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2 ?????? ??????? ???????? ????8
3 ?????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ???10
4 ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????11
5 ?????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????12
6 ?????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ???? ? ??????? ?????? ????? ???15
7 ?????? ???????????? ??????? ????? ???17
8 ?????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ???? ? ????????????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ? ??????????20
9 ?????? ?????????????? ????????????? ???23
10 ??????????? ?????? ? ??????? ????? ??????????? ?????24
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?????? ?????????????? ??????????29
???????? ???????????, ???????, ?????????? ?????? ? ????????
?0 - ???????? ??????????? ??????; ?/?
?s - ???????? ????????? ????; ?/?
C? - ????????? ????????????; ??/??*?
Cv - ????????? ????????????; ??/??*?
R - ??????? ??????????; ??/??*?
G - ?????; ??
H - ??????; ?
Hu - ?????? ???????????? ???????????; ???/??
k - ?????????? ????????; M - ???????? ?????; ????
p - ????????; ??
T - ???????????; ?
? - ?????????; ??/?3
q - ???????; ??/??
l - ??????; ??/??
R?? - ???????? ???? ?????????; ?/?
?s - ????????; ??/??*?
?h - ?????????; ??/??
?u - ?????????? ???????; ??/??
? - ???????? ?????; ?3/??
a - ??????????? ??????? ???????; ?1 - ??????????? ???; %
t - ?????; ?
/ - ???????? (??????????????) ????????? ? ???????;
// - ???????? (??????????????) ????????? ? ????????? ????????
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????????????? ???????: ????????: 3
?????? : 8
??????????: 1
??????? ????, ????????????????? ???????, ???????, ????, ????????? ?????????, ????? ?????????? ????, ???????, ?????????? ???????, ??????, ???????, ??????? ?????, ???????? ????????.
???? ??????: ?????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ???? ? ?????????????? ????????????? ???. ? ?????????? ?????? ??????????: ????????? ????????? ???????? ???? ? ????????????????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ???, ??? ?????????????? ??????????. ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????? ????? ??? ???????????? ? ??????????? ?????.
???????? ??????
??????? 1 - ???????? ??????? ??????.
???????? ??????? ???????????? ???????, ?8000???????? ????? ?1.7????? ??????t, ?1??????????? ???? ????? ?????????3, ?1600???? ????????? R, H6000
??????? 2 - ?????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????.
????????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ??????????; ??0; ??0; ?/?2?; ??/?2\3�*105; ?*?/?3N2; %O2; %CO2; %H2O; %8000236,2356520,5261,5377,4520,310,671,57
??????? 3 - ?????? ???????.
?????? ???????????? ?????????????????? ???????? ?1,96?????? ??????? ????????Hu; ???/??43000????????? ??? 20????; ??/?30,8 ????????
??????????? ????????? ??????????? ? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????, ?????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ????? ????????????? ????? ? ??????.
??? ????????????? ????????? (???) ????? ????????????? (???????????????), ?????????? ? ???? ??????????, ?????? ???????? ? ??????? ???????, ????????????? ????????????? ??????? ??????? ? ??? ?????????? ????????? ???????, ??????? ????? ? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ????????????? ? ???? ??? ????????.
??????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ???.
1 ???????? ?????? ? ????? ???
1 2 34 56
- ??????? ??????????;
- ??????????;
- ?????? ????????;
- ??????? ???????;
- ???????? ??????;
- ?????;
? ??? ???????????? ?? ???????, ?????????? ????? ???????, ?????????? ?? ????????? ??????, ?????????? ? ?????????, ??? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????? ???????. ?????????? ?????? ?????????????? ? ???????????. ?? ?? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????????, ??????????? ?? ???? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????????. ?? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ? ?????? ????????, ???? ?????????? ???????? ???????, ? ??? ?????????? ???????? ???????????????? ?????, ???????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????. ? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????, ?????????????? ?? ????????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ?????? ?? ????, ?? ???? ??????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????????. ????????????? ?????????? ????, ?????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????. ????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?? ????????? ?????? ????????.
2 ?????? ??????? ???????? ????
?????????? ???
??? ?????????? ????????: ?_(p_i )=k�t+b, ??? ??N2= 1039 ??/(??�?)
??O2= 915 ??/(??�?)
??CO2= 815 ??/(??�?)
??H2O= 1859 ??/(??�?)
?????????? ?V
??? ?????????? ??????:
?vN2=742 ??/(??�?)
?vO2=655 ??/(??�?)
?vCO2=626 ??/(??�?)
?vH2O=1398 ??/(??�?)
RN2=297 ??/(??�?)
RO2=260 ??/(??�?)
RCO2=189 ??/(??�?)
RH2O=462 ??/(??�?)
�1 =(R�)/Ri - R� =8314,3 ??/(?????�?) - ??????? ??????????
�N2=8314,3/297,93= 28 ??/( ?????)
�O2=8314,3/259,81= 32 ??/?????
�CO2=8314,3/188,95= 44 ??/?????
�H2O=8314,3/461,89= 18 ??/?????
G???????=1??
�???????=28,9257 ??/????
?0,1 ?? ???????= M1=0,0345 ?????= (1 ??)/(28,9257 ??/????)
MN2=0,7777 � 0,0345=0,0269 ?????
MO2=0,2063 � 0,0345=0,0071 ?????
MCO2=0,0035 � 0,0345=0,0002 ?????
MH2O=0,0125 � 0,0345=0,0005 ?????
G1=M1 * �1
GN2=0,0269 � 28=0,754 ??
GO2=0,0071 � 32=0,226 ??
GCO2=0,0002 � 44=0,0102 ??
GH2O=0,0005 � 18=0,0098 ??
g_i=G_1/G_?????? gN2=0,754
gO2=0,226
gCO2=0,0102
gH2O=0,0098 C_p=?�?g_i�C_p=? 0,754�1039+ 0,226�915+ 0,0102�815+0,0098�1859=1016,7 ??/(??�?)
C_v=?�?g_i�C_v=? 0,754�742+0,226�655+0,0102�626+0,0098�1398 =727,584 ??/(??�?)
k=C_p/C_v =1016,7/727,584=1,4
3 ?????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ???
??? ????????? ????? ? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ????? ???????? ???????????? ?? ???????, ??? ??? ??? ???????? ???????? ?????? ????? ??? - ??????????. ?????? ??????? ???????? ? ????????? ????????? ??????? ??????. ???? ???????? ? ????????? ????? ??????????? ??? ???????? pk, ??????: (2.1)
p_k=[1600/(236,2�(1+(1,4-1)/2 �?1,7?^2 )^2 )]^(1,4/(2�(1,4-1)))= 5,76
?3=1600 K
?0=236,2 K
K=1,4
M=1,7
4 ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????
???????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ????????. ??? ??????? ?????? ??????????? j ??? ????????? ???? ??????? ? ?1,96 = 1/1,96=0.51 = (1+4�0.51)=3.04 ??/? ????????????? ??????? ???????????:
F=G_O2�((11�j�C_pCO2)/(2�f)+(9�C_pN2O)/(8�f)-C_pO2 ) F=0,226�((11�0,51�815)/(2�3,04)+(9�1859)/(8�3,04)-915)=118,65 ??/?
? T?_1=T_0�(1+(k-1)/2�M^2 )
T_1=236,2�(1+(1,4-1)/2�?1,7?^2 )=819K ??????????? ??????? ???????:
?=(G_O2�((12�j+1))/(8�f)�H_u-F�(T_3-T_1 ))/(C_p�G�[T_3-T_1�p_k^((1,4-1)/1,4) ] )
?=(0,226�((12�0,51+1))/(8�3,04)�43�?10?^6-118,65�(1600-819,15))/(1016,8�1�[1600-819,15�?5,76?^((1,4-1)/1,4) ] )=10,8
5 ?????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????
????? ???????????:
G_N2^(,,)=G_N2^,=0,755 ??
G_O2^(,,)=((?-1))/?�G_O2^,=((10,8-1))/10,8�0,226=0,205 ??
G_CO2^(,,)=G_CO2^,+G_O2^,=((11�j))/(2�?�f)=0,0102+0,226�((11�0,51)/(2�10,8�3,04))=0,0295 ??
G_H2O^(,,)=G_H2O^,+G_O2^,=((9�j))/(8�?�f)=0,0098+0,226�((9�0,51)/(8�10,8�3,04))=0,0137 ??
???? ???????????:
M_N2^(,,)=M_N2^,=0,0269 ?????
M_O2^(,,)=((?-1))/?�M_O2^,=((10,8-1))/10,8�0,0071=0,0064 ?????
M_CO2^(,,)=M_CO2^,+((4�j�M_O2^,))/(�?�f)=0,0002+((4�0,51�0,0071)/(10,8�3,04))=0,00064 ?????
M_H2O^(,,)=M_H2O^,+(2�M_O2^,)/(8?�f)=0,0005+((2�0,0071)/(4�10,8�3,04))=0,000056 ?????
??????? (????????) ???? ???????????
M_ ^(, ,)=?�M_i^(,,) M_ ^(, ,) = 0,0269+0,0064+0,00064+0,000056=0,03362
r_N2^(,,)=(M_N2^(,,))/(M_ ^(, ,) )=0,0269/0,03362=0,8
r_O2^(,,)=(M_O2^(,,))/(M_ ^(, ,) )=0,0064/0,03362=0,1915
r_CO2^(,,)=(M_CO2^(,,))/(M_ ^(, ,) )=0,00064/0,03362=0,02
r_H2O^(,,)=(M_H2O^(,,))/(M_ ^(, ,) )=0,000056/0,03362=0,0016
???????? ???? ???????????
G_^(,,)= ?�G_i^(,,) G_^(,,)= 0,755+0,205+0,0295+0,0137=1,0032
g_N2^(,,)=(G_N2^(,,))/(G_^(,,) )=0,7459/1,0032=0,752
g_O2^(,,)=(G_O2^(,,))/(G_^(,,) )=0,1446/1,0032=0,2043
g_CO2^(,,)=(G_CO2^(,,))/(G_^(,,) )=0,0804/1,0032=0,0294
g_H2O^(,,)=(G_H20^(,,))/(G_^(,,) )=0,0376/1,0032=0,0136
?????????? ??????? ?????????? ? 1 ?? ???????
G_T=G_O2^,�((12�j+1))/(8�?�f)=0,226�((12�0,51+1))/(8�10,8�3,04)=0,00712
????? ??????? ????? ??????? ? ???????
G_PC=G_???????^,+G_T=1+0,00712=1,00712
???????????? ??????? ?????
C_p^(,,)=?�?g_i^(,,)�G_p^,=? 0,752�1039+0,2043�915+0,0294�815+0,0136�1859=1017,5 ??/(??�?)
C_v^(,,)=?�?g_i^(,,)�G_v^,=? 0,752�742+0,2043�655+0,0294�626+0,0136�1398=729 ??/(??�?)
- ??????? ??????????: R^(,,)=C_p^(,,)-C_V^(,,)=1017,5-729,2=288 ??/(??�?)
k^(,,)=(C_p^(,,))/(C_v^(,,) )=1017,5/729,2=1,395
??????? 4 - ?????? ??????? ? ????????? ????????.
?????? ??????? ? ????????? ????????
??????????????
??????????N2O2CO2H2OR�; ??/??�?297,93260189462Cp; ??/??�?10399158151859Cv; ??/??�?7426556261398�; ??/?????28324418
G, ??
??????0,7550,2260,01020,0098????. ????0,7550,2050,02950,0137
M, ???????????0,02690,00710,00020,0005????. ????0,02690,00640,000060,00005
g??????0,7540,2260,01020,0098????. ????0,7520,2040,02940,0136
r??????0,77520,20460,00580,0144????. ????0,80,19150,020,0016
??????? 5 - ?????? ??????? ????? ? ?? ??????????????.
?????? ??????? ????? ? ?? ??????????????
??????? ????
??????????????
C_p; ??/(??�?)
C_v; ??/(??�?)
R; ??/(??�?)
k C_p/C_v G; ??
??????1016,7727,5289,151,41???????? ????????1017,5729,2288,31,3951
6 ?????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ???? ? ??????? ?????? ????? ???
???????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ???? ? ??????? ?????? ?????,
????????? ???????????? ??????? ? ????????? ????? ? ?? ???? ????
v_0=�_0/p_0 =1/0,526=1,9 ?^3/??
????? 1: ??????? 0-1 - ?????????? ?????? ??????? ? ?????????
T_1=T_0�(1+(k-1)/2�M^2 )=236,2�(1+(1,4-1)/2�?1,7?^2 )=372,7K
p_1=p_0�(T_1/T_0 )^(k/(k-1))=?35652�(372,7/236,2)?^(1,4/(1,4-1))=175939 ??
v_1=v_0�?(p_0/p_1 )?^(1/k)=?1,9�(35652/175939)?^(1/1,4)=0,61 ?^3/??
????? 2: ??????? 1-2 - ?????????? ?????? ? ???????????
T_2=T_1�p_k^((k-1)/k)=372,7�?5,76?^((1,4-1)/1,4)=613,8 K
p_2=p_1�p_k=175939�5,76=1013408,64 ??
v_2=(R�T_2)/p_2 =(289,2�613,8)/1013408,64=0,175 ?^3/??
????? 3: ???????? 2-3 - ????????? ?????? ????? ? ?????? ????????
T_3=1600 K
p_3=p_2= 1013408,64 ??
v_3=(R�T_3)/p_3 =(288,3�1600)/1013408,64=0,45517 ?^3/??
????? 4: ??????? 3-4 - ??? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ? ???????
T_4=T_3-T_2+T_1=1600-613,8+372,7=1358,9K
p_4=p_3�(T_4/T_3 )^(k/(k-1))=1013408,64 ?�(1358,9/1600)?^(1,4/(1,4-1))=572164,5??
v_4=(R�T_4)/p_4 =(288,3�1358,9)/572164,5=0,68 ?^3/??
????? 5: ??????? 4-5 - ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ????? ???:
T_5=T_3�(p_0/p_3 )^(k/(k-1))=1600?�(35652/(1013408,64 ))?^(1,4/(1,4-1))=616,3 ?
p_5=p_0=35652 ??
v_5=(R�T_5)/p_0 =(288,3�616,3)/35652=4,98 ?^3/??
7 ?????? ???????????? ??????? ????? ???
- ????????? ???????????? ??????? ? ????????? ?????
?????????? ??????? ? ????????? ?????: ?u_(0-1)=C_v�(T_(i+1)-T_i)
?u_(0-1)=C_v�(T_1-T_0 )=727,5�(372,7-236,2)=99309,6 ??/??
?u_(1-2)=C_v�(T_2-T_1 )=727,5�(613,8-372)=175919,9 ??/??
?u_(2-3)=C_v�(T_3-T_2 )=729�(1600-613,8)=718939,8 ??/??
?u_(3-4)=C_v�(T_4-T_3 )=729�(1358,9-1600)=-175762 ??/??
?u_(4-5)=C_v�(T_5-T_4 )=729�(616,3-1358,9)=-541355,4 ??/??
?u_(5-0)=C_v�(T_0-T_5 )=729�(236,2-616,3)=-277092,9 ??/??
?????????: ?h_i=C_p�(T_(i+1)-T_i )
?h_(0-1)=1016,7�(372,7-236,2)=138779,5 ??/??
?h_(1-2)=1016,7�(613,8-372,7)=244313 ??/??
?h_(2-3)=1016,7�(1600-613,8)=1003458,5 ??/??
?h_(3-4)=1016,7�(1358,9-1600)=-245319,2 ??/??
?h_(4-5)=1016,7�(616,3-1358,9)=-755595,5 ??/??
?h_(5-0)=1016,7�(236,2-616,3)=-386650 ??/??
????????: ?s_i=C_p�ln(T_(i+1)/T_i )-R�ln(p_(i+1)/p_i )
?s_(2-3)=C_p�ln(T_3/T_2 )-R�ln(p_3/p_2 )=1017,5�ln(1600/614)-8,31�ln(1) =974,5 ??/(??*?)
?s_(5-0)=C_p�ln(T_0/T_5 )-R�ln(p_0/p_5 )=1017,5�ln(236/616)-8,31�ln(35652/35652)=-976,2 ??/(??�?)
?????? ??????? ????????? ? ????? ?? ????:
q_(0-1)=0
q_(1-2)=0
q_(2-3)=q_1=C_p�(T_3-T_2 )=1017,5�(1600-614)=1003255 ??/??
q_(3-4)=0
q_(4-5)=0
q_(5-0)=q_2=C_p�(T_0-T_5 )=1017,5�(236-616)=-386650 ??/??
q_u=q_1-|q_2 |=1003255-386650=616605 ???/??
?????? ?????? ????????? ? ?????? ?? ????:
l_(0-1)=?-?h?_(0-1)=-138779,5 ??/??- ?????? ?????? ???? ? ?????????
l_(1-2)=?-?h?_(1-2)=-244313 ??/??- ?????? ?????? ???? ? ???????????
l_(2-3)=0
l_(3-4)=??h?_(3-4)=245319 ??/??- ?????? ???? ? ???????
l_(4-5)=??h?_(4-5)=755595,5 ??/??- ?????? ??????????? ?????
l_(5-0)=0
l_u=?�?l_i= -138779,5-244313+245319?+755595,5=617823 ???/?? - ?????? ?????
??????? 6 - ???????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ???? ? ??????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ? ????????? ????? ? ?? ???? ????.
???????? ??????? ?????
???
?????
0
1
2
3
4
5P; ??35652175939 1013408,61013408,6572164,535652-u; ?3/??1,90,610,1750,450,684,98-?; ?236,2372,7613,816001358,9616-
????????
???????? ??? ?????
0-1
1-2
2-3
3-4
4-5
5-0?u; ??/??99309,617591971894-175762-541355,4-277093-?h; ??/??138779,5
244313
1003458,5-245319,2
-755595,5
-386650-?s; ??/??�K0
0974,50
0-976,2-1,7q; ??/??00100325500-386650616605l; ??/?? -138779,5-2443130245319755595,50617823
8 ?????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ???? ? ????????????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ? ??????????
?????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ? p-v ???????????:
????????? ???????? 0-1, 1-2, 3-4, 4-5 ??????????, ?? ??? ????? ???? ????? ?? ??? ??????????? ???????????:
p_a/p_0 =(v_0/v_a )^k; p_b/p_1 =(v_1/v_b )^k; p_c/p_4 =(v_4/v_c )^k; p_d/p_5 =(v_5/v_d )^k;
????????? ?????????? ?????????? v_a;v_b;v_c;v_d ????????? ????????? ???????? v_0;v_1;v_4;v_5 ? p_0;p_1;p_4;p_5, ?????????? p_a;p_b;p_c;p_d. ?????? ???????? v_a;v_b;v_c;v_d ???????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ???????? v_0-v_1;v_1-v_2;v_4-v_5.
????? ?:
v_a=0,475 ?^3/??
p_a=p_1�(v_1/v_a )^k=1,76�(0,61/0,475)^1,4=2,44*10 ??
T_a=T_1�(p_a/p_1 )^((k-1)/k)=1,76�(0,61/0,325)^((1,4-1)/1,4)=529 ?
????? b:
v_b=0,325 ?^3/??
p_b=p_1�(v_1/v_b )^k=1,76�(0.61/0,325)^1,4=4,25*10 ?? T_b=T_1�(p_b/p_1 )^((k-1)/k)=381�((462721,75 )/226324,55)^((1,4-1)/1,4)=467 K
????? c:
v_c=0,6 ?^3/??
p_c=p_4�(v_4/v_c )^k=5,7�(0,68/0,6)^1,4=6,8*10??
T_c=T_4�(p_c/p_4 )^((k-1)/k)=1210,9�((442010,0747 )/662500)^((1,3883-1)/1,3883)=1081 ?
????? d:
v_d=0,84 ?^3/??
p_d=p_4�(v_4/v_d )^k=0,35�(4,98/0,84)^1,4=4,22 ??
T_d=T_4�(p_d/p_4 )^((k-1)/k)=1210,9�((168854,34 )/662500)^((1,3883-1)/1,3883)=826 K
?????? ????????? ???????????? ? ?-S ???????????;
????????? ????????? ?????????? T_2-T_3 ? T_5-T_0????????? ?? ??? ?????? ?????. ??? ???????? ?????????? ????????? T_(2-a^/ );T_(2-b^/ );T_(5-c^/ );T_(5-d^/ ), ????????? ??????????????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ???? ? ????????? 2-3, 5-0, ?? ????????????
?s_(2-a^, )=C_p�ln T_(a^, )/T_2 ;?s_(2-b^, )=C_p�ln T_(b^, )/T_2 ;?s_(0-c^, )=C_p�ln T_(c^, )/T_0 ; ?s_(0-d^, )==C_p�ln T_(d^, )/T_0 ????? ?/: T_(a^/ )=896 K
??S?_(?2-a?^/ )=C_p�ln?(T_a/T_2 )=1017,5�ln?(942,6/614)=436 ??/(??�?)
????? b/: T_(b/)=1271,3 K
??S?_(?2-b?^/ )=C_p�ln?(T_b/T_2 )=1017,5�ln?(1271,3/614)=740,5 ??/(??�?)
????? c/: T_(c^/ )=490 K
??S?_(?0-c?^/ )=C_p�ln?(T_c/T_0 )=1017,5�ln?(490/236)=743,3 ??/(??�?)
????? d/: T_(d^/ )=500 K
??S?_(?0-d?^/ )=C_p�ln?(T_d/T_0 )=1017,5�ln?(362,2/236)=435??/(??�?)
???????7.????????? ????????? ? ????????? ???????? ???????? ???? ? ????????????? ?????? ????????? ?????.
???????? ????? a bcdp; ??2,444,256,84,22v; ?3/??0,4750,3250,6
0,84
?; ?942,61271,3490362,6
???????? ???????? 2-a^,
??? ??=896?
2-b^,
??? ?b=1172K0-c^,
??? ??=356K0-d^,
??? ?d=500??S?_i, ??/(??�?)436
740,5
743,3
435
9 ?????? ?????????????? ????????????? ???
???????? ??????????? ??????:
c_0=M�a=M�v(k�R�T_0 )=1,7�v(1,4�289�236,2)=525
???????? ????????? ???????? ???? ?? ????? ?????????:
c_5=v(2�C_p�?(T?_4-T_5 ))=v(2�1017,5�(1358,5-616))=1229
???????? ???? ?????????:
R_??= C_5-C_0=709 ?/?
????????? ?????? ???????:
G_???????=R/R_?? =6000/709=8.46 ??/?
????? ?????????:
G_?????????=20�G_???????�v((p_k )_opt^((k-1)/k)-1)=20�8.46�v(?5,76?^((1.4-1)/1.4) )=134.5 ??
????? ???????, ?????????? ? 1?? ???????:
G_T=G_(O_2)^/�((12�j+1))/(8�a�f)=0,2272�((12�0.5102+1))/(8�2.7538�3.0408)=0.0242 ??
????????? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ??????:
M_T^?????????=G_???????�G_T�3600�t=8.46�0.00712�3600�1=216.8 ??
??????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????:
?_1=l_u/q_(2-3) �100%=617823/1003255�100%=60.8%
?_t^?????=(1-T_0/T_3 )�100%=(1-236/1600)=85.25`%
??????? 8 - ?????????????? ?????????????? ???.
?????????????? ?????????????? ???
(p_k )_opt v_3;?^3/??
l_u;??/??
R_??;?/?G_???????;??/?G_?????????;??G_T^?????????;
???;%5.760,339310.87098.46134.5216.860.8
10 ??????????? ?????? ? ??????? ????? ??????????? ?????
??????? 8.1 ???? ??? ? P-V ???????????
?????? ?????, ????????? ??????????? ?????:
S_u=2765 ????^2
�_pv=�_p��_v=5882.35�0.04=235.294 ?/??
l_u^???????????=S_u��_pv=2765�235.294=650598,3 ??/??
??????????? S=(l_u^?????????-l_u^???????????)/(l_u^????????? )�100%=(617000-650598,3)/617000�100%=5,44%
??????? 8.2 ???? ??? ? T-S ???????????
??????? ?????, ????????? ??????????? ?????:
S_u=5857,855
�_0=�_S��_T=10�10=100
q_u^???????????=S_u��_0=585754,8 ??/??
???????????:
S=(q_u^?????????-q_u^???????????)/(q_u^????????? )�100%=(616605-585754,8)/616605�100%=5%
??????????.
? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ????????????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ??????? ?????????????? ????????? ??? ????????? ?????? ??????. q_u=480,062 ???/?? l_u=480 ???/??
??? ???????? ??????? ???? ??? ? P-V ? T-S ?????????.
?????? ????? ???? ?????????? ????? ???????? - ????????????? ? ???????????, ? ???? ??????????? ?????? ???????????, ?? ???????? ????????? 0,7% ??? P-V ????????? ? 0,52% ??? T-S ?????????.
?????? ?????????????? ??????????
1. ?.?. ??????????, ?.?. ?????, ?.?. ???????????. ???????????? ???????? / ?????. ???. ????????. ??-?. ?????? 2001-40???.
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