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dasaqmeba, socialuri usafrTxoeba da
pirovnuli kavSirebi postsabWoTa
qveynebSi
saqarTvelos magaliTi
evelin baumani
1
postsabWoTa qveynebSi ganxorcielebulma reformebma, romelic mowodebuli iyo imisaTvis, raTa gardaeqmnaT gegmuri ekonomika neo-liberalurad, gamoiwvies Rrma
cvlilebebi Sromis bazarze. sabWoTa reJimis dros mosaxleobis udidesi umravlesobisTvis, dasaqmebis garantiam, romelic aRiqmeboda rogorc ufleba, da romelic
gulisxmobda, agreTve, usafrTxoebas iseTi cxovrebiseuli ubedurebisas, rogoricaa avadmyofoba, Sromis uunaroba, siqvrive, da a.S., adgili dauTmo statusuri mdgomareobis simyifes, gaRaribebas da socialur gariyvas.
saqarTvelo, romelzec aq iqneba laparaki, Doing business
saagentos klasifikaciis mixedviT ganTavsebulia iseTi
`samagaliTo~ qveynebis rigSi, romlebsac aqvT gansakuTrebiT moqnili kanonmdebloba dasaqmebis sferoSi, kanonmdebloba, romelic miCneulia mimzidvelad biznesis xelmZRvanelebisTvis da xelSemwyobad samuSao adgilebis
SeqmnisTvis. magram neo-liberaluri reformebi aferxeben amas. mSromelTa Zalian mcire nawils aqvs samuSao,
romelic SedarebiT myaria da regularuli xelfasis
momcemi. yvela danarCeni cxovrobs SemTxveviTi dasaqmebiT da es samsaxuri didwilad arastabiluria. 2006 wels
daaxloebiT aTidan oTxi qarTveli iTvleboda Raribad
im gansazRvrebiT, romelic miRebulia politikuri wreebis mier.
2
solidaroba da gadanawileba (redistribucia),
romelsac saxelmwifo axorcielebs minimaluria, socialuri daxmareba miecema martooden sruliad usaxsroebs. imisTvis, rom moxdes Rirseuli cxovrebis donis
da am mimarTulebiT Tqveni moZraoba albaT Sedegiani unda
aRmoCndes, radgan evropis erTianoba swored imisTvisaa,
rom moxdes kapitalis regulireba. amitom rac ufro
Cqara warimarTeba TqvenTan amgvari moZraoba, miT ufro
mSvidad da dadebiTad moxdeba evropis gafarToeba. ai
esaa, risi Tqmac mindoda dRes.12 13
dasaqmebis Semcirebaze, rasac Tan axlavs umuSevrobis
zrda, ris gamoc xdeba TviTdasaqmeba muSaxelisa axlad
gaxsnili kerZo sawarmoebis meSveobiT. am procesSi reformebis gatarebis siswrafe, iseve rogorc fiskaluri
zewola, romelsac ganicdis es warmoeba, gadamwyvet rols
asrulebs (Aghien et Blanchard 1994, Andreff 2003). aRmoCnda,
rom samuSao adgilebis Seqmna ZiriTadad rCeba imedad:
dsT-s umravles qveynebSi srulebiT ar xdeba "registrirebuli~ samuSao adgilebis zrda da gardamavali drois
u m u S ev r o b a m
3
m u d m iv i x a s i a Ti m i i R o , d a ga g r Z eld a
ekonomikis aRdgenis Semdegac, Tundac es zrda umniSvnelo iyos. am umuSevrobas aqvs `damdgari wylis~ yvela
Tviseba (Boeri 2001). umuSevrobis gansakuTrebiT mkacri
gansazRvreba, rimelic miRebulia saqarTveloSi
4
cxadad
avlens am fenomenis endemur xasiaTs. samagierod `araformaluri ekonomika~
5
izrdeba, ekonomika, romelic aris
`unregulated by institustions of society, in a legal and social environment where similar activities are regulated~ (ar regulirdeba sazogadoebrivi institutebiT, iseT samarTlebriv da
socialur garemoSi sadac msgavsi aqtivobebi regulirebadia) (Portes et al. 1991:12). es aspeqti, romelic ZiriTadia Sromis samyaroSi, arasakmarisad aris Sefasebuli
`klasilur~ ekonomikur modelebSi (Bouev 2004).
mcire savaWro aqtivobebi - (swored aseTi saqmianoba
i g uli s x m e b a , r o d e s a c s a k i T x i exe b a a r a f o r m alu r
ekonomikas) Seexeba ZiriTadad araregistrirebul mikrosawarmoebs, romlebic gaurbian nebismier normebs da movaleobebs, gansakuTrebiT fiskalur sferoSi. saqarTveloSi es exeba eqvs - Svid sameurneo aqtivobas aTidan,
sulerTia, iqneba es komercia, momsaxureba, saxelosno
warmoeba, Tu soflis meurneoba. saqarTvelos mosaxleobis 48% aris soflis mosaxleoba. mcire sasoflosameurneo meurneobebi iqcevian erTgvar TavSesafrad ara
mxolod imaTTvis, vinc gamovida kolmeurneobebidan uSualod saqarTvelos damoukideblobis damyarebisTanave
1991 wels, rodesac TiToeul glexs sakuTrebaSi mieca
uzrunvelyofa dRevandel saqarTveloSi, xSirad gamoiyeneba iseTive tipis midgomebi, romlebic gamarTlebuli
iyo sabWoTa reJimSi. magram kidev ufro metad, vidre warsulSi, centralur rols aqtorTa strategiebSi TamaSoben pirovnuli kavSirebi.
1. dasaqmeba ekonomikuri da socialuri
transformaciis periodSi
sabWoTa kavSirSi dasaqmebis sferos koordinacia xorc i eld e b o d a , ga r k ve uli T vals a z r i s i T, i m g va r a d ve ,
rogorc kapitalistur ekonomikebSi (Simon 1999). miuxedaved mTavrobis mcdelobisa daegegmaT Sromis anazRaureba, mSromelebi met-naklebad Tavisufalni iyvnen im
mxriv, rom SeeZloT samsaxuris Secvla, xolo rac Seexeba damqiraveblebs, maT Tavisuflad SeeZloT amoerCiaT
is mosamsaxure, romelic sWirdebodaT. miuxedavad mcire
anazRaurebisa, Sroma iyo socialuri da ekonomikuri
CarTulobis ZiriTadi saSualeba da garda amisa, samuSao
adgilze xdeboda swored socialuri identurobis Camoyalibeba. asrulebdnen ra aRiarebul socialur rols,
sawarmoebi monawileobdnen erTmaneTTan SejibrebaSi da
amiT izidavdnen da erTgulebis grZnobas unergavdnen
mSromelebs materialuri upiratesobebis miniWebisa, Tu
simboluri waxalisebis gziT. aqedan gamomdinare, dasaqmebis mobiluroba iyo Zalian msgavsi imisa, rac odesRac
arsebobda evropul qveynebSi. magram miuxedavad amisa
`Sromis bazari~ xasiaTdeba Tavisi institutebis sisustiT. postsabWoTa periodSi maregulirebeli institutebis Seqmna, amdenad, warmoadgens uprecedento gamowvevas,
romelic principuli formiT wamoiWreba gadawyvetilebis
mimRebTa winaSe.
standartuli ekonomikuri Teoria didi xnis manZilze
amtkicebda, rom neo-liberaluri ekonomikis SemoRebis
gamo, resursebis axali ganTavseba aisaxeba pirvel xanebSi14 15
mobs sagadasaxado normebis, SromiTi kanonmdeblobis,
usafrTxoebis da xarisxis normebis dacvas, amave dros
mcire mewarmeebi upirveles yovlisa cdiloben `Tavi gadairCinon~, SeinarCunon konkurentunarianoba da, SesaZleblobisdagvarad, CaerTon martooden ekonomikuri
akumulaciis (dagrovebis) martiv procesSi. amisaTvis
isini moqmedeben legaluribis zRvarze, amarTleben ra
Tavis qcevas gegmuri ekonomikis droindeli principebiT.
(Shlapentokh 1989), oRond ukeTeben amas sxva interpretacias, imisda mixedviT, rogoria axali konteqsti. Tavis
mxriv, warmoadgenen ra Tavs, rogorc araregistrirebuli mikro-erTeulebi, sawarmoebs, romlebic gaxsnilia
quCaSi, SeuZliaT Seamciron Tavisi produqciis Rirebuleba. miecema ra gansazRvreba da ganirCeva ra formaluri
tipis sawarmoebi patara erTeulebisgan, romlebic yidian produqcias, sazRvrebi formalurad wodebul ekonomikasa da araformalurad wodebul ekonomikas Soris qreba, Tumca es sazRvrebi ganixileba zogierT naSromSi,
raTa ufro moxerxebuli i yos a n alizi ; e s fe nom e n i
sazRvrebis gaqrobisa agreTve cnobilia sxva ekonomikur
konteqstebSi.
rac Seexeba mmarTvelebs, isini amravleben iniciativebs,
raTa qveyana uzrunvelyon kanonmdeblobiT, romelic
gulisxmobs sabazro ekonomikis normebs. es mcdeloba miT
ufro legitimuria, rom vardebis revoluciis Semdeg
(noemberi, 2003), saqarTvelo uSualod SeuerTda evropis samezoblo politikas (ENP). am politikis Tanaxmad, unda Seiqmnas evrokavSiris mezobel qveynebSi erTgvarovani ekonomikuri sivrce, sadac daculi iqneba sabazro ekonomikasTan dakavSirebuli normebi. rasakvirvelia, pasuxismgebeli pirebi briuselSi am qveynebis mimar T ga m s Wva l u l n i a r i a n ga r k ve u lw i l a d , h u m a n u r i
grZnobebiT, magram kargi iqneba da legitimuric, rom isini
dainteresdnen im SesaZlo SedegebiTac, romelsac iwvevs
evrokavSiris teritoriaze arsebuli am wesebis damkvidreba im mosazRvre qveynebSi, sadac daucvelobis metis-
1,25 heqtaris odenobis miwis nakveTi (sumbaZe 2003), aramed
es gaxda erTgvari gadawyveta problemisa yofili maRaroebis muSebisTvis da sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Sedegad dangreuli samrewvelo kompleqsebis TanamSromlebisTvis. saqme exeba arsebiTad TviTgadarCenis sasoflo
meurneobas, risi wyalobiTac xdeba ojaxis sasursaTo
racionis Sevseba, maSin roca ZiriTadi fuladi Semosavlebis miReba xdeba ara sasoflo-sameurneo aqtivobiT
(Bezemer & Davis 2003). mTlianobaSi am meurneobebis udidesi umravlesoba warmoadgens ufro metad TviTgadarCenisken mimarTul aqtivobas, vidre samewarmeos, Tu Sumpeteris midgomas davesesxebiT. amdenad, rogorc Cans, Secdoma iqneboda droSi mis momaval ganviTarebaze saubari,
miTumetes Tu gaviTvaliswinebT naklebad damaimedebel
ekonomikur da politikur konteqstebs. aqve aRsaniSnavia, rom SedarebiT didi sawarmoebic xSirad funqcionireben legalurobis zRvarze, anu ise, rom ara aqvT gancxadebuli Tavis saqmianobasa da personalze. sarwmuno monacemebis mixedviT, araformalurma ekonomikam miaRwia
sarekordo maCvenebels - Sida erovnuli produqtis 67%-
s (Schneider 2002), da am TvalsazrisiT, saqarTvelo uaxlovdeba laTinuri amerikis zogierT qveyanas.
arsebobs mTeli rigi saqmianobebi, romlebic, garkveul i T va l s a z r i s i T, fa s d e b a r o g o rc u m u S ev r o b a .
e ko n o m i k u r i m e c n i e re b a C ve u l e b r iv a c x a d e b s , r o m
ekonomikuri zrdis konteqstSi, TandaTanobiT es saqmianobebi gardaiqmneba sawarmoebad, moxdeba maTi registracia da amis Semdeg isini Seasruleben Tavis movaleobebs
k a n o n i s S e s a b a m i s a d . Tu m c a , a m a s Ta n , s x va q vey n e b i s
gamocdileba, romlebic `klasikurad~ ~samxreTis~ qveynebad miiCneva, didwilad ewinaaRmdegeba aseTi evoluciis
kvazi-avtomaturobis ideas (Lautier 1994). sinamdvileSi,
araformaluri praqtika narCundeba da araregistrirebuli mcire sawarmoebi kvlav ganagrZoben Zvelebur arsebobas ekonomikuri zrdis periodSic. iReben ra Tavisuflebas gansazRvrul movaleobebTan erTad, rac gulisx-16 17
2. `socialisturi usafrTxoebis kvaldakval~...
evolucia, romelic gaiara Sromis sferom postsabWoTa qveynebSi ai ukve TxuTmet welze metia, xasiaTdeba
upirveles yovlisa SromiTi Semosavlebis SemWidrovebiT
- saSualo Tviuri xelfasi aRwevs daaxloebiT 200 lars,
TiTqmis 90ˆ _ da metismetad arasaimedo statusiT. aseTi viTarebis gadasalaxavad qarTvelebi ara marto iZulebulni gaxdnen SeeqmnaT TavisTvis dasaqmebis adgilebi, saqmianobis sfero, sadac mikorfinansireba SeiZleba
aRwevdes dasaxul mizans, aramed Tavad izrunon Tavis socialur dacvazec. Cven davinaxavT ufro mogvianebiT, rom
imisTvis rom upasuxon am ormag moTxovnas, isini axdenen
Tavisi pirovnuli kavSirebis mobilizacias.
sabWoTa reJimis dros socialuri dacva lato sensu,
uzrunvelyofili dagegmarebis procesebiT (Andrews &
Ringold 1999), ganicdeboda rogorc ufleba. Teoriulad
TiToeuli moqalaqe rogorc minimum, sargeblobda erTi
mxriv, erTgvari materialuri usafrTxoebiT dasaqmebis
wyalobiT, da meore mxriv, mas uzrunvelyofili hqonda
jandacva, pensia da daxmarebebi Sromis uunarobis SemTxvevaSi. amgvarad, usafrTxoebis qseli mimarTuli iyo martooden specifiur jgufebze, rogoricaa magaliTad,
ojaxebi, romelTa SemadgenlobaSia xeibrebi, omis veteranebi da a.S. sxva sityvebiT, riski iyo Semcirebuli da
Senelebuli garantirebuli dasaqmebis politikisa da
sagangebo daxmarebebis wyalobiT, romlebic eZleoda adamianebs Sromis uunarobis SemTxvevaSi. ramdenadac xelisufleba ZiriTadad misdevda politikas, rodesac
gadawyvetilebebi miiReba ex ante, ar xdeboda riskebis
prevenciis saxelmwifo strategiis SemuSaveba. Teoriulad ojaxebs miT ufro naklebad SeeZloT siRaribeSi
Cavardniliyvnen, rom fasebi kvebis produqtebze, sawvavze,
iseve rogorc binis qira didwilad anazRaurebuli iyo
saxelmwifos mier. metic, yvela da TiToeuli cdilobda
gaqceoda Raribis statuss, rac garkveul daRs asvams
metad maRali donea. rac Seexeba kerZod Sromis sferos,
legitimuria agreTve isini dainteresdnen aseTi gadatanis
ukuefeqtiT evropisTvis, rodesac mis garSemo arsebul
qveynebSi iseTi Sromis pirobebia, romlebic ar eqvemdebarebian aranair regulirebas.
amgvarad, moxda ise, rom ultra-liberaluri Sromis
kodeqsi miRebul iqna 2006 wels (Antadze 2007a, International Center for Human Developmant et al. 2006), riTac Tbilisma
saerTaSoriso saagentoebis mowoneba daimsaxura.
6
amave
dros paradoqsulia, rom, aniWebs ra yvelaze did upiratesobas Sromis uflebebis usafrTxoebas, kanoni asaxavs mxolod iseTi tipis zomebs, romlebic naklebad emsaxureba mSromelTa yvelaze elementaruli uflebebis
uzrunvelyofas, rogoricaa magaliTad, SesaZlebloba
kontraqtis Sedgenisa samsaxurze zepiri molaparakebis
Sedegad. (Tavi 2. muxli 6). warmoadgens ra integrirebul
nawils im aqtiuri sakanonmdeblo saqmianobisa, romelic
xorcieldeba vardebis revoluciis Semdgom, es Sromis
kodeqsi Zalian cota xania, rac arsebobs, amitom Cven ar
SegviZlia winaswar davgmoT misi moqmedebis SesaZlo Sedegi
ekonomikisTvis, Tumca cxadia rom mTlianobaSi is metad
mkacria.
7
samarTliania iTqvas, agreTve, rom Sromis kodeqsis garda, dasaqmebis politikac akeTebs metad cotas,
raTa masze vilaparakoT. Sromis inspeqcia TiTqmis aRar
arsebobs, da Sromis, jandacvisa da socialur sakiTxTa
saministroSi TanamSromelTa raodenoba, romelTac evaleba sakuTriv Sromis sakiTxebi, Tavmoyrilia erT xelSi.
8
Tu SevajamebT dawvrilebiT zomebs samuSao adgilebis SeqmnisTvis, zomebs, romelTa dakanoneba moxda adgilobrivi arCevnebis win 2006 wlis mesame kvartalSi, Cven
ver visaubrebT dasaqmebis namdvil politikaze, sakuTari
operacionaluri institutebiT, Tavisi prioritetebiTa
da Tavisi kalendriT.18 19
nawils, magaliTad mkvlevarebs, maRal funqcionerebs (Cinovnikebs), samxedroebs.
oTxmocdaaTiani wlebis pirvel naxevarSi, saqarTvelos erovnuli mrewveloba daingra _ zogierTi wyaros
mixedviT, 75%-iT, Tumca ar aris gamoricxuli, rom es
procenti gadaWarbebulia
9
_ inflacia yovelTviurad
Seadgenda 60%-s, xelfasebi gaicemoda ramdenime Tvis
dagvianebiT da amave dros samoqalaqo ommac moaxdina
qveynis destabilizacia. swored am pirobebSi SemoRebul
iqna erTgvari daxmarebebi, romelTac ZiriTadad hqondaT simboluri Rirebuleba. Soks, romelic dakavSirebuli iyo `klasikuri~ dacvis sistemis danergvasTan, daemata riskebi, romelic aucileblobiT Tan sdevs sabazro
ekonomikas, sadac individebs ZiriTadad eZlevaT imdeni,
r a m d e n s a c i s i n i awa r m o e b e n . s wo re d a m d r o i d a n
saqarTvelom iwvnia Ratak momuSaveTa fenomeni (working
poor), saidanac wamovida siRaribesTan brZolis ramdenime
politikis SemuSaveba, rac socialuri politikis centraluri sayrdenia.
3. ... individis pasuxismgeblurobis zrdis mcdeloba
politika, romelic iwarmoeba socialuri dacvis sferoSi oTxmocdaaTiani wlebis dasawyisidan, da romelic mowodebulia Seamciros socialuri daucveloba, SeiZleba ase SevajamoT
10
: jandacvis struqturebis gajansaReba, medicinis liberalizacia da samedicino daxmarebis dafinansebaze gadasvla, inicireba nebayoflobiTi
dazRvevisa da pensiis kapitalizaciis (dagroviTi) formulebisa, daxmareba saxelmwifos mxridan yvelaze umweoebisTvis. maSin roca aseT konteqstSi swored individma
unda daicvas Tavi cxovrebiseuli SemTxveviTobebisgan,
socialuri uzrunvelyofa TandaTanobiT gadaiqceva erTgvarad erovnuli solidarobis gamovlinebad da naklebad aris ganxiluli, rogorc ufleba.
adamians: sruli dasaqmebis politikis maRal dafasebas
Tan sdevda asimilireba specifiur `socialur SemTxvebTan~ im adamianebisa, visac ar SeeZlo muSaoba.
amgvari politika iwvevda fasebis Seusabamobas, rac
ewinaaRmdegeboda sabazro ekonomikas, romelic aRiarebul i q n a xeli s u fle b a S i m o s uli a d a m i a n e b i s m i e r
damoukideblobis miRebis meore dResve. marTlac, im momentSi, rodesac administrirebuli ekonomika iZulebiT
daingra, aradamakmayofilebeli fuladi uzrunvelyofa,
rac gamoixateboda maT Soris arasakmaris dasaqmebaSi,
xdeboda sul ufro da ufro TvalsaCino, rac iwvevda
muSaxelis nebayoflobiT gadenas, da gansakuTrebiT samuSaodan daTxovnis talRebs. arsebobda ra Zlierad
gamoxatuli kavSiri dasaqmebas, socialur dacvas da
soci alur C arTulob a s Sori s , s a m s axuri s da k argva
damoukideblobis meore dRes gaxda miT ufro mZime da
hqonda imdenad mZime Sedegebi, rom mSromelebi arc mater i a l u r a d d a a rc f s i q o l o g i u r a d m z a d a r i y v n e n
amisTvis. faqtobrivad saqme exeboda gadasvlas Sedareb i T ega l i t a r u l i ( Ta n a s wo r i ) s i s t e m i d a n - r a c ,
rasakvirvelia srulebiTac ar gamoricxavda privilegiebs, romelic miniWebuli hqonda mosaxleobis zogierT
kategorias _ sistemidan, romelic xasiaTdeboda qalTa
aqtivobis maRali xarisxiT da cxovrebis gansazRvruli
doniT, romelic saboloo jamSi, rasakvirvelia, sakmaod
mokrZalebulic iyo, iseT sistemaze, sadac Zalian maRalia riskis SesaZlebloba: riski avadmyofobisa da Sromis uunarobisa, riski samuSaos dakargvisa da umuSevrobis, riski imisa, rom ojaxma dakargos finansuri daxmareba da a.S. meore mxriv _ da, ueWvelia, swored amaSi
mdgomareobs gansakuTrebuli cxovrebiseuli simZime _
sabazro ekonomikaSi samsaxuris dakargva xSirad tolfasia socialuri statusis dakargvis, metic, tolfasia
socialuri gariyulobis riskisa. aseTi viTareba daatyda Tavs gansakuTrebiT maT, vinc Seadgens nomenklaturis20 21
Tu gaviTvaliswinebT Zalian mwir momsaxurebas, romelic amieridan xorcieldeboda saxelmwifo struqturebis
mier, mosaxleoba sul ufro metad mimarTavda kerZo medicinas
14
dRes-dReobiT, iTvleba, rom saqarTveloSi .
samedicino momsaxurebis 80% xorcieldeba kerZo seqtorSi da am momsaxurebis gadaxdas awarmoeben uSualod pacientebi. daxmarebebi, romlebic a priori ufasos xdis mkurnalobas, riTac sargebloben zogierTi gansakuTrebiT
mZimed daavadebuli adamianebi, xdeba sakamaTo, ramdenadac Sesabamisi gankargulebebi (reglamentaciebi) aris
Zalian bundovani, maT Soris xSirad TviT jandacvis profesionalebisTvis, da amdenad qarTvelebi savsebiT `normalurad~ miiCneven, rom gadaxda moxdes pirdapir maT
mkurnal personalTan. (Belli et al. 2002).
sadazRvevo sistema sul axlaxan Tu dgams pirvel
nabijebs. marTlac, 2004 w. saqarTvelos mTavrobam xmis
misacemad gamoitana ramdenime kanoni am mimarTulebiT,
magram es kanonebi ukan iqna gamoZaxebuli. amdenad aRmoCnda, rom wlebis manZilze sadazRvevo sistemis damkvidrebaze zrunva atarebda SemTxveviT xasiaTs
16
: am viTarebas Tu uSlida rame, es pirvel rigSi iyo finansuri saSualebebis nakleboba da, gansakuTrebiT, politikuri
nebis simtkice ar miRebuliyo iseTi zomebi, romlebic
SeiZleba Sejaxebodnen mwvave ukmayofilebas mosaxleobis mxridan. amisda miuxedavad, socialuri usafrTxoebis sferoSi gamocdileba grovdeba. es gamocdileba xels
uwyobs mSromelTa profkavSirebis Seqmnas, romlebic
xels Seuwyoben nebayoflobiTi dazRvevis msurvelebs kerZo holdingebis gziT. es gamocdileba mimarTulia agreTve
mTel rig sasoflo erTobebze (kavSirebze), gamgeobebze,
da mxardaWerilia USAID-is mier. dabolos, zogierTi
mikrofinansuri instituti ukve cdilobs daaarsos mikrodazRveva arsebul qonebaze dayrdnobiT (Matul 2005).
Tanxis problemebi dgeba gansakuTrebiT pensiebis sferoSi. 2006 wels 950000 qarTveli, rac metia, vidre
mosaxleobis mexuTedi, da es tendencia matulobs, Rebusazogadod miRebulia, rom damoukideblobamde jandacvis momsaxureba saqarTveloSi iyo saukeTeso xarisxis,
ukeTesi, vidre sxvagan sabWoTa kavSirSi (lomaSvili 2003).
magram rogorc sxva post-sabWoTa qveynebSi, socialuri
usafrTxoebis Zveli modeli ar aRmoCnda misaRebi neoliberalur konteqstSi, da upirveles yovlisa, sistemuri rigis mizezebis gamo. damoukideblobis miRebisTanave
da Semdgom uaxloes periodSi, jandacvis samsaxurebma
iwvnies ekonomikis dangrevis da samoqalaqo omis Sedegebis mTeli simware. devnilebi Sefarebul iyvnen saavadmyofoebSi, romlebSic isini ikavebdnen Senobis daaxloebiT
90%-s. es pirobebi, iseve rogorc saxalxo resursebis
mkveTri Semcireba, rac dakavSirebulia samoqalaqo omTan,
da kidev ufro metad, erovnuli ekonomikis ngrevasTan,
rac gamowveuli iyo tradiciuli bazrebis dakargviT, unda
misuliyo Zveli sistemis daSlasTan.
!!
janmrTelobis indikatorebze es viTareba gansakuTrebiT dramatulad
a i s a x a . ga d aw y ve t ile b i s m i m R e b e b m a , ga n s a z R v re s r a
ekonomikuri politika rogorc prioritetuli, janmrTelobaze zrunva sul ufro da ufro damokidebuli gaxades gadaxdaze, rasac Sedegad mohyva moTxovnis dacemac.
Sedegebi naTlad Tavs iCenden jandacvis sferoSi, da es
sul ufro cxadi xdeboda. miRebul iqna gadawyvetileba
samedicino personalis Semcirebis Taobaze
12
magram es .
zomebi unda Sejaxebodnen upirveles yovlisa im did
prestiJs, riTac sargeblobda qarTvel sazogadoebaSi
eqimis profesia. amis gamo Semdeg moxda ise, rom Sromis
bazarze masobrivad gamovidnen jandacvis axalgazrda
profesionalebi, romelTa momravleba dakavSirebuli iyo
mTeli rigi mravalricxovani kerZo saswavlo institutebis gaxsnasTan rac iyo Sedegi imisa, rom moxda ganaTlebis
liberalizacia
13
da bolos, klientelizmi ar aZlevda .
saSualebas politikur wreebs mieRoT metismetad mkacri zomebi am socio-profesiuli kategoriis mimarT,
romelic Seadgenda qveynis elitas.22 23
saxelmwifos resursebisda mixedviT _ individebi sargebloben ufaso samedicino momsaxurebiT, SeRavaTiani
sawvaviT, fuladi daxmarebebiT.
saxelmwifo daxmarebebi Seadgens, Tu samarTliani
viqnebiT, metad mcire namats saojaxo biujetisTvis da,
amave dros, TandaTanobiT izrdeba stigmatizirebuli ganwyobebis ganmtkiceba RaribTa mimarT
17
imisTvis, rom .
moxdes gaRatakebis riskis da socialuri gariyulobis
acile b a , m etic, i m i sTv i s rom e brZolon s iRari b e s ,
qarTvelebi iSvelieben Zalian uxvad Tavis didsulovnebas,
Tanacxovroben ramdenime TaobiT erT binaSi, romelic
`gadaurCa~ sabWoTa epoqas, maT agreTve SeuZliaT sasargeblo kavSirebis ganmtkiceba da xazgasasmelia, rom aseTi
kavSirebis Seqmna maT xelewifebaT mTeli Tavisi cxovrebis manZilze.
4. `paraleluri ekonomikidan~ `araformaluri
ekonomikisken~
qarTuli ekonomikis dangreva da masobrivi gaTavisufleba samsaxuridan damoukideblobis miRebisTanave aiZula mosaxleoba miemarTa savaWro aqtivobisken, raTa
gadarCeniliyo upirveles yovlisa samoqalaqo omis wlebSi (1991 - 1995) da Semdeg, raTa SeenarCunebinaT cxovrebis
gansazRvruli done. momxmareblebs, rasakvirvelia, sTavazobdnen dabali xarisxis produqcias, magram es produqcia misawvdomi iyo SezRuduli msyidvelobiTunarianobis mqone xalxisTvis. mcire mewarmeoba waxalisebul iqna
institucionaluri reformebis garkveuli mcdelobebiT,
rogoric iyo Crdilovani ekonomikis legalizaciis departamentis Seqmna ekonomikis saministrosTan, da politikuri diskursis meSveobiT, romelic qadagebda sawarmoebis da samuSao adgilebis Seqmnas, xels uwyobda gamxnevebas, rac mogvianebiTac uaryofili ar yofila :
lobda pensiebs, romelTa 58% warmoadgens pensias xandazmulobis gamo. xandazmulobis pensia dabalia: 38 lari
(daaxloebiT 17ˆ), rac sxvanairad SeiZleba warmovadginoT rogorc saSualo xelfasis 13%. pensionerTa mesamedi, romelsac exeba zemoTqmuli, cxovrobs ukidures siRaribeSi. garda amisa, didia iseT adamianTa ricxvi, vinc
miaRwia ra sapensio asaks, kvlav ganagrZobs aqtivobas,
raTa moipovos raime Semosavali. mTels mosaxleobaSi,
romelic dasaqmebulia, 16%-s Seadgenen adamianebi, romlebmac miaRwies sapensio asaks (GEPLAC 2006). Tu gavixsenebT, rom sabWoTa dros pensiaze gasvlisas xandazmulobis pensia Seesabameboda gansazRvrul odenobas _ anu
imis gauTvaliswineblad, Tu ramden xans grZeldeboda
adamianis profesiuli saqmianoba da rogori iyo misi
xelfasi _ amdenad Tanamedrove pensiebi savsebiT Seesabameba wina reJimis egalitarul xedvas. Zalian frTxilad xdeba karis gamoReba profesiuli karieris xangrZlivobis gasaTvaliswineblad, magram am mcdelobebs adgili aqvs martooden dedaqalaqis pensionerebis mimarT.
magram mTlianobaSi, xandazmulobis pensiebi kvlav rCeba normirebuli da amiT winaaRmdegobaSi modis neo-liberalur ekonomikur sistemasTan, romelic efuZneba meritokratiis principebs. maSasadame, amJamad, saxelmwifo,
rogorc Cans, uars ambobs sapensio sistemis nebismier
siRrmiseul reformaze, reformaze, romelic gaxdeboda
meti, vidre marto socialuri reforma da Seexeboda TviT
socialur saxelmwifo struqturebs.
norm ire buli i yo agreTve umuSevrob i s daxm are b a ,
romelic moixsna 2006 wlis ivnisSi. amJamad sxva kategoria ganagrZobs normirebuli daxmarebiT sargeblobas,
esenia devnilebi, romlebic Seadgenen qveynis mosaxleobis meaTeds. miuxedavad amisa, TandaTanobiT qarTuli saxelmwifo scildeba specifiuri kategoriebis moxazvas,
da upiratesobas aniWebs siRaribis gansazRvras individualur doneze siRaribis donis mixedviT - arsebobs sami
done, romelTa Tavidan gansazRvra sistematurad xdeba24 25
asiaTebeli iyo agreTve ekonomikis sxva ganxrebisTvisac,
rogoricaa vaWroba da transporti. am mxriv is pasuxobda daukmayofilebel moTxovnas produqciaze da kargi xarisxis momsaxureobaze (Mars & Altman 1987 a et b).
cxovrebis done, ufro maRali saqarTveloSi im dros,
vidre sabWoTa kavSiris sxva respublikebSi, zogadad ukavSirdeba qarTuli shadow economy-s sicocxlisunarianobas sabWoTa epoqaSi.
sabWoTa epoqaSi paraleluri aqtivobebi da praqtikebi
gaxda gansakuTrebiT dauZleveli siRaribis ekonomikisTvis. es iyo, erTgvarad, politikurad araswori pasuxi, magram amasTan tolerantuli im winaaRmdegobebis
mimarT, romelic warmoiSva qonebis biurokratiuli gadanawilebisas da xels uwyobda sabazro urTierTobebis
damkvidrebasa da sakuTrebis uflebebis eqspansias socialisturi sawarmos wiaRSi (Stark 1989).
Sedegad, post-sabWoTa qveynebis sabazro ekonomikaSi
xdeba gadasvla paraleluri ekonomikidan araformaluri
tipis ekonomikaze. ekonomikis es ori tipi erTmaneTisgan
gansxvavdeba Tvisebrivi TvalsazrisiT, rac aixsneba im
principebis gansxvavebiT, romlebiTac isini xelmZRvaneloben (Campos 2006, Sik, 1992, Turmanidze 2000). Cndeba ra
saqonelze daukmayofilebeli moTxovnis arsebobis Sedegs,
Tanamedrove araformaluri ekonomika gverds uvlis
k a n o n m d e blo b a s , r a Ta S e s Tava z o s s a q o n eli d a m o m -
saxureba, romelic pasuxobs mosaxleobis moTxovnilebebsa da msyidvelunarianobas, Tumca mudmivad bazris Sesabamisad. am TvalsazrisiT, aramyarma aqtivobebma SeiZleba moaxdinon zewola qvevidan im aqtivobebze, romelic registrirebulia
19.
im pirobebSi, rodesac sakuTrebis
uflebebi ar aris sakmarisad daculi, ekonomikur aqtorebs arasakmarisi ndoba aqvT saxelmwifo institutebis mimarT. (sumbaZe 2006) _ ori momenti, romelic gansakuTrebiT aqtualuria dRevandel saqarTveloSi. da
magaliTis saxiT - jandacvis samsaxurebis momxmareblebi ar icnoben sakmarisad Tavis uflebebs, da praqtikebi,
` ... yoveli sawarmo, romelic qmnis samuSao adgilebs,
saWiroebs mxardaWeras saxelmwifosgan. Cven gvWirdeba
is xalxi, vinc qmnis samuSao adgilebs - isini arian Cveni da qveynis megobrebi. da me msurs SemoviRo axali jildo, romliTac dajildovdebian isini, vinc daasaqmebs yvelaze met adamians ...~
18
mcire movaWreebis saqmianobis gavrceleba Tanamedrove
saqarTveloSi ucxo da gansakuTrebuli ram ar iyo mTeli postsabWoTa sivrcisTvis. maTi arseboba ar warmoadgens raRac xelovnur gamogonebas. piriqiT, es saqmianobebi
Tavis sicocxlisunarianobas imtkicebdnen im cnobierebiT, rom sabWoTa okupaciam xeli Seuwyo maT arsebobas.
mTels sabWoTa kavSirSi gavrcelebuli iyo `paraleluri~ praqtika:
`'Black' and `'grey' economies were significant parts of the
economy of shortage of Soviet systems. Popular images still
prevail of the illegal street selling in the Soviet union, or the
black market exchange of foreign currency.~ (Smith & Stenning 2006 :8) ("~Savi~ da ruxi~ ekonomika iyo mniSvnelovani Semadgeneli nawili sabWoTa deficituri sistemisa.
dResac Zlieria popularuli warmodgenebi sabWoTa periodSi aralegaluri quCis vaWrobisa da ucxouri valutis Savi bazris Sesaxeb~)
zogierT SemTxvevaSi, saxeldobr pensionerebis SemTxvevaSi, aseTi saqmianoba iZleoda saSualebas sagrZnoblad
gazrdiliyo cxovrebis done (Grossman 1991). agreTve, korufcia, sxvadasxva doneze warmoadgenda saxelmwifo
sistemis nawils, magaliTad, personaluri wris, qselis
gamoyeneba Zalauflebis miRwevis mizniT, sxvadasxva `saCuqrebis~ mirTmeva gansazRvruli upiratesobis misaRebad
da sxva. rac Seexeba saqarTvelos, romlis sasoflosameurneo resursebi odesRac maRali reputaciiT sargeblobda imdroindeli respublikis sazRvrebs gareT, is
axorcielebda Rvinisa da sasursaTo produqtis mniSvnelovan komercias saxelmwifos gareT. magram paraleluri ekonomika (shadow economy, second economy) damax-26 27
SesaZlebeli gaxdes maTi gamoyeneba pirovnuli da ojaxuri mizniT (Mars & Altman 1987 a et b). danaxuli am kuTxiT, `sasargeblo~ kavSirebis qseli warmoadgenda umniSvnelovanes resurss.
es kavSirebi kidev ufro aucilebelia sabazro ekonomikaSi, sadac koleqtivi sul ufro da ufro naklebad icavs
individs, sadac am ukanasknels miT ufro advilad emuqreba gariyuloba, radgan sabanko angariSi ufro mniSvnelovania, vidre warsuli. aseTi kavSirebis sikeTe ufro
warmoCinda saqarTveloSi oTxmocdaaTian wlebSi: aseTi
kavSirebi mniSvnelovnad amcireben ojaxebis mowyvladobas, xels uwyoben momaragebas sakvebiT, saSualebas
iZlevian gaumjobesdes sabinao pirobebi da uzrunvelyofen, ufro zogadad, garkveul ekonomikur usafrTxoebas (Dershem 1998). isini gansakuTrebiT sasargebloa martoxela pensionerisTvis an marCenals moklebuli ojaxebisTvis. am jgufebisTvis, socialuri kavSirebi warmoadgenen socialur kapitals, romelic saSualebas iZleva
dacul iqnas kapitalis sxva formebi _ muSa xeli miwis
nakveTis dasamuSaveblad, samuSao iaraRebi, finansuri
subsidiebi _ da mopovebul iqnas esa Tu is sasargeblo
informacia.
zogadad SeiZleba vifiqroT, rom patar-patara saqmianobebi Tanamedrove saqarTveloSi Tavis sicocxlisunarianobas inarCuneben Zlieri personaluri kavSirebis
wyalobiT, romelic saSualebas iZleva, magaliTad, Segrovdes sastarto kapitali patara komerciisTvis, moinaxon mommarageblebi, romlebic ndobas imsaxureben da
momxmareblebi, romlebic mzad arian daicvan savaWro
TamaSis wesebi. es kavSirebi, amasTanave, SeiZleba gaxdes
sasargeblo, rodesac saqme exeba produqtebiT momaragebas, fulis ukmarisobisas, gasaTbobad gazis Rirebulebis Semcirebas
22
, bavSvebis mibarebas iseT skolaSi, romelic a priori gankuTvnilia SedarebiT daxuruli wrisTvis,
da bolos, ubralod maTi meSveobiT SesaZlebeli gaxdes
mkurnaloba.
romelic legalurobis zRvarzea, mSvenierad xorcieldeba kanonis arsebobis pirobebSi. arsebobs riski, rom
gamwvavdes uTanasworoba da daiwyos `ekonomikuri involuciis~ procesi (Burawoy 1996). aqedan ki gamomdinareobs socialuri kavSirebis mniSvneloba, romelTa mobilizeba SeiZleba aucileblobis SemTxvevaSi.
5. socialuri kavSirebis mniSvneloba
rogorc msoflios sxva nawilebSi, araformaluri
tipis praqtikebi Tanamedrove saqarTveloSi ikvebeba maT
mier sakuTari adgilis povniT sazogadoebaSi. sxva sityvebiT, Tu praqtikebi, romelic a priore ewinaaRmdegeba
`oficialur~ ekonomikas, SeiZleba SenarCundnen, es xdeba imitom, rom isini eyrdnoba socialur qselebs, kavSirebs, romlebic potenciurad momtania rogorc materialuri, ise aramaterialuri upiratesobebisa. es qselebi ixlarTeba viTarebis mixedviT da wuTieri moTxovnis
Sesabamisad. am TvalsazrisiT adamianebi miyvebian tradicias, romlis bevri magaliTia sabWoTa warsulSi.
cnobilia socialuri qselebis mniSvneloba sabWoTa
reJimisTvis, rogorc instrumentebisa, romlebic anelebdnen ekonomikur da socialur daZabulobebs. amave dros
es iyo imdroindeli reJimis opoziciis kerebi
20
da gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani iyo es sabWoTa saqarTvelosTvis, sadac socialuri struqturebi, romlebic dadaRulni arian erTgvari Rirsebis kodiT, romelic aiZulebs maT gamudmebiT amtkicon Tavisi Rirebuleba. aseT .
magaliTad SeiZleba ganvixiloT stumarTmoyvareoba da
xelgaSliloba, rac vlindeba sufraze
21
sabWoTa sistema Tavisi centralizebulad mowyobili ierarqiiT iwvevda winaaRmdegobebs sazogadoebaSi, romelic naTesaurobas .
(axloblobas) ganixilavs rogorc moralur movaleobas,
sazogadoebaSi, sadac urTierTobebi personalizebulia
da sadac formaluri struqturebi `adaptirebulia~, raTa28 29
Tan. Tu SevxedavT am kuTxiT, ixateba ganawilebis axali
xazi, romelic erTmaneTisgan mijnavs maT, visac aqvs gasavali gare samyaroSi, imaTgan, vinc amas moklebulia. interesi, romelsac iwvevs msjeloba evropis samezoblo
politikaze momdinareobs agreTve aqedan.
* * *
wlebma, romelic saqarTvelom gaiara damoukideblobis Semdeg, Rrmad Secvales Sromis sfero, da amasTanave
socialuri zomebi mSromelebsa da umuSevarTa mimarT.
sabWoTa reJimis dros samuSao iZleoda cxovrebis gansazRvrul dones, romelic met-naklebad misaRebi iyo,
Tanac arc imdenad uSlida xels miswrafebebs materialuri keTildReobisken, miswrafebebs, romlebsac SeiZleba xeli SeewyoT `paraleluri~ ekonomikisTvis, im
proporciiT, romelic mWidrod efardeboda arsebul
sasargeblo kavSirebs. socialur planSi, samuSao saSualebas iZleoda identurobis Camoyalibebisa, is iyo erTgvari Tanacxovrebis kera (rasakvirvelia organizebuli
ierarqiis mixedviT!), iZleoda darwmunebulobis gancdas
drosTan mimarTebaSi _ samuSaos `Semdeg~ da `uimisod~.
mokled, saboloo jamSi, samuSao (Sroma) iyo garanti
erTgvari socialuri CarTulobisa, maSinac ki, Tu moqmedebdnen centridanuli Zalebi, romlebic individebs
aiZulebdnen sul ufro da ufro moexdinaT sakuTari Tavis
realizacia pirad cxovrebaSi (Shlapentokh 1989).
gadasvlam sabazro ekonomikaze gaaqarwyla yovelive
is, rasac SeiZleba erTgvari darwmunebulobis ieri hqonoda. im samyaroSi, romelic imarTeba sabazro kanonebiT,
uTanasworobis SeqmniT da gariyulobiT, unda amoqmeddes sxva meqanizmebi, raTa uzrunvelyofil iqnas Rirseuli cxovrebis done, raTa Tavidan iqnas acilebuli socialuri deklasireba. es aris sabazro logika, romelic dominirebs, logika, romelic gulisxmobs individumarTlac, jandacvis sferoSi, Tu adamians surs Tavidan
aicilos TviTmkurnaloba, gadawyvetileba xorcieldeba
ise, rom telefoniT ekiTxebian konsultacias eqims,
romelic sargeblobs ojaxis ndobiT
23
; gansakuTrebul
SemTxvevebSi cdilobdnen sakiTxis mogvarebas ase: ayalbeben paTologiis diagnostikas, daavadebas aformeben
iseTi saxelwodebiT, risTvisac pacients mkurnalobisTvis
minimaluri fasis gadaxda mouwevs.
glob alizaci i s konte q stSi , i m k avSire b i s bun e b a ,
romelTa mobilizeba SeiZleba aucileblobis SemTxvevaSi, agreTve icvleba. imisTvis, rom SesaZlebeli gaxdes
Rirseuli cxovrebis SenarCuneba, yvelaze didi mniSvneloba dRes SeiZina saqarTveloSi, iseve rogorc sxvagan, informaciis misawvdomobam da axalma codnam. Zalauflebis
wyaroebi, prestiJi, simdidre da privilegiebi TandaTanobiT damokidebuli xdeba siaxloveze politikuri gadawyvetilebis centrebTan, rogorc amas hqonda adgili sabWoTa reJimis dros. imisTvis, rom gaxde `mompovebelTa~
nawili im sinamdvileSi, romelic xasiaTdeba dRemde arnaxuli ekonomikuri da socialuri cvlilebebiT, Zalian
momgebiania flobde codnas, kompetencias, romelic Seesabameba sabazro ekonomikas da codnis sazogadoebas (Eyal
da al. 2000). maSasadame, maSin, rodesac ekonomikuri kapitalis floba iZleva SesaZleblobas moxvde socialuri
ierarqiis SuagulSi, saqarTveloSi TxuTmeti wlis Semdeg mniSvnelovania, iseve rogorc sxva postkomunistur
qveynebSi, specifiuri kulturuli kapitali, sasargeblo Tanamedrove sazogadoebaSi.
es gamoixateba imaSi, rom swavloben inglisurs da
informatikul xelsawyos _ kompiuters, es orive iZleva
saSualebas SeaRwio axal informaciul sivrceSi (musxeliSvili 2007). raTa gamoiyeno es kulturuli kapitali, aucilebelia icnobde pirovnebebs, romelTac SeuZliaT gaaRon iseTi sawarmoebis (dawesebulebebis) karebi, romelTac kontaqti aqvT ucxoeTTan, ucxouri fondebis warmomadgenlebTan da saerTaSoriso gaqanebis NGO-30 31
SeniSvnebi:
1. socio-ekonomisti IRD-Si, kvleviTi jgufi `Sroma da globalizacia~. qvemoTmoyvanili teqsti efuZneba kvlevas, romelic saqarTveloSi Catarda 2005 wlis ivlisSi da 2006 wlis
noembersa da dekemberSi. me madlobas vuxdi sazogadoebis
kvlevis centris (Tbilisi) TanamSromlebs didsulovani daxmarebisTvis kvlevis Catarebisa da monacemebis damuSavebisas;
madlobas vuxdi agreTve Jan Joresis fonds (parizi) da kavkasiuri kvlevebis saerTaSoriso centrs (Tbilisi) maTi daxmarebisTvis kompiuteruli damuSavebisas. didi madloba
agreTve evelin volps konstruqtiuli komentarebisTvis.
amasTan me erTaderTi var pasuxismgebeli am naSromis arasrulyofilebaze.
2. siRaribiT sikvdili Semcirda TvalsaCinod, siRaribis sworis
`gamarTvis~ wyalobiT . . . 2003 w. jer kidev qarTvelebis 54%
iyo Raribi.
3. me uari vTqvi am teqstSi orazrivan terminze `gardamavloba~
(Bazin & Selim 2002) am sakiTxze diskusiis Taobaze ixileT Andreff (2003: 137 da momdevno).
4. am qveyanaSi ar SeiZleba CaiTvalos umuSevrad nebismieri wevri
ojaxisa, romelic flobs rogorc minimum erT heqtar miwas.
amave dros erTi qarTuli ojaxi oridan amuSavebs miwas.
5. termini `araformaluri~, rogorc Cans, kargavs Tavis negatiur konotacias (Désert 2006). amaze debatebi jer kidev gasamarTia.
6. SeiZleba inaxos http://www.doingbusiness.org/default.aspx (accès
février 2007).
7. SedarebiT damakmayofilebel ekonomikur zrdas saqarTveloSi (9,3% 2005) ar axlavs uTanasworobis Semcireba. es zrda
ZiriTadad gamowveulia transportiT da BTP (GEPLAC 2006).
8. samagierod ocdaaTamde pirovneba dakavebulia socialuri sakiTxebiT.
9. International Center for Human Development et al. 2003, BERD-is monacemebze dayrdnobiT (Transition Report 1999).
10. aq ar iqneba laparaki socialuri saxelmwifos sxva principebze.
11. 1990 da 1994 wlebSi realuri danaxarjebi jandacvaSi erT
adamianze Semcirda 13$-iT da gaxda dolarze naklebi (Belli et
al. 2002).
aluri aqtorebis CarTvas, romelTac ZaluZT Seqmnan
Tavisi sakuTari saqme da SeuZliaT TviTon daicvan Tavi
mTlianad im riskebisgan, romelic SeiZleba Tavs daatydes rogorc mas, ise mis axloblebs.
saxelmwifomac iwvnia Tavisi kompetenciebis Secvla.
is zrunavs imaze, rom neo-liberaluri TamaSis wesebi
kidev ufro damkvidrdes ekonomikur sferoSi da amisaTv i s axorci ele b s uprecede nto s a k a non mde blo a q -
tivobas. rac Seexeba socialur problemebs, is sul ufro
da ufro Tavidan icilebs mzrunvelobis movaleobebs da
a m i T a m w vave b s d a p i r i s p i re b a s e r Ti m x r iv, s a b a z r o
logikasa da meore mxriv, mzrunvelobiT logikas Soris
(Althabe 2003). rac Seexeba erovnul solidarobas, romlis erTaderTi garanti SeiZleba iyos saxelmwifo, mas
is axorcielebs mxolod "morCenis principiT~: unda icxovro ukidures siRaribeSi, raTa raime daxmareba miiRo,
amasTan es daxmareba aRiqva rogorc saCuqari. da, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT dRevandel mocemulobas, eqvsidan erTi
q a r T ve l i a m m d g o m a re o b a S i a d a x S i r a d e s exe b a
pirovnebas, romelmac miaRwia pensiis Teoriul asaks!
maSin, roca saxelmwifo moqmedebs araefeqturad gadanawilebaSi, is amkvidrebs uTanasworobas, imdenad, ramdenadac is gamodis neo-liberaluri politikis gatarebidan. gamoricxa ra solidaroba Tavisi moqmedebis velidan, saxelmwifo TandaTanobiT kargavs Tavis legitimurobas mosaxleobis TvalSi da masTan erTad legitimurobas kargavs misdami daqvemdebarebuli yvela instituti.
aseTi viTareba dRes iwvevs individis mxridan Caketvas
kerZo sferoSi, religiaSi, `axladSeqmnil tradiciaSi~
an gasvlas qveynis `gareT~, romelsac gadaWarbebuli Rirebuleba eniWeba da romelzedac ocnebobs bevri axalgazrda.
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QRISTINE21
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