close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

KURSACh ARKhITEKTURA

код для вставкиСкачать
??????????????? ???????-????????????? ???????
- ?????? ???????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????????? ???????????
?????????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ? ??????????????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????
________________________________________________
????????? ______________????????? ? ????????????? ????_____________________
????????????? ________________?????????????? ???????____________________
???????? ?????? (??????)
?? ????:
"???????????? ?????????? Intel"
????? ??????:
??????? ___2___ ????? ????? ????? ????????
?????? ???? ?????????
???????????? ??????:
___________________________________ ?????? ____________________________ ???????????, 2012
?????
?? ???????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?.?.
?? ????: "???????????? ?????????? Intel"
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
??????????
1.????????............................................................................3
2.?????????????? ???????????? ???????????.....................................................................4
3. ?????????????: SMP, NUMA, ????????...............................5
4. ???? ??????.....................................................................7
5.?????? ?????? ..................................................................7
6.??????? ??????..............................................................11
7. ??????????? ??????.........................................................13 8. ??????????? ?????? ??????????......................................13
9.???????????.....................................................................15
10. ??????????? ?????? ????????????.................................16
11. ????????? ??????? ??????? ??????????........................17
12. ????????? ??????? ??????? ????????????.....................18
13. ??????????? ????? ??????????.......................................19
14. ???????? ???????????????? ??????????.......................20
15. ??????????? ????? ????????????....................................21
16. ??????.........................................................................21
17.??????????.....................................................................21
1.????????
??????????? ?????????? - ???????????? ??????? ????, ??????????? ??????????????? ? ??????????? ???????, ???????????? ???????? ????????
???????????????? ??????????, ??? ??????????? ?????????????? ? ???????
????????????? ??????????. ??????? ? ???????? XX ???? - ??????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????????? ????? - ??????? ???? ? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????? ??????????-?????????????? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ????????.
?? ?????? ????? ???????? ??? ??????????????, ??? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????, ?????? ?????, ? ????????? ?????????? ???? ???????????. ????????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? (? 50-? ????) ? ???????????? ????? (? ????? 60-? ?????) ?????????? ??? ?????????????. ?????? ??? ??????? ????, ???????????????? ??? ? ?????? 60-? ????? (????, ????????), ??????? ????????????? ???, ??? ? ??????????????? ??????? ????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ?????. ??? ?? ?????, ????????????????? ?????????? ???? ??????? ???????????? ? ? ????????? ?????, ?????????? ?????????? ???? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ????????? 10 ???.
???????????? ? ?????????????????? ?????????? ???? ??????????? ? ??????? ????, ????????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????, ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ????????, ?????????? ??????????
??? - ????? ????, ??? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ???.
? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ?? ????????? ???????? ????????? ? ???????? ? ??????????? ???????????, ??????????? ??????
? ??????? ?????/??????, ???????? ????? ????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ??? ??? ????????????? ?????????? ????.
????? ???????????: ??? ???????????? ???????????, ???????? ??????????, ??????????? ????????? ?????? ? ??????, ?????? ??????? ??????, ????????? ?????????, RISC - ?????????? ? ?????? ????????????????? ??????.
??????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ? ???? ??????? ???????
???????? ???????????? ? ?????????????? ???-?????? ? ??????????? ???????, ?
????????????? ???????? ? ??????? ??????.
??????? ?? ??????????? ?????/?????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????? ????????????, ?????? ???????????? ? ????? ???????? ????????? ??????. 2.?????????????? ???????????? ???????????
?????? ???????????? ?????????? Intel ???? ???????? ?? ???? Smithfield, ??????? ???????? ????? ????, ??? ????? ?????? Prescott ????????? E0 ????????????? ?? ????? ?????????. ????? ????? ???? ??????????????? ????? ????????? ???? ??? ?????? ???????????? ???????. ?????????????? ?????? ????????? ?????? 206 ??. ??., ? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? 230 ?????????.
?????????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? HyperThreading ? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ???? Smithfield. ??? ? ??????????? Pentium D ????????? ???? ?????????? ????????? ???????????. ??????????? Intel ?????????, ??? ??? "????????" ???? ?????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ?????????????. ? ??? ? ?????????? Pentium Extreme Edition 840 ??? ????????, ? ????????? ????? ????????? ????? ????????? 4 ?????? ?????? ????????????. ??????, ?????? ????????? HyperThreading ???????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? Pentium Extreme Edition ?? Pentium D. ??? ????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ????????? ?????????. ????? ??? ????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ?????? EM64T, ?????????? ???????????????? EIST, C1E ? TM2, ? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? NX-bit. ? ?????????? ??????? ????? ???????????? Pentium D ? Pentium EE ???????? ????????? ?????????????.
?????????? ?????? ??????????? ?? ???? Smithfield. ??? Pentium D ? ????????? 820, 830 ? 840 ? ????? Pentium Extreme Edition 840. ??? ??? ???????? ?? ??????? ????????? ???? 200 ??? (800QPB), ???????? ?? 90?? ???????????, ????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? (Vcore) 1,25-1,388 ?, ???????????? ?????????????? ~130 ?? (???? ?? ????????? ??????? ?????????????? EE 840 ????????? ?? ?????? 180 ??).
?????? ??????, ?????-???? ????????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ?? ???? Smithfield ? ?? ?????????. ???????? ????????? ??????????? ? ?????? ??????????????????, ????? ?? ?????? ??????????? (??????? ?? ?????????????? ??? ???????????????) ???????????? ?????????? Smithfield ??????????? ??????????? Prescott, ?????????? ?? ??? ?? ???????? ???????. ??? ???? ? ??????????? AMD ????? ???????? ???. ???????? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????????????? ???? ????? ???????????? ???? (??? ?????????? ???? Prescott ?? ???? ????????????? ??????????????? ?????????????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ????). ???????? ?????? ?? ???? ???????, ???????? Intel ?????? ??????????????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ?????. ? ????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????? Pentium D 820 ??? ?????????? ?? ?????? ~260$ (????? ??????? Athlon X2 ????? 340 $).
??????, ?????? Pentium D 820 ???????????? ?? ????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ??????? nForce4 SLI Intel Edition (???????????? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ????). ???????? ??????? ? ????? ??????? ? nVidia ?????????? ???????? ?????? ????. ????? ????, ? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ? ??????????????? ????? ??????? ??????? (?? ??? ???? ????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ??????????????). ??? ?? ???????, ??? ????? ?????? nForce4 SLI ?16 Intel Edition ???????? ?? ???? ????????.
????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ?? ???? Smithfield ???????? ?? ????? ???????. ?????????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????????? 3,25 ???.
?????????????? ???? ???????, ??? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? 3,8 ???, ? ??? ????????????? ????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ????? ???? ?? ??????? ?????????? ??????.
??????? ?????? ???????, ??? ??? ??? "????????" ?? ????????? ? ????????? ??????????? 65?? ???????????.
??? ???????? ?????????????, ?? ?????????? ?? ???? Smithfield ???????????? ????? ???? ??????????? ? ????? LGA775 ??????????? ?????. ?????? ??? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ??????? ?????. ??????? ?????, ????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?? ???? Smithfield ???????? ????????? ?????????. ??????, ???????? ? ???????????? ??????????? Intel ?? ?? ???????????, ??? ??? ????? 2005 ???? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?? ???????? 65?? ??????????, ? ? ?????? 2006 ???? ?? ????????? ????????? (?? ???????? ??????? ??? ????????? ? ??????) ????????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ???? Presler ? Cedar Mill.
??? ?? ???? ?????, ????? "??????" ??????????? ???? ??????????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ????, ?? ????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ???? (?.?. ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ????? ????????, ? ??? ????? ??????? ?????????????), ????????? ????????????????? (?????????????? - ??????????????) ? ???????? ???????? ???????. ???????, ??? ????????? ????????? ?????????????: ???? ?? ?? ??????????? ???????, ?? ???????? ????????? ? ??????? ???????????????. ???? ?? ?? ???????? ?????????????????, ?? ???????? ?????????? ? ????? ???????? ?????????.
???????? ???????? Intel ??????? ?????? ?????? ???? - ??????????? ?????????????? ???????? ?? ?????? 130 ??, ??? ????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ???????? 3,4 ??? ? 3,46 ???. ?????? ??? ???????? ???? ????? ? ????????, ????????? 65 ?? ????????????? ????? ?????, ? ?? ???? ?????????????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ???? ???????? ?????? ????? ????????? (?????? ?? ???????? ?? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ???????????).
??? ???????? ????????????? ???? Presler, ?? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ???????, ??????? ???????? ?? ?? ???? Smithfield. ????? ??????? ???? - ?? ????? ???? Presler ????????? ??? ???? Cedar Mill, ??????? ???????? ????? ???? ??? ????? Prescott 2M ?????????? ?? 65?? ??????????? (? ???? Smithfield ??? "???????" ???? Prescott). ??? ????? ???????? Intel ??????????????? ????????????? 65 ?? ???????????, ??????? ????????? ???? ????????? ??????? ????????? ???? ????????? ???-?? ????????????.
??????? ????? ???????? ???? Presler ?? ?????? ?????????. ???? ? ???, ??? ??? ??????? ??????????????????? ????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ????, ????? ??? Smithfield ??????????? ????? ?????? ???? (???? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ??????). ????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????????: ?????????? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ?????? 2?-???????? ?????????? ???????????? ???? ? ?????? ???????? ???????? (??? ???? ? ?????? ???????). ????? ????, ??-?? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? (?????? ??????? "????????" ????? ????????????? ??? ?????????? Pentium D :).
??????? CPU-Z ????????????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ? ??????????:
??????? ??? ?????????? ? ??????? ??????? ????? ?? ?????????? ?? ?????? LGA775 ???????????. ? ? ???????? ??????? ???? ???????? ? ???????????? ?????????:
?????-???????: Prescott 2M, Smithfield, Presler
Presler ??????? ??????:
????, ????? ???????????? ?????????? ?? ???? Presler ???????? ???????????? Pentium D ? ????????? 920 - 950. ????? ????, ??? ??????? ????????? Pentium Extreme Edition 955 ? ?????????? ??????????? HyperThreading ? ?????????? ?? ??????? ????????? ???? = 266 ??? (1066QPB). ??? ????, ??? ?? ???????? ?? ????????? ?? ???? ?????????????? ???????????, ?? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ? ?????? ???????:
???????????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ???? (FSB)????? ???-?????? L2HyperThreading????????? ?????????????Pentium D 820Smithfield2800???800???2 x 1????????Pentium D 830Smithfield3000???800???2 x 1????????Pentium D 840Smithfield3200???800???2 x 1????????Pentium Extreme Edition 840Smithfield3200???800???2 x 1???????Pentium D 920Presler2800???800???2 x 2???????Pentium D 930Presler3000???800???2 x 2???????Pentium D 940Presler3200???800???2 x 2???????Pentium D 950Presler3400???800???2 x 2???????Pentium Extreme Edition 955Presler3466???1066???2 x 2??????????????? ???? ??? ????????????? ????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ???????. ?????????? ????? ?????????? ?? ???? Presler ? ???????? ???? 1066 ??? ?????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ??????? i975X. ?????? ?????-???? ?????????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????? ? ?????????? ????? ???? (i945P, i955X ? nForce4 SLI (x16) Intel Edition) ???. ???????, ??? ?? ?????? ??????? ????? ??? ????????? ?? ??????????????? ????????, ? ?????? ????? ????????? ???????????? ????? ?????????. ? ?????????, ?? ??? ??????? ????????? ????????? Pentium Extreme Edition 955 ?? ??????????? ????? Asus P5WD2 Premium, ??????? ???????? ?? ??????? i955X.
??? ???????? ??????????? ? ???????? ???? 800??? (???? Presler ? CedarMill) ?? ? ??????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?? ???? ??????????? ?????? ?????????????? ??? ????.
?????? ????????? ? ???????. ????? ??? ? ? ??????????? AMD, ? ??????????? ???????????? Intel ????????? ???????????? ? ??????? ??????????. ?? ?? ???????? ?????????? Pentium Extreme Edition 955 ?? ???????? ????????? ????????????? (?? 12 ?? 60) ??? ???? ??? ??????????? ??????? ????????? 65?? ???? ??? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ??????? (?????? ????? ??????? ? ??????, ??????? ???????? ? ??????? ???????). ????, ??? ????????? ?????????? ???? ????????? ? ????????? ???? ??????? 4,0 ???, ? ? ?????????????? ??????????? Vcore ????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ??????? 4,26 ???.
? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?? 1.4125?, ?????????? ?????????? ??????? 4.55???.
?? ? ???? ?????? ?????? ???? ???????? ? ?????? ????????????: ????????? ????? ????????? ??????? (?? ?????????? ????????? ?? ??. ????????), ? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? (??-?? ???? ?????????? ???????). ??? ???? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ?? ??? ?? ????? (????????????? ????????? ????? Gigabyte G-power), ????????? ??? ????????? ? ??????????. ??? ???, ????????? ? ??????? ??????? ?? ????????? ?? ???????, ? ????????? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? 4,5??? (?? ?????????? ? ?????????, ????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????? ??? 5.5???!).
????, ??????????????? ????? ?? ??????????? ?? ???? Presler. ????????? ?????? 65 ?? ???????????, Intel ?????? ????????? ????? ????????? ???????????? ???????????, ??????? ?? ???? ??????????? ???????????????? (????????????????, ???????? ??????, ??????????????) ????? ??????????? ?? ???? Smithfield. ? ?????? ?????????? ?? ???? Presler ?????? ???? ????????? ????? ??????????? ? ???? ??????? Athlon X2. ?? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???, ?? ?????? ?? ????????? ????????, ??????? ????????? ??????????????????.
3. ?????????????: SMP, NUMA, ????????
????????, ??? "????" ? ????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ????????????????? ??????. ? ????????? ???????? ????????????????? ?????? - ???????????? ?????????: ???? ??????? ???????????? ????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ????? ?????. ?????? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ?????????????:
1. SMP-??????? (Symmetrical Multi Processor systems). ? ???????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ????? ??????????? ?????? (??. ???????). ???????? ? ?????? ????????? ????????????? - ????? ???????????? (????, ???????, ???????? ?????????????? ???? ????? ??????? "?????????????"), ????????? ?? ????????? ??????? ??????????? "????????????", ????????? ? ???????????? ??????????. ??, ? ?????????, ????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ??????: 2-4 ?????????? - ???????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ???????? ?????? SMP-??????. ???????, ?? ???? ????? ????? ???????? ????? ?????? ??????? ? ? ??????? ?????? ???????????... ?? ??? ???? ? ????????? ????????? (!) ???????? ?? SMP ? 32-?? CPU ?????????? ???????????? ????? ????????????? ???????????? ????? ????????????? ???????????.
2. NUMA-??????? (Non-Uniform Memory Access systems). ?????? ?????????? "????????????": ???? ?? ????? "???????", ?????? - "?????????", ? ??????? ?? ??-?-?? ???? "????????" ??????? ?????? ????? ????? "???? ???". ? ??????? ??? ???? ?????????? ???????????? "????????" ?? ?????, ??????? "?????????" ??????????? ???????, ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????. ????????? ? "?????" ?????? ?????????? ??????, ? "?????" - ?????????, ?????? ??? "??????" ????? ?????? ???????????, ??? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ??? (??. ???.). ????????? NUMA-??????? ???? ?????, ??? SMP, ? ??? ????????? ?????? ??????? - ??? ????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ??? NUMA ??? ?? ????????.
3. ???????, ????????? ??? ????????????????? ?????? - ????????. ?????? ????? ????????? ?????????? "????? ???????????????" ??????????? (???? ???????? ??? "????") ? ?????????? ?? ?????????????????? ??????? ?????. "????? ??????" ????? ????? ? ?? ???? ??????, ??, ? ????????, ? ????? ?? ???????? ???????????, ?????? "????? ????????????" NUMA-???????. ?? ?? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ? ????????? ? "?????" ????, ???? ???????? ? ????????? ??? ????????? ?????? ????? ??? ??????. ?? ???? ???? ??? NUMA ??? ????? ????????? ?????????, ????? ?? ??????????? ??? ??? "??? ??? ????? ????????" ? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??????; ?? ??? ?????? ? ????????? ????????? ????? ????? ??????????? ???, ??? ? ??? ??????. ??? ????? ???????? ??? ?????????????, ?, ????????, ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ??????. ?? ???? ??????? - ??? ????? ??????.
Intel ??????? ???????????? ????????? SMP-???????; AMD, IBM ? Sun - ?? ??? ???? ???????? NUMA. ???????? "??????? ??????????" ????????? - ???????????????.
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
3
Размер файла
403 Кб
Теги
kursach_arkhitektura
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа