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???????????? ??????????? ? ????? ?????????? ?????????
????? ??? "??????-????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??. ?.?. ????????" ???????????? ?????????
??????? "?????????????"
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?? ??????????: "?????? ?????"
?? ????: "?????? ????????? ???????? ?????"
????????: ?????? ?.?.
?????????: ?????????? ?.?.
?????? - 2012
?????? 1. ??????????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????.
???? ?????? ???????????? ?? ??????? Lh=365LrtcLc;
Lr- ???? ?????? ???????, ???;
tc- ????????????????? ?????, ?;
Lc- ????? ????;
?????? ????????????? ???????? ?, ??�?1,3???????? ????????, V ?/?0,06??????? ???????, D ??300??????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ????? d, %6???? ?????? ??????? Lh, ???7
???? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ???????:
L=365�L� t�L
??? L-???? ?????? ???????,7 ???;
t-????????????????? ?????, 8 ?;
L-????? ????;
L=365�7�8=20440 ?.
????????? ????? ??????? ????????? ???????? 15% ???????.
????? L= 20440�0,85=17374 ?.;
??????? ?????? ?????????:
L=17�103 ?.
2. ????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ?????? ???????.
1. ?????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? P,???:
P= T�?;
T- ????????? ??????, 1,3 ??�?; ? -??????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ??????, ???/?,
??? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ???? n??.
n??= ;
??? V- ???????? ????????, ??/???;
n??= ??/???;
????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???????:
? ??= ;
? ?? = Ppm=1,3�0,4=0,52 ???;
2. ?????????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? (???) ???????:
? = ?� ?� ?� ?2� ?;
??? ?, ?, ?, ?, ?-???????????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ????????, ???????? ????????, ?????, ??????????? ???????, ??????????? ??????????, ???????? ?? ????.2.2[3]:
?=0,8;
?=0,94;
?=0,98;
?=0,99;
?=0,98;
?=0,8� 0,94� 0,98� 0,992 �0,98=0,707;
3. ?????????? ????????? ???????? ????????? P,???:
??? =;
???= ???;
?? ????.?9[3] ???????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????:
P???=0,75 ???; n???=915 ??/???
????.2.1
4AM71A2?328404??71?4?313904??80?6?39154AM90LA8?3700
2.2. ??????????? ????????????? ????? ??????? ? ??? ???????? u= u?? �u??
??? u?? ???????? ?? ????. 2.3[3]:
u??= 25;
u??= 10;
u=25� 10=250;
1. ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ???? ??????? ?????? , ??/???:
n??=3,821
2. ?????????? ???????????? ????? ??????? ??? ???? ?????????? ????????? ???? ????????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ???????? P???:
u=;
??? ???????? ????.2.1:
u1=;
u2=;
u3=;
u4=;
3. ?????????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ???????
u??=u/u?? u??=const=25
u??=u/u??u??=25/100=2,5
4. ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ???? ??????? ?????? ?n, ??/???:
?n=;
??? d, %- ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ???? ??????? ??????, 5%:
?n=;
5. ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ???? ??????? ?????? ? ?????? ?????????? [n], ??/???:
[n]= n?n;
[n]= 3,821 0,19=3,631...4,011;
6. ?????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????? ??????? u:
u=n/[n];
u=;
7. ???????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ? ???????? ??????? ? ???????????? ? ????????? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ????? ???????: u= u/u:
u= ;
?????????: u=10;
u=25;
8. ?????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????? ??????? u??. ?:
u??. ?. = �u;
u??. ?. =25�10=250;
9. ?????????? ??????????? ????? ???????? ???????:
;
??/???;
2.3 ??????????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????
??????? 2.4. ???????? ??? ??-?-??-??-?????????? ?, ????????=0,73??1= ????????=0,708??2= ?1??????=0,56?????= ?2??????=0,522??????? n, ??/?????n???=915 ??/????n1= n???=915?n2= n1/ u??=915/25=36,6??n??= n2/u??=36/10=3,66??????? ???????? ? 1/???? ???= pn???/30=95,7?? 1= ????=95,7??2= ?1/u??=95,7/25=3,828?????= ?2/u??=3,828/10=0,382????????? ?????? ?, ?*??????=???*103/ ????=0,73*103/95,7=7,62??1=????????=7,62*0,98*0,99=7,39??2=???u????????=7,62*25*0,8*0,99=150,8?????=?2u????????=150,8*10*0,94*0,98=1389,1
??????? 2.5. ??????? ? ?????????????? ????????? ???????
??? ????????? 4??80?6?3 ????=0,75??? n???=915 ??/???
???????????????????????????????????
??????????????????????????????? ???????????????? ????? u1025????????? ???????? ?, ???0,730,7080,560,522??????? ???????? ?, 1/?95,795,73,8280,382???
?0,940,8??????? ???????? n, ??/???91591536,63,66????????? ?????? ?, ?*?7,627,39150,81389,1?????? 3. ????? ?????????? ????????? ???????. ??????????? ??????????? ??????????.
3.2 ????????? ????????
1. ????? ????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????:
?? ????. 3.1??? ???????? P=0,75 ??? ?????? ??????????????? ?? ????? 40? ? ?????????? =350 HB, ??????????????-?????????; ?? ????. 3.2 ??? ????? 40? - ????????? 269...302 HB, s? = 900 H/??2, s?= 750 H/??2
2. ?????????? ???????? ??????????:
?s =(4,3?_2 u_??)/?10?^3 ?(T_2 )=(4,3*3,828*25)/?10?^3 ?153,2=0,411*5,35=2,20 ?/?
3. ? ???????????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ?? ????. 3.5 ?? ?????? II ????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ???10?4?4, ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????; s? = 530 H/??2, s?= 245 H/??2.
4. ??? ????????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ????. 3.6 ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? [s]H ? ???????? [s]F ??????????.
?) ??? ????????? ?????? ??????? =350 HB,
[s]H=250-25?s=250-25*2,20=195 H/??2.
?) ??????????? ????????????? KFL=v(9&?10?^6/N), ??? ????????? N=574?2Lh=574*3,828*10000=21,9*10 6 ??????.
????? KFL=v(9&?10?^6/(21,9*?10?^6 ))=0,71.
??? ????????????? ????????
[s]F=(0,08s?+0,25s?)KFL=(0,08*530+0,25*245)*0,71=73,6 H/??2
5. ?????????? ????????? ????? ? ?????? 3.
??????? ????????????? ?????????D?????????-????-?????HBs?s?[s]H[s]F?????? ???????H/??2??????
??????????? 40?
???10?4?4125
-?
?269...302
-900
530750
245-
195-
73,6
?????? 4. ?????? ????????? ??????? ??????????.
1 ?????????? ??????? ???????? - ????????? ?????????? , ??:
=61 ;
??? ?2-????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ???? ?????????, ?�?, ??. ????. 2.5;
[s]-??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????, ?/ ??, ??. ????.4.1;
=61 ??;
?? ????????????? ?? ????.13.15[3] ????????? ?? ?????????? ???????????? ????????:
=98 ??;
2. ???????? ????? ?????? ??????? z:
?. ?. u=25, ?? z=2;
3. ?????????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ??????: z= z u;
z=2�25=50;
4. ?????????? ?????? ?????????? m , ??:
m= (1,5...1,7);
m= (1,5...1,7) � = 2,94...3,3 ??
???????? ??????????? ???????? ? ???? ????????: m=3 ??; 5. ?? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????:
q� (0,212...0,25) z;
q� (0,212...0,25)*50 �10,6...12,5;
?? ????. ?? ???. 75 [3] ???????? ??????????? ???????? ? ???? ????????:
q=12,5;
6. ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? x:
?= (/m) - 0,5(q+ z);
?= () - 0,5� (12,5+50)=1,41;
7. ?????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????? u, ? ????????? ??? ?????????? ?u ?? ????????? u:
u=; ?u=;
??? u=25;
u=; ?u=;
8. ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? , ??:
=0,5m (q+ z+2x);
=0,5�3� (12,5+ 50+2�1,41)=97,98 ??;
9. ?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????? ????????, ??
a) ???????? ??????? ???????:
??????????? ??????? d1=qm;
d1=12,5�3=37,5 ??;
????????? ??????? dw1=m(q+2x);
dw1=3(12,5+2�1,41)=45,96 ??;
??????? ?????? ?????? da1=d1+2m;
da1=37,5+2�3=43,5 ??;
??????? ?????? ?????? d=d-2,4m;
d=37,5-2,4�3=30,3 ??;
??????????? ???? ??????? ????? ?????? =arctg();
=arctg()=9�
????? ?????????? ????? ??????? b=(10+5,5|x|+ z)m+C;
??? ?0, ?=0;
b=(10+5,5�|1,41|+2) �3+0=59,26 ??;
?? ????. 13.15 [3] ???????? ??????????? ????????: b=60 ??;
?) ???????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ??????:
??????????? ??????? d2=dw2=mz;
d = mz=3�50=150 ??;
??????? ?????? ?????? da2=d2+2m(1+x);
da2=150+2�3(1+1,41)=164,46 ??;
?????????? ??????? ?????? d=d+;
d=164,46+=168,96 ??;
??????? ?????? ?????? d=d-2m(1,2-x);
d=150-2�3(1,2-1,41)=151,26 ??;
?????? ?????: ??? z=2 ;
b=0,355*;
b=0,355*98=34,79 ??;
??????? ??????????? ??????: Ra=0,5d1-m;
Ra=0,5�37,5-3=15,75 ??;
Rf=0,5d1+1,2m;
Rf=0,5�37,5+1,2�3=22,35 ??;
???????? ???? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????? 2:
sin d=;
sin d=;
??????????? ??????.
1. ?????????? ??? ????????? ????????:
;
??? f - ???? ??????, ???????????? ? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ????????:
?? ????.4.9 [3] ???????? ???? ?????? f = 2�20';
;
2. ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????: s?, ?/??2;
;
??? , ???????? ???? ?? ??????, ?;
??? ?2 - ???????? ??????, 153,2 ?�?,
?;
? - ??????????? ????????, ??????????? ? ??????????? ?? ???????? ???????? V2 ?/?:
;
;
??? V2=0,28 3 ????????? ?=1;
;
=204,88<[]=195;
3.????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ?????? sF, ?/??2:
sF=0,7YF2F_t2/(b_2 m) K=[s]F,
??? ?) ???????? m, ??; b2, ??; Ft2, H; K;
?) YF2 - ??????????? ????? ???? ??????. ???????????? ?? ????. 4.10 ? ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ????? ?????? ?????? zv2=z2/cos3?
;
;
YF2=1,45;
;
= 20,07 < []=73,6; 4. ?????????? ????????? ????? ? ?????? 4.
????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????? aw97?????? ????????? ????? ?????? b234,79?????? ?????????? m3????? ?????????? ????? ??????? b156,84??????????? ???????? ??????? q12,5??????? ???????:
??????????? d1
????????? dw1
?????? ?????? da1
?????? ?????? df1
37,5 45,96 43,5
30,3??????????? ???? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?9???? ??????? ??????? ?????? 2d0,82??????? ??????:
??????????? d2=dw2
?????? ?????? da2
?????? ?????? df2
?????????? d??2
150
164,46 151,26
168,96????? ?????? ??????? z12????? ?????? ?????? z250
???????????????????? ????????????????? ??????????????????? ???-0,76?????????? ??????????
s?, ?/??2195204,88?????????? ??????
F, ?/??273,620,07
?????? 6. ???????? ????? ?????????
1. ???? ? ?????????? ???????? ????????.
???? ?????????? ?????? a=20�:
????.6.1
??? ???????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ?? ??????????????????????????????????????? 2. ?????????? ?????????? ????:
????.6.2
?????"?? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ????F?1=50v(T_1 )...125v(T_1 )=
50v7,51...125v7,51=
137,02...342,55F?2=250v(T_2 )=250v153,2=
3094,3
?????? 7. ?????????? ??????? ?????? ???? ?????????.
7.1. ????? ????????? ?????.
????? ????? 40?
s?=900 s?=750 s-1=410
7.2. ????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ????????.
[t]k=10?/??2 -???????????? [t]k=20 ?/??2-??????????
7.3. ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????.
????.5.1
??????? ????? ? ?? ?????????? - ?????????? - ??????1 - ?? ??? ??????? ???????? ????????d1l1
?????????: l1=50??, ?.?. ??? ?????????2 - ?? ??? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ? ???????????d2
????????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ????. ?27-?30,
?????????: d2=35 ??l2
?????????:l2=43 ??3 - ?? ??? ????????, ??????d3,??? r- ????? ?????????? ?? ????. 7.2[3] r=1,6 ?????????:d3=40 ?? ?????????:d3=40 ??l3???????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ??????????4 - ?? ??? ?????????d4 l4=7,745 - ?? ??????? ??? ??? ??????d5-, ??? f ?? ????.7.1[3] f=1 ?????????:d5=43 ??l5-???????????? ??????????
1. L=aw+0, 5*(da1+da2) =110+0,5*(50,75+178,26) =224,5
2. l3=L-l1-l2-l4=224,5-50-43-7,74=123,76
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