????????
?????????? ???????:
Dmax = N+ ES= 19 + (-0,020) =18,980 ??
Dmin = N + EI = 34 +(-0,041) = 18,959 ??
dmax = N + ?s = 19 +0 = 19,000 ??
dmin = N + ei = 19 + (-0,013) = 18,987??
??????? ????????? ? ????:
?D = Dmax - Dmin = 18,980 - 18,959 = 0,021 ??
?d = dmax - dmin = 19,000 - 18,987 = 0,013 ??
???
?D = ES - EI = -0,020 -(- 0,041) = 0,021 ??
?d = ?s - ei = 0- (-0,013) = 0,013 ??
??????:
Nmax = dmax - Dmin = 19,000 - 18,959 = 0,041 ??
Nmin = dmin - Dmax = 18,987 - 18,980 = 0,007 ??
??????? ?????:
Nc = (Nmax + Nmin)/2 = (0,041+0,007)/2= 0,024 ??.
?????? ?????? (???????):
?N = Nmax - Nmin = 0,041 - 0,007= 0,034 ??
???
?N = ?D + ?d = 0,021+0,013 = 0,034 ??
7.??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ??????????????? ????????: ?) ???????? ??????????? ????? ????????:
?) ???????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????:
?) ???????? ??????????? ????? ???????? ? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????:
??????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ????????
?????? ?2. ?????? ????????? ?????
?????????:
?????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ???? ???????? ???????, ???????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ??????(?????? ????????);
?? ???????? ????????? ???????? ???? ???????, ???????? ?? ????? ? , ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????(???????? ??????) ? ???????? ??? ? ????????? ??????????.
?????? ?1
????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ????? ????????, ????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????, ?????? ? =0+0.6
?? ??????, ???????? ? ????????? ??????, ????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? N1=29??, N2=186??, N3=29??, N4=264??, N5=6??, N6=26??.
???????? ??????? ?????
N =0??, T? =0.6-0=0.6??
Ec=(0.6+0)/2=0.3??
?max=0+0,6=0,6??
?min=0+0=0??
???????? ?????? ????????? ????:
???????? ????????? ????????? ????
? =?1?1+?2?2+?3?3+?4?4+?5?5+?6?6;
???????? ???????????? ?????????
??????????? ???????????? ??????????1?2? 3?4?5?6????????? ???????? ?-1-1-1+1+1-1
?????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????:
N? =-29-186-29+264+6-26=0
??? ??? ?? ??????? ?????? N? =0, ?????????????, ??????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????.
?????????? ?????? ????????, ??? ???? ?????? ?? ???????? ? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????.
??? ??? ? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ???????, ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????????, ?? ??? ??????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ???????????? ?_?=?_(,-?_(j=1)^?�T_cm )/(?_(j=1)^(n-m)�i_j )
C ?????? ????,??? ?????? ?????? ????? 0,12 ??, ????? ?1=?3=0,12??.
?_?=(600-2*120)/(2.89+3.22+0,73+1,31)=44.17
?? ?????????? ? ?????????????, ??? ?????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ????????, ??????? ????? 9 ? 10 ???????????. ?????? ??? ???? ???????? 9 ????????, ?????
?2=0,115??; ?4=0,130??; ?5=0,030??; ?6=0,052??.
?????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ?=?_(j=1)^n�?|?_j ?|T_j
?_(j=1)^6�?0.120+0.115+0.130+0.030+0.120+0.052=0.567???
?????????? ????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ????????, ?????? 0,033??, ??? ?????????? 5.5% ?? ??. ?????????????, ??????? ????? ???????? ??? ?????????.
?????????? ?????? ??????? ??????????, ??? ???? ?????? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ???????????? ????????.
?1=A3=29 -0.12??
A2=186h9(-0.115)??
A4=264Js9(�0.065)??
?5=6h9(-0.030)??
A6=26Js9(�0.026)??
??????????? ????????????????????129 -0.12-1-0,06000,060?2186h9(-0.115)-1-0.05750.0575?329 -0.12-1-0.06000,0600?4264Js9(�0.065)+100?56h9(-0.030)+1-0.0150-0.0150?626Js9(�0.026)-100
?? ????????? E_c?=?_(j=1)^n�?_j E_cj ?????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????? ??? ? ????????
?_??=0,060+0,0575+0,060+0-0,0150+0=-0,1625 ??
??? ??? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ? ????????, ?? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ???? ???????? ?????????? ?2, ????????? ? ???????? ??????????. ???????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ?2 ?? ????????? E_c?=?_(j=1)^n�?_j E_cj.
?.?. +0,30=-0,060+?_?2+0,060-0,0150
?_?2=+0,195??
?????????? ?????????? ?2:
ES2=+0.195+0.5*0.6=0.495 ??
EI2=+0.195-0.5*0.6=-0.105 ??
????? ??????? A2=186+0.495
?????? ?2
????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ?_? ??? ????????? ???????????? ????????, ?????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ?1. ?????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ??????????????????.
?????? ?????? ??? ??????? ? ???????
???????????
??????? ???????_jN_JE_CjT_J?_J N_j?_j E_cj?|??_j |T_jA129 -0.12-129-0.0600.120-290.06000.0600A2186h9(-0.115)-11860.1950.115-1860.05750.0575A329 -0.12-129-0.0600.120-290.06000.0600A4264Js9(�0.065)+126400.13026400A56h9(-0.030)+16-0.0150.0306-0.0150.0150A626Js9(�0.026)-12600.052-2600
??????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? N ?=-29-186-29+264+6-26=0 ??
??????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????
Ec=0.060+0.195+0.060+0-0.015-0=0.3
?????? ??????????? ???????
T ?=0.120+0.115+0.120+0.130+0.030+0.052=0.567??
?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ?_?max=0+0.3+0.5*0.567=0.5835 ??
?_?min=0+0.3-0.5*0.567=0.0165 ??
?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????????
? ??_(? max????? )=0.5835<?_(? max?????? )=0,6 ??
?_(? min????? )=0.0165>?_(? min?????? )=0 ??
?????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ????????
(?_(? max? ???)-?_(? max????? ))/?_? =(0,6-0,5835)/0,6=2,75%
(?_(? min? ?????)-?_(? min???? ))/?_? =0,0165/0,6=2,75%
?????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ????????????? 10%. ?????????????, ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ?????????.
???????3
????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ????? ????????, ????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????, ?????? ?=0+0.6??. ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????, ?????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ????? ?? ??????, ??????? 0,27%
?? ??????, ???????? ? ????????? ????????, ????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????: N1=29??, N2=186??, N3=29??, N4=264??, N5=6??, N6=26??.
???????? ??????? ?????
N =0??, T?=0.6-0=0.6??
Ec=0.6/2=0.3??
?max=0+0,6=0,6??
?min=0+0=0??
???????? ?????? ????????? ????:
3)???????? ????????? ????????? ????
? =?1?1+?2?2+?3?3+?4?4+?5?5+?6?6;
???????? ???????????? ?????????
??????????? ???????????? ??????????1?2? 3?4?5?6????????? ???????? ?-1-1-1+1+1-1
4)?????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????:
N?=-29-186-29+264+6-26=0
??? ??? ?? ??????? ?????? N?=0, ?????????????, ??????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????.
5)?????????? ?????? ????????, ??? ???? ?????? ?? ???????? ? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????.
??? ??? ? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ???????, ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????????, ?? ??? ??????????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ???????????? ?_?=v((0,694T_?^2-?_(j=1)^m�T_cm^2 )/(?_(j=1)^(n-m)�i_j^2 )) .
? ?????? ????,??? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ????? 0,12??, ?.? ?1=?3=0,12 ??
????????????? v(2&(0,694*?600?^2-2*?120?^2)/(?2,89?^2+?3,22?^2+?0,73?^2+?1,31?^2 )=103)
6) ?? ?????????? ? ?????????????, ??? ?????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ????????? ??? ????????? 11, ?? ?????? ??? ????????? 12.
????????? ??? ???? ???????? ??????? ?? 11 ?????????, ?????:
?2=0,290 ??, ?4=0,320 ??, ?5=0,075??, ?6=0,130 ??.
7) ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ?_?=1/?_? v(2&?_(j=1)^n�?_j^2 )+?_j^2+T_j^2
?_(j=1)^6�T_j =1.2*v(??0.12?^2+0.29?^2+?0.12?^2+?0.32?^2+?0.075?^2+?0.130?^2 )=0.59 ??
?????????? ????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????.
???????? ?????? ?2
0,6=1,2v(2&?0,12?^2+?_2^2+?0,12?^2+?0,32?^2+?0,075?^2+?0,130?^2 )
?2=0,31??
?????????? ?????? ??????? ??????????. ?????? ????? ??????????? ?? ???? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ?2, ????????? ? ???????? ??????????.
?????? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ???????????? ????????
?1=?3=29-0,12??
?4=264Js11(�0,016)??
?5=6h(-0,015)??
?6=26Js11(�0.065)??
??????????????????iECJTjaiaiT_i/2Ecj+aT_i/2?(Ecj+aT_i/2 )A129-0,12-1-0,0600,120+0,20,0120-0,0480,048A2186-1EC20,290+0,20,0290EC2+0,029(EC2+0,029)A329-0,12-1-0,0600,120+0,20,0120-0,0480,048A4264Js11(�0,016)+100,3200000A56h(-0,015)+10,00750,015+0,20,00150,0090,009A626Js11(�0.065)-100,1300000
?????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ?2
0,3=0,048+(??2+0,029)+0,048+0+0,009+0
??2=0,166 ??
ES2=0.166+0.5*0.29=0.311
EI2=0.166-0.5*0.29=0.021
A2=186+0,021
???????4
????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??? ????????? ???????????? ????????, ?????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ?3. ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????, ?????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ????? ?? ??????, ??????? 0,27%
?????? ?????? ??? ??????? ? ???????
???????iECJTjaiaiT_i/2Ecj+aT_i/2?(Ecj+aT_i/2 ) | ?| Tj(| ?| Tj)2?129-0,12-1-0,0600,120+0,20,0120-0,0480,0480.1200.01440?2186-10,1660,290+0,20,0290EC2+0,0290,1950.2900.03803?329-0,12-1-0,0600,120+0,20,0120-0,0480,0480.1200.01440?4264Js11(�0,016)+100,32000000.3200.10240?56h(-0,015)+10,00750,015+0,20,00150,0090,0090.0150.00225?626Js11(�0.065)-100,13000000.1300.01690
??????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????
N?=-29-186-29+264+6-26=0??
??????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????
???=0,048+0,195+0,048+0+0,009+0=+0,3 ??
?????? ??????????? ???????
??=1,2v(2&0,1884) =0,58�0,6
?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????
??max=0+0.3+0.5*0.6=0.6
A?min=0+0.3-0.5*0.6=0
?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????????
??max????=0,6=??max ?????=0,6
??min ????=0=A?min?????=0
?????????????, ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ?????????.
?????? ?3
?????????? ??? ??? ?? ???????? ???????; ???????? ????????? ? ????????????? ???????????? P=0.97
43,5443,3943,4443,3943,6343,5343,4343,1443,5543,6543,3843,5543,4343,5043,3943,6743,3743,5443,3343,6543,5443,7243,4443,4243,2643,6743,5543,5443,5043,3443,4243,4943,4243,5843,3343,5243,5143,2743,2643,5343,5343,5943,5743,2943,4743,4543,8243,4143,5943,3943,4443,5743,7243,4443,5243,5743,2743,5043,4443,6843,5343,5543,6843,5043,3243,4543,3943,4243,6043,6143,4443,3943,4743,4843,5743,5943,6343,6643,6643,6643,4643,6443,4643,7843,2743,4243,4343,4343,4743,6043,5243,3543,2843,6843,7743,5043,9443,3543,5143,60
??????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ???????????
?43,1443,2643,2743,2843,2943,3243,3343,3443,3543,37m1231112121?43,3843,3943,4143,4243,4343,4443,4543,4643,4743,48m1615461241?43,4943,5043,5143,5243,5343,5443,5543,5743,5843,59m2523444313?43,6043,6143,6343,6443,6543,6643,6743,6843,7243,77m3121232321?43,7843,8243,94m111
1 ????????? ?????????? ??????, ?????? ???????? ???????? ??????????????? ? ? ?????? ???????? ??????????????? ?????????? S?:
2.? ??????? ??????? "???? ????" ????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ????????.
????? ???????, ?? ???? ?? ??????????? ?? ??????? ?? ??????? ????????? ??, ?????????????, ? ???????????? 0.9973 ???????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????????.
3.?????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ? ???? ?????? ????????????? ???????????.
??????? ??? ???????, ?? ??????? ????????????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ????????, ???????? ?? k ?????????? ?????????? .
???????? k=7, ??????? ?.?. ? ??????? ????????? ???????? ?????? 5 ??????????, ?? ????????? ?? ? ?????????.
?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ?????? ???????? ??????? 1, ? ?????? ???????????.
?? ???? ??????????? ????? ??????? ????????????? ? ???, ??? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????. ???????? ??????????? ???? ????????.
Xi-1Xi m?i-1?iPi
143,0543,2210.48-2.86-0.70-0.4979-0.27940.23412.660243,2243,262343,2643,3815443,3843,51402,92-0,760,06-0,27940,02390.23991,380543,5143,64312,380,060,890,02390,31330,28940,035643,6443,77140.60.892.800.31330.49740.18410.009743,7743,904
4.???????? ???????????? ?????? ????????????? ?? ???????? ???????.
?.?. ? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ?????????????, ?? ??? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????:
? ?????? ?????? ???????? x1 ? x2 ????????????? ?????? ? ????? ?????????. ??? ??????? ?? ???????? ????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????????? ???????? , ? ????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????????????? ???????? ???? ??????? ?(t1) ?(t2).
?????, ????? ???????, ???????? Pi ??? ??????? ????????? ki, ???????? ??????????????? ?????? ???????, ? ????? ?????????? ???????? ?2 - ???????? ??? ??????? ?????????.
????????? ???????? ?2:4,084
????????? ????????? (???????????) ???????? ?2, ????????? ????????????? ???????????? 0.97 ? ???????? ?? ??????? r=k-3 ????? ???????? ???????:
r=5-3=2
????? ???????, ? ???????????? 0.97 ???????? ? ???????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????.
5. ????????????? ?????????? ? ???? ?????????????? ?????????.
??? ????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????????? :
;
?.?. ????? ????????????? ??????????? ??? ???????? ??????????????? ??????? ??????????, ????? ????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?? ????????? (???????? ????????????? ??????????? 0.97 ????????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? t=0,99):
?????? ??????????
1.???????????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ????? ?? ?????????? "??????????, ?????????????? ? ????????????" / ???????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?.: ???. ???. ??-?. ????, 2004?.
2.???????????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ????? ??? ????????? ???? ?????????????? "?????? ????????? ????????? ????? ???????? ??????????????????" / ??????? ?.?., ?????????? ?.?.: ???? 1994?.
3. ?????????? ? ???????????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ????? ??? ????????? ???? ?????????????? "???? ???????? ? ????????????? ???????. ???? 25347-82" / ???? 1994?.
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