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??????????
????????2
1.1 ????? ????????2
1.2 ???????????? ?????????? ??? ????3
1.3 ??????? ??????3
2. ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????4
2.1 ????? ??????????4
2.2 ???? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????5
2.3 ?????? ????????? ?? I ?????? ?????????? ?????????8
2.3.1 ?????? ????????? ?????? ?? ???????, ??????????? ? ?????????? ???8
2.3.2 ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????8
2.3.3 ?????? ????????? ?????? ?? ???????, ?????????? ? ?????????? ???10
2.4 ?????? ?????? ?? II ?????? ?????????? ?????????14
2.4.1 ??????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ???????14
2.4.2 ??????????? ?????? ???????????????? ??????????16
2.4.3 ?????? ?? ??????????? ??????, ?????????? ? ?????????? ???18
2.4.4 ?????? ?? ????????? ??????, ?????????? ? ?????????? ???19
2.4.5 ?????? ??????? ??????21
2.5 ??????????????? ??????24
3. ?????????????? ?????????????? ???????25
3.1 ????? ??????????25
3.2 ??????????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????25
3.3 ?????? ????????? ???????25
3.4 ??????????????? ???????27
4 ?????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????28
??????????30
????????
1.1 ????? ????????
?????????? ??????????? ? ????????????? ? ??????? ??? ??????? ?????? ????????? ? ?????? ???????????? ?????????.
? ??????????? ???????????, ?????????? ?? ???????????? ?????????, ????????? ?????????? ??? ????, ???????????? ?????, ????????, ???????? ??????? ? ??.; ? ??????????? ????????????? - ??????????, ?????????, ????????????, ??????????, ???????????, ??????? ? ??.
??????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ????????????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ??????????.
????????, ????????? ? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ???? ????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ????????????. ??? ????? ???? ???????????, ???????? ? ??????-???????????. ??????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? 5,0 ?� ?? ???????? ????? ?????????? ??????.
?? ????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?? ?????????????? ? ?????????????.
?????? ??????????? ??? ???? ?????????? ?? ????????? ????????:
????????. ???????????? ?? ??????????? ??? ???????????, ??? ????????? ??????? ??? ??????????, ???????? ????????, ??????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ????????????? ? ?????? ???????????? ? ??????????????? ????????? ????????? ???????, ??????? ???????, ????, ?????? ???????? ????????, ?? ?????????, ??????????? ?????? 1,5 - 2,0 ???.
??????. ???????????? ?? ???????????? ????????, ???????????? ?? ??? ????????????? ????????, ? ?????????????? ???????? ???? ??????:
???????????????? ???????? ????.
?????????????? ???????? ??????.
??? ???????? ?? ???????????, ?.?. ??????????????? ?????? ?????? ???? ?? ??????????? ???????, ???? ?? ???????????? ????? ??????????.
?????. ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ????????? ????? ?? ??????????? ??????, ??????????? ? ???????, ???????? ?????????. ??????????? ? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ??????. ??? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ? ??????????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ??? ?? ??????????? ?????.
? ???????? ??????? ??????????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????? ???? ? ??????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ????????????? ??????????? ???????????? 3000 ?????? ?�.
???????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????-????????.
? ????????????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ??????????, ???????, ???????? ?????????? ??? ???????, ? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????.
1.2 ???????????? ?????????? ??? ????
????????? ??? ???? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????? - ????????, ?????????, ?????????? ? ????????. ???????? ????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ???????, ???????????????? ? ??????????? ?????. ? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????, ? ????? ??????? ???????? ??? ? ???, ?? ???????? ????? ????????? ? ?????????. ????????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ??? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ????.
??????????? ????? - ?????? ? ????? - ??????????? ??????? ?????????????? ?? ????? 8020. 1.3 ??????? ??????
??????? ?????????????? ????????? ????? ????????? ?? ???? ?????????? ??????, ? ??????? ? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ?? ???? ????? 40�? ? ????????? ????????????? ?? ???? 7 ??????. ????????????? ???????? ?? ?????????, ??? ? ?????? ????????, ??? ? ??? ??????? ????????? ??? (??? ?????? ??????? ?? 2,0 ?).
?????? ????????? ?????? ???? ???????????, ?????????????? ? ????? ????????? ????????????? ?? ????? 0,15 ???.
2. ?????????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????
2.1 ????? ??????????
?????? ??? ?????????? ???????:
????????? - ???????, ????????????? ? ????? ? ??????-???????? ???????????, ????? 6?6 (?)
????? ?????????? 2000(???. ?)
??????? ? ????? 18?24 (?)
?????? 4,8 (?)
????? ????????????? ?. ????????
????? ???????????????? ?????????
????????? ??????????? ?????? ????? 27 ????????, IV ????????????? ?????, ????????? ???????? ???????? ? ???????????? ? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ??????? 1000 (??). ????????????? ????????, ?????????????? ????????????? ? ????????? ???????? ???, ??????? ?? ???????? ??????? ???????? 1 (??) ? ????????? ?????? ? = 3 (??).
??? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? 5960 * 1485 (??). ?????? ???????? ????????? ?? ???????? ????? ? ??????? ??????, ????????????? ? ????? 6 (?). ?????? ????????? ?? ??????? ?????????????? ???????, ????????????? ? ?????? 6 * 6 (?). ??????? ????????? ?? ??????? ?????????????? ???????.
??? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ????? ???????? ? ???????????? ? ??????? 6.2.4 [1] A800.
? ???????????? ? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????? 6.1.4 [1] ???????? ????? ?????? B30:
?? ?????? 6.1.6[1] ????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????? 9.1.1 [1] ????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ?? ?????? 8.2.6[1]. .
2.2 ???? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????
??????? ???????? ?? ?????? ???????? ? ????????? ?????.
??????? 1.1
??? ??????????????????? ????????, ??/?2??????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ?f????????? ????????,
??/?2??????????:??????????? ??? ????????? ??????
1,5
1,1
1,65?? ??, ???? ???????? ???????
18 * 0,01 = 0,18
1,3
0,234?? ??, ???? ???-?? ???????? ?=3 (??)
0,03 * 20 = 0,6
1,3
0,78?? ??, ?????? h=0,5?.
20 * 1 = 20
1,15
23?????????:
(????)
2,24
3,2??????????
1,57???????????????
0,67??????:?????????? ? ??????????
q** = 23.85???????????????
q*** = 0.67?????
q* = 24.52
q****=28.864
??? a - ?????? ??????
?????? ?????????????? ??? ???????? ??????? ?? ???? ??????.
??? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??????:
??? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????? ????????? ??????
???????? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ??? ??? ?f > 1
??? ?f = 1 ?? ?????? ????????
?? ?????????? ? ?????????? ????????
??????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?? ??????? 1.
?????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? h = 0,3 (?)
??????? ?????? ??????? h0 = h - a; h0 = 0,3 - 0,05 = 0,25 (?)
??? a = 0,05 (?)
??????? 1.
2.3 ?????? ????????? ?? I ?????? ?????????? ?????????
2.3.1 ?????? ????????? ?????? ?? ???????, ??????????? ? ?????????? ???
????????? ??????? ?????? - ???????? ? ?????? ? ?????? ????.
?????????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ????. ??? ????? ?????????? M ? ????????, ??????? ? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ?????.
?.?. ??????? ?????? ???? ???????? ? ???????? ????? - ??????? ?????????????? ??? ????????????? ? ???????, ?????? bf?.
?????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ?_m=M/(?_bl�R_b�b_f^'�h_0^2 )=17776/(0,9�1,7�146,5�?25?^2 )=0,127
?????????? ????????????? ?????? ?????? ???? "?=1-" v(1-2�?_m )=0,14"
" ????????? ? = 0,14; ????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?_s=(0,9�R_b�b_f^'�?�h_o)/(1,1�R_s )=(0,9�1,7�146,5�0,14�25)/(1,1�69,5)=10,26(????^2)
? ???????????? ? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????? d = 28 (??); = 12,32 (??�).
2�28, A800
2.3.2 ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????
????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? 10 ?? ???????? .
???????? ?? 1?� ????? ????? ???? ??????? ????? ??, ??? ? ??? ??????, ?????? q****.
?????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ??????? b=1 ? ? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ??????
??????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ?_m=M/(?_bl�R_b�b�h_0^2 )=399/(0,9�1,7�100�12,25)=0,21
?????????? ????????????? ?????? ?????? ???? "?=1-" v(1-2�a_m )=0,24
????????? ? = 0,24
????????? ?? ???????:
A_s=(0,9�R_b�b�?�h_0)/R_s =(0,9�1,7�100�0,24�3,5)/38,5=3,34 (????^2)
??? .
????????
?_r=0,8/(1+e_(s,el)/e_(b,ult) )=0,8/(1+(R_s/E_s )/0,0048)=0,8/(1+(385/(2�?10?^5 ))/0,0048)=0,57
??????????? ???????
???????? ????? ????????? ????? ? ?????????? ??????? ????????? (5B500-100)/(5B500-50)�1540
As=3, 92 ??2
2.3.3 ?????? ????????? ?????? ?? ???????, ?????????? ? ?????????? ???
?????? ????? ?? ?????????? ???????, ??????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????. ??????? ???????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ???, ????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? .
?????? ??????? ???????? ?????? A240 ?????????, ?????? 6(??).
(????? ???????)
?????????? ????????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ???????:
,
, ??? =1,5
M_?=0,9�1,5�0,115�15�?25?^2=1455,47 (??)
q_1=q-0,5�?=41,13-4,56�0,5=38,85 (??)
??? ?=q_s�a�?_f=3,2�1,5�0,95=4,56 (??/?)
Q_b1=2�v(1455.47�0.3885)=47.56 (??)
????????? ??????? (2�?_?)/h_0 -Q_max<Q_b1
(2�M_?)/(h_0 0)-Q_max=(2�1455,47)/25-120,92=-4,48 (??)
-4,48<47,56?q_sw=(Q_max^2-Q_?1^2)/(3�?_? )
????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ????????
q_sw=(?120,92?^2-?47,56?^2)/(3�1455,47)=2,83 (??/?)
??? ???? ?????? ??????????? ???????:
q_sw=0,25�0,9�R_bt�b
0,25�0,9�R_bt�b=0,25�0,9�0,115�15=0,388 (??/??)<2,83(??/(?? ))= q_sw
??????? ???????????
???????????? ??? ???????:
???????????? ??? ?????????? ???????? S_wmax=(0,9�R_bt�b�h_0^2)/Q=(0,9�0,115�15�?25?^2)/120,92=8,02 (??)
????????? ??? ?????????? ???????? S_w=(R_sw�A_sw)/q_sw =(17�0,57)/2,83=3,42 (??)
????????????? ????????? S_w=0,5�h_0 ? S_w=300 (??) ? ????, S_w=0,75�h_0 ? S_w=500 (??) ? ????????. ????????? S_w=10 (??)
????????? ?????????? ???? Q=Q_max-q�c=Q_max-q�2�h_0=120,92-0,4113�50=100,36 (??)
???????????? ??? ?????????? ???????? S_wmax=(0,9�0,115�15�?25?^2)/100,36=9,67 (??)
???????????? ??? ?????????? ????????
2�8 ?240 A_s=1,01 (????^2) S_w=(R_sw�A_sw)/q_sw =(17�1,01)/2,83=6,07 (??)
2�10 ?240 A_s=1,57 (????^2) S_w=(R_sw�A_sw)/q_sw =(17�1,57)/2,83=9,43 (??)
2�12 ?240 A_s=2,26 (????^2) S_w=(R_sw�A_sw)/q_sw =(17�2,26)/2,83=13,58 (??)
????????? ?????????? ???????? 2�10 ?240 A_s=1,57 (????^2)
?????? ????????
Q=0,9�f_b�f_n�R_b�b�h_0
?????????? fn
s_??/R_b =1,33/1,7=0,78>0,75?f_n=5�(1-s_??/R_b )=5�(1-0,78)=1,1
0,9�f_b�f_n�R_b�b�h_0=0,9�0,3�1,1�1,7�15�25=189,34 (??)
100,36 (??)<189,34(??) ??????? ?????????
Q=(Q_?+Q_sw)�f_n
Q_?=?_?/c
0,5�0,9�R_bt�b�h_0=Q_?=2,5�0,9�R_bt�b�h_0
Q_sw=0,75�q_sw�c
q_sw=(R_sw�A_sw)/S_w =(17�1,57)/10=2,67 (??/??)
?=v(?_?/q_1 )=v(1455,47/0,3885)=61,21 (??)
?????? ???? ????????? ???????
q_sw/(?0,9�R?_bt�b)>2
q_sw/(?0,9�R?_bt�b)=2,67/(0,9�0,115�15)=1,72<2
??????? ?? ?????????
????????? ???????
(2�h_0)/(1-0,5�q_sw/(0,9�R_bt�b))>v(?_?/q_1 )
(2�h_0)/(1-0,5�q_sw/(0,9�R_bt�b))=(2�25)/(1-0,5�2,67/(0,9�0,115�15))=356,9 (??)
356,9 (??)>61,21(??) ??????? ?????????
(2�h_0)/(1-0,5�q_sw/(0,9�R_bt�b))>v(?_?/q_1 )??=v(?_?/(0,75�q_sw+q_1 ))
?=v((1,5�0,9�R_bt�b�h_0^2)/(0,75�q_sw+q_1 ))=v(1455,47/2,391)=24,67 (??)
h_0=c=2�h_0
????????? ?=h_0=25 (??)
Q_?=?_?/c=(f_n�0,9�R_bt�b�h_0^2)/c=1455,47/25=58,22 (??)
0,5�0,9�R_bt�b�h_0=Q_?=2,5�0,9�R_bt�b�h_0
0,5�0,9�R_bt�b�h_0=0,45�0,115�15�25=19,41 (??)
2,5�0,9�R_bt�b�h_0=2,25�0,115�15�25=97,03 (??)
19,41 (??)<58,22(??)<97,03(??)
Q_sw=0,75�2,67�25=50,06 (??)
Q_?+Q_sw=58,22+50,06=108,28 (??)
(Q_?+Q_sw )�f_n=1,1�108,28=119,11(??)
119,11>100,36?(Q_?+Q_sw )�f_n>Q
???????? ?????????
?????? ?????? ?? II ?????? ?????????? ?????????
??????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ???????
????????? ??????? ?????????: .
??????? ???????????? ???????
,
??? .
??????????? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ?????:
,
??? .
?????????? ?? ?????? ????? ?? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ???????:
.
?????? ???????: ?????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????:
.
?????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ????:
.
?????????? ?? ??????? ?????, ???????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ???? ?? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ???????:
,
??? .
?????????? ?? ??????? ?????, ???????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ???? ?? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ???????:
?????????????????? ?????? ????????????? ?? ?????????? ????:, ??? ??? ????????? ??????? ? ?????? ? ?????? ????.
?????????????????? ?????? ????????????? ?? ?????????? ???? ? ?????? ???????????? ? ??????? ????????:
2.4.2 ??????????? ?????? ???????????????? ??????????
?????? ???????????????? ?????????? ????????????, ?????????????? ?. 9.1.1[1] ??????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ??? ???? .
?????? ?????? ?s_sp (1)=?s_sp1
?s_sp1 - ?????? ?? ?????????? ??????????
?s_sp2=0, ??? ??? ??? ???????????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ? ????????.
?s_sp3=0, ??? ??? ??? ?????????????????? ??????? ????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ????????.
?s_sp4=0, ?????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ??? ?????????????????? ??????? ????? 0
f_(b,cr)=1,6 (??? ????????? >75% ? ?????? ?30)
�_sp=A_sp/A=A_sp/(b�h)=12,32/(15�30)=0,027
????????? ? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ? ? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ???? ??????:
,
??? ?_1=A_sp�(s_sp-?s_sp1)
?s_sp1=0,03�s_sp=0,03�640=19,2 (???)
?_1=12,32�(64-1,92)=764,83(??)
y_sp=y_3=e_op=16,31 (??)
?????? ?? ???? ??????:
?=(q�?_f�?_n�b�l_0^2)/8=(1,5�1,1�0,95�1,5�?5,88?^2)/8=10,16=1016 (????)
s_??=764,83/1183,27+((764,83�16,31-1016)�16,31)/98385,38=2,55 (??/????^2 )
s_??/R_b =2,55/1,5=1,7>0,9
??????, ????????? s_sp=500 (???)
?s_sp1=0,03�500=15 (???)
?_1=12,32�(50-1,5)=597,52(??)
.
s_??=597,52/1183,27+((597,523�16,31-1016)�16,31)/98385,38=1,95 (??/????^2 )
s_??/R_b =1,95/1,5=1,3>0,9
??????, ????????? s_sp=450 (???)
?s_sp1=0,03�450=13,5 (???)
?_1=12,32�(45-1,35)=537,77(??)
.
s_??=537,77/1183,27+((537,77�16,31-1016)�16,31)/98385,38=1,74 (??/????^2 )
s_??/R_b =174/1,5=1,16>0,9 ????????? s_sp=450 (???)
?????? ??????:
?s_sp5=0,0002�E_s=0,0002�2�?10?^5=40 (???)
?s_sp6=(0,8�?�f_(b,cr)�s_??)/(1+?׵_sp�(1+(y_sp^2�A_red)/Y_red )�(1+0,8�f_(b,cr)))
?s_sp6=(0,8�6,15�1,6�1,74)/(1+6.15�0,027�(1+(?16,31?^2�1183.27)/98385,38)�(1+0,8�1,6))=5,29 (??/????^2 )
?????? ??????:
?s_sp=?s_sp1+?s_sp5+?s_sp6
?s_sp=13,5+40+52,9=106,4 (???)
?????? ??????? ? ?????? ???? ??????:
?_2=A_sp�(s_sp-?s_sp )=12,32�(45-10,64)=423,32(??)
s_??=423,32/1183,27+((423,32�16,31-1016)�16,31)/98385,38=1,33 (??/????^2 )
2.4.3 ?????? ?? ??????????? ??????, ?????????? ? ?????????? ???
?????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ??????? ??????? ????????:
,
??? ??????? ?????? ?????? ???????:
,
,
,
,
?????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ????????????? ??????? ??????? ????????
????????? ???????: 15896 9360,11 ??????? ?? ???????????, ?????????????, ??????? ? ?????????? ???? ??????????.
??????? ?????????:
R_btp=0,075 (??/????^2 )
?_1�(?_??-r_inf )-M=R_btp�W_pl^'
M=1016 (????)
?_1=537,77 (??)
r_inf=19,15 (??)
W_pl^'=34661,5 ????^3)
537,77�(16,31-19,15)-1016=0,075�34661,5
-2218,23=2599,61
??????? ???????????, ?????????????, ????????? ??????? ? ??????? ???? ?? ??????????.
2.4.4 ?????? ?? ????????? ??????, ?????????? ? ?????????? ???
? ???????????? ? ??????? 8.2.6[1] ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ??????: ????????????????? ? ??????????????? .
?????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ???????: a_crc=a_crc1+a_crc2-a_crc3
a_crc=f_1�f_2�f_3�?_s�s_s/E_s �l_s
f_1 ????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? (1,4 ??? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ? 1 ??? ?????????????????? ????????)
f_2????????? ???????????? ???????? (0,5 ??? ???????? ?????????????? ???????)
f_3??????? ?? ???????????? ????????? (1 ??? ?????????? ?????????)
?_s=1-0,8�M_crc/M
s_s=(M-P_2�(z_s-e_sp))/(z_s�A_sp )
z_s=0,7�h_0=17,5 (??)
l_s=0,5�?_bt/A_sp �d_s=0,5�225/12,32�2,8=25,57 (??)
10�d_s=l_s=40�d_s
100=l_s=400 (??)
?_bt=x_t�b=15�158=225 (????^2)
e_sp=0
E_s=2�?10?^4 (??/????^2 )
a_crc1 ?? ?????????????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ????????: f_1=1,4
f_2=0,5
f_3=1
M=M_nl
?_s=1-0,8�9360,11/15463=0,52
s_s=(15463-423.32�17,5)/(17,5�12,32)=37,36 (??/????^2 )
a_crc1=1,4�0,5�1�0,52�37,36/(2�?10?^4 )�25,57=0,017=0,17 (??)<0,2
a_crc2 ?? ?????????????????? ???????? ???? ????????
f_1=1
f_2=0,5
f_3=1
M=M_n
?_s=1-0,8�9360,11/15896=0,53
s_s=(15896-423.32�17,5)/(17,5�12,32)=39,37 (??/????^2 )
a_crc1=1�0,5�1�0,53�39,37/(2�?10?^4 )�25,57=0,013=0,13 (??)
a_crc3 ?? ?????????????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ????????
f_1=1
f_2=0,5
f_3=1
M=M_nl
?_s=1-0,8�9360,11/15463=0,52
s_s=(15463-423.32�17,5)/(17,5�12,32)=37,36 (??/????^2 )
a_crc1=1�0,5�1�0,53�37,36/(2�?10?^4 )�25,57=0,012=0,12 (??)
a_crc=a_crc1+a_crc2-a_crc3=0,17+0,13-0,12=0,18 (??)<0,3
??????? ?? ???????????????? ?????????
2.4.5 ?????? ??????? ??????
????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? , ???????????? ? ???????????? ? ???????? 10 [3].
f_ult=f,
??? �( @f)_ult=1/200=3 (??)
?????? ??????????? ?? ???????: -?? ?????????????????? ???????? ???? ????????, ??? ????????????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ? ?? ???????????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ????????.
-??? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????????????? ??????? ???????????.
???????????? ???????? :
1/r=1/r_1 -1/r_2 +1/r_3 1/r=(M-P_2�z_p)/D
z_p - ?????????? ?? ????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? P_2 ?? ????? ?????????? ???????????????? ?????? ? ?????? ???? ??????? ??? ????????.
D=E_(s,red)�A_sp�z_s�(h_0-x_N)
E_(s,red)=E_s/?_s z_s=0,8�h_0=20 (??)=z_?
x_N=h_0�v(?(?׵_s�?_s2+�_f^')?^2+2�(?׵_s�?_s2+�_f^'�(�_f^')/(2�h_0 )) )-(?׵_s�?_s2+�_f^')
�_s=A_sp/(b�h_0 )=12,32/(15�25)=0,033
?_s2=E_(s,red)/E_(b,red) E_(b,red)=R_(b,ser)/e_(b,ult) e_(b,ult) ??????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ???????? (15?10-4 ??? ?????????????????? ???????? ? 24?10-4 ??? ???????????????? ???????? ????????)
�_f^'=(A_f^')/(b�h_0 )=657,5/(15�25)=1,75
A_f^'=(b_f^'-b)�h_f^;=(146,5-15)�5=657,5(????^2 )
?=1+P_2/M_p �z_p
M_p=M-P_2�y_3
1/r_1 ?? ?????????????????? ???????? ???? ????????
E_(b,red)=2,2/(15�?10?^(-4) )=1,47�?10?^4 (???)
E_(s,red)=(2�?10?^5)/0,53=3,77�?10?^5 (???)
?_s2=(3,77�?10?^5)/(1,47�?10?^4 )=25,65
?=1+423,32/8991,66�20=1,94
M_p=15896-423,32�16,31=8991,66 (????)
x_N=25�v((1,94�0,033�25,65+1,75)^2+2�(1,94�0,033�25,65+1,75�5/(2�25)) )-(1.94�0.033�25.65+1.75)=12,47(??)
D=3,77�?10?^5�12,32�20�(25-12,47)=11,64�?10?^7 ??????^2
1/r_1 =(15896-423,32�20)/(11,64�?10?^7 )=638,28�?10?^(-7) (????^(-1))
1/r_2 ?? ?????????????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ????????
?=?nl
E_(b,red)=2,2/(24�?10?^(-4) )=1,47�?10?^4 (???)
E_(s,red)=(2�?10?^5)/0,52=3,85�?10?^5 (???)
?_s2=(3,85�?10?^5)/(1,47�?10?^4 )=26,19
?=1+423,32/8991,66�20=1,99
M_p=15463-423,32�16,31=8558,66 (????)
x_N=12,72(??)
D=11,65�?10?^7 ??????^2
1/r_2 =600,57�?10?^(-7) (????^(-1))
1/r_3 ?? ???????????????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ????????
?=?nl
E_(b,red)=2,2/(24�?10?^(-4) )=0,92�?10?^4 (???)
E_(s,red)=(2�?10?^5)/0,52=3,85�?10?^5 (???)
?_s2=(3,85�?10?^5)/(0,94�?10?^4 )=41,85
?=1,99
M_p=8558,66 (????)
x_N=15,22(??)
D=9,28�?10?^7 ??????^2
1/r_3 =753,94�?10?^(-7) (????^(-1))
1/r=638,28�?10?^(-7)-600,57�?10?^(-7)+753,94�?10?^(-7)=791,65�?10?^(-7) (????^(-1))
f=5/48�791,65�?10?^(-7)�?5,88?^2�?10?^4=2,85<1/200�l=3 (??)
??????? ?? ??????? ?????????
??????????????? ??????
??? ??????????? ???????????????? ? ????????? ???????? ???? ??????????????? ????? ?-3 ?? ???????? ????????? 6 ?? ?????? A400. ????? ??????????? ?? ????? 0,6�l_p. l_p=(s_sp�A_sp)/(?0,9�R?_bond�U_s )
l_p=10�d
l_p=200(??)
R_bond=0,9�?_1�?_2�R_bt=0,9�2,5�1�0,075=0,19 (??/????^2 )
s_sp=s_sp-?s_sp (1)=43,08(??/????^2 )
U_s=p�d=3,14�2,8=8,79 (??)
l_p=(43,08�6,158)/(0,9�0,19�8,79)=176,5(??)=l_(0,an)
l_p=l_(0,an)�A_(s,????)/A_(s,????) =176,5�5,13/6,15=147(??)
????????????? ????????? l_p=10�d�2=560(??)
????? 0,6�l_p=0,6�560=336(??)
????????? 0,6�l_p=340(??)
3. ?????????????? ?????????????? ???????
3.1 ????? ??????????
? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????? A400. ? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????? A240.
????? ?????? B20 ???????? ? ???????????? ? ??????? 6.1.4 [1].
= 355 (???)
= 11,5 (???)
????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? .
3.2 ??????????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????
???????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? . ?????? ???????? ???????????? ?? ???????? ?? ???????, ?????? ???????? 6 ? ? ???????????? ???? ??????? ??????? H.
?????????? ???? ?? ?????? ????????:
3.3 ?????? ????????? ???????
?????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? 3.64 [5], ??? ??? ?????? ????????? ?? ???????? ?????? ??????? B15 - B40 ?? ???????? ?????????? ????, ??????????? ? ????????????????, ???????? ???????? ?????? 8.1.16[1] ?????? ?????????? , ??? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? A_(s,tot)=N/(f�R_sc )-(R_b�A)/R_sc ??? ? ??????? ?? ????????? l0/h (??????? 8.1[1])
l_0/h6101520f0,920,90,830,7
l0/h=4,8/0,4=12, ????? ?=0,872
A_(s,tot)=1026,67/(0,872�35,5)-(0,9�1,15�1600)/35,5=-13,48 (????^2)
????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?? 350?350 ??
N=1021, 97 (??)
l0/h=4,8/0,35=14, ????? ?=0,844
A_(s,tot)=1021,97/(0,844�35,5)-(0,9�1,15�1225)/35,5=-1,6 (????^2)
????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?? 300?300 ??
N=1013,97 (??)
l0/h=4,8/0,3=16, ????? ?=0,804
A_(s,tot)=1013,97/(0,804�35,5)-(0,9�1,15�900)/35,5=9,286 (????^2)
????????? 4�18 ?400, A_(s,tot)=10,18 (????^2)
?????? ????????
�=A_(s,tot)/A�100=10,18/900�100=1,13%
??????? ???????????
3.4 ??????????????? ???????
??????? ?????????? ???????????????? ????????, ???????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ????????. ??????? ?????????? ????????, ???????????? ????????, 18 ??, ????????? ??????? ? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?????? = 10,18 (??�). ?????????? ???????? - 4�18 ?400.
??????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ?? ???????? ?????????????, ?????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? A240 ????????? 6 ??.
??? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ???????
S 15d ( d - ??????? ?????????? ????????) S 2020 = 400 (??)
S 500 (??)
S = 250 (??)
??????????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ?????????????.
4 ?????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????
??? ??????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ????????????, ??????? ?????????????? ??????? ????????, ?????????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? .
??????? ??????? ?????????? . P_0=N_n/A=844,98/3,24=260(??/?^2 )=0,026(??/????^2 )
??? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ???? ????????? ??????, b = 180 (??).
?????? ?????? ???? ????????? ????? ? ??????, ????????? ???? ?????? ??? ????????????????? ?????????? ? = 27,7 (?? / ?�), ,
,
????????? ????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ???????? (??????? 2). ??????, ??????????? ??? ?????????? ???? ???????????? ? ??????? 2 (???????? s ? ??/?2)
??????? 2
Z1(?)?=(2�Z)/b
as_zg ??/????^2 s_zp ??/????^2 00100,0260,70,80,80,0019350,02080,02341,41,60,4490,0038780,01160,01622,12,330,2710,0058170,0070,00932,83,110,1690,0077560,00430,00573,53,890,1140,0096950,00290,00364,24,670,0820,01160,002130,0025
?????? ?????????? ???????, ??? ????? ? = 0,8; = 50(???)
S=(0.8�70)/5�(0,023+0,0162+0,0093+0,0057+0,0036+0,0025)=0,68 (??)
?????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ??????????, ???????????? ? ???????????? ? ??????????? 4 [2] ?? ????????? ?????? ?????????? , ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????.
??????? 2.
??????????
???? 52-01-2003. ???????? ? ?????????????? ???????????/ ?.: 2011. 190?.
???? 2.02.01-83*. ????????? ?????? ? ??????????/ ???????? ????. ?.: ???? ???????? ????. 1995. 48?.
???? 2.01.07-85* ???????? ? ???????????. ?.: 2011. 80?.
?? 52-101-2003. ???????? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ??? ???????????????? ?????????? ????????. ?. 2006. 53?.
?? 52-102-2004. ?????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????????. ?. 2005. 36?.
?????? ?.?., ??????? ?.?. ?????????????? ???????????: ????? ????: ??????? ??? ?????. 5-? ???., ???????. ? ???. ?.: ??????????, 1991. 767?.
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