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? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? "???????????? ????????????"
????: "?????????????? ????????????????? ???????????? ????????????"
????????: ??????? 4 ?????, ?????? 108719: ??????? ?.?. ????????????: ?????? ?.?.
????? 2012
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??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????????..........................................................................
??????????? ??????? ?????????????. ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ?????? ??????????..........................................
??????????? ????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ????????????????.....................................................................
??????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ????????????...........................
?????????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ????????????.........................
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????????
? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????????????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????????? ? ?????? ???????. ??? ?????????????????? ???????????? 60 ???? ? ?????, ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????????, ?????????? ?????. ?????????? ???????????????? ?????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ????????????, ?????????? ???????????????? ? ????????? ???????????? ? ?????. ????????? ??????????? ???????????????? ?? ??????? ? ?????????? ???????? ??? ????????? ???????????????. ?????????? ???????? ?? ??????????. ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ?? ???????????? ??????? ???????????? ? ??????????????? ???????????? ? ??????? ???????? ?????? ? ?????????. ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ????????????????? ???????????. ?? ??????? ???????????? ???????????????? ????????? ????????????. ?????? ????????????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ? ??? ???????? ???? ????? ? ???. ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ? ????????????? ?????? ???? ?? ????? 80% ??????? ?????????????????? ?????????. ????? ????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ? ????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ???????????????? ?????????????. ?? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ??? ????????????? ???? ?????, ??? ??? ??? ?????????????? ??????????????? ????, ??? ?????? ?????????????.
?????? ???????? ???????????? ???? ????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ??? ???????????? ?????. ????? ????, ? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????? ?????? ???? ????? ? ????????? ??? ???????? ????? ?????????? ? ?????????????, ? ????? ???????????? ?????? ??? ???. ?? ???????????? ????? ???? ?????? ???????? ? ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ? ???, ???????? ???, ?????? ? ?????????????? ????????????? ???????, ??????????. ??? ?????????????? ???????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???? ???????? ? ?? ?????? ?????? ? ?????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ???? ?????????????? ? ?????? ??????? ????????????. 1. ?????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ?????????????
???????????? ???????????? ?? ????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ?? ??? ????????????.
???????? ?????? ????????????. ???????? ??????? 7.4 ?? ?????? ???????? 4-7 ????? ???????? ????????? ????????? (55%) ,????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? (30%); 2-3 ????????????? ?????? (15%); 1-2 ??????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????????????? 0,06% ????? ??????????? ????????????.
?????? ?????? ????????? 6 �12 ?. ??????????????? ???????????? ????????, ?????? ???????? ????????? 6 ? ??????. ?????? ????? ?????? 6 ?.
?????????? ??????? ???????? ????? ?? ???????:
Fk = B_k/(q_(v )�h_??��) , ???
B_k - ??????????? ????? ???????? ? ?.; q_(v )- ????? ???????? ?? 1 ?3 ????????? ?????? ?????? ?? ????. 8 [1]; h_?? - ???????? ?????? ???????, ?; � - ??????????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????.
?) ???????????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????: F k ???. = (120�8)/(0,38�5,5�0,7) =656?^2
?) ??????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????:
F k ???. = (120�8)/(0,38�5,5�0,7) =656 ?^2
?) ??????? ?????? ? ????????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????:
F k ????. = (120�4)/(0,38�5,5�0,7) =328 ?^2
?) ???????????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ???????:
F k ?.=(?�t)/(q_(f )�24) =(120�12)/(0,3�24) =200 ?^2 , ???
q_(f ) - ????? ???????? ?? 1 ?2 ???????? ??????? ??????. ?) ???????????? ??????? ????? ????????????? ?? ????????? ???????:
F k ?.=(?�t)/(q_(f )�24) =0,5 (120�24)/(0,35�24) =171 ?^2 ???????????? ????? ???????????? ??????????????? ?? ????????? ???????:
n=F_(???.)/f , ??? f - ??????? ?????? ?????????????? 6 �12 ?. ????????? ????? ????????.
? n?_(k ???.. )=656/72=9; n_(k ???)= 656/72=9; n_(k ????)= 328/72=5; ? n?_(k ?)= 200/72=3;? n?_(k ?)= 171/72=2; ???????????? ????? ??????? ????? ????????: F k ??. = 656+656+328+200=1840?2
?????????? ??????? ??????????????? ?????????:
F ???. = 0,35 � F k ?? = 0,35 � 1840 = 644 ?2 , ????????????? ? n?_(???. )= 644/72=9;
????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????
F ??. = 0,1� F ??? = 0,1�1840 = 184 ?2 (? n?_??=2)
????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????
F ??. = 0,3� F ??? = 0,3�1840 = 552 ?2 (? n?_??=7)
????? ?????????, ??????? ?????? ????????? ?? ?????: n??? = G??? / g??? � ????.??? = 80 / 3�0,5 = 53
??? g??? - ???????????????? ??????????, ??????? ?? ???????? ??????????? 3 ?; ????.??? - ??????????? ????????????? ???????????????? ??????????, ????? ??????? ????.??? = 0,5.
????? ????????????? ?????????:
L??? = n??? b??? ???? t??? m??? / 8 = 53�4�1�0,5�1,25/ 8 = 16 ?. (????????? 28 ?)
??? b??? - ??????, ?????? ??????????, ??????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ?? ? ?????????; b??? = 4 ?; ???? - ???? ?? ?????? ????? ?????, ??????????????? ?????????? ?????, ??????????? ? ??????? ?????? (???????) ????? = 1; t??? - ????? ???????? ??? ???????? ????? ??????????; ??? ?????????? 0,5 ?; m??? - ??????????? ??????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ? ?????????????? ?? ??????????; ????? ??????? m??? = l,25. ????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ?? ????????, ???????? ?????? b???.
2.1 ???????????????? ?????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ????????????
????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ??????????????? ?????????????? ????? ?????????????? ?? ???????:
k0=1/R0=1/((R?+?Ri+R?)+R??)
R0- ????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????????, ?2?/??;
R?- ????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ? ???????? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????????, ?2?/??;
R?=1/a?
Ri- ????????????? ???????????????? i-?? ????????????? ???? ??????????? (????? ???? ?????????????), ?2?/??:
Ri=di/?i
R?- ????????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ??????????, ?2?/??:
R?=1/a?
R??- ????????????? ???????????????? ?????????????????? ????, ?2?/??:
R??=d??/???
a?, a?- ???????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????? ??????????, ??/(?2?);
di- ??????? ???????????? ????? ???????????, ?;
?i- ??????????? ???????????????? ???????????? ????? ???????????, ??/(?2?);
d??- ??????? ?????????????????? ????, ?.
???- ???????????? ???????????????? ?????????????????? ????, ??/(?2?).
??????? ???? ????????????? ?????????? ?? ???????:
d????= ???[R0??-R?-R?-?Ri]
????? ??????? ??????? ????????????? ????, ? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????? , ????? ?????????, ??? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ????. ? ????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ???? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ????.???? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ????? ??? ?? 10%, ?? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????? ?? ???????:
k?0=1/(1/a?++?di/?i+1/a?)+ d???/???? d???- ???????? ??????? ?????????????????? ????,?. 2.1 ???????? ?????
?????????, ??? ??? ???????? ????? ?????? ????????? ?? ??????? ? ?????????????? ?? ????? ??R??. ????????????? ??????????? ? ?????? ??????? t=+7,40?.
????????? ????????????? ????????????? R0??=2,4 ?2?/??
R?- ????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ? ???????? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? R?=0,043 ?2?/??
R?- ????????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? R? =0,091?2?/??
?�?Ri=0,524? ?2�?/??. ????????? ??????? ????????????? ???? d_??^??=?_?? [1/(k_0^?? )-(1/a_? +?_(i=1)^n�d_i/?_i +1/a_? )]=0,035[2,4-0,043-0,091-0,524]=0,059 ?. ????????? ??????? ?????????????????? ???? 50 ?? ???????? ????? ????? ???????? ???????? ? ???????? ????????? ????????? ? ????????? ?????????, ?? ??????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? - ?????????, ???????? 380 ??.
???????????? ? ??????????? ??????????????????????? ? ???????? ??????????? di,???????????? ???????????????? ?_i, ??/(?2?)???????? ?????????????
R_i=d_i/?_i , ?2�?/?????????? ?????
1?????????? ??????? ????????? ?? ????????????? ?????0,0200,980,0202???? PAROC????????? ??????????0,035????????? ??????????3???????????? - 2 ???? ?????????? ?? ???????? ???????0,0040,300,0134?????????? ????????-????????0,0200,900,0225?????? ????????? ?? ????????? ????????0,3800,810,469?�?R_i=? 0,524
???????? ????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????
????????? ????????????? ????????????? R0??=4,3 ?2?/??
R?- ????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ? ???????? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? R?=0,043 ?2?/??
R?- ????????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? R? =0,111?2?/??
?�?Ri=0,524? ?2�?/??. ????????? ??????? ????????????? ???? d_??^??=?_?? [1/(k_0^?? )-(1/a_? +?_(i=1)^n�d_i/?_i +1/a_? )]=0,035[4,3-0,043-0,111-0,524]=0,126 ?. ????????? ??????? ?????????????????? ???? 125 ?? (???? ???? ???????? 100 ??, ???? ???? 25 ??)
2.2 ?????????? ?????
?????????, ??? ?????????? ????? ????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ????????? ?????????? (?????????) (? ???????????? 13??) ????????? ?? ??????????????? ? ?????????????? ?? ????? PAROC
???????????? ? ??????????? ??????????????????????? ? ???????? ??????????? di,???????????? ???????????????? ?_i, ??/(?2?)???????? ?????????????
R_i=d_i/?_i , ?2�?/?????????? ?????
1?????? ?? ???????????????(?1100 ??/?3)0,2400,470,512???? PAROC????????? ??????????0,035????????? ??????????3???????????? - 2 ???? ?????????? ?? ???????? ???????0,0040,300,0134?????????? ??????? ????????? ?? ????????????? ?????0,0200,980,020
?�?R_i=? 0,543
??? ????? 1-3,11-12,8
????????? ????????????? ????????????? R0??=4,65 ?2?/??
R?- ????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ? ???????? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? R?=0,043 ?2?/??
R?- ????????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? R? =0,111?2?/??
?�?Ri=0,543? ?2�?/??. ????????? ??????? ????????????? ???? d_??^??=?_?? [1/(k_0^?? )-(1/a_? +?_(i=1)^n�d_i/?_i +1/a_? )]=0,035[4,65-0,043-0,111-0,543]=0,138 ?. R?=0,697+(0,15/0,035)=5 ?2�?/??
????????? ??????? ?????????????????? ???? 150 ?? (???? ???? ???????? 100 ??, ???? ???? 50 ??)
??? ????? 4-6
????????? ????????????? ????????????? R0??=2,76 ?2?/??
R?- ????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ? ???????? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? R?=0,043 ?2?/??
R?- ????????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? R? =0,091?2?/??
?�?Ri=0,543? ?2�?/??. ????????? ??????? ????????????? ???? d_??^??=?_?? [1/(k_0^?? )-(1/a_? +?_(i=1)^n�d_i/?_i +1/a_? )]=0,035[2,76-0,043-0,091-0,543]=0,072 ?. ????????? ??????? ?????????????????? ???? 75 ?? (???? ???? ???????? 50 ??, ???? ???? 25 ??)
??? ????? 9-10
????????? ????????????? ????????????? R0??=4,92 ?2?/??
R?- ????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ? ???????? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? R?=0,043 ?2?/??
R?- ????????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? R? =0,111?2?/??
?�?Ri=0,543? ?2�?/??. ????????? ??????? ????????????? ???? d_??^??=?_?? [1/(k_0^?? )-(1/a_? +?_(i=1)^n�d_i/?_i +1/a_? )]=0,035[4,92-0,043-0,543-0,111]=0,12 ?. ????????? ??????? ?????????????????? ???? 125 ?? (???? ???? ???????? 100 ??, ???? ???? 25 ??)
2.3 ?????????? ???????????
?????????, ??? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ?? ???? ?????????? ???????? 240 ??, ? ?????????????? ?? ????? PAROC.
???????????? ? ??????????? ??????????????????????? ? ???????? ??????????? d_i, ???????????? ???????????????? ?_i, BT/(M2K)???????? ????????????? R_i=d_i/?_i , ?2?/??
?????????? ???????????1?????????? ??????? ????????? ?? ????????????? ?????0,020,930,0222???? PAROC????????? ??????????0,035????????? ??????????3???????????? - 2 ???? ????????0,0060,30,024?????? ?? ?????????? (????????? 600 ??/?3)0,1000,140,714
?�?R_i=? 0,756
??? ????? 1-4,8-6,11-12
????????? ????????????? ????????????? R0??=3,6 ?2?/??
R?- ????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ? ???????? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? R?=0,091 ?2?/??
R?- ????????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? R? =0,111?2?/??
?�?Ri=0,756? ?2�?/??. ????????? ??????? ????????????? ???? d_??^??=?_?? [1/(k_0^?? )-(1/a_? +?_(i=1)^n�d_i/?_i +1/a_? )]=0,035[3,6-0,091-0,756-0,111]=0,092 ?. ????????? ??????? ?????????????????? ???? 100 ?? ??? ????? 2-3
????????? ????????????? ????????????? R0??=1,7 ?2?/??
R?- ????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ? ???????? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? R?=0,111 ?2?/??
R?- ????????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? R? =0,111?2?/??
?�?Ri=0,756? ?2�?/??. ????????? ??????? ????????????? ???? d_??^??=?_?? [1/(k_0^?? )-(1/a_? +?_(i=1)^n�d_i/?_i +1/a_? )]=0,035[3,6-0,111-0,756-0,111]=0,025 ?. ????????? ??????? ?????????????????? ???? 25 ?? ??? ????? 8-9,10-11
????????? ????????????? ????????????? R0??=2,2 ?2?/??
R?- ????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ? ???????? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? R?=0,111 ?2?/??
R?- ????????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? R? =0,111?2?/??
?�?Ri=0,756? ?2�?/??. ????????? ??????? ????????????? ???? d_??^??=?_?? [1/(k_0^?? )-(1/a_? +?_(i=1)^n�d_i/?_i +1/a_? )]=0,035[3,6-0,111-0,756-0,111]=0,042 ?. ????????? ??????? ?????????????????? ???? 50 ?? 2.4 ???????? ??????????? ?????
????????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ???? ??????????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? (-20??), ??? ??? ??? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????? ???????????? ??????.
???????????? ? ??????????? ??????????????????????? ? ???????? ??????????? d_i, ???????????? ???????????????? ?_i, BT/(M2K)???????? ????????????? R_i=d_i/?_i , ?2?/??
???????? ??????????? ?????15 ????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ???????0,0120,30,0402?????? ?? ?????? ?? ????????????? ?????0,0401,860,0223???????????? (???? ?????????)0,0010,150,0074???? PAROC
????????? ??????????0,035????????? ??????????5?????????????? ????? ????????0,03500,2040,017
?�?R_i=? 0,086
????????? ????????????? ????????????? R0??=4,6 ?2?/??
R?- ????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ? ???????? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? R?=0,043 ?2?/??
R?- ????????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? R? =0,111?2?/??
?�?Ri=0,086? ?2�?/??. ????????? ??????? ????????????? ???? d_??^??=?_?? [1/(k_0^?? )-(1/a_? +?_(i=1)^n�d_i/?_i +1/a_? )]=0,035[4,6-0,043-0,086-0,111]=0,152 ?. ????????? ??????? ?????????????????? ???? 150 ?? (???? ???? ???????? 100 ??, ???? ???? 50 ??)
2.5 ???? ??????????? ?????.
????????????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ???? ??????????? ?????????. ? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ???? ? ??????? ???????? ????????? ??????. ? ??????? ????????? ?????? ????, ??????? ???? ???????? ?????????? ? ??????????????? ????????????.
?
????????????????
? ???????? ???????????
d, ???????????? ????????????????
?, ??/?????????? ?????????????
R, ??/??123451?????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ??????0,051,860,0222???????????? ??????0,081,860,0433????????????
( 1 ???? ?????????)0,0010,150,0074???? PAROC????????? ??????????0,035????????? ??????????5????????-???????? ???????0,0250,0250,0266???????????
?????1,350,582,3387???????? ?????????? ? ??????????---?d/?=2,43
????????? ????????????? ????????????? R0??=5,5 ?2?/??
R?- ????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ? ???????? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? R?=0,142 ?2?/??
R?- ????????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? R? =0,142?2?/??
?�?Ri=2,43? ?2�?/??. ????????? ??????? ????????????? ???? d_??^??=?_?? [1/(k_0^?? )-(1/a_? +?_(i=1)^n�d_i/?_i +1/a_? )]=0,035[5,5-2,43-0,142]=0,102 ?. ????????? ??????? ?????????????????? ???? 100 ?? ?????????? ????????:
??????????t_?, �?R?
??/(?2�?)R_?,
??/(?2�?)?�?R_i,?
??/(?2�?)??????? ?????????????????? ????, ???????????? ?????????????, ??/(?2�?)d_??^??d_??^?R_0^??R_0^????????? ?????:?????? 1-3,8-200,0430,1110,5240,1260,1254,34,3?????? 4-600,0430,0910,5240,0590,052,42,4???????? ????? ??????? ? ???????? ?????????? ? ????. ???????????:?????? 11-12-200,0430,1110,5240,1260,1254,34,3?????? 9-10-300,0430,1110,5240,1540,1505,15,1?????????? ????? ??????? ? ?????????:?????? 1-3,12,11,8-200,0430,1110,5430,1380,154,655?????? 4-600,0430,0910,5430,0720,0752,762,76?????? 9-10-300,0430,1110,5430,120,1254,924,92?????????? ???????????:?????? 1-2,3-4,8-6,11-12-20/00,0910,1110,7560,0920,13,63,6?????? 8-9,10-11-30/-2001110,1110,7560,0420,052,22,2?????????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ?????????????:?????? 2-3-20/-200,1110,1110,7560,0250,0251,71,7???????? ??????????? ?????:-200,0430,1110,0860,1520,1504,64,6???? ??????????? ?????:-200,1420,1422,430,1020,15,55,5
. ???????? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ????????????.
??????? ?? ????????? ??????????: ???? ??????? ????????????? ????????????, ?? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ????????? ? ????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ?????????? ???? ??????????? ????? ???? ??????? ? ???? ????????? t ?.?. ? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ? ???? ???? ??? ????. ??? ???????? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ?? ??????????? ??????????. ??????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ? ??????? ??????? ????? 10�? ??????????? ????????? ?? ????????? ??????????. ????? ?? ???????? ????????? ? ??? ???????? ???? ? ?????????? ? ??????? ? ?????????????? ????????????? ??? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ???????. ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ???????:
t_?=t_?- (t_?-t_?)/(R_0�a_? )
????? ?? ??????????? ????????? ??????????, ?????? ??????????? ??????? t_?= t ?.?. ??????????? ????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ?? i - d-????????? ??? ????????? ????????? t? ? f? ??????? ? ????????? ? ????? ??????? ????????????.
????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ? ???????:
0,6*(t?- t??) = 8,86�? (??? ????????? ?? ??????? ? ???????? ????????)
0,7*(t?- t??) = 13,67�? (??? ????????? ??????? ? ???????? ????????)
?????????? ????? ????? ??????? 9 (-30�?) ? ????????? (+13,67�?), f?=60%.
?? i-d ????????? ?????, ??? ??????????? ????? ???? ????? t?.?.= 4,1�? ??? ??????????? 12?? ? ????????? 60% . ??????????? ???????? ???????????:
t_?=t_?- (t_?-t_?)/(R_0�a_? )=13,67- (13,67+30)/(4,28�11)=?12,9?^0 ?
? t?_?>t?.?.
?12,9?^0 ? = 6�? - ??????? ???????????, ????????????? ????????? ?? ??????? ? ??????? ????????????? ??????? ?????????.
?????????????, ? ?? ?????? ????? 1(-20�?),2(-20�?),3(-20�?),12(-20�?),8,11(-20�?), ??????? ??????? ? ????????? (+12�?), ?? ????? ???????? ?????????, ??? ??? ??????? ????? ?????????????.
???????? ????? ????? 1-3(-20�?), 8(-20�?) , f?=90%.
???????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ? ?????? ???????:
t_?=t_???+0,25t_??
t_?=24+0,25?38=33,5?? (t??? = 24?? - ?????????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ?????? - ????, t?? = 38?C - ?????????? ???????? ???????????.)
?? i-d ????????? ?????, ??? ??????????? ????? ???? ????? t?.?.= 25,4�? ??????????? ???????? ???????????:
t_?=t_?- (t_?-t_?)/(R_0�a_? )=33,5- (33,5+30)/(2,28�11)=?32,15?^0 ?
? t?_?>t?.?.
?32,15?^0 ? = 25,4�? - ??????? ???????????, ????????????? ????????? ?? ??????? ? ??????? ????????????? ??????? ?????????.
???????? ????? ?????: 10-9(-30�?) ??????? ? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? (+18�?), f?=60%.
?? i-d ????????? ?????, ??? ??????????? ????? ???? ????? t?.?.= 9,6�?. ??????????? ???????? ???????????:
t_?=t_?- (t_?-t_?)/(R_0�a_? )=18- (18+30)/(5,1�8)=?16,9?^0 ?
? t?_?>t?.?.
?16,9?^0 ? = 9,6�? - ??????? ???????????, ????????????? ????????? ?? ??????? ? ??????? ????????????? ??????? ?????????.
?????????????, ? ?? ?????? ????? 11(-20�?),12(-20�?), ??????? ??????? ? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? (+18�?), ?? ????? ???????? ?????????, ??? ??? ??????? ????? ?????????????.
??????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ???? ?????? ??????????. ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ?. ??????? 380 ?f=55%- ????????? ??????? ? 15 ????? ???????? ??????? ??????.
??????? ???????? ????? ????? ??????????:
q= (t?-t?)/R = (28,2-(-20))/4,3=11,2??/?2
??????? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ??????????.
t1= t? - q R =28,2- 11,2�0,043 = 27,70?.
t2= t1 - q R = 27,7-11,2�0,02 = 27,470?.
t3= t2 - q R = 27,47-11,2�0,469 = 22,440?.
t4= t3 - qR = 22,44-11,2�0,013 = 22,290?.
t5= t4 - qR = 22,29-11,2�0,013 = 22,140?
t6= t5 - q R= 22,14-11,2�3.6 = -18,180?.
t7= t6 - q R= -18,1811,2�0,02 = -18,40?.
?? ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ????, ??????????????? ?????? ????????????:
????? ???????????
???????????, 0????????? ??????????? ???? ?", ?? ?? ?? 127,70?27,88227,4727,4322,4420,38422,2920,2522,1420,16-18,181,137-18,41,1
????? ????????????? ?????????????????:
H? = 2 �d_1/�_1 + d_2/�_2 +2� d_3/�_3 + d_4/�_4 , ??? d - ??????? ???????????????? ???? ??????????, ?; � - ??????????? ????????????? ??????????????, ?/(?�?�?? ?? ??)
H? = 2 �0,02/0.012 + 0,38/0,11 +2� 0,004/0,003+ 0,126/0,44 = 9?73 ?2�?�?? ?? ??/?.
??????????? ???????? ???? ?? ???????? ??????????? ??????????:
p1=p?= f?� p?" = 0,55 �49,73 = 27,35 ?? ?? ??.
??????????? ???????? ???? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????:
p?= f?� p?" = 0,9 �0,77 = 0,693 ?? ?? ??.
p?" = 27,35 ?? ?? ?? ( ??? ??????????? 380?)
p?" = 0,77 ?? ?? ?? ( ??? ??????????? (-200?))
??????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????:
?= (p?-p? )/H? = (27,35-0,693)/9,73=2,7 ?/(?2�?)
?????????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ???? ? ??????? ?? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ???????:
px = p? - ?Hx
p2 = p? - ?d_1/�_1 = 27,35- 2,7�0,02/0.012 = 22,85 ?? ?? ??
p3 = p2 - ?d_2/�_2 = 22,85 - 2,7�0,38/0,11 = 13,5 ?? ?? ??
p4 = p3 - ?d_3/�_3 = 13,5 - 2,7�0,004/0,003 = 9,9 ?? ?? ?? p5 = p4 - ?d_3/�_3 = 9,9 - 2,7�0,004/0,003 = 6,3 ?? ?? ?? p6 = p5 - ?d_3/�_3 = 6,3 - 2,7�0,28 = 5,54 ?? ?? ?? p7 = p6 - ?d_3/�_3 = 5,54 - 2,7�0,02/0.012 = 1,04 ?? ?? ?? ?<H ?????? ???? ??????????? ?????????
?????? ?????? ??????? ???????????, ???????? ????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ???? ? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ? ????????????? ??????????????.??? ??? ??????? ?? ????????????, ?? ????????? ?? ????????. 3. ?????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ? ????????????
??????????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ??????? ????????? ????????????
??? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ??????????, ????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? - ????????????.
??? ??????????? ???? ???????? ????????? ????????? ????????????: ????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? Q1; ?? ????????? (??????) ??? ?????????? ??? ?? ??????????? ????????? (??????????, ?????????????, ?????????????) Q2; ? ???????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ????????? Q3; ?? ????????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ????? Q4.
??? 5.1. ????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ?????????
?? ??????? ? ?????? ? ???????? "???????", ??????????? ??? ????????????????? ??????, Q5.
?????? ?? ???? ????? ?????????????, ??? ???????, ?????????? ??????????, ?????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ?? ???????. ??????? ??? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ? ?????? ? ??????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ??????? (?????-??????? ??????, ? ??????? ????) ? ?????????? ?? ????????. ?????? ????? ????? ?????????? ??????. ??????? ? ???????? ????????? ? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????, ??? ??????? ??? ???????????? ????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ? ????????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????.
???????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ????? ???? ????????????? ? ?????? ??????, ??? ??? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ??????????????? ????????.
?�Q=Q_1+Q_2+Q_3+Q_4=Q_??
???????????? ????? ??????????? ???????????
???????????? ????? ??????????? ??????????? Q1 ?????????? ??? ????? ????????????? (????? ?????, ???????????, ?????????? ??? ????????, ????? ????), ????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ? ?????? ???????????? ????????? Q1?, ? ????? ????????????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? Q1? ????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????:
Q_1 ?=Q?_1?+Q_1?
???????????? ????? ?????, ???????????, ?????????? ??? ???????? Ql? (? ???) ???????????? ?? ???????:
Q_1? = k_?�F�T�?10?^3=k_?�F(t_?-t_?)�?10?^3
??? k? - ?????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????, ???????????? ??? ??????? ??????? ????????????? ????, ??/(?2?); F - ????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????, ?2; T - ????????? ???????? ?????????? (????????????? ?????), �?; t? - ????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ???????? ??????? ??????????, �?; t? - ????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????, �?.
??? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ???? ? ??????????? ????? ???????? ???? ?? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ????? ????? ?????????? ????; ??????? ????????? - ??? ?????????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ???? ?? ??? ??????????. ????? ?????????? ???? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ???? ? ???? ??????????, ? ?????? ???? - ??? ?????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ???? ??????? ????? ?? ?????? ??????? ???? ???????????? ????? ??? ?? ????? ??????? ????????. ??????? ??????? ? ???? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ????? ?????? ?? ??????, ??????? ?????????? ????? ????? ?????????? ???? ??? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ???? ?? ??? ??????????.
? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ??????? ????????? ? ????? ????? ?????????? ????? ???????????????? ????? (?. ?. ??? ????? ??????? ????). ??? ???? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ? ????? ?????? ???????, ????????? ????, ?? ???????? 5%. ???????? ??????? ????????? ? ??????????? ?? 0,1 ?, ? ??????? - ? ??????????? ?? 0,1 ?2. ??????????? t? ????????? ? ???????????? ? ?????????????? (??. ??.. 5).
??? ??????? ????????????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? t? ????????? ??? ?????????????? ?????? ??????? ??????. ??? ??????? ????????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? (????? ? ???????????), ?????????? ???? ????????? ?? ???????, ??????????? ???????? ????????, ?????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????.
??????????? ????? ??? (? ???), ????????????? ?? ?????? ? ??????? ??????????????? ??????????, ?????????? ?? ???????
Q_1? = k_?�F�T�?10?^3=k_?�F(t_?-t_?)�?10?^3
??? k_? - ??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ????; t_? - ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?????? (??? ???????? ??????? ????????, ?????????? ?? ???????, ????????? 3�?).
??????????? ?? ????????? ???????? ????? ???????? ????? ? ???????? ????????????? Qlc (? ???) ?????????? ?? ???????
Q_1? = k_?�F�??t?_?�?10?^3
??? k_? - ?????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????; F - ??????? ??????????? ??????????, ?????????? ???????, ?2; ??t?_? - ?????????? ???????? ??????????, ??????????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ? ?????? ?????, �?.
?????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ???? ???????????? ???????????? (?????????????? ??????), ????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ?? ?? ???????? ?????????.
??? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ?? ???? ??????? ? ?? ??????? ?? ?????????? ? ??????. ??? ??????? ??????? ? ???????? ??????? ????? ????????? 14,9�?. ??? ???????? ???? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ?? ????. 9.1 [1].
??? ??????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ????????, ??????????? ????? ?????? ? ???? ?? ???? ? ?????????? ????????????.
??? ??? ???? ????????, ???????????? ???????????? ??? ?????? ??????. ?? ??????? ????? ? ????, ??? ?????????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ? ????????? ???????????? ?????????????, ???????, ??????????? ??????? ??????????. ??????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ????????.
?? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ??????????, ??????? ????? ??????? ? ???????.
????.t?????, ???????????:K?, ??/?2 ?????, ?b, ?F, ?t?, ?t?-t?Q1 ??, ???Q1 ?????, ????tc, CQ 1C ??, ???Q 1c ?????, ???Q 1 ??.????., ???Q 1?????. ????, ???123456789101112131415161-20????? ???????? ?0,2324614418,5391,275121,275126,60,2185920,2185921,4937121,493712-20????? ????. ? ?????????0,2126729,1290,419040,41904 000,419040,41904-20????? ???????? ?0,2312672 200,33120,3312110,182160,182160,513360,51336-20???0,1824122883231,192321,19232 001,192321,19232-20???????0,238095241228818,5392,642,64271,8514291,8514294,4914294,491429-20????? ??????? ? ??????? 20,27246144-20000 0000-20?????0,4 613330,07920,0792 0 0,07920,0792 ?????2,2521812,2521818,1890618,1890612-20????? ???????? ?0,231267218,5390,637560,63756110,182160,182160,819720,81972-20?????, ??????? ? ?????????0,2126729,1290,419040,41904 000,419040,41904-20????? ??????? ? ??????? 30,27246144-20000 0000-20?????, ??????? ???????? 10,27246144-20000 0000-20???0,1824122883231,192321,19232 001,192321,19232-20???????0,238095241228818,5392,642,64271,8514291,8514294,4914294,491429-20?????0,4 613330,07920,0792 0,07920,0792 ?????1,8514291,8514295,7629495,7629493-20???????? ?0,231267218,5390,637560,63756110,182160,182160,819720,81972 ?????, ??????? ? ?????????0,2126729,19,10,131040,13104 000,131040,13104 ?????, ??????? ? ??????? 40,272461440000 0000-20????? ?????. ? ??????? 20,27246144-20000 0000-20???0,1824122883231,192321,19232 001,192321,19232-20???????0,238095241228818,5392,642,64271,8514291,8514294,4914294,491429-20?????0,4 613330,07920,0792280,06720,06720,14640,1464 ?????1,9186291,9186295,8301495,83014940???????? ?0,421267218,5190,559440,55944110,332640,332640,892080,892080?????, ??????? ? ?????????0,36126729,19,10,2358720,235872 000,2358720,2358720?????, ??????? ? ???????50,272461440000 00000????? ?????. ? ??????? 30,2724614418180,699840,69984 000,699840,699840???0,182412288330,155520,15552 000,155520,155520???????0,238095241228818,5191,2685711,268571271,8514291,8514293,123,120?????0,4 613130,03120,0312 000,03120,0312 ?????2,1840692,1840695,1345125,13451250???????? ?0,421267218,5190,559440,55944110,332640,332640,892080,892080?????, ??????? ? ?????????0,36126729,19,10,2358720,235872 000,2358720,2358720?????, ??????? ? ??????? 40,272461440000 00000????? ?????. ? ?????0,2724614418180,699840,69984 000,699840,699840???0,182412288330,155520,15552 000,155520,155520???????0,238095241228818,5191,2685711,268571271,8514291,8514293,123,120?????0,4 613130,03120,0312 000,03120,0312 ?????1,8514291,8514294,006564,0065660???????? ?0,421267218,5190,559440,5594413,20,3991680,3991680,9586080,9586080?????, ??????? ? ?????????0,36126729,19,10,2358720,235872 000,2358720,2358720?????, ??????? ? ??????? 80,272461440000 00000????? ?????. ? ?????0,2724614418180,699840,69984 000,699840,699840???0,182412288330,155520,15552 000,155520,155520???????0,238095241228818,5191,2685711,268571271,8514291,8514293,123,120?????0,4 613130,03120,0312 000,03120,0312 ?????1,8514291,8514294,2424324,2424327-20????? ??????? ? ??????? 80,212672-20000 0000-20?????, ??????? ? ?????????0,27126729,1290,5657040,565704 000,5657040,565704-20?????, ??????? ? ??????? 150,27126720200,38880,3888 000,38880,3888-20????? ?????. ? ??????? 90,21126720200,30240,3024 000,30240,3024-20???0,1812121443230,596160,59616 000,596160,59616-20???????0,175439121214418,5390,9726320,972632270,6821050,6821051,6547371,654737-20?????0,4 613330,07920,0792 000,07920,0792-20????? ? ?????? 90,4 6-30-10-0,024-0,024 00-0,024-0,024 ?????0,6821050,6821053,5630013,5630018-20???????? ????? ?0,231267218,5390,637560,6375613,20,2185920,2185920,8561520,856152-20????? ??????? ? ?????????0,21126729,1290,4399920,439992 000,4399920,439992-20????? ??????? ? ??????? 90,4512672-30-10-0,324-0,324 00-0,324-0,324-20????? ??????? ? ??????? 70,27126720200,38880,3888 000,38880,3888-20????? ??????? ? ??????? 60,272461440200,77760,7776 000,77760,7776-20???0,1824122883231,192321,19232 001,192321,19232-20???????0,238095241228818,5392,642,64271,8514291,8514294,4914294,491429-20?????0,4 613330,07920,0792 000,07920,0792 ?????1,8514291,8514297,0453417,0453419-30????? ??????? ? ????. ???.0,191267218480,656640,65664 000,656640,65664-30????? ??????? ? ??????? 70,2126720300,4320,432 000,4320,432-30????? ??????? ? ??????? 100,4512672-30000 0000-30????? ??????? ? ??????? 80,4512672-20100,3240,324 000,3240,324-30???0,1812121443330,855360,85536 000,855360,85536-30???????0,238095121214418,5491,6628571,662857270,9257140,9257142,5885712,588571-30?????0,4 613430,10320,1032 000,10320,1032 ?????0,9257140,9257144,9597714,95977110-30????? ??????? ? ???. ???.0,19663618480,328320,32832 000,328320,32832-30????? ??????? ? ??????? 150,266360300,2160,216 000,2160,216-30????? ??????? ? ??????? 90,4512672-30000 0000-30????? ??????? ? ??????? 110,4512672-20100,3240,324 000,3240,324-30???0,18126723330,427680,42768 000,427680,42768-30???????0,2380951267218,5490,8314290,831429270,4628570,4628571,2942861,294286-30?????0,4 6-20100,0240,024 000,0240,024 ?????0,4628570,4628572,6142862,614286 -20????? ??????? ? ???. ???.0,23663618380,314640,31464 000,314640,3146411-20????? ??????? ? ??????? 120,52461440201,441,44 001,441,44 -20????? ??????? ? ??????? 100,4212672-30-10-0,3024-0,3024 00-0,3024-0,3024 -20????? ??????? ? ?????????0,21663613330,249480,24948 000,249480,24948 -20????? ??????? ? ??????? 150,452461440201,2961,296 001,2961,296 -20???0,182461443230,596160,59616 000,596160,59616 -20???????0,23809524614418,5391,321,32270,9257140,9257142,2457142,245714 -20?????0,4 613330,07920,0792 000,07920,0792 ?????0,9257140,9257145,9187945,91879412-20????? ??????? ? ???. ???.0,23663618380,314640,31464 000,314640,31464-20????? ??????? ? ??????? 130,35126720200,5040,504 000,5040,504-20????? ??????? ? ??????? 140,35126720200,5040,504 000,5040,504-20????? ??????? ? ?????????0,4266369,1290,4399920,439992 000,4399920,439992-20????? ??????? ? ??????? 110,21246144-20000 0000-20???0,18126723230,298080,29808 000,298080,29808-20???????0,2380951267218,5390,660,66270,4628570,4628571,1228571,122857-20?????0,4 613330,07920,0792 000,07920,0792 ?????0,4628570,4628573,2627693,262769130????? ???????? ?0,241267218,5190,319680,319686,60,1140480,1140480,4337280,4337280????? ??????? ? ???. ???.0,42663618180,272160,27216 000,272160,272160????? ??????? ? ??????? 140,2666360000 00000????? ??????0,41 618,5190,045510,04551 000,045510,045510???0,1812672330,038880,03888 000,038880,038880???????0,2380951267218,5190,3171430,317143270,4628570,4628570,780,78 ?????0,5769050,5769051,5702781,570278140????? ???????? ?0,241267218,5190,319680,319686,60,1140480,1140480,4337280,4337280????? ??????? ? ?????????0,4266369,19,10,1375920,137592 000,1375920,1375920????? ??????? ? ??????? 130,2666360000 00000????? ??????0,41 618,5190,045510,04551 000,045510,045510???????0,2380951267218,5190,3171430,317143270,4628570,4628570,780,780???0,1812672330,038880,03888 000,038880,03888 ?????0,5769050,5769051,435711,43571140????? ???????? ?0,2324614418,5190,612720,612726,60,2185920,2185920,8313120,8313120????? ??????? ? ?????????0,2126729,19,10,131040,13104 000,131040,131040????? ??????? ? ??????? 20,2312672 000 00000????? ???????? ?0,182412288330,155520,15552 000,155520,155520???0,238095241228818,5191,2685711,268571 001,2685711,2685710???????0,27246144-20-20-0,7776-0,7776271,049761,049760,272160,272160?????0,4 613130,03120,0312 000,03120,0312 ?????1,2683521,2683522,6898032,689803 ????? ????19,64219,64266,2254266,22542 ??? ??? ???? ????????, ???????????? ???????????? ??? ?????? ??????. ?? ??????? ????? ? ????, ??? ?????????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ? ????????? ???????????? ?????????????, ???????, ??????????? ??????? ??????????. ??????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ????????.
?? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ??????????, ??????? ????? ??????? ? ???????.
??????????? ?? ?????? ??? ??????????? ?????????
??? ??????????? ????????? ????????? (??????????, ????????????? ? ?????????????) ?????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ? ?????????? q=?i ???/??. ????? ????, ???? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ? ????, ?? ?????????? ???????? ???????, ???????????? ??? ?? ??????????.
??????????? Q2np (? ???) ??? ?????????? ? ????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ???????
Q_2??=M_??�?i�?10?^3/(24�3600)
??? M_?? - ???????? ??????????? ?????????, ?/???; ?i - ???????? ???????? ????????? ?????????, ??????????????? ????????? ? ???????? ???????????? ???????? (???/??), ???????? ??????? ????????? ?? ?????????? 10 [1].
??? ???? ????????????, ??? ???????? ????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ? ??????? ?????, ? ??????? ?? 24 ? ???????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ? ??????. ????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ??. 5.
??????????? ?? ???? Q2? (? ???)
Q_2?=?M_?�??_?�(t_1-t_2)�?10?^3/(24�3600)
???. ?? - ???????? ??????????? ????, ??????????? ??????????????? ????????? ??????????? ????????, ?/???; ?? - ???????? ???????????? ????, ???/(???); t_1 ? t_2-????????? ? ???????? ??????????? ???? (??????????? ??????? ????????? ? ???????? ???????????? ????????), �?.
????? ???? ?????????? ?? 10 ?? 20% ????? ?????, ? ??? ?????????? ????- 100%. ???????? ???????????? ???? [? ???/(???)] ????????? ? ??????????? ?? ?? ?????????: ??? ?????????? ? ????????? ???? ?? = 1,5 ???/???
? ????????????? ?????????t ???t ???i ???i ???F ???????? ????????h ??? ??Q2?Q2??Q2??? ? =1???????4-1245,5185,52883805,510,834560,1830847,5247,7070841,462???????-10-20245,502883805,510,834560,36616830,785731,151871,463???????-10-20245,502883805,510,834560,36616830,785731,151871,464???????40245,5232,22883805,510,834560,1464671,667821,8142871,465???????40245,5232,22883805,510,834560,1464671,667821,8142871,466???????304329245,52883805,510,834560,95203710,470911,422941,468?????????????8-20248,202883505,59,97920,94432828,667129,611431,469???????4-18245,5131443805,55,417280,40278514,5777514,980531,4610???????4-18245,513723805,52,708640,2013927,2888757,4902671,4611???????????8-20296,801443505,54,98960,47216417,140217,612361,4612???????8-8248,239,41443805,55,417280,29293413,0917613,384691,4613??????200296,8232,2723505,52,49480,168631,8653252,031,46Q????170,1716 ???????????????? ????????????
??? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????, ?????????? ? ??? ?????, ?????? ????????????????? ? ?????????? ??????. ???????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ????????? ?????????????? ????????. ??????????? ?? ????????? q1 (? ???) ???????????? ?? ???????:
q_1=A�F�?10?^(-3),
??? ? - ???????, ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ? ??????? ??????? ?? 1 ?2 ??????? ????, ??/?2; F - ??????? ??????, ?2.
? ?????? ???????????? ??????????????? ????????? ????? ????????? ??? ????????? ????????? (????? ????????) ? - 2,3 ??/?2, ??? ????? ??????????? ?????????, ??????????, ??????????-???????????? ? = 4,7 ??/?2.
??????????? ?? ?????????? ????? q2 (? ???):
q_2=0.35�n,
??? 0,35 - ?????????????? ?????? ???????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ??????, ???; ? - ????? ?????, ?????????? ? ?????? ?????????.????? ?????, ?????????? ? ?????????, ????????? ? ??????????? ?? ??????? ??????: ??? ??????? ?????? ?? 200 ?2 - 2...3 ????????; ??? ??????? ?????? ?????? 200 ?2 - 3...4 ????????.
??????????? ?? ?????????? ????????????????? q3 ??? ???????????? ????????????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? (? ???):
q_3=N_? ?_?,
??? N? - ????????? ???????? ?????????????????, ???.
? ??????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????????? ????????????????? (? ???) ????? ?????????????? ????????? ?? ??????, ??????????? ????:
?????? ???????? - 2 ... 4, ?????????? ? ????????????? - 3 ... 8, ????????????? - 8 ... 16.
??????????? ??? ?????????? ?????? q4 (? ???) ???????????? ?? ???????:
q_4=K�F�?10?^(-3),
??? ? - ???????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ??????, ??/?2 (????. 9.2); F - ??????? ??????, ?2.
???????????????? ???????????? ????????????, ??? ????? ????????????? (? ???) ????????? ?????:
Q_3=q_1+q_2+q_3+q_4
???????????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ??. ????.?? ??????? ?????????.? ??Fq 1nq 2N q 3?Fq 4Q 3 =14,52881,29631,0533102882,888,22621,22880,345631,0533122883,4567,851631,22880,345631,0533122883,4567,851641,22880,345631,0533122883,4567,851651,22880,345631,0533122883,4567,851664,52881,29631,0566102882,8811,22674,51440,64820,70038144 1,34881,22880,345631,054482882,3047,699694,51440,64820,7121215144 13,348104,5720,32420,78815721,0810,104111,21440,172820,72212144 2,8728124,51440,64820,733121441,7286,076131,2720,086420,72212720,8643,6504144,5720,32420,72238722,7365,76154,5720,32431,050038722,7364,11Q????105,8272
4. ??????????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ????????????
?????????? (??? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????) ????????? ?? ?????? ?????, ??????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????. ?? ??????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????? ???????????, ??????????? ?? ?????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????????, ?? ??? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ?????? ???? ????????? ????????????.
???????? ?? ?????????? QK ???????????? ?? ???? ????? ?????????????, ?????? ? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ????????? ?? ?????????, ? ????????, ? ??????????? ?? ???? ? ?????????? ????????????.
??? ?????????? ????? ??? ???????, ?????????? ???????? ?????????????, ??????? ????????? ?? ??????????. ??????? ??? ?????????????? ????????????? ? ?????????????????? ???????????????? QK = Q??
??? ???????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????????? ? ? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ???? ???????????.
?????????? ??????????? ????? ?? ????????:
??Q?_(-40)=((t_(??.?.)-t_?)/(t_(?.)-t_? ))�??Q?_??
??Q?_(-10)=((t_(??.?.)-t_?)/(t_(?.)-t_? ))�??Q?_??
??Q?_(-30)=((t_(??.?.)-t_?)/(t_(?.)-t_? ))�??Q?_??
??? ?�Q_(-40) , ?�Q_(-10) - ???????? ?? ?????????? ? ??????? ? ????????????? -30, -2/+4 ??????????????.
t_(??.?.) - ??????? ??????????? ??????, 0?;
t_? - ??????????? ? ??????, 0?;
t_(?.) - ????????? ??????????? ????, 0?.
???????????? ? ?????? ? t???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????-10-30,6-26,7-6,5528,8460,7474,2880,8476,0354,6228,43,059-17,9-2079,0584,52112,5161,7206,1225234,1227,4197,6161,1125,996,68-3018,5319,8226,3737,9248,3352,7554,8853,3246,3337,7829,5122,67 ????????? ??? ??????? ????????? ???????????????????????? ??????????? ? ???? ??????, ?. ?. ??? ???????????. ????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ? ???????????? ?? ?????, ?????? ?????? ? ????????????? ? ????????? ? 22-? ??????? ????? ??????, ??????? ?????????????? ?�Q_?? ?? 1,05 ? 1,1. ? ????? ???????? ?�Q_?? =60,74�1,05�1,1=70,15 ???.
????? ??????????????? ???????? ?? 1 ?????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ????????????? ???? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?? 35 ???
????????? ??? ??????? ????????? ???????????????????????? ??????????? ? ???? ??????, ?. ?. ??? ???????????. ????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ? ???????????? ?? ?????, ?????? ?????? ? ????????????? ? ????????? ? 22-? ??????? ????? ??????, ??????? ?????????????? ?�Q_?? ?? 1,05 ? 1,1. ? ????? ???????? ?�Q_?? =234�1,05�1,1=270,27 ???.
????? ??????????????? ???????? ?? 1 ?????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ????????????? ???? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?? 140 ???
????????? ??? ??????? ????????? ???????????????????????? ??????????? ? ???? ??????, ?. ?. ??? ???????????. ????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ? ???????????? ?? ?????, ?????? ?????? ? ????????????? ? ????????? ? 22-? ??????? ????? ??????, ??????? ?????????????? ?�Q_?? ?? 1,05 ? 1,1. ? ????? ???????? ?�Q_?? =54,9�1,05�1,1=63,4 ???.
????? ??????????????? ???????? ?? 1 ?????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ????????????? ???? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?? 35 ???.
5.???????? ?? ???????????? ????????????.
5.1. ???????????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ????????????.
?????? ???????????? ? ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ????? (????????? ????????, ?????????? ??????????? ???????, ??????????? ???????) ? ?????????? ????????, ????????? ? ????????????????? (?????? ??????????? ? ??????? ????????? ???????, ??????????? ? ???????????? ????????). ??????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????, ????????????? ? ???? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????????, ?????????? ???????????????, ????- ? ????????????????? ?????????? ? ????????????????? ??????????, ?????????? ????????????????? ??????????. ? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????, ????????????? ? ????????? ??????? ? ????????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ?????????, ?????????? ?????? ?????????, ????????? ? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ????????? ?????????.
??????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ????????????, ??? ??????????? ????????? ? ????????? ??????????????? ??????, ?? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ???? ????????? ??????????? ????????.
?????????? ????????????????? ??????????? ????, ???????? ?? ??????, ????? ???????? ? ??????????? ? ????????????? ?????????? (???????) ??????, ??????????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ? ?? ??????????. ?????????????, ????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ? ????????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??????. ??????? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ???????????? ? ????????? ??????????????? ??????, ?? ???????? ????????? ????????????????? ??????? ???? ????????? ??????????? ????????.
??????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????: ???????? ??????????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ??? ? ???????, ? ???? ????????? ??? ???? ? ??? - ?????? ??? ????????? ?????? ????? ?? ???????? ??????? ????????????????? ??????????, ?????????? ????? ? ?????? ??? ?????????? ? ?????? ? ?????? ????????. ??? ??????? ???????? ?????????:
???????? (??????, ???????, ????????????? ??????????? ?????);
??????????????? ??????;
???? (???????, ????????, ??????? ??????????, ??????);
??????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? (????????, ??? ????? ????????????? ????????????), ? ????????????? ?????????????? ???? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????. ?????????? ???????
? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????.
??????? ???????? ??????. ??????????? ???????????? ???????
???????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???????? ?? ????????????? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????? ????????????, ?? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ????????, ????????, ?????????????? ??? ???????????????;
??????????????-??????????? ? ?????? ??? ?????????? ????????, ? ????? ????? ?? ??????????? ?? ? ????????? ?????????.
?????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ? ?? ????????????. ???????????????? ????????? (??????, ??????????, ????????, ???????? ????????? ? ??.), ??????? ??????????? ? ??? ????????????, ? ????? ???????????? ? ?????????????? ???????? ?????? ??????????????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ???????????, ?? ? ??????????? ???????????????? ?????????. ?????????? ?????????-????????????? ???? ? ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ????????????, ???????? ? ????????????????? ??????? ?????????, ? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ? ????????????. ????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ??????-?????????????????? ??????, ?????????????? ????????????.
??????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ?????? ?????, ??? ????????? ???????????????? ???????? ? ? ?????? ???????? ????? 1 ?. ??? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ?? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ?????, ????????? ??????? ?????????? (20-25 �?), ? ????? ??????? ????? (70-90 �?) ? ???????????? ?????????? ?????.
??? ????????????, ?????? ?????????? ??? ? ??????, ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????, ????????? ?????????? ?????, ???? ??????? ????????? (70-90� ?), ????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????, ? ?? ?????????? 15-20 ??? ??? ??????? ??????? ????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ?????. ???????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????????????? ???????????. ?????????????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ???????????. ???, ???????? ????? ? ???????????? ??????? - 12�? ???????? ??? ? ???????, ? ? ???????????? ???? ????????? - ??? ???? ? ???????. ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ????????.
? ???? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???? ?? ??????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????, ??? ???????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ? ??????? ??????? ???? ??????. ? ??????????? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ???? ???? ???????????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ?? ????????????????? ??????. ??????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????, ????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ??????.
???? ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????, ?? ????? ????????, ??? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????, ? ??????, ??????????? ?? ???????? ????? ? ????????? ???????, ????????? ? ????????????????? ??????????? ????????. ?? ??? ???? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ? ??????????????????? ???????, ????????? ? ???????????. ? ????????, ??? ???? ????????? ??????????? ???????, ??? ?????? ?? ???????? ????? ? ?????? ??????? ?? ????????????????, ?? ?????? ??????? ??????? ? ??????????????????? ???????.
?????????????, ?????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????. ??????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ???? ??????? ???? ???? (??? ?????????????????? ?????????????? 2 ??) ??? ??????? ???????? ? ????????? ?????? ????????????????? (?????????????? 0,15 ???).
??????????
? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????????? ? ?????? ??????. ? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????, ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????- ? ????????????? ??????????? ???????????, ? ???????? ??????? ???? ??????????: ??????? ?????????? ????, ??????? ??????????? ???????????, ???????????? ? ?????? ? ??????? ????? ???? ?? ???????, ???????? ?? ???????????? (? ????????????? ?????????? ?? ???????). ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ??????????. ????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ??????????.. ? ????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?? ??????? ?1, ?????????? ? ???? ?????????? ??????????? ?????, ?????? ???????????? ? ???????? ?????.
? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????????, ? ?????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ??????: ???????????? ?????????????????????? ??????????1?????? ?????????2?????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????2?????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????2????????????? ??????2?????? ???????? ????????????1?????? ???????? ??????? 1?????? ?????????? - ???????????? 2?????? ???????? ??????????????1
?????????? ????????? ????????????:
???????????????????????, ???????? ??????????? ???????????85,88?? ?????? ??? ??????????? ?????????170,17????????????????105,82
?????? ?????????????? ??????????:
?????? ?.?., ???????? ?. ?. ???????? ? ????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????? ? ?????? ????????????????? ???????. - ?., ??????? ??????????????, 1972 - 384 ?., ??.
?????? ?. ?. ???????? ? ????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????? ? ?????? ????????????????? ???????. - 3-? ???., ???????. ? ???. - ?.: ?????????????, 1989 - 223 ?.; ??.
??????? ?. ?., ????????? ?. ?. ???????, ??????? ? ???????????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ??????????. - ?., "??????????????", 1971 - 256 ?., ??.
??????? ?. ?. ? ??. ??????????? ?????????: ??????? ??? ????????? ????? ????????????? "??????? ? ?????? ?????? ??????????", "??????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ?????????????????" - 2-? ???., ?????????.- ???.: ???????????, 2002. - 576 ?: ??.
???? 2000?. ???????????? ????????????.
??? 45-3.02-151-2009 (02250) "?????? ????????????? ???????????? ????? ??????????????" ????? 2009.
?????? ?.?. , ????? ?.?. ,????????? ?.?., ????????? ?. ?., ?????? ?.?. "?????????????? ?????????????" 1972 ?.
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