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"?????? ????? ????????? ???????????????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ???????? ?? ???????? ????????"
????????: ??????? ??. ????-08-2
????????? ?.?. ????????: ???????? ?.?.
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2012
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?????? ???????????? ????????? ????????4 ?????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????? 4 ?????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? 4 ?????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ????????4 ?????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ????????????? ???7 ?????? ????????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ????????12 ?????? ????????????? ??????????? ?? ????? ??? ? ????????? ???????????? ????????14 ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??? ?? ???????? ??????????? ??????15 ?????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ? ??? ?? ????????? ????????16 ?????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????????, ?????????, ???????? ???????? ?? ????? ???17 ?????? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??? ????????? ???????? ????????? ????????25 ?????? ????????? ???????? ?? ????? ???????? ?? ????????? ???????? ? ????????? ???????????? ? ????????27 ?????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ? ?????? ?????????? ??? ?? ?????????29 ?????? ?????? ???????? ? ???30 ?????? ????????? ??? ?? ???????? ???? ??????? ? ???????? ? ??????? ?????? ? ???31 ?????? ??? ?? ???????????32 ?????? ?????????? ???33 ?????? ???????? ? ??? ?? ????? ????????33 ?????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????? ???? ? ????????34 ?????? ??????34 ????? ????????? ????????????35 ??????????36
?????? ???????????? ????????? ????????
P_???=0,75P_???=0,75*20,1=15,1 ???;
?????? ?????????????? ?????? ????????
?????????? ??????? ????????? ????????, ???? ??????????? ???????:
P_??=(H-H_?? ) ?_? g+P_???=(2186-11)0,785*9,8+?10?^6=17,7 ???;
?????????? ????????? ????? ?? ??????? "????? ???????? - ????? ??????" :
?_??=(?_??+?_??)/2=(0,83+0,74)/2=0,785 ??/?^3 ;
Q=(P_??-P_??? ) K_????=(17,7-15,1)*12,5=33,4 ?^3/???;
??? ????, ????? ????????? ?????, ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????:
?????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?????? ????????:
H_???=H-P_???/(?_?? g)=2186-(15,1*?10?^6)/(0,785*9,8)=228 ?.
??????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????:
P_???=�_??/�_?? P_???*0,325=4,8/1,57*20,1*(0,325)=10,1 ???.
?????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? H_?=H_???+P_???/(?_?? g)=228+10,1/(0,785*9,8)=1533 ?.
?????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ? ?????? ?????????????? ????????
L_?=H_?/cosa=1533/cos4,5=1538 ?.
?????????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????:
T_??=T_??-(L_??-H_? ) (0,0034+0,79?)/?10?^(Q_(? ??)/(20d_??^2,67 )) =29-(2186-1533) (0,0034+0,79*0,01)/?10?^((33,4/86400)/(20*?0,129?^2,67 )) =21,4?;
???????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ???????? ?? ????? ? ?????:
B^*=1+(B-1) v(P_???/P_??? )=1+(1,275-1) v(10,1/20,1)=1,19;
?????????? ????? ???????? ?? ????? ? ?????:
Q_??=Q*B^*=33,4*1,275=39,9 ?^3/???;
???????? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ?? ????? ? ?????:
G_??=G(1-P_???/P_??? )=20*(1-10,1/20,1)=10 ?^3/?;
?????? ???? ?? ????? ? ?????:
Q_???=(G_??*Q*P_0 (T_??+273))/(P_???*273)=(10*33,4*?10?^5 (21,4+273))/(10,1*?10?^6*273)=1,79 ?^3/???=2,07*?10?^(-5) ?^3/?; ?????????????? ?? ????? ? ?????:
�_??=Q_???/(Q_???+Q_?? )=1,79/(1,79+39,9)=0,043;
???????? ?????????????? ?? ?????? ?????? f_? ??????? ?? ?????? ?.?.??????? ? ?.?. ?????????:
??????????? ?????? ????:
V_???=1,75?D_??^2,5+1,2Q=1,75*?0,129?^2,5+1,2 33,4/86400=0,011 ?^3/?;
Q_???<V_???=>??????????? ????????? ??????;
????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ????? ?? ??????? ? ???????????? ?????:
s_??=1/?10?^(1,58+0,05P_??? ) -72*?10?^(-6) (T_??-305)=1/?10?^(1,58+0,05*10,1) -72*?10?^(-6) ((21,4+273)-305)=0,0083 ?/?;
????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ????? ?? ??????? ? ????? s_?=0,0072 ?/?;
???????? ?????????????? ?? ????? ? ?????:
f_?=Q_???/(Q_???+Q+0,233*?D_??^2 ?(s_??/s_? ))=(2,07*?10?^(-5))/(2,07*?10?^(-5)+33,4/86400+0,233*?0,129?^2 ?(0,0083/0,0072))=0,009;
?????? ???? ?? ??????? "????? - ????? ??????":
P_?1=P_??? (1/(1-0,4f_? )-1)=20,1(1/(1-0,4*0,009)-1)=0,071 ???;
?????? ???? ?? ??????? "?????????? ?????? - ????? ????????":
P_?2=P_??? (1/(1-0,4f_??? )-1)=1,79(1/(1-0,4*0,02)-1)=0,423 ???,
???
f_???=Q_??/(Q_??+Q+0,233*?D_??^2 ?(s_???/s_? ))=(16,6*?10?^(-5))/(16,6*?10?^(-5)+33,4/86400+0,233*?0,129?^2 ?(0,023/0,0072))=0,052;
Q_??=(?QT_??? P_0)/(86400T_0 P_??? )=(20*33,4*293*?10?^5)/(86400*273*?10?^6 )=16,6*?10?^(-5) ?^3/?;
s_???=1/?10?^(1,58+0,05P_? ) -72*?10?^(-6) (T_?-305)=1/?10?^(1,58+0,05*1) -72*?10?^(-6) ((20+273)-305)=0,023 ?/?;
????????? ???????? ??????:
P=?gH_???+P_???-P_?1-P_?2=785*228*9,8+?10?^6-0,071*?10?^6-0,423*?10?^6=2,26 ???; ?? ???????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????, ?????????? ???????? (?????? ??????) ? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ????????, ??????????????? ?????? ????? ?????? ? ??????????? ?????? (??????, ?????, ???, ????????).
???????? ????? ????50-1300.[4 ?. 114]
?????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ????????????? ???
?? ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??????: ???????? ???????? ?????????, ??????????? ????? ?????, ??????? ? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ????, ??????????? ? ????? ? ?????????????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????.
???????? ??? ????? ??????, ? ????? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ??? ?_max.
??? ????????? ????? ? ?????????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?? ?????? ? ???. ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ??????? 1.
??????? 1
????????123Q, ?�/???255070H, ?140013601005?, %31,533,531,5 ??????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????.
???????????? ???????? ?????? ?H ??? ??????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????:
?H=0,92*H_???/(3,9+0,023Q_??? )=0,92*1360/(3,9+0,023*50)=248 ?.
?????????? ???????? ????? ?????? H^' ? ??? ?^':
H^'=H-?H;
?^'=?(1-?H/H),
?????????? ??????? ? ??????? 2.
??????? 2
????????123Q, ?�/???255070H', ?11521112757?', %25,927,423,7 ?? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? Q- H^' ? Q- ?^'. ?????????? ?????????????? Q- N ???????? ??? ?????????. ????????? ??????????? ?? ???. 1.
??????? 1
??????? ???????? ?? ?????????????? ??????
?????? ???????? ??????? ????????:
�=(�_??+�_??)/2=(1,57+4,8)/2=3,19 ???*?;
?=(?_??+?_??)/2=(0,74+0,83)/2=0,785 ??/?^3; ?=�/?=3,19/0,785=4,06*?10?^(-6) ?^2/?
?? ??????? (?????????????????) ?????????????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????? Q_(? ???), ? ?? ?????????? ?????? - ????? ???????? ???? ?????? ? ?????? n. ?????????? ???????? Q_(? ???) ????????????? ?? ????? ????? ??????????. ?? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ????? ?? ??????????? ? ??????????????? ?????? ????? ???????? n. ?? ????? ??????????? ????? Q_(? ???) ? n ?????????? ?????????????? ????? ?? ??????????? ? ?????? ???????? ?, ??????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????. ?? ????? ??????????? ???? ????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ?? ? ???????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????????: K_Q,K_H ? K_?. ??????????? ???????????? K_Q,K_H ? K_? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ?.?. ??????? [????.1]. ?????????? ????? ??????????? ???? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ??? ??????????? ??????, ?????? ? ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? Q_?, H_? ? ?_?, ????????????:
Q_(? ???)=K_Q Q_(? ???)=0,98*50=49 ?^3/???;
H_?=K_H H_?=0,97*1112=1079 ?;
?_?=K_? ?_?=0,86*27,4=23,6 %.
?????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ? ?????? ??????. ?????????? ??????? ? ??????? 3.
??????? 3.
K?KQKHQ, ?�/???H, ??, %N, ???10,860,970,9524,3109522,313,520,860,980,9749,0107923,625,430,860,990,9869,374220,428,6 ? ?????? ????????????? K_Q,K_H ? K_? ?????? ????????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ? ?????? ????????. ??????? 2
??????? ?????????? ???? ?? ?????????????? ??????
??? ????? ??????? ?????????? ???? ?????????? ?????????? [????.2]. ?? ????? ? ??????????????? ?? ?????? ?????? �_?=0,043 ???????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ? ?????? K_H. ?? ????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ????? ????? ?? ??????????? ?? ?????? K_H, ??????? ????? 0,54, ? ????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ? ?????? K_?. ?? ????? ??????????? ???? ????? ???????? ????????? ????? ?? ??????????? ?? ?????? K_?, ??????? ????? 0,62 ? ???? ?? ??????????? ? ?????? K_N. ?? ???? ????? ???????? ?????????????? ????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ?? ?????? K_N, ??????? ????? 0,78. ?????????? ???????????? ? ??????? 4.
??????? 4.
Q, ?�/???H, ??, %N, ???124,359113,810,5249,058314,619,8369,340112,722,3 ?????? ????????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ????. ??????? 3
?????? ????????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ????????
??????????? ?????? ? ????? ??????? ????? ??????? ?????? ? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ?? ???????:
T_?? (L)=T_??-(L_??-L) (0,0034+0,79?)/?10?^(Q_(? ??)/(20d_??^2,67 )) ;
T_?? (2000)=29-(2186-2000) (0,0034+0,79*0,011)/?10?^(33,4/(86400*20*?0,129?^2,67 )) =26,8?;
? - ????????????? ???????? ?=(T_??-6)/(L_??-25)=(29-6)/(2186-25)=0,011.
?????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ? ????????? ??????. ?????????? ??????? ? ??????? 5.
??????? 5
L, ??, ??154021,5160022,2170023,3180024,5190025,7200026,8218629,0??????????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ??? ?? ?????? L_(?.??):
L_(?.??)=1533 ?;
T_(?.??) (L_(?.??) )=T_??-(L_??-L_(?.??) ) (0,0034+0,79?)/?10?^(Q_(? ??)/(20d_??^2,67 )) +gH/(2c?_? ) (1/?_? -1)=29-(2186-1533) (0,0034+0,79*0,011)/?10?^(33,4/(86400*20*?0,129?^2,67 )) +(9,8*589)/(2*2100*0,142) (1/0,805-1)=23,7?; ??????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? L_???:
L_???=1533-L_?=1533-8=1525 ?;
T_??? (L)=T_??-(L_??-L_??? ) (0,0034+0,79?)/?10?^(Q_(? ??)/(20d_??^2,67 )) +gH/c (1/??_? ??_? -0,5/?_? -1)=29-(2186-1525) (0,0034+0,79*0,011)/?10?^(33,4/(86400*20*?0,129?^2,67 )) +(9,8*589)/2100 (1/(0,805*0,142)-0,5/0,142-1)=34,3?; ??????????? ?????? ? ????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ????:
T_? (L)=T_???-(L_???-L) (0,0034+0,79?)/?10?^(Q_(? ??)/(20d_???^2,67 )) ;
T_? (1500)=34,3-(1525-1500) (0,0034+0,79*0,011)/?10?^(33,4/(86400*20*?0,062?^2,67 )) =34,0?;
?????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ?????. ?????????? ??????? ? ??????? 6.
??????? 6.
L, ??, ??L, ??, ??017,690027,410018,7100028,520019,8110029,630020,9120030,740022,0130031,850023,1140032,960024,1150034,070025,2152534,380026,3 ??????? 4
?????? ????????????? ??????????? ?? ????? ??? ? ????????? ???????????? ????????
?????????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ? ?????? ????? ??? ? ??:
T_(?.??) (L)=T_??-(L_??-L) (0,0034+0,79?)/?10?^(Q_(? ??)/(20d_??^2,67 )) +gH/(2c?_? ) (1/?_? -1);
T_(?.??) (1539)=29-(2186-1539) (0,0034+0,79*0,011)/?10?^(33,4/(86400*20*?0,129?^2,67 )) +(9,8*589)/(2*2100*0,142) (1/0,805-1)=23,79?; ?????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???. ?????????? ??????? ? ??????? 7. ???????? ?????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ????? ???. ??????? 5
?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??? ?? ???????? ??????????? ??????
????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ????????, ??????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ? ?????? ????? ??? ? ?? ? ??????????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ??????:
T_(?.??) (L,Q)=T_??-(L_??-L) (0,0034+0,79?)/?10?^(Q_(? ??)/(20d_??^2,67 )) +gH/(2c?_? ) (1/?_? -1);
T_(?.??) (1533 ?;10?^3/??? )=29-(2186-1533) (0,0034+0,79*0,011)/?10?^(10/(86400*20*?0,129?^2,67 )) +(9,8*589)/(2*2100*0,142) (1/0,805-1)=23,66?; ?????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???. ?????????? ??????? ? ??????? 7. ??????? 7
Q ?�/??? H, ?10306033,490153323,6623,7123,7823,7223,85153423,3423,3923,4623,3923,53153523,0123,0623,1323,0723,20153622,6922,7422,8122,7522,88153722,3722,4122,4922,4222,56153822,0422,0922,1622,1022,23153921,7221,7721,8421,7821,91154021,4021,4421,5221,4521,59
??????? 6
?????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ? ??? ?? ????????? ????????
???? ???????? ?? ????? ? ?????? ??????, ???????? ?????????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ? ?????? ????? ?? ?????? ??????.
P_i (L)=P_??+(P_???-P_?? )(L_??-L)/(L_??-L_??? );
P_i (1532)=10,1+(12,2-10,1)(1533-1532)/(1533-1524,7)=10,3 ???;
?????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ? ????????? ??????. ?????????? ??????? ? ??????? 8.
?????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ? ???.
??????? 7
?????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????????, ?????????, ???????? ???????? ?? ????? ???
???? ???????? ??????????? ?? ????? ? ?????? ??????, ???????? ?????????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ? ?????? ????? ?? ?????? ??????.
T_i (L)=T_??+(T_???-T_?? )(L_??-L)/(L_??-L_??? );
T_i (1532)=23,6+(33,9-23,6)(1533-1532)/(1533-1524,7)=24,8???;
?????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ? ????????? ??????. ?????????? ??????? ? ??????? 8.
??????? 8
?, ?P, ???T, �?1524,712,233,9152512,133,6152611,932,3152711,631,1152811,429,8152911,128,6153010,827,3153110,626,1153210,324,8153310,123,6 ?????? ?????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ???.
??????? 8
??????? ????????????? ?????????, ???????? ???????? ?? ????? ???
????????????????? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ?????????? ? ???????????? ? ??????? 8.
??????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ????????????? ????
V_?? (P,T)=?R(P)m(T)(?(T)(1+R(P))-1);
??? R(10,3 ???)=(1+lgP)/(1+lgP_??? )-1=(1+lg10,3 )/(1+lg20,1)-1=-0,126;
m(24,8?)=1+0,029(T-20)(?_?? (?_?? ) �?10?^(-3)-0,7966)=1+0,029(24,8-20)(0,83*1*?10?^(-3)-0,7966)=1,005;
?(24,8?)=?10?^(-3) ?_?? (?_?? ) �(4,5-0,00305(T-20))-4,785=?10?^(-3)*0,83*1(4,5-0,00305(24,8-20))-4,785=-1,06;
V_?? (10,3 ???;24,8?)=20*(-0,126)*1,005*(-1,06*(1-0,126)-1)=4,88 ?^3/?.
???????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ????????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????????. ?????????? ??????? ? ??????? 9.
???????????? ?????????? ???????????????? ????? (???????? ????? ????????????? ????) ? ???????? ?? ??????????????
V_?? (P,T)=?m(T)-V_?? (P,T);
V_?? (10,3 ???;24,8?)=20*1,005-4,88=15,2 ?^3/?;
???????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ????????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????????. ?????????? ??????? ? ??????? 9.
?????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????????? ????
(?_?? ) �(P,T)=a((?_?? ) �-0,0036(1+R(P))(105,7+uR(P));
a=1+0,0054(T-20)=1+0,0054(24,8-20)=1,026;
u=?10?^(-3) ?_?? ?-186=?10?^(-3)*0,83*20-186=-196,4;
(?_?? ) �(10,3 ???;24,8?)=1,026(1-0,0036(1-0,126)(105,7-196,4*(-0,126))=0,616;
???????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ????????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????????. ?????????? ??????? ? ??????? 9.
??????? ????????????? ????????? ????????????? ????, ??????????? ? ????? ??? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????????????
(?_?? ) �(P,T)=?(am(T) (?_?? ) �-((?_?? ) �(P,T) V_?? (P,T))/?)/(V_?? (P,T) );
(?_?? ) �(10,3 ???;24,8?)=20(1,026*1,005*1-(0,616*4,88)/20)/15,2=1,158;
???????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ????????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????????. ?????????? ??????? ? ??????? 9.
???????????? ???????? ??????????? b_? (P,T)=1+1,0733*(?10?^(-3) ?_?? V_?? (P,T)?(T))/m(T) +a_? (T-20)-6,5*?10?^(-4) P;
??? ?(T) - ???????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ?????????? ????????? ?? ????????????????: ?(24,8)=?10?^(-3) (4,3-3,54*?10?^(-3) ?_??+(1,0337(?_?? ) �(P,T))/a+5,581*?10?^(-6) ?_?? (1-1,61*?10?^(-6) ?_?? V_?? (P,T)) V_?? (P,T))=?10?^(-3) (4,3-3,54*?10?^(-3)*0,83+(1,0337*1,158)/1,026+5,581*?10?^(-6)*0,83*(1-1,61*?10?^(-6)*0,83*15,2)*15,2)=0,002597; a_? - ????????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ????? ??? ??????????? ????????: a_?=?10?^(-3) (3,083-2,638*?10?^(-3) ?_?? )=?10?^(-3) (3,083-2,638*?10?^(-3)*0,83)=0,0009 1/?;
b_? (10,3 ???;24,8?)=1+1,0733*(?10?^(-3)*0,83*15,2*0,002597)/1,005+0,0009*(24,8-20)-6,5*?10?^(-4)*10,3 =1,033; ???????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ????????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????????. ?????????? ??????? ? ??????? 9.
?????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????
?_? (P,T)=(?_?? (1+1,293*(?10?^(-3) (?_?? ) �(P,T) V_?? (P,T))/am(T) ))/(b_? (P,T) )=0,83(1+1,293*(?10?^(-3)*1,158*15,2)/(1,026*1,005))/1,033=0,821 ??/?^3 ; ???????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ????????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????????. ?????????? ??????? ? ??????? 9.
???????????? ???????? ?????????????? ????? ??? P_0 ? ???????? ???????????
�_?? (T)=�_?? ?(T-20)?^a e^(b(20-T));
a(24,8)=?10?^(-0,0175(20-T)-2,58)=?10?^(-0,0175(20-24,8)-2,58)=0,0032;
b(24,8)=(8*?10?^(-5) ?_??-0,047) ?�_???^(0,13+0,002(T-20) )=(8*?10?^(-5)*0,83-0,047) ?*4,8?^(0,13+0,002(24,8-20) )=0,02415; �_?? (T)=4,8*(24,8-20)^0,0032 e^0,02415(20-24,8) =4,29 ???*?;
???????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ????????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????????. ?????????? ??????? ? ??????? 10.
?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ????? �_?? (P,T)=A?�_???^B (T);
??? A ? B - ??????????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????:
A=1+0,0129V_??^* (P,T)-0,0364V_??^(*0,85)=1+0,0129*13,4 -0,0364*?13,4 ?^0,85=0,843;
B=1+0,0017V_??^* (P,T)-0,0228V_??^(*0,667)=1+0,0017*13,4 -0,0228*?13,4?^0,667 =0,816;
V_??^* (P,T) - ???????? ????? ????????????? ? ????? ????, ??????????? ? P_0=0,1 ??? ? T_??=288,6 K:
V_??^* (P,T)=1,055*?10?^(-3) (1+5a_? ) V_?? (P,T) ?_??=1,055*?10?^(-3) (1+5*0,0009 )*15,2*0,83=13,4 ?^3/?^3 �_?? (P,T)=0,843*?4,8?^0,816=2,765 ???*?;
???????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ????????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????????. ?????????? ??????? ? ??????? 10.
?????? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ? ???????? ???????? ?? ????? ???.
??????? 9
??????? 10
??????? 9
?, ?P, ???T, �?V??, ?�/?Rm?V??, ?�/?????u???b??a?, 1/�???, ??/?�1524,712,233,93,78-0,0941,013-1,08516,490,6491,075-169,41,1731,0420,002560,00090,815152512,133,63,82-0,0951,013-1,08416,440,6471,073-169,41,1721,0410,002570,00090,815152611,932,33,97-0,0991,012-1,08116,270,6431,067-169,41,1701,0400,002570,00090,816152711,631,14,11-0,1031,011-1,07816,100,6381,060-169,41,1681,0390,002570,00090,817152811,429,84,26-0,1081,010-1,07515,930,6341,053-169,41,1651,0380,002580,00090,818152911,128,64,41-0,1121,008-1,07215,750,6291,046-169,41,1631,0360,002580,00090,819153010,827,34,56-0,1171,007-1,06915,580,6251,040-169,41,1611,0350,002590,00090,820153110,626,14,72-0,1211,006-1,06515,400,6201,033-169,41,1591,0340,002590,00090,821153210,324,84,88-0,1261,005-1,06215,220,6161,026-169,41,1581,0330,002600,00090,821153310,123,65,04-0,1311,003-1,05915,030,6121,019-169,41,1561,0310,002600,00090,822 ??????? 10
?, ?P, ???T, �?�??(?), ???*?abABV*??, ?�/?��??, ???*?1524,712,233,93,4400,00460,02480,8340,80314,502,25152512,133,63,4670,00450,02480,8340,80414,462,27152611,932,33,5770,00430,02470,8350,80514,312,33152711,631,13,6890,00410,02460,8360,80714,162,40152811,429,83,8040,00390,02450,8370,80914,012,47152911,128,63,9220,00370,02440,8390,81113,862,54153010,827,34,0430,00350,02430,8400,81213,702,61153110,626,14,1660,00340,02420,8410,81413,542,69153210,324,84,2910,00320,02420,8430,81613,382,77153310,123,64,4190,00300,02410,8440,81813,222,84
?????? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??? ????????? ???????? ????????? ????????
??? ??????????? ???????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ??????, ????????? ? ????????? ???????? ??????, ???????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????? ? ????????? ??????????? ??????.
??????????? ?????? ?????? ??-?? ?????????? ???????:
?_??=0,5(1-S_1/S_2 )=0,5(1-?d_1?^2/?d_2?^2 );
??? S_1 - ??????? ?????? ??????? ?????, ????????? ??????? ????? d_1=0,077 ?;
S_2- ??????? ?????? ??????? ???????.
?_??=0,5(1-?0,077?^2/?0,003?^2 )=0,499;
?????? ?????? ?? ????????? ???????:
?h_??=?_?? ?v_1?^2/2g=?_?? (8Q^2)/(p^2 d_1^2 g)=0,499 (8*?33,4/86400?^2)/(?3,14?^2*?0,077?^2*9,8)=0,0002 ?
??? v_1 - ???????? ?????? ?? ???????.
??????????? ?????? ?????? ??-?? ?????????? ??????????:
?_??=0,5(1-S_2/S_1 )=0,5(1-?d_2?^2/?d_1?^2 )=0,5(1-?0,003?^2/?0,007?^2 )=0,997;
?????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????????:
?h_??=?_?? ?v_2?^2/2g=?_?? (8Q^2)/(p^2 d_??^2 g)=0,997 (8*?33,4/86400?^2)/(?3,14?^2*?0,003?^2*9,8)=152,2 ?
??? v_2 - ???????? ?????? ? ???????.
?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????-????????:
?h_??=? l_??/d_2 ?v_2?^2/2g;
Re=(4Q?_??)/(pd_2 �_?? )=(4*33,4/86400*0,83)/(3,14*0,003*4,8*?10?^(-3) )=28395;
?=0,3164/?Re=0,3164/?28395=0,0244;
?h_??=? l_??/d_2 (8Q^2)/(p^2 ?d_2?^4 g)=0,0244 0,01/0,003*(8*?33,4/86400?^2)/(?3,14?^2*?0,003?^4*9,8)=12,4 ?;
?????? ???????? ?? ???????:
?H=?h_??+?h_??+?h_??=0,0002+12,4+152,2=164,7 ?;
???????? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ? ??????? ??? ?????? ????????? ???????. ?????????? ??????? ? ??????? 11.
??????? 11
d??, ??h??, ?????h??, ?Re??h??, ?????H, ?0,0030,00020,49912,41283950,0244152,20,997164,70,0060,00020,4970,46141970,02909,40,9889,90,0080,00020,4950,12106480,03113,00,9793,10,010,00020,4920,0485180,03291,20,9671,20,0120,00020,4880,0270990,03450,60,9520,6?????? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?? ???????? ???????.
??????? 11
?? ??????? ?????, ??? ? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? 6 ?? ????? ?????????? ?????? ??????.
?????? ????????? ???????? ?? ????? ???????? ?? ????????? ???????? ? ????????? ???????????? ? ????????
???????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????? ????????? ????????:
P_??=P_??? e^s+?_?? (H_?-H_??? )g;
???????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????? ???????? ????????:
P_??=?_?? gH_?+P_???+?P_??-P_?;
P_??? e^s+?_?? (H_?-H_??? )g=?_?? gH_?+P_???+?P_??-P_??? =>
P_???=P_??? e^s+?_?? (H_?-H_??? )g-?_?? gH_?+P_???-?P_??,
???
s=0,03415 (H_??? ?_?)/(T_??? z)=0,03415 (228*1)/((18,8+273)*0,5)=0,05;
T_???=(T_???+T_???)/2=(17,6+20,1)/2=18,8?;
P_?=P_???-P_??=2,2;
?P_??=? l_???/d_??? ?v_????^2/2g
Re=(4Q?_??)/(pd_??? �_?? )=(4*33,4/86400*0,8785)/(3,14*0,062*3,2*?10?^(-3) )=1958;
?=64/Re=64/1958=0,048;
?P_??=? l_???/d_??? (8Q^2)/(p^2 ?d_????^4 g)=0,048 1533/0,062*(8?33,4/86400?^2)/(?3,14?^2*?0,062?^4*9,8)=0,008 ???;
P_(? ???)=?_?? g(H_?-H_??? )=785*9,8*(1533-228)=10,1 ???;
P_(? ???)=?_?? gH_?=785*9,8*1533=11,8 ???;
P_???=P_??? e^s+?_?? (H_?-H_??? )g-?_?? gH_?+P_?-?P_??=P_??? e^0,05+11,8-10,1+1,4-0,008 P_???=1,05P_???+0,38;
P_??? (0,1)=1,05*(0,1)+0,38=0,489???;
?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ????????. ?????????? ??????? ? ??????? 12.
??????? 12
P???, ???P???, ???0,10,4890,20,5940,30,7000,40,8050,50,9110,61,0160,71,1220,81,2270,91,33311,438?????? ??????????? P???=f(P???).
??????? 12
?????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ? ?????? ?????????? ??? ?? ?????????
??? ?????????? ???????? ??? ?????????????? ???????? ????????? ?????. ????? ????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??????? ??????, ????? ??????????? ?? ?????????, ?????????????, ?????????? ????? ????? ??????? ???, ??? ??????? ????? ????? ???????? ?? ??????? ????? ??????????????, ??? Q=24,25 ?^3/???, H=591 ?.
???????? ?????????????? ????????:
H_?=H_??? (Q)+H_?+H_?? (Q)+H_?;
H_???=H_???-(P_???-P_???)/?g, P_???=P_??-Q/K_???? =>
H_???=H_???-(P_??-Q/K_???? -P_???)/?g=2186-(17,7*?10?^6-24,25/12,5*?10?^6-1*?10?^6)/(785*9,8)=263 ?;
H_?=P_???/?g=?10?^6/(785*9,8)=130 ?;
H_?=(P_?1+P_?2)/?g=?(0,07+0,42)*10?^6/(785*9,8)=64 ?;
H_?? (Q)=H_?-H_??? (Q)-H_?-H_?=591-263-130-64=262 ?;
???????????, ??? ????? ????????????.
H_??=? l_???/d_??? (8Q^2)/(p^2 ?d_????^4 g),
?=0,3164/?Re=0,3164/?((4Q?_??)/(pd_??? �_?? )) => H_??=(0,3164*(p�)^0,25)/(4Q?)^0,25 *l_???/d^4,75 *(8Q^2)/(p^2 g) =>
d=v(4,75&(0,3164*(p�)^0,25)/(4Q?)^0,25 *l_???/H_?? *(8Q^2)/(p^2 g))=v(4,75&(0,3164*(3,14*3,2)^0,25)/(4*24,25/86400*785)^0,25 *1533/262*(8*(?24,25/86400)?^2)/(?3,14?^2*9,8))=0,017 ?;
???????? ??????:
Re=(4Q?_??)/(pd_??? �_?? )=(4*24,25/86400*785)/(3,14*0,017*3,2*?10?^(-3) )=5185 >2320.
d_min=0,017 ?.
?????? ?????? ???????? ? ???
?????? ????, ??????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ??????:
F_??=p(R_1^2-R_?^2 )(?_1-?_2 )-(p??^2)/8 (R_1^2-R_?^2 )(R_2^2-0,5(R_1^2+R_?^2 ))-?QC_0
??? R?, R1, R2 - ??????? ????, ??????????? ? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ??????; ?1 ? ?2 - ???????? ?? ????? ? ?????? ??????? ??????; ?0 - ?????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ????? ? ??????? ??????; ? - ????????? ??? ? ?????? ??????; ? - ??????? ???????? ???? ??????; Q - ?????????????????? ??????.
????????? ?=2900 ??/??? = 48 ??/?.
C_0=Q/(2pR_2 b)=33,4/(86400�2�3,14�0,047�0,005)=0,262 ?/?;
?1=10,05 ???, ??? ????????????? ???????? ?? ????? ? ?????.
?_2=?_1+?g?/z=10,05+(785�9,81�591)/273=10,07 ???,
??? ? - ????? ??????????? ???????, ?; z - ?????????? ??????? ????? ? ???, ?_(? ???) - ??????? ????????? ???????? ? ????????? ???.
F_??=3,14�(?0,025?^2-?0,015?^2 )(10,07-10,05) ?�10?^6-(3,14�785�?48?^2)/8 (?0,025?^2-?0,015?^2 )(?0,047?^2-0,5(?0,025?^2-?0,015?^2 ))-786�33,4/86400 0,262=20,8 ?.
????????? ?????? ???? ? ???????????? ??????:
F=F_??�z=20,8�264=5481 ?.
?????? ????????? ??? ?? ???????? ???? ??????? ? ???????? ? ??????? ?????? ? ???
?? ??? ?????????? ????? 5% ?????? ????????.
?????????? ??? ?????:
?=L_??? (?_?+0,05�F)/(E�f_? ),
??? ?=2,1*1011 ?/?2 - ??????????? ?????????; f? - ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ????; ?? - ??? ??? ? ???.
f_?=0,785�(d_(??? ?)^2-d_(??? ??)^2 )=0,785�(?0,073?^2-?0,062?^2 )=1,17�?10?^(-3) ?^2; ?_?=V_? ?_(? ???) g=0,785�?0,062?^2�1537�785�9,81=35652 ?;
?=1537*(35652+0,05�5481)/(2,1�?10?^11�1,17�?10?^(-3) )=0,225 ?.
?????? ??? ?? ???????????? ????????
?????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ????????:
?_???=(p�D�d�s_???)/(1+(D/(2�l))�ctg(a+f)),
??? D - ??????? ??????? ????? ? ????????? ????????? ?????, ?;
d- ??????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????;
a- ???? ???? ?????? ??????? ? ???? ?????;
l - ????? ????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ????, ?;
f- ???? ?????? ??????? ?? ???????.
P_???=(3,14�62�?10?^(-3)�11�?10?^(-3)�380�?10?^6)/(1+(62�?10?^(-3))/(2�60�?10?^(-3) )�ctg(70+18) )=733608 ?.
L_???=P_???/(K_??? q)=733608/(1,5*89,8)=5446 ?;
L_???>L_???.
?????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????:
P_???=(2�s_???�d)/(d_???�a)=(2�380�?10?^6�5,5�?10?^(-3))/(73�?10?^(-3)�1,5)=38,2 ???,
??? d- ??????? ?????? ???;
d_???-???????? ??????? ???;
a-??????????? ?????? ?????????.
?????????? ?????? ??? ???????, ??? ? ??????? ??? ????????? ????????? ????:
P_(?? ???)=P_?+?_?�g�H_???=1�?10?^6+1189�9,81�1533=18,9 ???;
?_(?? ???)<?_???.
????? ???????, ??? ??????????? ???????? ?? ??????, ??????????? ? ?????????? ????????.
?????? ?????????? ???
????????? ???????????? ????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ????? ? ?????????, ??? ???????, ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??? (?????????) ? ???????????? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ????????? "????? - ?????".
?? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ? ???????? ? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ??????????.
?????? ???????? ? ??? ?? ????? ????????
??? ?????????? ??? ?? ??? ?????????? ????? 5% ?????? ???????? ???. ????????????? ??? ? ???????? ????????? 73 ??, ???????? ?????? 5,5 ??, ???????, ?????? ????????? ?.
????????????? ????????:
G=p/4 (d_1^2-d_2^2 ) s_???, ??? d1 - ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? 1-?? ?????;
d2 - ?????????? ??????? ???;
s??? - ?????? ????????? (??? ????? ????? ? s??? = 380 ???).
G=p/4 (d_1^2-d_2^2 ) s_???=0,785�(?0,073?^2-?0,062?^2 )�380�?10?^6=443199,8 ?;
????? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ?? ???????:
L_???=(G-0,05F)/(K_3 q),
??? K? - ??????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ? ??????? ????????? ??? (K? = 1,5);
q - ??? 1 ? ????? ? ?????? (q = 70 ?/?).
L_max=(443199,8-0,05�5481)/(1,5�89,8)=3288 ?;
L_???<L_???.
?????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????? ???? ? ????????
???????? ???????? ?????????, ?????? ? ??? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ? ??????? ? ???????????????? ???????. ?????????? ????? ????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ????????? ???????????????? ??????? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ???? ??; ????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ????????
D_???^max=d_??-a_???=129-2�5=119 ??,
??????????? ??????? ???????? ? ?????? ???????? ?????? ????????:
D_???^????=D_??/2+D_?/2+h_?+s_?=103/2+92/2+15,0+1=115,5 ??<D_???^max,
??? h_?=15,0 ?? - ??????? ???????? ??????; s_?=1 ?? - ??????? ?????????????? ?????, ????????? ?????? ? ????????.
????????? ???????? ??????????, ??? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ? ???????????????? ??????? ?????????????????.
?????? ??????
??? ??????? ?????????????? ? ???????????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????? ????3�25 ? ???????? ??????? ???? 25 ??2. ?? ????? ?????? ? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ????3X16 ? ???????? ??????? 16 ??2. ?? ??????? ? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?????????????? ? ??? ? ??? ?????????.
?????? ?????????????? ? ?????? ????3�25 ?????? 100 ? ???????????? ?? ???????:
?P_?=3�?10?^(-3) ?�I?_?^2�R, ??? I_?=33 A - ???? ???? ? ??????? ????????????????;
R - ????????????? ? ?????? ?????? 100 ?, ??????? ???????????? ?? ???????:
R=100�?_t 1/q_? ,
??? q_?- ??????? ??????? ???? ??????, ??2;
?_t - ???????? ????????????? ??? ??????? ??????????? ? ????????, ???????????? ?? ???????:
?_t=?�[1+a�(T_?-293)];
?_t=0,0175�[1+0,004�(298-293)]=0,01785 (??�????^2)/?, ??? ? = 0,0175 ?????2/? - ???????? ????????????? ???? ??? ? = 293?;
a = 0,004 - ????????????? ??????????? ??? ????, ?????
R=100�0,01785�1/25=0,0714 ??;
?P_?=0,233 ???.
????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ??????, ????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ??? ?????? ??????:
L_?=1,1?�L?_???=1,1�1627�1790 ? ????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ? ?????? ????????:
?P_??=?P_?�L_?/100=0,233�1790/100=4,17 ??? ????? ????????? ????????????
???????????? ???????????? ? ??????? 13.
??????? 13
? ?/???? ??????????????????????1?????????5-50-13002???????5-50-13003?????? ????????? ??????????????-4???????32-103?55???????????1?516?????? 73?5,57?????????? 3?25???? 3?168?????????????????????-100/3-73?19??????? ???????????????-04?10???????? ???????????1 - 65?21
??????????
? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ????? ????????? ???????????????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ???????? ?? ???????? ????????. ???? ?????????? ? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ?? ????? ????????, ????????? ???????? ????????? ???, ???? ??????? ???????? ? ????????? ???????????? ???? ??? ??????? ???????? ?? ???????? ????????. ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ??????? 14.
??????? 14
Q, ?�/??????, ???????, ?????, ???????, ???L???, ?H???, ?????, ????? ???33,410,0517,7111537153323,7????5-50-1300
?????? ?????????????? ??????????
???????????? ?.?. ?????????? ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ?????????????. ?????? ?????. ?., ?????, 1983.
??????? ?.?. ??????? ? ?????? ????? ?., ?????, 1983
??????? ?.?.??????? ????? ?? ?????????? ? ??????? ???????????. ?., ?????, 1984
????????? ?.?. ???????????????? ????????????, 1990.-559?.
?.?. ?????????? ? ??. ?????????? ???????? ????????? ??? ?????? ?????, 2002.-824?.
??????? ?.?. ?????????? ?????? ?????, 2007.-826?.
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