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??????????? ????????????????? ??????............................................15
?????? ????????? ?? ?? ?????????............................................................17
????????????????? ????? (?????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ????????? ?????????????? ????????)................................................................................................................19
??????????......... .....................................................................................................22
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????????.
??????????? ??? ? ????????? ????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ????? ? ???????? ??? ???????? ????????: ?????????? (?), ?????? ???????? (??) ? ??????? (?). ??? ????????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ? ????????????., ?? ????? ?????? ??? ? ?? ????????????? ?? ????? ????????????? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ? ????????. ????????? ????????????? ??? ?????? ? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ???? ????? ???????? ???????? ?? ???? ?????????? ???????????, ? ????? ??? ?????????? ????? ? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ???????? ????. ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? 80% ????? ????????? ????? ????????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ?? ????????, ? ????? ????????? ????????????. ??????? ??? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ???????????.
???????? ? ????? ??? ???????????? ? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????????????, ??? ???????? ???????? ????? ????????????? ????????????? ? ???. ?????? ? ???? ?????? ???? ????? ??????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ????????, ??? ?? ?????????? ??????? ????? ?? ???????????, ??????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????????? ? ??????????? ??????????. ? ???? ????????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ? ????? ?? ????????? ???????? ???? ? ????????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ????????????. ? ?????? ???????, ?????? ?????, ????? ?????????????? ????????????? ???????????? ???? ?? ?? ??????????? ????????????, ??? ??? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ??-?? ?????????????? ?????????????, ????????? ????????? ????????????.
? ??? ??????? ?????????? ?????????, ???????????? ? ??????????? ????????????.
?????????? ??????????????? ???????? ????????? ????????????, ??????????? ??????? ? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ??????. ??? ??? ?????? ? ???????????? ????????? ??? ????? ??????? ?????????, ??? ???????????? ????, ?? ?? ???????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ??????, ? ???? ??????? ?????? ???????. ??? ???? ?????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ??????????.
????????????? 3 ???? ???????? ??????: ??????????, ????????? ? ???????????.
???????? ???????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ???? ????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ?????? (???. 1): ?????????, ??????????? ? ????????????? ???? (????????????, ???????????? ? ?.?.).
???. 1 ????? ???????? ??????? ? ???? ? ????????????:
? - ????????, ? - ??????????; ? - ??????????? ???????????? ???; ? - ??????????? ???????????? ???; ? - ??????????? ???????????? ???.
??? ?????????????? ??????? ???????????? ???? ????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????, ? ???????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ????? 15??, ????????? ?????? ? ??????? ????? ?????????????? ????????????? ?? ???????.
? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????????. ????? ??? ?????????:
???????? ??????:
??????????? ????
1.???????????????????2. ??????G??/?353. ???????? ?????????
????????????? ?? ?????
?P'?_2??0.654. ??????????? ?????????
????????????? ?? ?????
?t'?_2?2705. ???????? ???????? ????????????? ?? ?????
???0.1156. ??????????? ????????
????????????? ?? ?????
?t'?_1?4807. ??????? ???????????0,78. ??????? ????????/??19/179. ????? ???????? ????????????????????.???10. ????????????? ????????? ?????? ????????
%3
???????? ??????
???????????? ????????????? ????? ? ????????????
?t_max=?t'?_1-?t'?_2=480-270=210?
????????? ?????????? ??????????????
?dt?_1=?dt?_2=s�?t_max=0,7�210=147?
??????? ??????????? ????
(t_1 ) �=?t'?_1-?dt?_1/2=480-147/2=406,5 ?
??????? ??????????? ???????
(t_2 ) �=?t'?_2+?dt?_2/2=270+147/2=343,5?
??????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????????? (?? ?????? ??? ???????)
�_1=17,11�?10?^(-6) ((T_1 ) �/273)^0.68=17,11�?10?^(-6) ((406,5+273)/273)^0.68=3.1809�?10?^(-5) ??�?
�_2=17,11�?10?^(-6) ((T_2 ) �/273)^0.68=17,11�?10?^(-6) ((343,5+273)/273)^0.68=2.9772�?10?^(-5) ??�?
??????? ???????? ???? ? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ??? ??????? ?????????????: ?p_1=(?(P_1 ) ��P_1)/100=(1.5�0.115�?10?^6)/100=1725 ??
?p_2=(?(P_2 ) ��P_2)/100=(1.5�0.65�?10?^6)/100=9750 ??
?????? ???????:
(p_1 ) �=p_1-(?p_1)/2=0,115�?10?^6-1725/2=0,114�?10?^6 ??
??????? ???????? ??????? ? ???????????? (p_2 ) �=p_2-(?p_2)/2=0,65�?10?^6-9750/2=0,645�?10?^6 ??
????????? ???? ? ???????????? ?_1=(p_1 ) �/(R�(T_1 ) � )=(0,114�?10?^6)/(287(406,5+273))=0,5853 ??/?^3 ????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ?_2=(p_2 ) �/(R�(T_2 ) � )=(0,645�?10?^6)/(287(343,5+273))=3,6461 ??/?^3 ??????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ????????????? ????? ? ???????????? e_?t.
?????? ????? ???????? ?????????????? - 2? ??????? ???????????? ???. ?? ??????? ?? ???.2 ??????? ???????? e_?t=0,89.
??????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????? ???????????? f=s/(e_?t (1-s))=0,7/(0,89�(1-0,7))=2,6217
????????????? ??????? ?????? ?_d=d_H/d_BH =19/17=1,1176
???????? N_1 ??? ???? ?? ??????? (33)
??????? ??????????: c_1=1000�(0.996+2.15�?10?^(-4)�t_1-2.89�?10?^(-8)�t_1^2 )=1000�(0.996+2.15�?10?^(-4)�480-2.89�?10?^(-8)�?480?^2 )=1092.5414 ??/??
? c?_2=1000�(0.996+2.15�?10?^(-4)�t_2-2.89�?10?^(-8)�t_2^2 )=1000�(0.996+2.15�?10?^(-4)�270-2.89�?10?^(-8)�?270?^2 )=1051,9432 ??/(??�?)
?_1=0,0242�((T_1 ) �/273)^0.82=0.0242�((406,5+273)/273)^0.82=0.0511 ??/??
?_2=0,0242�((T_2 ) �/273)^0.82=0.0242�((343,5+273)/273)^0.82=0,0472 ??/??
?Pr?_1=(�_1�c_1)/?_1 =(3.1809�?10?^(-5)�1092.5414)/0.0511=0.6799
?Pr?_2=(�_2�c_2)/?_2 =(2.9772�?10?^(-5)�1051,9432 )/0,0472=0.6636
?=1.735, ? ??_d=1.1176, t=?�0.020=0.033, d_?=0,019 ??, d_??=0,017 ??
f_1=(p�d_?)/(t^2�0.8660254)=(p�0.019)/(?0.033?^2�0.8660254)=63,4679 ?^2/?^3 f_2=3,63/(?^2�? ??_d�d_? )=3,63/(?1,735?^2�1,1176�0,019)=56,7895 ?^2/?^3 ???????????? ??????? ??????? ?????:
?_?1=(t^2�0.8660254-(pd_?^2)/4)/(t^2�0.8660254)=(?0.033?^2�0.8660254-(p�?0.019?^2)/4)/(?0.033?^2�0.8660254)=0.4236
?_?2=((pd_??^2)/4)/(t^2�0.8660254)=((p�?0,017?^2)/4)/(?0.033?^2�0.8660254)=0,2412
??? 1-??? ????????????? ?????? r= -0.25, m_1=0.6, e_1=3.86/v?=3.86/v1.7=2.9605, b_1=0.295, �( @?)_21=0.866?=1.5025, ?_22=1 N_1=(??Pr?_1?^(3+r)/(2^(m_1 )��_1^(3-3m_1+r)�?_1^(m_1 ) )�f^(3+r)�1/(?p_1^(m_1 ) )�(e_1^(m_1 ))/(b_1^(3+r) )�d_?^(3-4m_1+r)�(?_c1^(m_1 ))/(f_1^(3+r)�?_21^(m_1 ) ))^(1/(3+r))=
=(?0.6799?^(3-0.25)/(2^0.6�?(3.1809�?10?^(-5))?_^(3-3�0.6-0.25)�?0.5833?_^0.6 )�?2,6217?^(3-0.25)�1/(?1725?_^0.6 )�(?2.96?_^0.6)/(?0.295?_^(3-0.25) )�?0.019?_^(3-4�0.6-0.25)��(?0.7168?_^0.6)/(?63,4679?_^(3-0.25)�?1.5025?_^0.6 ))^(1/(3-0.25))=0,3758
??? ??????? ????????? N_2: m_2=0.8, b_2=0.018, e_2=0.3164
N_2=(??Pr?_2?^(3+r)/(2^(m_2 )��_2^(3-3m_2+r)�?_2^(m_2 ) )�f^(3+r)�1/(?p_2^(m_2 ) )�(e_2^(m_2 ))/(b_2^(3+r) )�d_??^(3-4m_2+r)�(?_c2^(m_2 ))/(f_2^(3+r)�?_22^(m_2 ) ))^(1/(3+r))=
=(?0.6636?^(3-0.25)/(2^0.8�?(2.9772�?10?^(-5))?_^(3-3�0.8-0.25)�?3,6461?_^0.8 )�?2,6217?^(3-0.25)�1/(?9750?_^0.8 )�(?0.3164?_^0.8)/(?0.018?_^(3-0.25) )�?0.017?_^(3-4�0.8-0.25)��(?0.2412?_^0.6)/(?56,7895?_^(3-0.25)�1_^0.8 ))^(1/(3-0.25))=0,2291
????????????? ????? ???????? ????? ??????? ?? ????????? (36)
(V � )^(-(3-m_1+r_1)/(3+r_1 ))�N_1+(V � )^(-(3-m_2+r_2)/(3+r_2 ))�N_2=1
?????????? ??? ????????? ???????: 0,5263/V �^0.7818 +0.2543/V �^0.7091 =1 - ?????? ???????? ??????? V �=0.5138 (?^3�?)/??
????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?? ??????? ???? ???????? ?? ???????:
T_1=V �^(-((3-m_1+r)/(3+r)) )�N_1=?0.5138?^(-((3-0.6-0.25)/(3-0.25)) )�0.3758=0,6325
????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?? ???????:
T_2=V �^(-((3-m_2+r)/(3+r)) )�N_2=?0.5138?^(-((3-0.8-0.25)/(3-0.25)) )�0.2291=0,3674
???????? ???????????? ????????: T_1+T_2=0,6325+0,3674=1,000
????? ????????????:
V=V ��G=0.5138�35=19,524 ?^3
????? ???? ???? ? ??????? ????? ????????????:
L_1=[(2^(1-m_1 )�?Pr?_1^(2+r_1 )�?_1^(1-m_1 ))/(�_1^(2-2m_1 ) )�(f/T_1 )^(2+r_1 )�?p_1^(1-m_1 )�(e_1^(m_1-1))/(b_1^(2+r_1 ) )�d_H^(3-3m_1 )�(?_???1^(2+r_1 )�?_21^(1-m_1 ))/(f_1^(2+r_1 ) )]^(1/(3-m_1+r_1 ))=
=[(2^(1-0.6)�?0.6799?_^(2-0.25)�?0.5853?_^(1-0.6))/(?3,1809�?10?^(-5)?_^(2-2�0.6) )�(2,6217/0.6325)^(2-0.25)�?1725?_^(1-0.6)�(?2.96?_^(0.6-1))/(?0.295?_^(2-0.25) )�?0.019?_^(3-3�0.6)��(?0.4236?_^(2-0.25)�?1.5025?_^(1-0.6))/(?63.4679?_^(2-0.25) )]^(1/(3-0.6-0.25))=1,9945 ?
????? ???? ??????? ? ??????? ????? ????????????:
L_2=[(2^(1-m_2 )�?Pr?_2^(2+r_2 )�?_2^(1-m_2 ))/(�_2^(2-2m_1 ) )�(f/T_2 )^(2+r_2 )�?p_2^(1-m_2 )�(e_2^(m_2-1))/(b_2^(2+r_2 ) )�d_?H^(3-3m_2 )�(?_???2^(2+r_2 )�?_22^(1-m_2 ))/(f_2^(2+r_2 ) )]^(1/(3-m_2+r_2 ))=
=[(2^(1-0.8)�?0.6636?_^(2-0.25)�?3,6461?_^(1-0.8))/(?2.9772�?10?^(-5)?_^(2-2�0.8) )�(2,6217/0.3674)^(2-0.25)�?9750?_^(1-0.8)�(?0,3164?_^(0.8-1))/(?0.018?_^(2-0.25) )�?0.017?_^(3-3�0.8)�(?0.2412?_^(2-0.25)�1_^(1-0.8))/(?56.7895?_^(2-0.25) )]^(1/(3-0.8-0.25))=9,4654 ?
????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ? ???? ??????? ?? ????????? ???????.
????? ????????? z_1=1, l_1=L_1=1,9945 ?, z_2=3 ????? ?????? ???????????? ????? l_2=L_2/z_2 =9,4654/3=3,155 ?. ????? ???????? ????? ????? V=V ��G=0.5138�35=19,524 ?^3
?????? ???????? ????? ???????????? B=V/(l_1�l_2 )=19,524/(1,9945�3,155)=3,1026 ?
?????? ???????? ????? (?? ???? ???????? ????)
H=l_1=1,9945 ?
????? ?????? ? ?????????????? ????
n_1=B/(?�d_H )=3,1026/(1,735�0,019)=94,1169
????????? n_1=94
????? ?????? ? ???????????? ???? n_2=H/(0.866�?�d_H )=1,9945/(0,866�1,735�0,019)=69,8662
????????? n_2= 70
?????? ????? ?????? ? ????????????
n=n_1�n_2=94�70=6580
??????????? ???????? ??????
??????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ????
S_1=B�l_2=3,1026�3,155=9,789 ?^2
???????? ????
?_1=G/(?_1�S_1�?_c1 )=35/(0.5853�9,789�0.4236)=15,6567 ?/?
???????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ???????
?Re?_1=(?_1�?_1�d_H)/�_1 =(0.5853�15,6567�0.019)/(3.1809�?10?^(-5) )=5473,45
???????? ????????? ?? ??????? ???????
?Nu?_1=b_1�?Re?_1^m1=0.295�?5473,45?^0.6=51,6153
??????????? ??????????? ?? ????
a_1=?Nu?_1�?_1/d_H =51,6153�0.0511/0.019=138,8617 ??/(?^2�?)
??????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ???????
S_2=B�H=3,1026�1,9945=6,1881 ?^2
???????? ???????
?_2=(G�z_2)/(?_2�S_2�?_c2 )=(38�2)/(3.6461�6,1881�0.2412)=20,9451 ?/?
???????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ???????
?Re?_2=(?_2�?_2�d_??)/�_2 =(3.6461�20,9451�0.017)/(2.9772�?10?^(-5) )=43606
???????? ????????? ?? ????????? ??????? ?Nu?_2=b_2�?Re?_2^m2=0.018�?43606?^0.8=92,6636
??????????? ??????????? ?? ???????
a_2=?Nu?_2�?_2/d_?? =92,6636�0,0472/0,017=257,2572 ??/(?^2�?)
??????????? ??????????? ? ????????????
k=(a_1�a_2)/(a_1+a_2 )=(138,8617�257,2572)/(138,8617+257,2572)=90,183 ??/(?^2�?)
????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?? ???? (???????????): ?_1=k/a_1 =90,183/138,8617=0,6494
??????????? ? ????? ?????????? ????????? 2,6 % - ?????????.
????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?? ????????? ??????? (???????????):
?_2=k/a_2 =90,183/257,2572=0,3506
??????????? ? ????? ?????????? ????????? 4,6% - ?????????.
??????? ????????????? ????? ? ????????????
?t �=e_?t (?t^'?_1-?t^''?_2 )=0.89(480-417)= 56,07?
???????? ???????? ????????????
Q=G�C_p�dt=38�1040�147=5.8094�?10?^6 ??
????????? ??????????? ???????????
F_p=Q/(k�?t � )=(5.8094�?10?^6)/(85.3348�56,07)=1148,8922 ?^2
??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????????:
F_?=p�d_cp�l_2�n=p�0.018�3,1551�6580=1173,99 ?^2
??????????? ? ????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????:
?F=(F_?-F_p)/F_? �100%=(1173,99-1148,8922)/1173,99*100=2,185%
????? ???????, ??????????? ?????? ???????, ??? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????, ? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ????????????: ?????, ??????, ??????, ????? ???????? ????? ? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?? ??????????????, ? ????? ???????????? ???????????. ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ????????, ???????????? ???????? ???????????. ?????????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????????????? ??????, ????? ?????????, ??? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????? ????????????????? ?????????????? ??????????????.
??????????? ????????????????? ??????.
????????????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?? ??????? ???????
?P_?^????=?P_?+?P_?+?P_???=1735+179,344 - 31,0338 = 1833,31 ?? ?P_?=?�(?_1�?_1^2)/2�i=0.3521�(0.5853�?15.6567?^2)/2�70=1735.2231
??? i_2=n_2=70 - ????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ??????.
?=3.86�(1+1/i)�(?Re?_1^(-0,25))/v?=3.86�(1+1/70)�?5473,45?^(-0,25)/v1.73=0.3456
?P_?=?�??_i (?_1 ??_1?_^2)/2=2.5�(0.5853�?15.6567?^2)/2=179.344 ???
?�?_i =?_?????+?_??????=2,5
???? ? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ????? 90 ???????? ? ???????? ??????
????? ?? ??????????? ???????????? ??? ????? 90 ???????? ? ???????? ??????
? - ??????????? ????????????? ?????? ???? ???? ??? ??????????? ????????.
?????? ?? ????????? ??????:
?P_???=?_??? (?_1 ??_1?_^2)/2=-0.4326�(0.5853�?15.6567?^2)/2=-31.0338 ??
?_???=(2(?T^''?_1-?T'?_1))/(T_??? ) � =(2((333+273)-(480+273)))/(406,5+273)=-0.4326
?t'?_1=?t''?_1-d?t'?_1=480-147=333?
??? ????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????????????? ????????????? ?? ???? ??????????? ????????? ? ???????? ?P_1=1725 ??
??????????? ?P �=(1833,31-1725)/1833,31�100%=5,9 %
????????????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?? ????????? ???????
?P_?^????=?P_?+?P_?+?P_???== 9750 + 799.76 - 381.32 = 10168.44 ?? ?P_?=?_??�(?_2�?_2^2)/2�L_2/d_?? =0.0219�(3.6461�?20,9451?^2)/2�9,4654/0.017=9750 ??
??? ?_??=0,3164/(?Re?_2^0.25 )=0.3164/?43606?^0.25 =0.0219
??? ?_?? - ??????????? ????????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ????????????. ?P_?=?�?_i (?_2 ??_2?_^2)/2=7�(3,6461�?20.9451?^2)/2=799.76 ??
?�?_i =?_?????+2�?_????????+?_??????=1+5+1=7
?_?????- ?????? ?? ?????;
?_??????- ?????? ?? ??????;
?_????????- ??????? ?? 180� ?? ????? ?????? ? ?????? ????? ????????????? ??????.
?????? ?? ????????? ??????:
?P_???=?_??? (?_2 ??_2?_^2)/2=-0.4768�(3,6461�?20,9451?^2)/2=-381.32 ??
?_???=(2(?T^''?_1-?T'?_1))/(T_??? ) � =(2((417+273)-(270+273)))/(343,5+273)=0.4768
?t''?_2=?t'?_2+d?t'?_2=270+147=417?
??????????? ?(P_? ) �=(10168.44-9750)/10168.44�100%=4.11% ?????? ????????? ?? ?????????.
??????? ??????? ????? ?? ???????? ?????????:
S=D_0/2 v((?P�?)/(f�s_??? ))+?=1.6206/2 v((0.65�?10?^6�0.5)/(0.424�101�?10?^6 ))+0.003=0.0736 ?
D_0=v((4�S')/p)=v((4�2.0627)/3.14)=1.6206 ? - ???????? ??????? ??????? ?????
S^'=B�H/z_2 =3.1026�1.9445/3=2.0627 - ??????? 1/3 ??????? ?????
?P=P_2=0,65�?10?^6 ?? - ???????????? ??????? ????????
?=0,5-??????????? ??????? ?? ????? ? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?????
f=(t-d_0)/t=(0.033-0.019)/0.033=0.424
d_0-??????? ????????? ??? ??????, t-???,
?????????? ?????????? ????? 15XM
?=0,003 ?-???????????, ??????????? ???????? ??????? ? ????????? ???????
????????? S=74 ?? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ???????????
?????? ???????. ??????? ?????? ???????, ????????????? ??????????? ????????
??????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????, ?? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ?? ???????:
S=(P�D_0)/(4�s_???-P)�D_0/(2�h_??? )+c=(0,65�?10?^6�1,6206)/(4�101�?10?^6-0,65�?10?^6 )�1,6206/(2�0,5)+0,003=0,00723 ?
?????? ??????????? ??????? , ???????? ????? ????????????? ????????? -?????? ?????????? ?????
????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????????? ????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ????? ? ??????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?? ??????????. ????????????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ??????????.
??? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????
d=0.25(v(12 Q/(s_s^t�?)+D_??^2 )-D_?? )=0.25(v(12 (1.34�?10?^6)/(200�?10?^6�0.9)+?1.6206?^2 )-1.6206)=0.0068 ?
????????? ????????????? ??? , -?????? ????????? ??? ??????? ??????????? ????? ?? ????????? ????? 40
Q=0.785?D_???_^2�P=0.785�?1.6206?^2�0.65�?10?^6=1.34�?10?^6- ????????? ?????? ?? ?????
????? ?????? Z=(1.53�Q)/(K�d_p^2�s_s^t�?)=(1.53�1.34�?10?^6)/(0.6�?0.013835?^2�200�?10?^6�0.9)=99.177
????????? ????? ?????? Z=100
?=0,6 - ???????????, ????????? ?? ???????? ?????
d?=0,013835 ? - ?????????? ??????? ?????? ?????
=0,9 - ??????????? ???????????
????????????????? ?????
????????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ????????? ?????????????? ????????. ?????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ????????? ???????? s ?????????? ????????? ??????? ????????????.
?????????? ???????? ??????? ? ???????.
s0,50,550,60,650,70,750,8F360,6682479,02629,391867,3711252,7582009,9743840V7,86610,41213,6818,8827,4344,0884,74G_m8440112091472820296293154703389877F - ??????? ??????????? ???????????
V - ???????? ?????
G_m - ??? ???????? ?????
? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ???????? ?????, ??????? ??????????? ? ??? ???????? ?????, ?.?. ??????????? ?????????? ????? ??????????.
?????????? ?????????????? ???? ???????? ? ?? ???????? ????????? ?????????????? ????????: F,V,G_m. ?????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ? ????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ????????????.
?????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ? ???????.
?1,41,451,51,551,61,651,71,731,751,81,851,91,952F1071,21063,41112,31130,91137,81140,71181,61185,21179,91201,91217,21227,81234,21252,7V11,412,38813,614,7815,9617,2518,5619,3819,9121,3122,824,2825,8427,43Gm2506624884260282646426626266932765027735276102812328484287302887929315
?? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ?:
??? ????? ?? ?????????? ????????????, ? ?????? ? ???????? ???? F, V ? G_m. ????? ???????, ??????????? ?????????? ????? ??????????.
??????????.
? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????????. ?????? ??? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?????????????? ????????? "Math?ad 14". ?? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ???? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ?????????????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????????????? "?????? 3D-V11".
?????? ??????????:
????????? ?.?. "?????? ?? ???": ???????????? ???????????? ?? ????????? ? ?????????? ??????????????.-?: ???. ???? ?? ?.?.???????, 2001.
??????? ?.?., ???????? ?.?., ?????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. "????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ??????????????? ?????????"-?., ??????????????, 1985.
3
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