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 ??????- ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ????????.
?????? ?????????? ? ????, ????- ??? ????????? ??????? ????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ????? ?????????????? ??????????.
??????????- ??? ??????????? ????????? ????????????????? ? ???????? ???????. ??? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ?????????????.
???????? ???????? ?????????????????.
?????????; ?????????; ???????????????; ???????????? ?????????; ?????-?????????; ????????????.
????????? => ???????? => ?????????????? ????????
???????? ??????????????? ????????? P1 ? P2 ? ????????? n1 ? n2
???????????? ????? - u=u_1/u_2 ; ?=p_2/p_1 ;
???? ???????????? ????? u>1 ?? ???????? ?????????? ??? ????????. ???? u<1 ?? ???????? ??????????????.
???????????? ???????? ??????: ???????(???????????, ??? ????????), ???????????.
1. ????? ????????? n_???=100 ??/???; ?_???=245 ??;
1)?????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??????:
P_???=F*V ; P_???=pnT/30 ; P_???=(3,14*100*245)/30=2564 ???;
1.2. ?????????? ??????? ????????: n=(60*v)/pD;
2) ?????????? ????? ???: ?_???= ?_?* ?_(?.?) ; ?_(?.?)=0,96-???????? ????????; ?_?=0,98-?????; ?_(?.?)=0,96-???????? ????????; ?_(?.?)=0,95-?????? ????????;
?_(?.?)=0,97-???????? ????????; ?_?=?0,99?^2-??????????.
?_???= ?_?* ?_(?.?)*?_(?.?)*?_?^2; ?_???= 0,98*0,96*0,97*0,9801=0,89
3) ?????????? ???????? ?????????:
?_1=P_???/?_??? ; ?_1=2564/0,89=2880 ??;
4)?????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????:
u^*=u_1*u_2; u_??=2-6; - ???????? ????????; u=2-4; -??????, ????, ???????? ????????.
u^*=3*4=12;
5)?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????:
n_1^*=n*n^*; n_1^*=100*12=1200 ??/???;
6)????? ?????????: 4?10054Y3 3.0 ??? 1435 ??/??? 28??(??????? ????)
7)???????? ???????????? ?????:
u=n_??/n_??? ; u=1435/100= 14,35;
u=u1*u2; u=14,35; u=u1*u2 =2,8*5=14;
8) ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????:
n_1=n_?? ; n_1=1435; n_2=n_1/u_1 ; n_2=1435/2,8=512,5; n_3=n_2/u_2 ; n_3=512/5=102,4;
9)?????????? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????:
T_3=FD/2; T_3=T_???=245; T_2=T_3/(u_2*?_?*?_(?*) ?_(?.?) ); T_2=245/(5*0,98*0,97*0,99)=245/4,7=52,12; T_1=?_2/(u_1*?_?*?_(?.?) ); T_1=52,12/(2,8*0,99*0,96)=52,12/2,7=19,3;
10)?????????? ???????? ?? ?????:
?_1=?_??=3???; ?_2=?_1*?_(?.?) ?; ??_2=3000*0,96=2880; ?_3=?_2*?_?*?_(?.?);? ??_3=2880*0,99*0,97=2765,7;
P_1P_2T_1T_2n_1n_2u_1 3??? 2880 19,3 52,12 1435 512,5 2,8 ???????? ????????.
1)???????? ??????? ?????: ?
2)???????? ??????? ???????? ?????: ? d?_1=112; e=0,01; d_2=d_1*u(1-e); d_2=112*2,8(1-0,01)=112*2,8*0,99=310,5�315;
4)???????? ???????????? ?????: u= 315/(112*0,99 ) = 315/110,88 =2,84;
5)?????????? ????????? ??????????: a=ed_2; a=1*315=315;
a_min=0,55(d_1+d_2)+n; a_min=0,55(112+315)+1435=1669,85;
a_max=2(d_1+d_2); a_max=2*(112+315) = 857;
6)?????????? ????? ?????: l = 2a + p ((d_1+d_2))/2 + ?(d_2+d_1)?^2/4a ; l= 2*315 + 3,14((112+315))/2 + ?(315-112)?^2/(4*315) = 630 + 670,39 + 32,7 =1333�1400;
7)???????? ????????? ??????????: a = (2l-p(d_1+d_2 )+v(?(2l-p(d_1+d_2))?^2-?8(d_2-d_1)?^2 ))/8
a = (2*1400-3,14(112+315)+v(?(2*1400-3,14(112+315))?^2-?8(315-112)?^2 ))/8 = (2*1400-3,14(427)+v(?(2*1400-3,14(427))?^2-?8(203)?^2 ))/8 = (2*1400-1340,78+v(?(2*1400-1340,78)?^2-329672))/8 = =(1459,22+v1799651)/8= 350,1;
8) ?????????? ???? ???????:
a=180 - 57*(d_2-d_1)/a; a=180 - 57*((315-112))/315=180 - 36,7=143,3;
9)?????????? ???????? ????????:
v=(p*d_1*n_1)/(60*1000) ; v=(3,14*112*1435)/(60*1000) = 8,4;
10)????????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ??????:
P=(P_0*C_a*C_l*C_u)/C_H ; C_l=1400/1700=0,82�0,95; P=(1300*0,9*0,95*1,14)/1,2 = 1055,9;
11) ????? ??????:
Z=3000/(1055,9*0,95) =3000/1003,1 =2,99; C_z=3000/1055,9 =2,84;
12)?????????? ??????????????? ?????????: F_o=d*A; F_o=1,6*81=129,6;
13)?????????? ???????? ??????:
F_t=P/v ; F_t=1055,9/8,4=125,7; 14)???? ??????????? ? ?????? ?????:
? F?_1=F_o-F_t/2Z; F_1=129,6-125,7/(2*2,99) = 108,6; ? F?_2=F_o+F_t/2Z ; F_1=129,6+125,7/(2*2,99) = 150,6;
15)?????? ??????????? ?? ???:
F_B=2*F_o*Z*sin a/2 ; F_B=2*129,6*2,99*sin 143,3/2 = 702 H;
16)?????????? ????? ???????? ?????:
S=8,4/1,4 = 6; ???????? ????????.
???????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ?????.
?????????: ? ????????????? ?????, ? ??????????????? ?????, ?????????????????.
?? ????? ??????? ????: ????????????, ????????.
???????? ? ??????? ????????? ???????? ?? 150 ?/???, ??????? ???.
??????????: ????????? ????????????, ??????? ?????????, ??????? ??????.
?????????? ?????????? ????????? ???? ??????? ???????? ???? ?? ????????? ? ????????? ??????.
? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????.
???????? ??????:
P_1P_2T_1T_2n_1n_2U 2880 2765,7 52,12 245 512,5 245 5
1. ???????? ????? ????? ? ??? ?????????????? ?????45 ?????????????? ????????? ?????????:
s_Hlim=2HB+70 ; s_Hlim=2*220+70=510 ???;
2. ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????: [s_H ]=(s_Hlim*K_HL)/S_H ; [s_H ]=510/1,1=464 ??? ; N_P=60n_1 t;
3. ?????????? ?????? ???????????? ?? ??????????? ??????:
s_Flim=1,8HB; s_Flim=1,8*220=396 ???;
4. ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????:
[s_F ]=(s_Flim*K_FL)/S_F ; [s_H ]=(361*1)/1,75=226 ???;
5. ?????????? ????????? ??????????:
a=K(u+1) ?((T_2*K_HB)/([s_H ]^2*u^2*?_bA ); ) a=430*6?((245*1,15)/(?464?^2*25*0,4))=132 ?? ????????? a=160 ??;
6. ?????????? ?????? ????:
m=(0,01-0,02)*160=1,6-3,2 ??; ????????? m=2??.
?????????????? ?????????: �=?10?^?; cos�=0,985;
Z_1=(2a*cos�)/((a+1)*m ); Z_1= (2*160*0,985)/(6*2) = 26;
? Z?_2=Z_1*U; ? Z?_2=26*5=130;
7. ?????????? ???? ??????? ??????:
arccos=(Z_1+Z_2 )m/2a; arccos = ((26,3+130)*2)/(2*160) = arccos 0,98 = ?12?^o;
8. ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????:
d_1=(mZ_1)/cos�; d_1= (2*26,3)/0,98 = 55; d_2=(mZ_2)/cos� ?; d?_2= (2*130)/0,98 = 265;
9. ?????????? ???????? ????????? ?????:
b=a*?_ba; b= 160*0,4 = 64;
10. ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ????????:
?_bd=b/d_1 ; ?_bd = 64/55 = 1,18;
11. ?????????? ???????? ????????:
v=(p*d_1*n_1)/60000; v=(3,14*55*512,5)/60000=1,475;
???????? 8-? ??????? ????????.
12. ?????????? ????????? ????????? ??????????: e=(1,88-3,2(1/Z_1 +1/Z_2 ))*cos�; e=(1,88-3,2(1/26+1/130))*0,98=1,7;
13. ?????????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ?????:
Z_3=v(1/e); Z_3= v(1/1,7)=0,77;
14. ?????????? ?????????? ??????????:
?=Z_H*Z_M*Z_e ((u+1)/u)*v((T_2*?10?^3*(u+1)*K_Ha*K_HB*K_HV)/(?_bd * 2a^3 )); ?=1,745*275*0,77((5+1)/5)*v((245*?10?^3*(5+1)*1,06*1,07*1,06)/(1,18 * 2*?160?^3 ))=190;
15. ?????????? ????????????? ????? ??????:
Z_v=Z_1/(?cos?^3 �); Z_v= 26/0,94=27,66 ;
Y_F=3,85 ;
16. ?????????? ??????????? ???? ??????? ??????:
Y_B=1-12/140=0,91 ;
17. ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????:
?_F=(Y_F*Y_B ?*K?_Fa ?*K?_FB ?*K?_Fu*2T_1*?10?^3)/(Z_1^2*m^3*?_Bd );? ??_F= (3,85*0,91*1,2*1,16*1,2*104,24*1000)/(676*8*1,18) = 95,6;
18. ?????????? ???? ??????????? ? ??????????:
???????? ????: F_t=(2*T_1*1000)/d_1 ; F_t=(2*52,12*1000)/55=1895,27;
?????????? ????: ? F?_r=(F_t*tga)/cos�; F_r=(1895,27*0,325)/0,98=688,5;
19. ?????? ????:
F_a=F_t*tg�; F_a=1895,27*0,19=361,5;
20. ?????????? ???????? ?????? ? ?????? ??????:
d_a1=d_1+2m=55+4=59;
d_a2=d_2+2m=265+4=269;
d_f1=d_1-2,5*m=55-5=50;
d_f2=d_2-2,5*m=265-5=260;
??????????????? ?????? ?????:
d_B1=?((T_1*?10?^3)/(0,2*[t] )); d_B1=?((19,3*1000)/4)=?4825�20; d_k1=25;
d_B2=?((T_2*?10?^3)/(0,2*20)); ? d?_B2=?((52,12*1000)/4)=?13030�25; d_k2=30;
d_B3=?((T_3*?10?^3)/(0,2*20)); ? d?_B3=?((245*1000)/4)=?61250�40; ??????? ?????: d=4*m; d=4*2=8;
??????? ?????: C=0,3*64=19,2; ????????? 20
??????? ???????:
d_CT1=1,6*d_k1;? d?_CT1=1,6*25=40;
d_CT2=1,6*d_k2; d_CT2=1,6*30=48;
?????? ???????:
l_CT1=1,5*d_k1; l_CT1=1,5*25=37,5;
l_CT2=1,5*d_k2; l_CT2=1,5*30=45;
??????? ?????? ??????? ?????????:
d=0,025*a+1; d=0,025*160+1=5 ??; ????????? d=8 ??;
??????? ?????? ?????? ?????????:
d_1=0,02*160+1=4,2; ????????? d_1=8 ??;
??????? ????? ?????????:
b=1,5*d; b=1,5*8=12;
??????? ????? ?????? ?????????:
b_1=1,5*d_1; b_1=1,5*8=12;
??????? ??????? ????? ???????:
p=2,35*8=18,8; ????????? p=20;
?????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????:
d_1=(0,03�0,036)*a+12=16,8�17,76; ????????? M18;
?????????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??????????:
d_2=(0,7�0,75)*d_1=12,6�13,5; ????????? M14;
?????????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ? ???????:
d_3=(0,5�0,6)*d_1=9�10,8; ????????? M10;
????:
F_t=1895,27 H;
F_r=628,5 H;
F_a=361,5 H;
d=27,5;
F_B=491 H;
R_x1=(1895,27*45+491*145)/90=(85287,15+71195)/90=1738,7;
R_x2=(1895,27*45-491*55)/90=(85287,15-27005)/90=647,6;
R_y1=(628,5*45+491*145-361,5*27,5)/90=(28282,5+71195-9941,25)/90=994,8;
R_y2=(628,5*45-491*55+361,5*27,5)/90=(28282,5-27005+9941,25)/90=124,7;
R_1=v(R_x1^2+R_y1^2 )=v(?1738,7?^2+994,8^2 )=v(3023077,7+98962,7)=2003,2;
R_2=v(R_x2^2+R_y2^2 )=v(?647,6?^2+124,7^2 )=v(419385,76+15550)=659,5;
????????? ?????????: 304 C=12300 H C_o=7790 H
e=F_a/C_o =361,5/7790=0,046; ????????? e=0,26;
F_a/VR=361,5/(1*2003,2)=0,18<e; X=1 Y=0
?????????? ????????????? ????????:
P?=(XVR+YF_a )*K_d*K_T=2003,2*1,1*1=2203,52;
????????? ?????????????:
L=(C/P?)^3=(12300/2203,52)^3=?(5,58)?^3=173,74; ???.??.
L_?=173740000/(60*512,5)=173740000/30750=5650,1; ?.
????:
F_t=1895,27 H;
F_r=628,5 H;
F_a=361,5 H;
d=132,5;
R_x3=R_x4=1895,27/2=947,6;
R_y3=(628,5*45-361,5*132,5)/90=(28282,5-47898,75)/90=-217;
R_y4=(628,5*45+361,5*132,5)/90=(28282,5+47898,75)/90=846,46; R_3=v(R_x3^2+R_y3^2 )=v(?947,6?^2+?217?^2 )=v(897945,76+47089)=972,13;
R_4=v(R_x4^2+R_y4^2 )=v(?947,6?^2+?846,76?^2 )=v(897945,76+717002,5)=1270,8;
????????? ?????????: 305 C=17300 H; C_o=11400 H; d=25; D=62; B=17; r=2;
F_a/C_o =361,5/11400=0,032>e=0,22; F_a/?VF?_r =361,5/(1*1270)=0,28>e=>????????, ??? ?????? ???? ? ??????? ?????????; ?=0,56 ?=1,99
?????????? ????????????? ????????:
P?=(0,56*1270+1,99*361,5)=(711,2+719,39)=1430,6;
?????? ?? ?????????????:
L=(C/P?)^3=(17300/1430,6)^3=?(12,1)?^3=1771,6; ???.??.
L_?=1771600000/(60*102,4)=1771600000/6144=288346,4; ?.
?????? ??????:
d=25; b_1=8; l=28; h=7; t=4; T=52,12;
s_c?1=(2*T)/(d(l-b)(h-t_1))=(2*52,12)/(25(28-8)(7-4))=104,24/(25*20*3)=0,069*?10?^3=69;
d=30; b=10; l=36; h=8; t=5; T=245;
s_c?2=(2*T)/(d(l-b)(H-t_1))=(2*245)/(30(36-10)(8-5))=490/2340=0,21*?10?^3=210;
?.?. ? ??? s_c?2 ?????????? ?????? 200, ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????????? ??????????.
?????? ?? ?????? ????????? ??????????: Z=8; T=245; D=36; d=32; f=0,4; l=45; R_cp=(D+d)/4=(36+32)/4=9,5;
F=((D-d)/2-2f)*l=((36-32)/2-0,8)*45=54;
s_c?=T/(Z*R_CP*F)=(245*?10?^3)/(8*9,5*54)=245/4104�60;
????????? ?????? ????: s_?=690 ???;
s_(-1)=0,43*690=297 ???;
? t?_(-1)=0,58*297=172 ???;
?????????? ?????????? ??????:
M_n=v(M_x^2+M_y^2 )=v(?42642?^2+?38091?^2 )=57177;
?????????? ?????? ????????????? ??????:
W_n=(3,14*?30?^3)/32-(8*4?(30-4)?^2)/(2*30)=2289;
?????? ????????????? ????????:
W_?=(3,14*?30?^3)/16-360=5298-360=4938;
?????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????:
s_v=M_n/W_n =57177/2289=24,98;
??????? ??????????:
s_m=F_a/(0,25*p*d^2 )=361,5/(0,25*3,14*900)=361,5/708,75=0,5;
?????????? ????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ????????:
t_v=t_m=(T*?10?^3)/(2*W_p )=(245*1000)/9876=24,8;
?????????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ??????:
K_s=1,75; K_t=1,6; e_s=0,88; e_t=0,77; n_s=s_(-1)/(K_s/e_s *s_v+?_o*s_m )=297/(1,75/0,88*24,98+0,01)=297/50=5,94;
n_t=t_(-1)/(K_t/e_t *t_v+?_ *t_m )=172/(1,6/0,77*24,8+0,1*24,8)=172/(51,5+2,48)=172/53,98=3,2;
?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????:
n=(n_s*n_t)/v(n_s^2+n_t^2 )=19/v(35,28+10,24)=19/6,8=2,8;
n=[n]=2,5;
2,8>2,5 => ????????????? ???????.
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