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??-05-1 ?. ?. ??????? �((????????? ??????) (??????????? ???????) (????)) ????????
?????? ?. ?. ?????????? �((????????? ??????) (??????????? ???????) (????))
2008
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???????? ................................................................................
????????..................................................................................
?????????? ????????? ????. .........................................................
2.1. ???????????? ???????. ??????????? ???????. ...................................
2.2. ?????????? ?????? ????. .............................................................
2.2.1. ?????????? ??????? ??????. .......................................................
2.2.1.?. ?????????? ?? ????????. ........................................................
2.2.1.?. ?????????? ?? ?????????. ........................................................
2.2.2. ?????????? ????????? ??????. ...................................................
2.2.2.?. ?????????? ?? ????????. ........................................................
2.2.2. ?. ?????????? ?? ?????????. .......................................................
2.3. ?????????? ???? ????. ...............................................................
2.3.1. ?????????? ????????? ?????. ...................................................
2.3.2. ?????????? ???????? ?????. ....................................................
2.4. ?????????? ??????????. .............................................................
2.4.1. ?????????? ????????? ?????????. ..............................................
2.4.2. ?????????? ???????? ?????????. ...............................................
3. ?????????? "??????" ???????
??????? ???????? ...........................................................................
????????
? ????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????? ??, ????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ????, ????????? ?? ????????? ????, ???????? ? ???? ???????? (?? ?????????), ??????????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?????? - ???????? ???????? ?? ?????? ???????, ???????????? ????? (?? ?????? ???????) ??????????. ????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????? ???? ???????? ???????? ???? ??????????? ?? ????????????,?? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????. ???? ?????????????? ????????? "??????" ???????.
?????????? ???????? ??????????, ??????? ?????? ???????, ???????? ? ???? ???????? ?? ????????? ???????????, ?? ?????, ?? ???????? ?????? ???? - ???6?, ? ???????? ???? ?? ?????????? - ???6?, ???????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? "??????" ??????? - ?16?, ???????? ??????? "??????" ??????? - ?19? ?????????
? ?????? ?????? ?????????????? ??????????????? ?????? ??????? ??, ?? ???? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??????????????? ???????? ????, ??????????? ? ???????????? ????, ?????? ?? ??????? ????????? (? ????????????), ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ?????? - ????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ???????, ???????????? ??????? (? ?????? ???????) ??????????. ????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ?????? ???????????????? ?? ?????????????, ?? ????????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ????????. ????? ?????????????? ????????? "??????" ??????.
?????????? ?????????? ??????????, ??????? ?????? ?????????, ?????? ?? ??????? ????????? ? ???????????? ???????????, ??? ???????, ??? ???????? ?????? ???? - ???6?, ???????? ???? ? ?????????? - ???6?, ???????? ?????????? ? ?????????? "??????" ?????? - ?16?, ???????? ??????? "??????" ?????? - ?19?.
Annotation
In this work the designing calculation of the modules of the flying apparatus is carried out, i.e. the necessary minimum thicknesses of the unstiffened sides of the cylindrical carrying tank, cone-shaped and spherical bottoms are defined proceeding from the conditions of strength (and steadiness), the decision concerning the thickness of the sides is taken - to use the constant or variable thickness, the area (and the inertia moments) of the frames are defined. After carrying out the calculations of the unstiffened shell the conclusion about its advisability is done, if need the computation of the waffle shell is carried. Let's choose the best result, analyzing the received results, proceeding from the condition of strength and steadiness of the design, coming from the material for tank's side is "???6?", bottoms' and frames' material is " ???6?", the material of the stringers and frames of the dry bay is"?16?",the material of the skin of the dry bay is "?19?".
????????
???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????? ???? ???????? ??????? ???????: ????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ?????? ????; ???? ?????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????????.
????????? ??????????? ????????? (????? ?? ?????? ???????) ????????? ?? ???????? ????.
????????? ????? (?? ?????? ???????) ????????? ?? ???????? ?????????
??????? ????
????????? ?????? ??? ??????????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ???? ?:
????????????? ????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ???? (???. 1);
?????????????? ???????????? ?? ????????????? ???? ??????????? (??????? 1);
????????? ?????????????? ?????????? (??????? 2);
???????? ??????: ???6?; ???????? ????: ???6?; ???????? ?????????? ???6?.
??????? 1 - ???????????? ?????
??????? 1 - ?????????????? ????????????
????.
???..???????_?^?, ????_?^?, ????^?, ?�?10?^(-4)?^?, ?�?�?10?^(-4)?10.340.00270.120.13272.4??10.1281214220.113255???10.1024802506?.??.0.34?.??.0.145
??????? 2 - ????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????s? 20�? ,
???s? 50�? ,
???s?150�? ,
???s0.2 20�? ,
???s0.2 50�? ,
???s0.2 150�? ,
???E20�?,
???E50�?,
???E150�?,
???�???6?3803652852802301656.8*1046.5*1045.75*1040.3???6?3203102501601551386.8*1046.6*1045.95*104
???? ????????? ?????????????? ????? ? [4]
???????????? ???????. ??????????? ???????.
?????????? ????????? ???? ??????????? ? ????????? ????????????? ???????? (??) ?? ???????? ??????? ??????????:
???????? ???????????? ???????????? ????? ? ????????;
???????? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ?? (?? ??);
???????? ???????????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ?? (?? ???).
???????????? ?????? ????????? ???????????, ??????????? ??????? ??????????.
?????????? ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ??????????????:
?????? ?????????? ????: ?? = ?? �f?;
?????????? ??????: ?? = ??� f?;
??????????? ????: ?_?^? = ?_?^?�f_p;
?????????????? ????: ?_?^? = ?_?^?�f_p
?????? ? ??????? ???????? [2] ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????:
fT = fM = 1.3
fp = 1.5 - ??? ??????????? ?? ???????? ?? ?????????
fT = 1 - ??? ?????????? ?????????????
?????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????.
??? ?? ??????? ???? ?????????????? ? ?????????? ? ????????? ??????? ????????????, ??????? ???????? ??????? ?? ???????? ????? ??? ????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ? ????????? ?????????-???????????? ???? ???????? ? ????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????? [2]
2.2.1.?. ?????????? ??????? ?????? ?? ????????
????? ???????? ???????????? ?????. ?????????? ?????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ??????? ????????.
???????? ????????????? ??????????? ????:
?_(? ???)^? = (?_???^? + ??)�fp
?_(? ???)^? = (0.34 + 0.05)*106*1.5 = 0.585*106 (??) = 0.585 (???)
???????? ????????? ???????:
??? ???????????? ????????:
Na = (p_(? ???*R)^?)/2 Na = (0.585*?10?^6 1.2)/2 = 0.2925*106 (??*?) = 0.351 (??/?)
N� = qn*R = ?_(? ???)^?*R + ?*g*hx*fp N� 1 = 1.5*1.2*(0.39*106 +1400*9.8*0) = 0.702 (??/?)
N� 2 = 1.5*1.2*(0.39*106 +1400*9.8*7.92) = 0.898 (??/?) ???????? ??????????, ?? ????????? ? ????????:
sa = (?*R)/(2*h)
s� = (?*R)/h
????????, ?? ?????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ? ??? ???? ??????, ??? ? ???????????????. ????, ??? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???????????, ??:
s??? = s�
s??? = s? t
????????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ??? ????? ???????????. ????????????? ?????? ? ??????? 2.
????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ????????:
h = (p^p*R)/s_? h1 = (p_(? ???)^?*R)/s_(? t) h1 = (0.585*?10?^6*1.2)/(285*?10?^6 ) = 0.002463 (?). ????????? ??????? h1 = 2.5 ??
h2 = (p_(? ???*R+ ?*g*H*n_x*f_p*R)^?)/s_? h2 = (1.2*1.5*(0.39*?10?^6+ 1400*9.8*7.92*1))/(365*?10?^6 ) = 0.002459157 (?). ????????? ??????? h2 = = 2.5 ??
????, ?????????, ?? ?????? ?????? ???? ?? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???????, ?????????? ???????????? ??????????, ???? h1 = h2 = 2.5 ?? 2.2.1.?. ?????????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????????
????????????? ??????? ??
????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ??? ???? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ???? ?? ?????????? ???????.
???? = ? + (2*?)/R
T_???^?= ???
T_???^? = ??*f? + (2*?^?*f_M)/R
???? = ??? = s??*2*p*R*h = 2*p*k*E*h2
h = v((T_???^?- ?_(? min*p*R^2 ))/(2*p*k_p*E_t )) ??? ??????? ????????:
h = v((121*10^4*1.3+ (2*42*?10?^4*1.3)/1.2- (0.128-0.05)*10^6*1*p*?1.2?^2)/(2*p*0.325*5.75*?10?^10 ))
h = 5.723*10-3 (?)
????????? h = 5.75 ??
??? ??????? ????????:
h = v((132*10^4*1.3+ (2*55*?10?^4*1.3 )/1.2- (0.128-0.05)*?10?^6*1*p*?1.2?^2 )/(2*p*0.31*6.5*?10?^10 ))
h = 4.492*10-3 (?)
????????? h = 4.5 ??
????????????? ??????? ???
h = v((T_???^?- ?_(? min)*p*R^2)/(2*p*k*E_t ))
??? ??????? ???????:
h = v((480*10^4*1.3-(0.102-0.05)*?10?^6*1*p*1.2^2)/(2*p*0.305*5.75*?10?^10 ))
h = 7.382*10-3 (?)
??? ??????? ???????:
h = v((506*10^4*1.3- (0.102-0.05)*?10?^6*1*p*?1.2?^2 )/(2*p*0.28*6.5*?10?^10 ))
h = 7.45*10-3 (?)
????????? h = 7.5 ?? (??????? ???????? ???????? ? ???? ????????????), ??????????, ?? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ? ?? ???.
???????? ??????????? ?? ??? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ??? (? ????? ?????? ???????).
???????? ??????????, ?? ?????????
?? = 0.585*106 ?? s? = 365*106 ??
sa = (?^?*R)/(2*h)
sa = (0.102*1.5*?10?^6*1.2)/(2*7.45*10^(-3) ) = 12.32*106 (??)
s� = (?^?*R)/h
s� = 24.64*106 (???)
sa = s? s� = s? sz = 0
s??? III = s�
???? = s_?/s_(??? III) = s_?/s_� = 285000000/(24.64*?10?^6 )=11.567
???? = 1, ???? ????? ???????? ???????????.
????????? ????????? ?? ?????????:
Tp = T??
Tp = ?p*?*2*p*h2
T?*fT* - p? min*p*R^2= ?p*?*2*p*h2
6.343*106 = 0.28*6.5*1010*p*2*(7.45*10-3)2
6.343 *106 = 6.347*106
??? = T??/(T?*f_T - p? min*p*R^2 )
??? = 1.001.
??? = 1, ????? ????????? ???????????
????? ?????, ???????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ??, ?? ???? ??????? ?????? h = 7.5 ?? ??????????? ? ????? ????????, ? ?????????. ?????, ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????????, ????? ??????? ????????, ?? ??????????? ?????? ???????????, ???? ????? ???????? ????? ???????, ????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ????????.
2.2.2. ?????????? ????????? ??????
??? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? "SHELL", ??? ????????? ?? ?????????, ??????????? ? [3]
????????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ????: ?????????????? ???????????? ?, ?????? ???????? ???????? R, ????????? ??????????? ????????? ? ?? s? .
????????? ?????????? ??????? f, ????????? ???????????? ???????????? ??? = = fT*T, ?????????? ? = ???/?.
????????? ? (...5 < ? = ?????).
????????? f??? ?? ????????:
f??? = 0.55/v?.
????????? ??????? ??????
d = v(?/(2*p*[1+0.28*?(f^2 )*(?^2-1)])) .
???? ? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ??????, ???? ???????? ???????? f.
????????? ??????? ????????? ????? d??? = ?* d. ??? ???????????? ???????? ???? ???????? ???????? ? (???? ?????????? ???????????) ??? ????????? ???????? f, ????? ????, ?????????? ?? ?. 4 d, ????????? ???????????? ???????? d???.
????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ? ????????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? f2/f1. ? ????????? f2/f1 = 1 ... 2.5 ???? ????????? ??????????? ?????????. ??? ???????????, ?? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ???? f2/f1 = 1 . ?????? ???????? f2/f1 ?????? ???????? ??? ????????, ?? ???????? ????????? ? ?? ?????????? ????. ??? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????? ??? ????? 45� ?? ??????? ?????????????? ??? ???????????? ????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ? ???????? 1 ?? 2, ????? f2/f1 = 1 ?? f= f1. ????????? d1? = d*[1 + 0.16* f1(? - 1)].
????????? ??????????, ?? ???????? ???? ?? ?????? ?????, ??????????? ?? ????????? ??????? . ?? ???????????? ????????? ???? ?? ?????? ?????, ???? ???????? f, ????? ???? ?????????? ?? ??. 4...8 ????????????.
??? ????????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ???? ????????:
??? ???????????- ??????????? ???????????? ?????
??? ???????????? ??????? 3 - ??????? ??? ?????????? ????? ?? ?????? ?????
??? ???????? ???????? ????? ? ???????? "SHELL" ????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ?????????????? ???????, ? ????? ???????????? ???? ??????????? - ??? ?????????? ?? ?????????. ? ??????? ??????? - ?? III ??, ? ??? ?????????? ?? ???????? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ? ?? ?
??????? 4 - ?????????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ? ???? ?????????
??????? ????: ?????????? ??????????:
??????? 5 - ?????????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ? ???? ????????
??????? ????: ?????????? ??????????:
?????????? ???????? ??????????, ????? ??????? ????????, ?? ? ???? ?? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ???????? 0.49 ??.
2.3.1. ?????????? ????????? ?????
??????? 2 - ?????????? ????????? ?????
??????????? ????? ????????? ????? - ?????. ??? ?????????? ???? ??????? ? ???? ???????? ????????????? ?????????, ?????????? ? [ 5 ]
p = p??? + nx*?*H*(1 + (R-r)/H*tan??)
? ??????? 1 - 1:
p = 0.585*106 + 0 = 0.585*106 (??)
??? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ????:
p = 0.585*106 + 1*1400*1.089*(1 + (1.2-0.6)/1.039*tg60^�) = 6.135*105 (??)
???????? ????????? ???????, ?? ????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?????:
Na = (p_0*r)/(2*sin?) + (n_x*?*g*H)/(2*sin?)*r*[1 + (R/H - 2/3*r/H)*tg?]
N� = (p_0*r)/sin? + (n_x*?*g*H)/sin?*r*[1 + (R/H - r/H)*tg?]
Na = (0.585*10^6*0.6)/(2*sin??60^� ? ) + (1*1400*9.8*1.039)/(2*sin??60^� ? )*0.6*[1 + (1.2/1.039 - 2/3*0.6/1.039)*tg60�] = 2.142*105 (?/?)
N� = (0.585*10^6*0.6)/sin??60^� ? + (1*1400*9.8*1.039)/sin??60^� ? *0.6 *[1 + (1.2/1.039 - 0.6/1.039)*tg60^�] = 4.251*105 (?/?)
???????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ????? ? ???? ????????:
s_(� max)^p= s_0.2 (????? ???????????)
(p^p*R_2)/h = s_0.2
h = (p^p*R_2)/s_0.2 h = (0.585*?10?^6*1.3856)/(138*?10?^6 ) - ??? ???????? ???????
h = 5.874*10-3 (?)
????????? ??????? 5.9 ?? ? ???? ???????? .
?????????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ????? ? ???? ?????????:
p?? = kc*?*Et*h^(5/2)/(L*R^(3/2) )*?cos?^(3/2) f ? = 3 - 2.3*R_0/R; R = 1.2 ?; R0 = 0.6 ? ? = 3 - 2.3*0.6/1.2 = 1.85
Et = 5.95*104 (???)
L = 1.2062 (?)
kc = 0.8 h = v(5&((p_??*L*R^(3/2))/(k_c*?*E_t*cos^(3/2)*f) )^2 )
h = v(5&((0.585*?10?^6*1.2062*1.2^(3/2))/(0.8*1.85*5.95*10^10*cos^(3/2) (3?0)?^� ) )^2 )
h = 0.01115 (?) ????, ????????? ??????? ????????? ????? ? ??????????? ???? ???????? ?? ????????? h = 11.15 ??.
?????????? ???????? ??????????:
(p^p*R_2)/h = s_0.2
(0.585*10^6*1.3856)/0.01115 = s_0.2
72.697*?10?^6= 138*106
???????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ?????:
???? = s_0.2/s_(??? III) = (138*?10?^6)/(72.697*?10?^6 )=1.898
?????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????:
p?? = kc*?*Et*h^(5/2)/(L*R^(3/2) )*?cos?^(3/2) f p?? = 0.8*1.85*5.95*1010*((0.011?15)?^(5/2))/(1.2062*?(1.2)?^(3/2) )*(cos30�)^(3/2) = 5.876*105 (??)
??? = p_??/p_p ??? = 0.5876/0.585 = 1.00444
??? = 1, ????? ????????? ???????????
?????, ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????, ????? ??????? ????????, ?? ???????????? ???????? ????? ??????????, ????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????.
.3.2. ?????????? ???????? ?????
??????????? ????? ???????? ????? - ??????? ?????.
?????????? ?? ???????? ?????? ????? ?? [5]
??????? 3 - ?????????? ???????? ?????
???? ?? ???????? ?????:
pn = p = p0 +nx* ?*g*[H + R*(cos? - cos ?0]
????????? ?????? ?????????? ????? 1.2 ? *1.3 = 1.56 ?
????????? ???????:
Na = (p_0*R)/2 + nx*?*g*H*R/2*[1 + R/H*(2/3*(1- cos^3 ?)/(sin^2 ?) - cos???_0)?]
sin???_0 ? = 1.2/1.56, ???? ?0 = 50.28�
N� = (p_0*R)/2+ nx*?*g*H*R/2*[1 + R/H*(2*cos? - cos?_0 - 2/3*(1- ?cos?^3 ?)/(sin^2 ?))]
??????????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ??????:
Na max = N� max = (p_0*R)/2+ nx*?*g*H*R/2*[1 + R/H*(1 - cos???_0)?]
Na max = N� max = (0.585*10^6*156)/2+ 1*1400*9.8*7.92*1.56/2*[1 + 1.56/7.92*(1 - cos??50.28�)?] = = 0.46556 (??/?)
? ????? ????????? ????? ? ??????? ?????:
Na = (p_0*R)/2+ nx*?*g*H*R/2*[1 + R/H*(2/3*(1- ?cos?^3 ?_0)/(sin^2 ?_0 ) - cos???_0)?]
Na = (0.585*10^6*1.56)/2+ 1*1400*9.8*7.92*1.56/2*[1 + 1.56/7.92*(2/3*(1- ?cos?^3 50.28�)/(sin^2 50.28�) - cos??50.28�)?] = =0.46528 (??/?)
N� = Na*cos?_0
N� = 0.46528*cos??(50.28�)? = 0.2973 (??/?)
pn = p = p0 + nx*?*g*[H + R*(cos? - cos?_0)]
pA = 0.585*106 + 1*1400*9.8*[7.92 + 1.56*(cos??50.28�? - cos??50.28�?)] = 0.6936624 (???)
pc = 0.585*106 + 1*1400*9.8*[7.92 + 1.56*(cos??0�? - cos??50.28�?)] = 0.701388177 (???)
pk = 0.585*106 + 1*1400*9.8*[7.92 + 1.56*(cos??40�? - cos??50.28�?)] = 0.69638078 (???)
pz = 0.585*106 + 1*1400*9.8*[7.92 + 1.56*(cos??30�? - cos??50.28�?)] = 0.6985207 (???)
pc = pmax ????????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????:
h = (p*R)/(2*s_(? t) ) h = (0.701388177*10^6*1.56)/(2*300*10^6 ) = 0.001824 (?). ????????? ??????? h = 1.85 ??
????????? ?????????:
? = s_(? t)/(p^p*R/(2*h))
? = (300*?10?^6*2*0.00185)/(0,7*?10?^6*1.56) = 1.016
????, ????? ???????? ???????????.
2.4.1. ?????????? ????????? ?????????
??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????, ?? ?????? ?? ???????????, ????? ????????? ???? ????????? ?????. [2]
Na = (p^p*R_2)/2 = (p^p*r)/(2*cos?f )
N� = Na*sin?f = (p^p*r)/2*tan?f
Na = (0.585*?10?^6*1.2)/(2*cos??60^� ? ) = 7.02*105 (?/?)
N� = (0.585*?10?^6*1.2)/2*tan??60^� ?= 3.51*105 (?/?)
s?? = N_(�*R)/F_?? |s_??^?| = s? t
F?? = (N_�*R)/(s_? t)
F?? = (3.51*?10?^5*1.2)/(250*?10?^6 )
F?? = 1.685*10-3 (?2)
2.4.2. ?????????? ???????? ?????????
??? ?????????? ????? ????????? ??? ????????? ????? ? ????????? ??? ?????????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ????????: [2]
F? = (p^p*R^2)/(2*s_(0.2 t)*tgf) - 0.788*(h?*v(h_?*R)+ h_c*v(h_c*R_c ))
F? = (0.585*10^6*1.2^2)/(2*155*10^6*tan??50.28^� ? ) - 0.788*(2.5*10-3*v(2.5*10^(-3)*1.2) + 1.85*10-3* *v(1.8?5*10?^(-3)*1.56)) = 2.071*10-3 (?2)
????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????:
qp = q??
q?? = (3*E*I)/R^3 q = (p*R)/(2*tan?f )
q = (0.34*?10?^6*1.2)/(2*tan?50.28?^� ) = 1.695*105 (?/?) I = (R^3*q_p)/(3*?_t )
I = (?1.2?^3*0.1695*10^6)/(3*6.6*?10?^10 ) = 1.479*10-6 (?4)
?????????? "?????? ???????" ??? ?????????? "?????? ???????" ????????????? ????????? "DRYBAY"
??????? ????
????????? ???????? :
?????? ???????? = 120.0 [??] ??????? ???????? = 170.0 [??] ?????????????? ???????????? :
??????? ????????? ??????? = 176070. [???]
????????? ?????? = 0. [???*??]
?????????? ??????? = 1.30
??????????? ????????? ???????? ???????? " ? " = 80.
+------------------------------------------------+ � � ???????? � ???????? � ??????? � �----------------+----------+----------+---------� � ?????? � � � � � ????????? � .720E+06 � .720E+06 �.700E+06 � � 1-?? ???? � � � � � [???/(??*??)] � � � � �----------------+----------+----------+---------� � ???? � � � � � ???????-?? � 1950. � ------ � 1450. � � [???/(??*??)] � � � � �----------------+----------+----------+---------� � ???? � � � � � ????????? � 3000. � ------ � 2800. � � [???/(??*??)] � � � � �----------------+----------+----------+---------� � ?????? � � � � � ???? � 2.800 � 2.800 � 2.750 � � [?/(??*??*??)] � � � � +------------------------------------------------+ ??? ??????????: ??????????????
??????? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? : 1. N-?????????? - [ 38 .... 75] ??? [10.1 ?? .... 19.8 ??]
2. N-?????????? - [ 1 .... 4] ??? [ 34.0 ?? .... 85.0 ??]
3. ??????? - [ .08 .... .20] [??] 4. ?????????????? ????????: ???????? - ????? ? 39 ???????????????? ????????
????? ??101, ??109, ??307
???????? - ????? ? 15 ???????????????? ????????
???? ??105
?????????? ??????????
?????????? ???????? ????????? :
????????? ??p????p?? = 40 ??? 18.8 ??
??? ?p????? ??p????p?? - ??109
????p ?p????? ??p????p?? - 4
????????? ?????????? = 2 ??? 57. ??
??? ?p????? ?????????? - ??105
????p ?p????? ?????????? - 9
??????? ??????? = .080 [??]
???? ????????? ???????? :
????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? " ? " = 64.
???? ???????? = 80. [???]
( ??? ?????????? ????. ??-???, ????????,
??????? ????????? ??????, ?????????????? ??????????? )
???????????? ???????????? ?????? ??????? = 228891. [??]
????. ?????? ???????? ?? ????????? ????????? = 1.0036
????. ?????? ???????? ?? ???????? ????????? = 1.2940
??????? ????????
???????????? ???????? ?? / ?.?. ????????, ?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????? ? ??. 1986 ?. ?.: ??????????????.
????????? ???????? ??????????? / ?.?. ????????????, ?.?. ?????????, ?.?. ??????? ? ??. ?.: ?????? ?????. 1990 ?.
????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?. ?????????????? ???????????? ???????????. ?.: ??????????????, 1985 ?. ?????? ?.?. ????????????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?????: ?????????? ????????. - ???????????????: ???-?? ???, 1994 ?.
??????? ?. ?., ??????? ?. ?., ?????? ?. ?. ???????????? ???????? ?????: ??????? ??? ?????????????????? ????. ?????. - ?.: ????. ??.., 1984.
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