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???????
???????? ??????:
??????????_???15 ?^(-1)?_???0,45 ???L_h13 ???.???
???????????????????? ??????:
.???????? ?? ??????:
?_???=?_???�?_??? =0,45�15=6,75, ???
1.2. ????? ??? ????????:
?_???=?_(?.?.)�?_???=0,95�0,96=0,91
1.3.???????? ?? ?????:
?_??=?_???/?_??? =6,75/0,91=7,34, ???
1.4. ??????? ???????? ????????? ????:
?_???=(pn_???)/30=>n_???=(30?_???)/p=(30�15)/3,14=143,31 , ??/???
1.5.??????? ?? ??????? ????:
n_??=U_???�U_??�n_???=4,5�3�84,1=1934,7 ??/???
???????? ????????????????:
???????? - 3,0 ???
??? ????????? - 4?132S4Y3
??????? - 1455 ??/???
?_????/?_??? -2
?_????/?_??? - 2,2
??? - 0,82
cosf-0.83
1.6. ????????? ???????????? ????? ??????? ? ?????????:
U_????^*=n_??/n_??? =1455/108=13,5
U_???^*=(U_????^*)/U_?? =13,5/3=4,5
????n, ??/????, ?^(-1)?, ????, ???11455152,290,057,34248550,760,146,1733107,7811,270,66,68
?????? ???????? ????????:
2.1. ???????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ????:
T_G=9550 N_??/n_1 =9550 2,92/1435=19,43, ?�?
2.2. ??? ?????? ???????, ?? ??????? ????????? ??????? ????? "?" ? ?????????:
e=4,8 ??
H=9,5 ??
h=4.85 ??
r_1=0,2 ??
r_2=0,7 ??
s_0=4,8??
??????? ???????? ?????:
d_(?_1min )=125 ??
??????? ???????? ?????:
d_(?_1 )=125 ??
2.4.??????? ???????? ?????:
d_?2=d_?1�U_?? (1-e)=125�3�0,98=367,5, ??
??????????? ??????? ?? ???? 17383-73 d_?2=355??.
2.5.??????????? ???????????? ?????:
u_p=d_?2/(d_?1-(1-e))=355/(125�0,98)=2,9
2.6.???????? ?????:
v=(pd_?1�n_1)/(60�1000)=(3,14�125�1455)/(60�1000)=9,5 , ?/c
2.7.??????? ???????? ???????? ????:
n_2=(d_?1�n_1 (1-e))/d_?2 =(90�1455�0,98)/355=502,08 ??/???
2.8.????????? ??????????, ???????? ?????????????:U_??=3, ?? ?=d_?2, ?=355 ??.
2.9.????????? ????? ?????:
L=2a+ p/2 (d_p1+d_p2 )+?((d_p2-d_p1 ))/4a?^2=
=2�355+ 3,14/2 (125+355)+?(355-125)?^2/(4�355)=1381,1, ??
????????? ????? ????? - 1400 ??.
2.10. ???????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????????:
a=(2L-p(d_p1+d_p2 )+v((2L-p(d_p1+d_p2 ))^2-8(d_p2-d_p1 )^2 ))/8=
=(2�1400-3,14(125+355)+)/8
+v(?(2�1400-3,14(125+355))?^2-8?(355-125)?^2 )/8=301,25 ??
??????????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ??????? ? ?????? ??????:
a_min=a-0,01�L=301,25-0,01�1400=287,25, ??
???????????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ? ???????????? ????? ??? ???????:
a_max=a+0,25�L=301,25+0,25�1400=315,25, ??
2.11. ???? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????:
a_1^�=180-60 (d_p2-d_p1)/a 180-60 (355-125)/301,2=134,4>[a_1 ]=?110?^�,
2.12 ???????? ????? ????? L_0=1700 ??.
????????????? ????? ?????:
L/L_0 =1400/1700=0.82
2.13.??????????? ?????:
C_L=0,95
2.14.???????? ???????? ??? d_p1=125 ?? ? v=9,5 ?/c, N_0=1,92 ???.
2.15. ??????????? ???? ???????:
C_a=0,86
2.16. ???????? ? ????????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ?????:
?T_?=1,2 ?�?.
2.17. ???????? ? ????????:
?N_?=0,0001�?T_?�n_??=0,0001�1,2�1455=0,17,???
2.18.??????????? ?????? ?????? ??? ????????? ????????:
C_p=1
2.19. ??????????? ????????, ???????????? ???????? ??????:
[N]=(N_0 C_a C_l+?N_? ) C_p=(1,92�0,86�0,95+0,17)�1=1,7, ???
2.20.????????? ????? ??????:
Z= N/[N] =7,34/1,7=6,7
3.?????? ????????????????
3.1. ???????????????? ? ????????????????????? ??? ???????? ? ??????.
????????????????? ??? ???????? ? ??????-????? 40?? s_(?_1 )=1600 ???
s_(?_1 )=1400 ???
?HRC?_1=52HRC
s_(?_2 )=850 ???
s_(?_2 )=600 ???
?HB?_2=300HB
3.2. ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ????????:
[s_(F_1 ) ]=s_(F_lim?1 )/S_F Y_s Y_R=550/1,85=297,3???
?????????????? ??????? ?????????????????? ?????? ??? ??????, ??????????????? ?????????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ??????????: s_(F_lim?1 )=s_(F_lim??b_1 ? ) K_FC�K_(FL_1 ),
??? ?????? ???????????? ??? ??????, ??????????????? ???????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? s_(F_lim??b_1 ? )=1,8?HB?_1=1.8�305=550,???
??????????? ?????????????:
K_FL1=v(9&N_FO/N_FE1 )=v(9&(4�?10?^6)/378300000)=0,601>K_FL1=1
????? ?????? ???????? ??????????:
N_FE1=60�n_2�8=60�485�13000=378300000
??????????? ???????????? :
S_F=1,75
???????????, ??????????? ???????????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? Y_s=1.???????????, ??????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???? Y_R=1,0.
??????????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????????:
[s_(F_1 ) ]=s_(F_lim?1 )/S_F Y_s Y_R, ???
[s_(F_1 ) ]=550/1,85=297,3
3.3.??????????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ??????:
[s_(F_2 ) ]=s_(F_lim?2 )/S_F Y_s Y_R
?????????????? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ??? ??????.
s_(F_lim?2 )=s_(F_lim??b_2 ? ) K_FC�K_(FL_2 ),
??? ?????? ???????????? ??? ??????, ??????????????? ???????? ????? ?????? ???????? ??????????
s_(F_lim?b2 )=1,8HB_2=1,8�300=540,???
???????????, ??????????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????? K_FC=1,0 ,??????????? ?????????????: K_FL2=v(m_F&N_FO/N_FE2 )
??? HB ? 350,mF =6;
??????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? N_FO=4�?10?^6; ????????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ??????????:
N_FE2=60�84,4�8000=40,5�?10?^6
?????????????:
K_FL2=v(6&(4�?10?^6)/(40,5�?10?^6 ))=>K_FL2=1
??????????? ???????????? S_F=1,75;
???????????, ??????????? ???????????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? , Y_s=1.0. ???????????, ??????????? ?????????????,Y_R=1,0.
??????????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ??????
[s_(F_2 ) ]=540/1,75=308,6 ???
3.4. ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ??? ????????:
[s_FM1 ]=s_(F_lim?M1 )/S_FM2 Y_S, ???
?????????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????, ?? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ???? :
s_(F_lim?M1 )=2450 ???.
??????????? ????????????:
S_F=1,75
?????????????:
[s_FM1 ]=2450/1,75=1400 ???
3.5. ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ??? ??????:
[s_FM2 ]=s_(F_lim?M2 )/S_FM2 Y_S1,
??? ?????????? ??????????, ?? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?????? ????:
s_(F_lim?M2 )=1440 ???.
??????????? ????????????:
S_F=1,75
?????????????:
[s_FM2 ]=1440/1,75=823
3.6.?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????:
[s_H1 ]=s_H1lim/S_H1 Z_R�Z_v, ???
?????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????:
s_H1lim=s_H1limb1�K_HL, ???
s_H1limb1=18HRC+150=18�52+150=1086, ???
s_H1limb1 s_H1lim=1086�1=1086 ???
??????????? ?????????????:
? K?_HL=v(mH&N_HO1/N_HE1 )=v(24&(1,8�?10?^7)/(43,04�?10?^7 ))=v(24&0,04)<1=>? K?_HL=1;
???: N_HO1- ??????? ????? ?????? ???????? ??????????
N_HO1=1,8�?10?^7
N_HE1-????????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ??????????.
N_HE1=60�n_2�t_?=60�485�13000=37,83�?10?^7;
[s_H1 ]=1086/1,1 0,95�1=938
3.7. ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ??????:
[s_H2 ]=s_H2lim/S_H2 Z_R�Z_v, ???
?????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????:
s_H2lim=s_H2limb2�K_HL2
s_H2limb2=2?HB?_2+70=2�300+70=670,???
??????????? ?????????????:
? K?_HL=v(mH&N_HO2/N_HE2 );
???: N_HO2- ??????? ????? ?????? ???????? ??????????
N_HO2=1,8�?10?^7;
N_HE2-????????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ??????????;
N_HE2=60�n_3�L_n=60�84,4�8000=405�?10?^6;
K_(?HL?_2 )=v(24&(1,8�?10?^7)/(405�?10?^7 )=)>? K?_(?HL?_2 )=1
[s_H2 ]=670/1,1 0,95�1=579,???
3.8.??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????:
[s_H ]=0,45([s_H1 ]+[s_H2 ])=0,45(938+579)=682,???
???????? ???????:
[s_H ]=682 ???<1,23�[s_H2 ]=712???
3.9. ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ??? ????????:
[s_H?1 ]=2,8�s_?=2,8�1400=3920, ???
??? ??????:
[s_H?2 ]=2,8�s_?=2,8�600=1680, ???;
3.10. ?????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ????????????. ????????? ????????? ??????? ????????:
d_w1=?((2�T_H1�K_Ha�K_H� ?�K?_Hv�(Z_H�Z_M�Z_c )^2)/(f_d�([s_H ])^2 ))+(u+1)/u;
??????????????? ???????? ????????:
v=0.0125?(N_1�n_1^2 )=0.0125?(6,173�485)=1,42, ?/?^2
K_Ha-???????????, ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ????? ??????? K_Ha=9
??????????? ?????? ????????? ????? ??? ???????????? ???????????? ????:
f_d=?�p/(17�tg16�)=2�3.14/(17�0.287)=1,28;
???????????, ??????????? ????? ?????????? ????????????:
Z_H=1.76�Cos16�;
Z_H=1.76�0.9613=1.69
???????????, ??????????????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????:
Z_?=275???
???????????, ??????????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ?????:
Z_e=v(1/e_a );
???:e_a-??????????? ????????? ??????????:
e_a=[1,88-3,2�(1/Z_1 +1/Z_2 )]�?os�;
Z_2=Z_1�U_???=17�4,5=77;
e_a=[1,88-3,2�(1/17+1/77)]�0.96=1,6
??????????????:
Z_e=v(1/1,6=) 0,79;
????????? ??????? ????????:
d_w1=?((2�48176,63�1,1�1,1�1,02�(1,69�275�0,79)^2)/(1,28�(682)^2 )+(5+1)/5=) 31,85 ??
?????? ??????????:
m=d_w1/Z_1 �Cos�=31,85/17�0,9612=1,8=>2 , ??
????????????? ????????? ???????:
d_w1=(m�Z_1)/Cos�=(2�17)/0,9612=35,37 , ??
3.11. ??????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ????????????:
v=(p�d_w1�n_1)/(60�1000) =(3.14�35,37�478,3)/(60�1000)=0,88 , ?/?
???????? ????????? ??????? ????????:
d_w1^'=d_w1 ?((K_Hv�K_Ha�Z_v^2)/(K_Hv^'�K_Ha^'�Z_v^'2 ));
K_Hv^'-???????????, ??????????? ???????????? ????????.
K_Ha^'-???????????, ??????????? ????????????? ????????.
d_w1^'=35,37?((1,01�1,1�?1,01?^2)/(1,02�1,1))=31,97 ??
??????? ?????? ??????????:
m^'=(d_w1^')/Z_1 Cos�=31,97/17 0.961=1,94=>2 ??
?????? ????????? ?????:
b_w=f_bd�d_w1=1.28�35,37=45,274, ??
????????? b_w=45??
3.12.??????????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ???????????? ????????. ?????? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ????????:
s_HM=s_H v(T_M/T_1 )=[s_HM ];
???????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ?? ?????????? ????????????:
s_H=Z_H�Z_M ?�Z?_e v((2�T_H1�K_Ha�K_H� ?�K?_Hv)/(b_w�d_w1^2 )�(u+1)/u);
s_H=1.69�275�0.79v((2�48176,63�1.1�1.02�1.1)/(45,274�274)�6/5)=
=316,96???
????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ????????:
s_HM=316,96v2=871,13 ???=[G_HM ]=3920 ???
3.13. ??????????? ?????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ?? ??????????? ??????. ????????? ?????????? ?????? s_(F=) Y_F1�Y_? (WF_t)/m=[s_F1 ]
?????????????? ?????????? ????????, ??????????? ??? ???????. ????????????? ????? ?????? ???????? ? ?????? Z_V1= Z_1/(?cos?^3 � )= 17/?0,9612?^3 =19,
Z_V2= Z_2/(?cos?^(3 ) �)=85/0,88=97,
????????????, ??????????? ????? ???? ???????? ? ?????? Y_(F1 )=4; Y_F2=3,6 .
???????????, ??????????? ??????? ??????? ???? ?? ??? ??????????? ?????????: Y_(� )=1-�^�/140=1-16/140=0,89,
????????? ???????? ???????? :
W_Ft=(2T_F1)/(dw_1�bw)�K_(Fa )�K_F߷K_FV, ?/??
??? ???????????, ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ????? ???????:
K_(Fa )= (4+(e_a-1)�(n-5))/(4e_a )= (4+(1,6-1)�(9-5))/(4�1,6)=1
???????????, ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ????? K_F�=1,17; ???????????, ??????????? ???????????? ???????? K_FV=1,04
??????????????:
W_Ft= (2 �40000)/(35,37�45)�1 �1,17 �1,04=61,16 ?????????? ?????? ? ?????? ????????:
s_F1=4 �0,89 61,16/2 =108,9 ???<[s_F1 ]=297,3 ???
? ?????? ??????:
s_F2=108,9 3,6/4=98,01 ???<[s_F2 ]=308,6 ???
3.14 ??????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ?????????. ????????? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ????????:
s_FM=s_F T_M/T_1 =[s_FM]
?????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?? ????????????:
??? ?????? ???????? s_F1=108,9 ???
??? ?????? ?????? s_F2=98,01 ???.
????????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ????????:
??? ?????? ????????: s_FM1=108,9�2=217,8 ???<[s_FM1 ]=1324 ???
??? ?????? ??????:
s_FM2=98,01�2=196 ???<[s_FM2 ]=822,9 ???
3.15 ????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????:
Z_1=17; Z_2=77; m=2 ??; ߰=16�;
b_W=45,271 ??; d_W1=35,37 ??
d_W2=(m�Z_2)/cos�, ??
d_W2=(2�77)/0,961=160,21 ??
?????????? ????????? ??????????:
a_W=(0,5m (Z_1� Z_2))/cos�=(0,5�2(17+77))/0,961=97,79�98, ??
????????? ????????? ??????????:
a_W= (d_W1+ d_W2)/2=(35,37+160,21)/2=97,79, ??
3.16. ??? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ????? ????????????? ???? ??????? �.
????????? ????????? ?????????? a_W=100 ??;
?????????????? ???? ???????:
?cos?_�=(?0,5?_m (Z_1+Z_2 ))/a_W =(0,5�2(17+77))/100=0,92
�=20�
????????????? ????????? ???????? ????????:
d_W1=m_Z1/cos�=(2�17)/0,94=36,18, ??
??????:
d_W2=m_Z2/cos�=(2�77)/0,94=163,88, ??
????????? ????????? ??????????:
a_W=(d_W1+d_W2)/2, ??
a_W=(36,18+163,88)/2=100,03 ??
4.?????? ?????
?????? ???????? ????:
d=?(T/0.2[t] )=?(140000/(0.2�20))=32, ??
????????? ???????? ???? ???:
- ?????? d = 35??
- ????????? d = 38??
- ???????? d = 32??
?????? ????????? ????:
d=?(?_2/(0,2�[t] ))=?(600000/(0,2�20)=) 53, ??
????????? ???????? ???? ???:
- ?????? d = 58??
- ????????? d = 60??
- ???????? d = 62??
?????????? ?????? ????????? ????
R_ax=(F_t�b)/(a+b)=(3200�0,045)/(0,045+0,045)=1600; ?
F_t=(2?_1)/(d?_1 )=(2�56)/0.035=3200;?
R_bx=(F_t�a)/(a+b)=(3200�0.045)/(0,045+0,045)=1600; ?
M_??=(F_t�a�b)/(a+b)=(3200�0.045�0.045)/(0.045+0.045)=72;??
R_ay=(F_r�b)/(a+b)+M_c/(a+b);
F_r=F_t�tga_w=0,048�tg20=3200�0363=1161,6;?
?_?=(F_?�d_w)/2=(736�0.035)/2=25,76; ??
R_ay=(1161,6�0.045)/(0.045+0.045)+25,76/(0.045+0.045)=876;?
F_a=F_t�tg�=3200�tg13=3200�0,230=736;?
M_??=v(?_?^2+(a?)^2 )= v(0,0001+0,007056)=0,0071;???
R_by=(F_r�a)/(a+b)-M/(a+b)=(1161.6�0.045)/(0.045+0.045)-25.7/(0.045+0.045)=294.6;??
W=(p_d^3)/32=(3,14�?4,8?^3)/32=10,85, ?^3
s=320/(10,85�?10?^(-6) )=29,5;???
?????? ???????? ????:
d=?(T/0.2[t] )=?(56000/(0.2�20))=?14000=24, ??
????????? ???????? ???? ???:
- ?????? d = 26??
- ????????? d = 30??
- ???????? d = 33??
?????? ????????? ????:
d=?(?_2/(0,2�[t] ))=?(310000/(0,2�20)=) ?(77500=) 43, ??
????????? ???????? ???? ???:
- ?????? d = 45??
- ????????? d = 50??
- ???????? d = 53??
5. ????? ???????????
????????? ????????? ?????????-??????? ?????????? ??????????? ???? ?????? ????? ?? ???? 831 -75:
??????? ???: ? 36206;d=30??;D=62 ??; ?=16??;
??? ????????: ? 46209;d=45??, D=85??; ?=19??;
??????????? ????????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ????????:
L=(C/P)^p=(3,2/1,315)^3=14,4 ???/??
C - ?????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ??????????, ?=13100
? - ????????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ?????????, ?=(XVF_r+YF_a)k_G�k_T
?- ??????????? ?????????? ????????, ?=0,45;
Y-??????????? ?????? ???????? Y = 1,34;
?=(0,45�1�0,55+1,34�0,75)1�1,05=1,315
6. ??????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????
??????? ??????? ?????????:
d=0,025�a_w+1=0,025�100+1=3,4=>10,??
??????? ?????? ?????? ???????:
d 1=7,5 ??.
?????????? ????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ? ???????:
b=1.2�d=1.2�10=12, ??
?????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ???? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ?????:
b_0=(5...10)m=5�2=10, ??
h=0.4�d=0.4�10=4, ??
??????? ???????? ?????? ?????????:
S=1.5�d=1.5�10=15, ??
??????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?????????:
S_2=2,35�d=2,35�10=23,5 ??
??????? ?????? ???????????:
3620646209D_1,??6285D_2,??85110D_3,??105130z46
??????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ???????:
m=k+1.5�10=35+1.5�10=45, ??
??????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ????????:
d_?????=?8
k=24 ??
?=13 ??
d_???= 9 ??
D = 17 ??
r = 3
??????? ??????:
d_1=0.03�a_wt+12=0.03�100+12�15, ??
d_2=0.7�d_1=0.7�15�10,5 ??
d_3=0.5�d_1=0.5�15=7,5 ??
??????? ????? ???????:
?_1=(0,8...1)�d=1�8=8, ??
?????????? ???????? ????? ? ???????:
?_2=(1,0...1,2)�d_2=1,0�10,5=10,5, ??
?????? ?????????? ?????????:
???1?1??R?????? ?????????? ??????1007515010012510012?8�224
7. ?????? ??????????????? ??????
??????? ??????? ?? ???????? ??????:
d_0=(2...3) m/cos�=3 2/0,9612=6,24�6, ??
?=(0,2...0,4)�b=0,4�45=18, ??
d_0=0.5(d_?+2d_??+d_?? )=0.5(48+2�17+159)=121, ??
d_??=(0,35...0,45)�d_b=0,35�48=17, ??
d_???=0,25[d_??-(d_?+2d_c? )]=
=0,25[120,5-(48+2�17)]=10, ??
l_??=(1,0...1,6)�d_?=1,2�48=57 ??
8.??????? ????????? ??????????
??????? ?????? ??? ????????:
b = 14??
h = 9??
t1 = 5,5 ??
t2 = 3,8 ??
??????? ?????? ??????:
l_?=l-b=50-14=36, ??
??????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?????:
b = 8??
h = 7??
t1 = 3,5 ??
t2 = 2,8 ??
??????? ?????? ??????:
l_?=l-b=36-7=29, ??
??????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?????:
b = 10??
h = 8??
t1 = 5 ??
t2 = 3,3 ??
??????? ?????? ??????:
l_?=l-b=34-8=26, ??
??????????:
?????? ?.?., ????????? ?.?. "???????? ?????????????? ??????? ?????" ?.:1968
???????????? ???????? ?? ????? "?????? ?????"
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