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Indicator
1960
Adolescent fertility rate (births per 1,000 women ages 15-19)
-
Agricultural irrigated land (% of total agricultural land)
-
Agricultural land (% of land area)
-
Agricultural machinery, tractors per 100 sq. km of arable land
-
Agricultural methane emissions (% of total)
-
Agricultural nitrous oxide emissions (% of total)
-
Agriculture value added per worker (constant 2000 US$)
-
Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)
-
Air transport, registered carrier departures worldwide
-
Alternative and nuclear energy (% of total energy use)
1.66
Annual freshwater withdrawals, agriculture (% of total freshwater withdrawal)
-
Annual freshwater withdrawals, domestic (% of total freshwater withdrawal)
-
Annual freshwater withdrawals, industry (% of total freshwater withdrawal)
-
Annual freshwater withdrawals, total (billion cubic meters)
-
Arable land (% of land area)
-
Arable land (hectares per person)
-
Average number of times firms spent in meetings with tax officials
-
Bank capital to assets ratio (%)
-
Bank nonperfoming loans to total gross loans (%)
-
Birth rate, crude (per 1,000 people)
18.9
CO2 emissions (kt)
9398.16
CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita)
1.13
Cash surplus/deficit (% of GDP)
-
Central government debt, total (% of GDP)
-
Cereal yield (kg per hectare)
-
Children out of school, primary, female
-
Children out of school, primary, male
-
Combustible renewables and waste (% of total energy)
0
Container port traffic (TEU: 20 foot equivalent units)
-
Credit depth of information index (0=low to 6=high)
-
Crop production index (1999-2001 = 100)
-
Current account balance (BoP, current US$)
-
Death rate, crude (per 1,000 people)
7.3
Deposit interest rate (%)
-
Documents to export (number)
-
Documents to import (number)
-
Domestic credit provided by banking sector (% of GDP)
18.23
Domestic credit to private sector (% of GDP)
12.16
Ease of doing business index (1=most business-friendly regulations)
-
Electric power consumption (kWh per capita)
241.86
Employees, agriculture, female (% of female employment)
-
Employees, agriculture, male (% of male employment)
-
Employees, industry, female (% of female employment)
-
Employees, industry, male (% of male employment)
-
Employees, services, female (% of female employment)
-
Employees, services, male (% of male employment)
-
Employment in agriculture (% of total employment)
-
Employment to population ratio, 15+, total (%)
-
Energy imports, net (% of energy use)
86.63
Energy production (kt of oil equivalent)
322
Energy related methane emissions (% of total)
-
Energy related nitrous oxide emissions (% of total)
-
Energy use (kg of oil equivalent per capita)
289.18
Energy use (kt of oil equivalent)
2408
Expenditure per student, primary (% of GDP per capita)
-
Expenditure per student, secondary (% of GDP per capita)
-
Expenditure per student, tertiary (% of GDP per capita)
-
Expense (% of GDP)
-
Export value index (2000 = 100)
-
Export volume index (2000 = 100)
-
Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)
8.51
Fertility rate, total (births per woman)
2.28
Fertilizer consumption (kilograms per hectare of arable land)
-
Firms using banks to finance investment (% of firms)
-
Fish species, threatened
-
Fixed broadband Internet subscribers (per 100 people)
-
Food production index (1999-2001 = 100)
-
Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)
-
Forest area (% of land area)
-
Forest area (sq. km)
-
Fossil fuel energy consumption (% of total)
98.3
GDP (current US$)
###
GDP growth (annual %)
-
GDP per capita (current US$)
533.99
GDP per person employed (constant 1990 PPP $)
-
GDP per unit of energy use (constant 2005 PPP $ per kg of oil equivalent)
-
GEF benefits index for biodiversity (0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum)
-
GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$)
-
GNI per capita, PPP (current international $)
-
GNI, Atlas method (current US$)
-
GNI, PPP (current international $)
-
Gross capital formation (% of GDP)
33.61
Gross intake rate in grade 1, female (% of relevant age group)
-
Gross intake rate in grade 1, male (% of relevant age group)
-
Gross savings (% of GDP)
-
Health expenditure per capita (current US$)
-
Health expenditure, public (% of total health expenditure)
-
Health expenditure, total (% of GDP)
-
High-technology exports (% of manufactured exports)
-
High-technology exports (current US$)
-
Highest marginal tax rate, corporate rate (%)
-
Highest marginal tax rate, individual (on income exceeding, US$)
-
Highest marginal tax rate, individual rate (%)
-
Households with television (%)
-
ICT goods exports (% of total goods exports)
-
ICT goods imports (% total goods imports)
-
ICT service exports (% of service exports, BoP)
-
ISO certification ownership (% of firms)
-
Immunization, DPT (% of children ages 12-23 months)
-
Immunization, measles (% of children ages 12-23 months)
-
Import value index (2000 = 100)
-
Import volume index (2000 = 100)
-
Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)
16.16
Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)
-
Improved sanitation facilities, urban (% of urban population with access)
-
Improved water source, rural (% of rural population with access)
-
Improved water source, urban (% of urban population with access)
-
Incidence of tuberculosis (per 100,000 people)
-
Income share held by fourth 20%
-
Income share held by highest 10%
-
Income share held by highest 20%
-
Income share held by lowest 10%
-
Income share held by lowest 20%
-
Income share held by second 20%
-
Income share held by third 20%
-
Industry, value added (% of GDP)
-
Inflation, GDP deflator (annual %)
-
Inflation, consumer prices (annual %)
-
Informal payments to public officials (% of firms)
-
Information and communication technology expenditure (% of GDP)
-
Interest rate spread (lending rate minus deposit rate, %)
-
International Internet bandwidth (bits per person)
-
International migrant stock, total
52495
International voice traffic (minutes per person)
-
Internet users
-
Internet users (per 100 people)
-
Labor force, total
-
Labor participation rate, female (% of female population ages 15+)
-
Labor participation rate, male (a% of male population ages 15+)
-
Labor participation rate, total (% of total population ages 15+)
-
Land area (sq. km)
-
Land under cereal production (hectares)
-
Lead time to export, median case (days)
-
Lead time to import, median case (days)
-
Lending interest rate (%)
8
Life expectancy at birth, female (years)
70.52
Life expectancy at birth, male (years)
67.26
Life expectancy at birth, total (years)
68.85
Listed domestic companies, total
-
Literacy rate, adult total (% of people ages 15 and above)
-
Literacy rate, youth female (% of females ages 15-24)
-
Literacy rate, youth male (% of males ages 15-24)
-
Literacy rate, youth total (% of people ages 15-24)
-
Livestock production index (1999-2001 = 100)
-
Logistics performance index: Overall (1=low to 5=high)
-
Long-term unemployment (% of total unemployment)
-
Long-term unemployment, female (% of female unemployment)
-
Long-term unemployment, male (% of male unemployment)
-
Mammal species, threatened
-
Marine protected areas (% of total surface area)
-
Marine protected areas (number)
-
Market capitalization of listed companies (% of GDP)
-
Market capitalization of listed companies (current US$)
-
Maternal mortality ratio (modeled estimate, per 100,000 live births)
-
Merchandise trade (% of GDP)
20.36
Methane emissions (kt of CO2 equivalent)
-
Military expenditure (% of GDP)
-
Military expenditure (% of central government expenditure)
-
Mobile and fixed-line telephone subscribers
181734
Mobile and fixed-line telephone subscribers (per 100 people)
2.18
Mobile and fixed-line telephone subscribers per employee
-
Mobile cellular prepaid tariff (US$ per month)
-
Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)
0
Mortality rate, infant (per 1,000 live births)
38.4
Mortality rate, under-5 (per 1,000)
46
Motor vehicles (per 1,000 people)
-
Net barter terms of trade index (2000 = 100)
-
Net migration
-123930
New businesses registered (number)
-
Nitrous oxide emissions (thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent)
-
Organic water pollutant (BOD) emissions (kg per day per worker)
-
Organic water pollutant (BOD) emissions (kg per day)
-
Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 (thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent)
-
Out-of-pocket health expenditure (% of private expenditure on health)
-
PM10, country level (micrograms per cubic meter)
-
Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)
-
Patent applications, residents
-
Permanent cropland (% of land area)
-
Persistence to last grade of primary, female (% of cohort)
-
Persistence to last grade of primary, male (% of cohort)
-
Personal computers (per 100 people)
-
Plant species (higher), threatened
-
Population ages 0-14 (% of total)
26.49
Population ages 15-64 (% of total)
65.26
Population ages 65 and above (% of total)
8.25
Population covered by mobile cellular network (%)
-
Population growth (annual %)
-
Population in the largest city (% of urban population)
62.89
Population in urban agglomerations of more than 1 million (% of total population)
26.98
Population, female (% of total)
51.19
Population, total
8327000
Portfolio investment, equity (BoP, current US$)
-
Prevalence of HIV, female (% ages 15-24)
-
Prevalence of HIV, male (% ages 15-24)
-
Prevalence of HIV, total (% of population ages 15-49)
-
Primary completion rate, female (% of relevant age group)
-
Primary completion rate, male (% of relevant age group)
-
Primary completion rate, total (% of relevant age group)
-
Private credit bureau coverage (% of adults)
-
Progression to secondary school, female (%)
-
Progression to secondary school, male (%)
-
Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments (%)
-
Public credit registry coverage (% of adults)
-
Public spending on education, total (% of GDP)
-
Public spending on education, total (% of government expenditure)
-
Pump price for diesel fuel (US$ per liter)
-
Pump price for gasoline (US$ per liter)
-
Pupil-teacher ratio, primary
-
Rail lines (total route-km)
-
Ratio of female to male enrollments in tertiary education
-
Ratio of female to male primary enrollment
-
Ratio of female to male secondary enrollment
-
Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education (%)
-
Real interest rate (%)
-
Refugee population by country or territory of asylum
-
Refugee population by country or territory of origin
-
Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita (cubic meters)
-
Renewable internal freshwater resources, total (billion cubic meters)
-
Repeaters, primary, female (% of female enrollment)
-
Repeaters, primary, male (% of male enrollment)
-
Research and development expenditure (% of GDP)
-
Researchers in R&D (per million people)
-
Revenue, excluding grants (% of GDP)
-
Rigidity of employment index (0=less rigid to 100=more rigid)
-
Risk premium on lending (prime rate minus treasury bill rate, %)
-
Road sector fuel consumption (% of total consumption)
20.31
Roads, paved (% of total roads)
-
Royalty and license fees, payments (BoP, current US$)
-
Royalty and license fees, receipts (BoP, current US$)
-
Rural population
4754717
Rural population (% of total population)
57.1
S&P Global Equity Indices (annual % change)
-
School enrollment, preprimary (% gross)
-
School enrollment, primary (% gross)
-
School enrollment, primary (% net)
-
School enrollment, secondary (% gross)
-
School enrollment, secondary (% net)
-
School enrollment, tertiary (% gross)
-
Scientific and technical journal articles
-
Secure Internet servers (per 1 million people)
-
Services, etc., value added (% of GDP)
-
Share of women employed in the nonagricultural sector (% of total nonagricultural employment)
-
Start-up procedures to register a business (number)
-
Stocks traded, total value (% of GDP)
-
Stocks traded, turnover ratio (%)
-
Strength of legal rights index (0=weak to 10=strong)
-
Tax payments (number)
-
Tax revenue (% of GDP)
-
Technicians in R&D (per million people)
-
Telecommunications revenue (% GDP)
-
Terrestrial protected areas (% of total surface area)
-
Terrestrial protected areas (number)
-
Time required to start a business (days)
-
Time to prepare and pay taxes (hours)
-
Time to resolve insolvency (years)
-
Total businesses registered (number)
-
Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)
###
Total tax rate (% of profit)
-
Trade in services (% of GDP)
-
Trademark applications, direct nonresident
1260
Trademark applications, direct resident
1271
Transport sector diesel fuel consumption per capita (liters)
0.04
Transport sector gasoline fuel consumption per capita (liters)
0.02
Unemployment, female (% of female labor force)
-
Unemployment, male (% of male labor force)
-
Unemployment, total (% of total labor force)
-
Unemployment, youth female (% of female labor force ages 15-24)
-
Unemployment, youth male (% of male labor force ages 15-24)
-
Urban population
3572283
Urban population (% of total)
42.9
Vehicles (per km of road)
-
Vulnerable employment, female (% of female employment)
-
Vulnerable employment, male (% of male employment)
-
Vulnerable employment, total (% of total employment)
-
Water pollution, chemical industry (% of total BOD emissions)
-
Water pollution, clay and glass industry (% of total BOD emissions)
-
Water pollution, food industry (% of total BOD emissions)
-
Water pollution, metal industry (% of total BOD emissions)
-
Water pollution, other industry (% of total BOD emissions)
-
Water pollution, paper and pulp industry (% of total BOD emissions)
-
Water pollution, textile industry (% of total BOD emissions)
-
Water pollution, wood industry (% of total BOD emissions)
-
Workers' remittances and compensation of employees, received (current US$)
-
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
69.12
69.06
69.98
69.75
67.32
70.52
70.7
70.93
70.94
80.99
85.68
93.23
111.63
131.45
149.5
168.4
171.31
188.93
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1.85
1.89
2.34
1.84
1.69
3.16
2.71
2.07
2.78
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
21.68
22.21
23.72
23.28
23.2
23.24
23.43
23.69
23.41
0.33
0.34
0.36
0.35
0.35
0.35
0.35
0.35
0.34
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
17.9
18
17.5
18
17.7
17.9
18.7
18.2
17.4
9815.86
10156.61
12248.75
13212.38
17011.95
18635.1
19518.13
22302.77
25453.81
1.17
1.2
1.44
1.55
1.99
2.16
2.24
2.55
2.9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1265.6
1380
1291
1627.5
1652.6
1823.8
1950
1521.6
1717
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
48
41
46
46
49
51
52
51
52
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7.6
7.9
7.9
8.2
7.9
7.9
8.3
8.3
8.1
5.13
5.5
5.32
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.8
5.8
5.8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
18.04
19.65
21.46
22.55
20.82
20.94
21.91
23.26
24.75
12.13
14.44
16.09
15.76
14.27
14.44
15.45
16.34
16.85
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
272.56
305.4
342.1
407.99
475.44
635.48
731.76
797.51
917.59
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
87.41
86.98
84.13
85.91
84.34
83.79
84.84
84.79
83.68
341
385
495
520
641
764
800
867
1039
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
322.46
350.14
367.81
433.61
478.83
547.13
605.44
652.1
725.52
2708
2958
3119
3690
4094
4713
5277
5700
6365
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8.65
9.06
9.35
8.54
8.36
10.5
9.94
8.94
9.06
2.19
2.23
2.22
2.31
2.3
2.38
2.55
2.56
2.48
568.09
691.62
714.92
821.13
838.07
873.31
910.49
1032.82
1066.17
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
52
45
49
50
54
57
58
58
59
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
98.19
98.14
97.66
98.18
98.27
96.84
97.12
97.89
97.28
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
11.15
1.53
10.14
8.26
9.39
6.1
5.48
6.66
9.9
597.29
630.63
701.59
784.99
888.96
981.61
1048.27
1134.33
1284.18
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
630
710
790
890
980
1060
1180
1330
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
36.14
38.32
38.55
46.47
47.52
40.29
40.33
41.77
46.81
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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-
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-
-
-
-
-
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-
-
-
-
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-
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-
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-
-
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-
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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-
-
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-
-
-
-
-
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-
-
-
-
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-
-
-
-
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-
-
-
-
-
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
15.86
16.33
17.38
18.38
19.63
18.14
17.46
17.78
18.08
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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-
-
-
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-
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-
-
-
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1.93
-0.38
2.86
0.93
3.12
4.98
1.69
0.33
2.49
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2.88
2.5
2.93
3.7
3.7
3.7
3.2
2.95
2.2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
68707
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
128900
128900
128900
128900
128900
128900
128900
128900
128900
1772952
1758547
1644087
1766280
1779520
1716990
1690617
1708430
1635540
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
8
8.25
9
9
9
9
8.75
8
-
71.2
-
-
72.16
-
72.8
-
-
-
67.9
-
-
68.74
-
69.3
-
-
-
69.51
-
-
70.41
-
71.01
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
44
49
52
53
57
62
65
64
70
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
18.69
17.86
18.39
17.87
19.23
19.26
18.4
18.77
19.06
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
415000
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4.85
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
34.6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
39.8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-217271
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
882
888
966
996
1323
1480
7.03
6.51
6.51
6.57
6.7
6.64
6.63
6.6
6.88
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
26.37
26.16
25.91
25.66
25.46
25.31
25.19
25.1
24.99
65.3
65.45
65.63
65.74
65.69
65.46
65.1
64.67
64.27
8.34
8.39
8.46
8.6
8.85
9.23
9.71
10.23
10.73
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.85
0.59
0.38
0.35
0.47
0.75
1.18
0.29
0.37
-
-
-
-
58.86
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
27.96
-
-
-
-
51.23
51.28
51.32
51.36
51.37
51.36
51.33
51.29
51.23
8398000
8448000
8480000
8510000
8550000
8614000
8716000
8741000
8773000
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
21.97
21.06
21.26
15.66
16.1
15.87
16.35
16.51
16.25
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4717996.4
4668364.8
4608032
4546042
4488750
4436210
4401580
4326795
4254905
56.18
55.26
54.34
53.42
52.5
51.5
50.5
49.5
48.5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1455
1429
1760
1803
1963
1944
2093
2246
2230
1276
1370
1475
1451
1751
2020
2060
2513
3198
0.04
0.05
0.05
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.05
0.06
0.07
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3680003.6
3779635.2
3871968
3963958
4061250
4177790
4314420
4414205
4518095
43.82
44.74
45.66
46.58
47.5
48.5
49.5
50.5
51.5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
71.02
71.02
71.06
70.93
70.92
70.74
70.71
70.69
71.18
205.8
225.8
236.31
263.11
285.08
321.27
355.46
392.78
418.3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
13.19
13.13
13.29
14.3
14.18
13.17
12.97
11.57
11.85
34100
39800
44500
48500
38000
42600
50600
49400
55600
2.96
2.62
2.28
1.62
1.79
1.47
1.27
1.21
1.79
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
23.35
23.2
23.16
22.94
22.87
22.56
22.4
22.25
22.68
0.34
0.34
0.34
0.33
0.33
0.32
0.32
0.31
0.31
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
16.5
16
15.9
15.4
16.1
15.7
16
15.4
15.5
24145.76
27791.44
31547.04
37226.24
36189.33
38842.06
42876.13
46961.49
48723.87
2.75
3.15
3.55
4.17
4.04
4.29
4.68
5.04
5.17
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2113
2142.5
2189.8
2201.8
2440.2
2424.5
2608.1
2061.6
2798
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5.86
5.18
4.46
3.81
4
3.83
3.53
3.29
3.13
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
57
55
58
59
64
69
65
63
70
-
-
-
-
-
-
###
###
###
8.4
8.4
8.6
8.7
8.5
8.9
8.9
9
8.7
5.8
5.8
5.8
5.8
9.83
9.58
8.92
8.5
9.96
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
25.75
28.27
29.07
27.65
29.82
31.44
32.55
35.88
61.39
17.83
19.44
20.74
18.49
19.42
21.14
22.02
23.47
40.83
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1023.77
1198.28
1360.9
1547.99
1562.26
1655.69
1807.68
1903
2107.1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
78
76.01
78.51
80.24
78.28
75.08
72.86
73.57
75.78
1688
2085
2168
2334
2446
2927
3456
3616
3484
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
872.74
984.03
1134.77
1322.77
1256.3
1298.11
1389.33
1469.44
1525.45
7674
8690
10087
11811
11259
11744
12736
13679
14385
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9.36
9.68
10.83
13.81
16.87
16.78
16.67
16.59
16.2
2.34
2.3
2.32
2.28
2.39
2.37
2.39
2.27
2.27
1118.45
1162.22
1214.97
1404.65
1446.03
1591.3
1702.6
1756.62
1982.45
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
65
63
66
68
75
79
76
75
80
-
-
-
-
-
-
###
###
###
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
91.16
92.21
93.26
94.54
94.18
94.69
95.21
95.47
95.01
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
-
7.84
10.16
8.09
-6.44
6.37
6.85
2.94
7.25
1438
1590.09
1827.97
2408.46
2722.1
3034.22
3270.27
3739.63
4517.62
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1780
2100
2270
2790
3240
3510
4040
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
50.78
52.72
51.51
80.39
67.21
59.18
65.01
28.96
10.06
-
105.11
-
-
-
101.87
-
-
-
-
106.5
-
-
-
102.83
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
62.64
26.72
8.01
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
17.8
17.73
18.93
23.5
24.86
24.77
24.36
24.18
22.78
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
32.85
33.31
33.48
33.73
31.59
30.58
30.56
31.16
30.34
-
2.98
5.04
20.91
22.78
13.12
16.43
13.75
13.79
2.92
2.99
4.28
15.54
26.9
13.37
13.31
12.17
12.53
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2.2
2.2
2.2
3.2
2
2.29
2.58
3.5
3.5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
89572
-
-
-
-
123472
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
128900
128900
128900
128900
128900
128900
128900
128900
128900
1601300
1633500
1565942
1519700
1566300
1549300
1538400
1506100
1543800
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
8
8
9
11.83
11.88
11.5
12
13.46
73.64
-
74.2
-
-
75.16
-
75.8
-
70.13
-
70.6
-
-
71.26
-
71.7
-
71.84
-
72.36
-
-
73.16
-
73.7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
74
77
81
86
95
100
102
101
102
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
20.57
19.66
19.81
22.94
26.3
27.87
28.75
27.6
26.28
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
887000
-
-
-
-
1687000
1806000
1904742
2025307
10.09
-
-
-
-
18.65
19.7
20.46
21.48
-
-
-
-
-
67.75
67.39
66.6
70.57
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0
-
-
-
-
0
0
0
0
28.3
-
-
-
-
22.5
-
-
-
32
-
-
-
-
25.4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-187700
-
-
-
-
-72030
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1411
1444
1507
2869
1488
1664
1441
1313
1564
6.98
7.13
7.18
7.26
7.32
7.44
7.56
7.67
7.73
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
24.86
24.7
24.51
24.31
24.09
23.88
23.68
23.47
23.27
63.99
63.83
63.79
63.81
63.86
63.89
63.89
63.88
63.88
11.15
11.47
11.7
11.88
12.05
12.23
12.44
12.65
12.85
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.23
0.43
0.65
0.45
0.37
0.94
1.32
1.54
1.29
54.62
-
-
-
-
54.73
-
-
-
28.67
-
-
-
-
30.26
-
-
-
51.19
51.15
51.11
51.07
51.04
51.01
50.99
50.97
50.95
8793000
8831000
8889000
8929000
8962000
9047000
9167000
9309000
9430000
-
-
-
-
-
-
0
0
0
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
103
-
-
-
97.52
-
-
-
-
104.65
-
-
-
99.44
-
-
-
-
103.85
-
-
-
98.51
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1.78
-
-
-
-
1.67
-
-
-
9.58
-
-
-
-
7.95
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
30.93
-
-
-
30.46
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
98.11
-
-
-
98.51
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4.88
2.81
-9.85
-8.92
-1.1
-4.24
-1.54
-0.29
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4.31
-
-
-
2.91
-
-
-
-
6.05
-
-
-
3.95
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2.71
2.38
1.75
3.75
4.21
14.36
13.92
14.12
12.38
11.03
11.14
13.47
14.15
15.29
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
14000000
14000000
16000000
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4176675
4145271.4
4122718.2
4091267.8
4056201.2
4044009
4053647.4
4071756.6
4079418
47.5
46.94
46.38
45.82
45.26
44.7
44.22
43.74
43.26
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
107.21
-
-
-
104.38
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
62.78
-
-
-
75.62
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
53.96
53.56
53.23
51.96
54.24
56.24
56.46
57.28
57.81
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.93
-
-
-
-
1.34
1.24
1.25
1.12
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8.29
8.51
8.66
2270
2108
1938
2306
2091
1917
1967
2402
2244
3533
3334
3569
2877
2410
2635
2571
2611
2534
0.05
0.05
0.06
0.06
0.04
0.04
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.1
0.09
0.1
0.11
0.12
0.14
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4616325
4685728.6
4766281.8
4837732.2
4905798.8
5002991
5113352.6
5237243.4
5350582
52.5
53.06
53.62
54.18
54.74
55.3
55.78
56.26
56.74
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
###
###
###
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
71.23
71.22
71.42
71.42
71.23
71.44
71.25
71.22
71.19
450.67
483.31
520.53
544.8
581.78
612.1
634.64
671.26
707.88
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5854.92
5839.37
6133.73
5726.51
6282.01
6550.7
6938.41
6818.65
10.71
12
12.09
12.47
11.47
11.81
11.59
10.79
10.6
57300
50300
49700
53900
58800
71600
77000
75800
78600
2.01
1.96
2
2.03
1.28
1.5
1.37
1.67
1.33
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
22.72
22.52
22.69
22.72
22.5
22.67
22.42
22.34
22.27
0.31
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.29
0.3
0.29
0.29
0.29
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
15.5
15.4
14.5
14
13.5
12.7
11.7
11.3
10.7
51662.4
51680.72
50706.1
52252.3
55795.39
57330.61
60426.69
59169.94
63493.46
5.41
5.36
5.21
5.34
5.67
5.79
6.08
5.94
6.35
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2635.8
3321.9
3312.5
3454.9
2929.5
3596.1
3015.5
3602.8
3714.4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2.95
3
3.07
2.99
2.86
2.75
2.56
2.7
2.79
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
66
76
80
80
77
81
85
81
78
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
8.6
9.1
8.9
8.8
9.2
8.9
9.3
9.2
9.6
11.88
14.5
14.5
14.5
14.5
15.42
15.5
15.5
15.33
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
60.28
61.68
68.95
71.77
72.2
71.59
74.34
74.2
90.18
38.88
39.05
40.96
40.13
39.05
38.03
37.76
38.1
35.23
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2180.67
2247.33
2263.85
2270.38
2424.49
2561.64
2666.4
2664.19
2831.32
-
-
41.6
38.2
39.8
39.2
37.9
37.3
35.4
-
-
25.7
24.8
25.2
24.5
24.3
24
22.6
-
-
18.2
18.3
17.3
16.8
16.6
17.4
17.1
-
-
33.9
34
34.1
33.3
32.9
33.6
33.7
-
-
40.2
43.4
42.9
44
45.6
45.3
47.5
-
-
40.4
41.2
40.7
42.2
42.8
42.4
43.7
-
-
30.7
28.9
30
29.4
28.9
28.5
27
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
75.33
75.33
69.84
63.38
62.23
60.72
60.5
56.69
55.08
3764
3696
4417
5511
5948
6424
6932
7225
8050
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1597.93
1553.67
1505.29
1537.18
1599.07
1652.79
1766.76
1674.33
1791.72
15257
14982
14645
15049
15746
16356
17551
16683
17919
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
33.5
27.17
24.42
25.31
31.14
30.98
38.95
48.98
-
30.21
25.47
25.52
29.14
35.39
35.33
41.28
46.67
18
22.93
25.38
20.42
19.55
19.93
19.14
20.99
21.5
2.26
2.23
2.09
2.02
1.94
1.82
1.68
1.62
1.5
1983.61
1814.67
1983.96
2017.08
2207.59
2226.56
2456.4
2343.69
2109.41
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
78
87
90
91
87
91
94
88
86
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
94.94
94.69
94.74
94.56
94.83
94.4
95.7
94.98
95.58
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
3.28
0.68
-1.55
-1.13
-1.08
2.01
2.51
0.52
-2.26
5490.97
5671.21
5177.65
5368.66
4830.45
4669.54
4632.37
5445.02
6317.16
-
25776
24512
24813
24645
25231
25764
26087
25989
-
11.14
11.22
10.8
10.21
10.02
9.58
10.13
9.22
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4750
5350
5470
5430
5140
5010
4830
4940
5320
-
8550
9080
9480
9660
10060
10560
10760
10850
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
-
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
-2.75
10.73
-3.67
29.74
16.69
44.25
44.41
35.73
7.81
-
104.35
-
-
-
-
103.02
-
-
-
104.75
-
-
-
-
102.52
-
-
-3.94
8.88
-3.63
26.89
13.17
40.57
39.57
32.08
6.6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
72
95
83
72
60
54
80
82
-
-
-
-
-
75
77
39
81
-
17.55
17.72
18.78
18.88
18.38
21.01
25.36
35.42
-
20.01
20.05
22.19
24.27
24.4
27.72
28.11
34.21
23.81
29.54
30.11
28.82
28.88
28.18
28.36
29.18
28.29
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
31.46
30.47
30.19
28.42
28.99
28.21
28.23
28.78
27.71
20.15
19.24
21.61
27.21
20.61
21.92
19.03
18.88
15.25
19.05
24.87
24.46
20.92
20.24
18.45
19.3
23.02
16.38
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4.83
6.75
6.83
6
6
5.08
5
5
6.49
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
171755
-
-
-
-
309261
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
-
34.1
34.1
33.8
33.5
33.9
34.7
34.7
34.6
-
71.4
71.8
71.7
71.9
71
69.9
69
68
-
52
52.3
52.1
52.1
51.9
51.8
51.4
50.8
128900
128900
128900
128900
128900
128900
128900
128900
128900
1576490
1606400
1618400
1618255
1571900
1533050
1489490
1467152
1475856
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
16.71
21.25
21.33
20.5
20.5
20.5
20.5
20.5
21.82
-
76.52
-
77
-
-
77.6
-
79.2
-
72.3
-
72.7
-
-
72.6
-
73.7
-
74.36
-
74.8
-
-
75.04
-
76.38
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
90.51
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
98.88
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
99.05
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
98.97
-
-
-
-
-
-
105
104
103
103
102
103
101
100
102
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
33.3
37.5
43.8
42.5
44.4
-
-
-
-
43
47.1
53.2
52.4
53.6
-
-
-
-
23.3
27.2
33.2
30
33
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
25.75
28.71
25.92
27.25
29.25
30.84
31.89
31.33
31.18
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2156046
2270406
2401169
2534413
2714395
2926885
3116798
3291971
3465815
22.58
23.54
24.68
25.89
27.57
29.58
31.38
33.04
34.65
74.86
75.18
75.79
81.37
87.58
95.64
101.95
111.23
117.71
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
-
17.6
-
-
-
-
12.7
-
-
-
19.8
-
-
-
-
14.3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
126.39
120.73
113.09
111.66
116.8
115.64
104.6
101.35
-
277779
-
-
-
-
64110
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1397
1308
1273
1291
1251
1339
1123
1222
1540
7.73
7.93
7.96
7.94
7.97
8.01
8.06
8.11
8.16
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
23.05
22.81
22.55
22.27
21.97
21.64
21.29
20.93
20.55
63.93
64.05
64.23
64.47
64.76
65.08
65.41
65.75
66.1
13.02
13.14
13.22
13.26
13.27
13.28
13.3
13.32
13.34
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1.24
0.99
0.89
0.63
0.58
0.5
0.38
0.3
0.37
-
53.69
-
-
-
-
52.52
-
-
-
30.98
-
-
-
-
30.67
-
-
50.93
50.91
50.89
50.87
50.85
50.83
50.81
50.79
50.78
9548000
9643000
9729000
9790000
9847000
9896000
9934000
9964000
10001000
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
99.61
-
-
-
-
102.97
-
-
-
99.93
-
-
-
-
103.45
-
-
-
99.77
-
-
-
-
103.22
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1.93
-
-
-
2.27
-
-
-
-
6.78
-
-
-
7.49
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
24.82
-
-
-
-
23.45
-
-
-
2461
2461
2461
2461
2461
2461
2461
2479
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
99.05
-
-
-
-
100.45
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-2.86
1.69
-0.23
-5.28
-0.09
-1.16
1.24
1.36
5.7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1.03
-
-
-
-
0.13
-
-
-
1.57
-
-
-
-
0.2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5.13
7
7.08
5.25
5.25
2.5
2
2
2.32
14.62
15.33
16.14
16.45
17.23
17.73
17.46
19.46
18.96
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
18000000
20000000
19000000
12000000
14000000
13000000
8000000
10000000
12000000
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4084634.4
4078989
4101746.4
4113758
4123923.6
4130590.4
4132544
4137052.8
4144414.4
42.78
42.3
42.16
42.02
41.88
41.74
41.6
41.52
41.44
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
102.02
-
-
-
-
103.98
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
80.28
-
-
-
-
89
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
793
-
-
-
935
1158
1251
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
57.82
57.53
57.72
59.12
59.54
59.98
60.18
60.43
61.69
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1.05
1
0.98
1.26
1.29
1.23
1.19
1.33
1.42
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9.05
9.83
11.26
9.36
8.97
8.73
8.69
8.82
9.59
2797
2528
2808
3002
2497
2561
2729
-
3052
2466
2556
2489
2423
2730
3283
2326
-
3074
0.09
0.09
0.09
0.09
0.11
0.12
0.12
0.13
0.13
0.14
0.14
0.14
0.15
0.15
0.16
0.17
0.18
0.19
-
-
5.7
8.1
11.7
12.1
11.7
11.6
11.4
-
-
3.3
4.8
5.8
6
5.6
5
5.1
-
-
4
5.8
7.8
8.1
7.8
7.4
7.4
-
-
17.8
25.6
30.1
31.8
32
34.2
33.8
-
-
10.5
14.2
17.1
17.4
17.7
16
17.6
5463365.6
5564011
5627253.6
5676242
5723076.4
5765409.6
5801456
5826947.2
5856585.6
57.22
57.7
57.84
57.98
58.12
58.26
58.4
58.48
58.56
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
71.21
71.49
71.54
71.09
71.12
71.06
71.14
71.09
71.16
725
731.6
744.24
780.32
796.27
814.29
828.08
837.28
854.54
-
-
48.36
-
-
-
-
47.46
-
-
-
90.81
-
-
-
-
91.01
-
7353.78
7647.6
6707.36
8275.7
8021.19
8021.88
8548.1
8267.11
8028.12
10.92
10.69
9.35
10.39
9.24
8.71
9.3
8.84
8.14
79200
80100
79600
69800
79200
86200
86600
89200
92400
1.06
1.02
0.98
1.54
1.19
1.27
1.38
1.72
1.99
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
22.21
22.44
22.49
22.24
22.22
22.02
22
21.89
21.8
0.29
0.29
0.29
0.28
0.28
0.27
0.27
0.27
0.26
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
10.7
10.1
10.1
10.1
10.1
9.8
10
9.9
9.6
67915.9
74082.42
72668.11
67560.5
75441.76
75584.66
78486.54
79120.42
82601.22
6.77
7.34
7.15
6.58
7.28
7.22
7.44
7.44
7.71
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-9.14
-6.7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
109.32
112.06
3862.7
4021.9
3035.8
4123.9
3606.7
3553.1
3848
3750.7
3703.9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2.62
2.19
4.16
4.15
4.26
4.25
4.21
4.12
4.05
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
84
90
75
90
91
90
96
96
95
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
9.2
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.4
9.4
9.4
9.4
17.33
17.14
19.52
20.67
19.92
19.33
18.92
15.75
13.51
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
88.33
91.75
88.59
80.83
83.75
97.12
88.8
85.35
81.3
33.38
34.3
32.36
30.51
29.83
27.7
27.68
30.01
30.99
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3130.22
3204.96
3232.75
3272.22
3407.91
3457.58
3584.86
3683.94
3828.46
34.1
32.3
30.3
26.7
26.3
25.3
24.8
23.9
23.9
22.6
21.6
20.4
19.9
19.5
19.1
18.6
18.5
18.2
16.8
17.4
17.4
17.7
17.1
14.9
14.2
13.9
13.7
32.8
33
33.3
32.6
29.4
29.2
28.8
28.4
28.1
49.1
50.3
52.2
55.6
56.5
59.8
61
62.1
62.4
44.6
45.4
46.2
47.5
51.1
51.6
52.6
53.1
53.7
26.6
25.3
23.9
22.2
21.9
21.3
20.8
20.4
20.3
-
-
-
44.3
44.8
44.2
44.6
44.9
45.2
56.8
58.05
57.1
58.2
59.56
58.95
59.3
59
61.03
8251
8858
9198
9035
8956
8978
9150
9298
9120
-
-
7.82
-
-
-
-
8.17
-
-
-
5.44
-
-
-
-
4.91
-
1902.86
2092.96
2110.13
2106.92
2135.87
2089.62
2130.11
2132.59
2185.45
19099
21118
21441
21617
22149
21870
22479
22678
23404
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
42.56
40.9
35.9
49.32
50.42
55.63
72.44
65.28
69.78
88.81
98.46
31.35
43.16
40.91
46.86
59.98
58.39
60.78
67.03
71.6
19.36
18.92
17.53
16.85
17.65
16.67
17.14
17.12
17.02
1.5
1.41
1.4
1.38
1.38
1.34
1.36
1.32
1.3
2266.15
2245.07
2400.83
2274.5
2192.74
1792.88
1858.25
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
91
97
84
99
96
94
98
98
97
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
-
-
25.59
25.83
26.06
26.3
26.53
26.76
27
-
-
32990
33292
33594
33896
34198
34500
34802
96.18
96.63
94.56
94.06
94.32
94.17
94.27
93.85
93.47
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
4.29
3.8
0
3.1
0.7
-1.6
2
2.1
2.36
7311.6
7550.51
9270.82
9861.57
10785.27
10004.51
10632.63
12386.53
13007.14
26708
27629
27279
28799
28583
27896
27922
28252
28561
9.02
8.46
8.34
8.53
8.38
8.35
8.29
8.39
8.32
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6410
7330
8170
9100
10300
10520
11110
11850
12810
11630
12490
13050
13850
14170
14080
14540
15040
15500
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
24.41
21
21.67
28.1
20.01
19.09
20.04
18.76
19.6
-
-
-
96.97
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
97.57
-
-
-
-
-
22.04
16.81
16.59
24.97
18.21
17.51
20.43
17.92
17.4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2.2
2.3
2.23
2.56
1.86
3.46
3.77
5.67
5.75
65799562
91516084
96374114
###
92150831
###
###
###
###
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1.53
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5.61
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
83
54
54
85
89
89
90
90
90
82
76
76
72
72
72
70
70
90
28.98
38.34
49.7
55.85
69.32
70.93
77.25
93.72
100.36
25.7
34.61
38.9
43.86
50.57
55.48
58.55
63.41
69.12
27.24
29.05
29.64
28.52
28
26.87
25.4
26.52
27.13
-
-
97
-
-
-
-
97
-
-
-
100
-
-
-
-
99
-
-
-
91
-
-
-
-
94
-
-
-
99
-
-
-
-
100
-
-
-
10.79
9.15
10.75
-
-
10.12
10.11
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
27.16
26.42
26.06
24.49
23.67
23.55
22.48
21.29
21.22
16.68
14.5
20.69
19.79
14.8
14.43
11.18
9.79
7.34
13.53
13.7
20.4
19.47
15.87
14.41
10.92
8.94
8.2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5.57
6.12
8.1
8.78
8.79
9.23
8.53
7.3
7.45
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
412093
-
-
-
-
549118
-
-
-
-
-
-
73.13
82.91
91.09
100.43
-
-
0
5000
5000
20000
40000
80000
150000
-
-
0
0.05
0.05
0.19
0.38
0.75
1.4
###
###
4184637.7
###
###
4306563.3
###
###
4628899.8
35.8
36
36
33.9
35.2
35.2
35.9
36.6
37.9
68
67.5
65.1
64.2
64.2
63.9
64.2
64.3
64.4
51.5
51.4
51
49.6
50.2
50
50.6
51
51.7
128900
128900
128900
128900
128900
128900
128900
128900
128900
1456030
1448664
1470345
1499200
1396100
1366800
1357004
1307144
1321363
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
22.89
23.26
27.62
29.45
28.71
28.56
27.44
23.05
20.96
-
79.3
79.5
79.8
80.2
79.9
80.2
80.3
80.4
-
74.2
74.5
74.6
74.7
75
75.2
75
75.1
-
76.69
76.94
77.14
77.38
77.39
77.64
77.59
77.69
119
119
145
126
129
143
216
212
224
-
-
-
92.61
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
98.98
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
98.99
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
98.98
-
-
-
-
-
104
104
105
104
104
104
104
106
105
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
46.2
50.4
49.8
47.7
49.6
50.9
50.5
51.4
56.7
53.2
56.8
55.9
54.3
57.1
57.3
57.2
58.3
62.5
35.5
40.2
39.9
37.7
38.1
41.6
41.3
42.3
47.3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5.83
8.37
16.14
12.95
8.49
11.77
13.3
12.95
17.36
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
24.19
31.1
29.6
29.89
29.26
29.09
27.55
28.05
28.68
-
-
6390
-
-
-
-
6490
-
4.53
4.07
4.1
3.76
3.92
3.89
3.87
3.84
4.01
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9.02
9.79
3618065
3788146
3948654
4190087
4496544
4792016
5129205
5435772
5860794
36.05
37.54
38.86
40.84
43.36
45.79
48.6
51.12
54.73
119.3
127.74
140.59
151.85
168.31
181.87
196.22
221.14
246.17
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0
0
0
0
0
0.46
1.45
2.57
4.97
-
-
9.4
-
-
-
-
7.4
-
-
-
10.6
-
-
-
-
8.4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
101.57
103.15
96.47
93.21
88.11
87.45
87.02
89.65
94.71
-
-
154571
-
-
-
-
469708
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
13060
-
-
-
-
13230
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.2
-
-
-
-
-
50857.05
49560.65
48787.99
47160.78
-
-
790
-
-
-
-
1040
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
67.31
62.63
61.62
61.59
61.95
57.43
55.71
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
407
403
429
329
364
366
435
426
402
8.23
8.28
8.29
8.36
8.36
8.39
8.41
8.4
8.45
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1.2
1.59
1.72
1.95
2.22
2.53
2.84
3.29
3.46
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
20.15
19.72
19.25
18.75
18.22
17.7
17.22
16.78
16.39
66.45
66.77
67.06
67.31
67.51
67.67
67.8
67.93
68.05
13.4
13.51
13.69
13.95
14.27
14.63
14.98
15.29
15.56
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.36
0.53
0.7
0.97
1.07
0.92
0.83
0.76
0.7
-
-
51.38
-
-
-
-
49.5
-
-
-
30.21
-
-
-
-
29.36
-
50.76
50.74
50.73
50.71
50.69
50.67
50.64
50.62
50.6
10037000
10090000
10161000
10260000
10370000
10466000
10553000
10634000
10709000
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2.36
-
-
-
-
2.77
-
5.56
-
-
-
-
-
-
8.22
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.59
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.88
-
-
-
19.65
18.66
-
-
-
16.09
-
2479
2479
2484
2484
2484
2497
2497
2850
2474
-
-
-
98.52
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
99.38
99.45
-
-
-
101.71
-
-
-
-
98
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
98.71
-
-
-
-
-
5.32
7.65
5.74
8.07
12.12
12.35
14.62
12.08
12.69
-
-
8488
8989
8456
7873
7784
4428
5780
-
-
16
6
1
1
94
222
250
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
35.07
35.85
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3.89
3.26
3.62
6.95
6.21
8.31
9.94
8.85
9.76
18.67
17.92
18.25
19.37
19.37
20.08
19.81
20.27
20.59
-
-
91.7
91.7
91.7
91.7
91.7
91.7
91.8
13000000
15000000
15000000
13000000
19000000
27000000
46000000
58000000
57000000
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4151303.2
4165152
4186332
4216860
4251700
4280594
4305624
4328038
4349995.8
41.36
41.28
41.2
41.1
41
40.9
40.8
40.7
40.62
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.3
-
-
-
56.73
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
99.68
98.39
-
-
-
95.29
-
-
-
-
94.57
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
93.35
93.83
-
-
-
91.65
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
36.26
-
-
-
-
-
1239
1518
1397
1598
1736
1759
1974
2058
2249
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
61.91
62.89
64.58
65.12
67.09
67.74
68.22
69.86
70.63
-
-
35.3
34.8
35.9
36.3
36.4
37.6
37.7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.43
0.72
4.17
2.41
1.44
2.59
4.59
4.62
5.95
7.41
10.92
36.28
18.84
14.14
24.38
37.47
37
40.2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
18.76
18.78
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1.42
1.33
1.37
1.33
1.78
1.8
2.19
2.22
2.46
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9.89
9.51
10.15
10.29
11.09
11.21
11.57
10.61
9.75
-
-
-
-
-
5112
5695
6136
4023
-
-
-
-
-
3723
4703
4959
3827
0.13
0.13
0.13
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.16
0.16
0.21
0.23
0.23
0.24
0.24
0.25
0.25
0.26
0.27
12.5
12.4
11.7
12.9
12.9
13.6
13.7
13.8
15.4
4.8
4.6
4.3
4.8
4.9
5.7
6
6.2
6
7.7
7.5
7
7.7
7.8
8.6
8.9
9.1
9.7
36
34
32.6
33.5
34.2
36
36.9
37.7
41.3
17.1
17
15.1
16.9
17.3
18.8
19.8
19.4
21.5
5885696.8
5924848
5974668
6043140
6118300
6185406
6247376
6305962
6359004.2
58.64
58.72
58.8
58.9
59
59.1
59.2
59.3
59.38
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
42.3
42.6
41.5
40.9
-
-
-
-
-
38.1
38.1
38.7
37.6
-
-
-
-
-
39.5
39.7
39.7
38.8
-
-
-
-
-
12.53
13.02
13.08
13.16
-
-
-
-
-
6.95
6.84
6.8
6.9
-
-
-
-
-
20.29
21.1
21.39
21.87
-
-
-
-
-
4.14
4.18
4.27
4.5
-
-
-
-
-
21.68
22.06
22.11
22.39
-
-
-
-
-
6.64
7.08
7.35
7.66
-
-
-
-
-
25.69
23.77
23.11
21.55
-
-
-
-
-
2.09
1.96
1.9
1.96
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
-
11.56
11.2
10.84
10.48
10.12
9.84
9.63
9.42
-
-
-
-
-
-
15.61
-
15.96
69.71
68.13
67.26
66.17
65.96
65.52
65.17
64.86
64.65
869.29
871.69
904.49
925.88
935.76
945.37
966.03
983.17
998.33
-
-
-
41.16
-
-
-
-
39.14
-
-
-
90.9
-
-
-
-
91.29
8275.38
8494.5
8957.79
8880.71
9173.51
8987.33
8654.92
9202.22
9638.05
7.64
7.37
7.11
6.59
6.4
5.88
5.7
5.12
5.07
94200
90700
94100
108584
125269
113247
114100
137676
130515
1.76
1.65
1.98
1.69
1.24
1.4
2.05
2.07
2.15
-
-
-
80
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
16
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7.77
-
-
-
-
-
21.64
21.6
21.43
21.26
21.1
21.08
20.7
20.4
20.19
0.26
0.26
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.24
0.24
0.23
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1.66
-
-
-
8.9
8.5
6.9
6.9
5.3
5.9
-
-
-
12.3
5.6
5.5
7
7
6.3
9.8
9.4
9.2
11.7
9.4
9.3
9.3
9.2
9.69
84502.83
87140.91
86928.4
92127.62
94923.25
93021.63
95659.71
97180.27
98847.39
7.84
8.04
7.99
8.44
8.67
8.47
8.68
8.79
8.9
-5.95
-3.88
-3.19
-3.73
-4.58
-4.83
-5.7
-7.25
-5.2
108.73
106.91
108.47
123.55
126.35
127.17
123.44
126.2
125.44
3789.4
3584.8
3667.7
3899.6
3846.1
3745.9
3693.7
4033.8
4059.4
-
15154
13977
8483
9035
4599
635
-
996
-
19352
17532
10839
11116
4736
1088
-
675
3.92
3.73
3.79
3.73
3.6
3.65
3.34
3.32
3.36
-
-
-
1390844
1412286
1660510
1908121
1895755
1779030
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
4
91
90
99
100
99
96
84
93
95
###
-
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
9.5
9.5
9.5
10.5
9.4
10.6
9.4
9.4
9.46
10.11
10.7
8.69
6.13
3.32
2.76
2.48
2.29
2.23
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
78.32
75.63
83.73
90.19
98.74
98.67
93.54
94.24
101.6
32.14
34.07
41.32
46.97
56.89
60.45
64.56
69.92
77.74
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3899.6
4068.02
4268.22
4539.41
4681.3
4871.42
5047.19
5149.91
5241.53
23.1
20.5
19.8
19.6
17.7
17.2
16.9
14.1
13.8
17.9
16.4
16.1
16.1
15.2
14.4
14.3
11.7
11.5
13.4
12.3
12.4
12.2
11.7
11.2
11.1
10.5
10
27.7
29.5
29.1
28.7
29.7
29.7
29.5
29.8
30.1
63.5
67.2
67.8
68.2
70.6
71.5
72
75.3
76.2
54.3
54
54.8
55.2
55.1
55.9
56.2
58.5
58.3
19.8
17.9
17.4
17.4
16.1
15.5
15.3
12.6
12.4
45.2
45.3
45.1
45.3
45
45.7
46.4
46.8
47
60.71
61.62
62.93
63.13
64.42
63.88
66.01
65.33
65.9
9559
9832
9534
9986
9965
10229
9905
10300
10314
-
-
-
10.04
-
-
-
-
9.72
-
-
-
4.4
-
-
-
-
3.28
2257.59
2364.56
2363.41
2480.97
2557.45
2577.55
2643.52
2685.56
2724.06
24330
25620
25721
27086
28004
28321
29141
29707
30248
-
13.09
11.72
13.91
13.16
13.89
14.43
15
16.18
-
13.85
15.49
20.12
18.24
-
20.17
20.51
20.95
-
27.45
26.23
20.8
24.47
23.91
21.76
24.62
24.65
41.47
40.78
40.53
44.2
43.54
42.82
42.22
42.57
41.38
98.02
105.3
117.23
100
-
-
-
-
-
79.57
90.44
96.3
100
-
-
-
-
-
19.13
19.29
21.79
24.86
24.03
21.07
20.37
22.03
21.99
1.31
1.29
1.28
1.29
1.25
1.27
1.28
1.31
1.33
-
-
-
-
-
1563.77
1647.63
1706.12
1421.28
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
25.88
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0
0
0
0
0
0.1
0.47
1.44
93
93
99
100
99
96
87
94
96
###
-
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
27.23
27.47
27.7
27.94
28.17
28.4
28.64
28.87
29.11
35104
35406
35708
36010
36312
36614
36916
37218
37520
93.51
94.08
94.18
94.59
94.39
94.07
93.99
93.79
93.41
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
3.64
3.36
3.42
4.48
4.2
3.44
5.58
4.92
2.9
12608.99
12599.33
12350.27
11500.65
11966.42
13414.1
17550.13
20860.77
22135.88
29715
29414
30294
31206
32474
32893
33948
35256
35852
8.29
8.14
8.38
8.32
8.38
8.57
8.8
9.06
9.15
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3.01
13400
13110
12760
12560
12410
12550
14840
18640
21780
16390
16860
17160
18460
20060
21650
22430
23990
24540
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
19.67
20.58
20.06
23.32
23.21
22.31
24.3
22.65
20.95
-
94.54
104.52
103.38
103
96.79
104.43
103.75
100.3
-
96.3
106.73
103.84
105.23
104.69
103.81
104
99.97
17.75
-
12.68
12.76
13.41
11.4
13.35
13.96
12.04
-
-
-
-
-
-
1569.71
1794.93
2099.69
-
-
-
-
-
-
59.79
59.12
60.11
-
-
-
-
-
-
8.98
8.65
9.44
5.44
7.97
9.71
13.35
9.86
11.6
12.18
11.42
10.19
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
-
-
40
40
37.5
35
35
35
32
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
40
40
40
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
99.5
100
1.96
2.37
2.86
4.38
3.7
3.69
3.33
3.85
3.01
6.04
7.42
8.7
8.27
7.37
6.65
6.32
6.64
5.98
-
-
2.16
1.8
1.59
1.44
1.88
1.79
1.68
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
11.72
90
89
88
89
91
92
94
95
96
90
89
88
89
91
92
94
95
96
91.68
108.97
118.69
100
-
-
-
-
-
70.22
85.31
89.96
100
-
-
-
-
-
28.77
30.01
32.95
38.36
37.19
34.62
32.96
31.97
30.91
-
-
-
98
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
99
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
97
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
100
-
-
-
-
-
8.16
12.2
9.87
7.39
5.27
5.96
5.96
6.96
6.51
-
-
-
23.04
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
26.04
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
41.49
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2.55
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6.75
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
11.89
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
16.84
-
-
-
-
-
19.88
20.57
20.49
20.95
21.39
19.49
19.95
20.1
20.45
6.78
5.2
3.03
3.4
3.12
3.4
3.66
3.34
3.35
5.54
4.77
2.64
3.17
3.37
3.63
3.53
2.9
3.55
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
21.61
-
-
-
-
-
-
4.94
4.68
4.27
8.81
7.86
6.31
6.18
5.27
4.66
4.31
-
-
-
-
4.23
51.3
110.05
222.63
406.4
588.79
586.55
-
-
-
731706
-
-
-
-
975005
114.27
128.72
139.94
154.16
148.66
163.15
151.86
-
181.79
200000
350000
750000
1000000
1200000
###
1791400
2178900
2484600
1.86
3.23
6.89
9.16
10.96
15.09
16.25
19.7
22.38
###
###
###
###
###
4914166.4
###
5080716.4
###
38.1
39.7
40.8
40.8
39.9
40.5
41.2
42.5
42.5
64
64.2
63.9
63.9
63
63.3
63.6
63.8
63.4
51.6
52.5
53
53
52.1
52.5
52.9
53.7
53.6
128900
128900
128900
128900
128900
128900
128900
128900
128900
1311600
1286287
1247671
1274000
1284100
1288600
1275100
1261237
1252379
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
18.92
18.56
15
12.32
8.59
7.41
6.79
-
-
80.8
80.4
80.6
80.6
80.7
81.1
81.3
81.4
81.63
75.6
75.4
75.5
75.5
75.4
76.4
76.5
76.6
76.82
78.14
77.84
77.99
77.99
77.99
78.69
78.84
78.94
79.17
230
244
281
329
338
341
339
340
307
-
-
-
-
95.99
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
98.99
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
98.89
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
98.94
-
-
-
-
101
101
100
99
100
101
103
105
102
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
55.7
54.9
55.3
56.4
52.8
52.7
56.3
54.8
53.7
62.2
61.5
59.5
61
56.6
56.1
60.9
59.2
59.6
45.8
44.7
48.6
49.4
47
47.4
48.9
47.2
43.1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1.91
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
25.14
58.6
151.94
88.28
66.04
46.64
55.23
54.27
59
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
28.14
30.15
30.95
36.02
33.09
28.49
30.1
29.5
29.18
-
-
-
7070
-
-
-
-
7410
4.07
4.27
4.31
4.34
4.09
3.89
3.12
3.24
3.45
9.82
10.48
10.64
9.83
9.39
9.07
7.4
7.62
8.34
6368555
7582521
9514931
11591677
13571521
15608066
15236634
15676637
16572052
59.09
69.98
87.43
106.18
123.94
142.05
138.22
141.72
149.24
280.05
345.84
440.75
450.74
521.32
631.91
572.63
595.01
678.63
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8.7
18.89
35.87
54.34
72.73
84.77
81.06
84.29
92.4
-
-
-
5.5
-
-
-
-
3.9
-
-
-
6.5
-
-
-
-
4.6
-
-
-
-
-
435
453
476
497
94.35
91.15
92.27
100
97.62
98.43
97.5
99.31
94.64
-
-
-
300304
-
-
-
-
154312
-
-
-
4669
4326
5433
5694
5525
-
-
-
-
13190
-
-
-
-
13090
0.2
0.2
-
-
-
-
-
0.2
-
46291.1
46532.51
-
-
-
-
-
58639.65
-
-
-
-
1170
-
-
-
-
1620
-
-
-
-
-
-
94.54
94.77
95.03
52.41
49.45
46.81
47.6
50
46.81
42.05
39.34
37.89
-
-
-
-
-
331
348
368
388
448
444
418
431
556
521
513
482
609
8.5
8.52
8.6
8.63
8.78
8.76
8.78
8.78
8.78
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
100
100
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
97.79
96.97
4.36
5.08
5.88
6.87
7.85
8.19
8.55
8.91
9.19
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
2
-
16.06
15.77
15.5
15.25
15.02
14.81
14.62
14.47
14.35
68.15
68.23
68.27
68.26
68.18
68.05
67.9
67.76
67.65
15.79
16
16.23
16.49
16.8
17.14
17.48
17.77
17.99
-
-
-
99
99.5
99.6
99.6
99.6
99.7
0.63
0.54
0.44
0.32
0.3
0.34
0.33
0.35
0.38
-
-
-
48.78
-
-
-
-
48.15
-
-
-
29.12
-
-
-
-
29.08
50.58
50.55
50.54
50.52
50.51
50.51
50.5
50.5
50.49
10777000
10835000
10883000
10917500
10949950
10987550
11023550
11061750
11104000
0
-
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
-
-
-
-
-
-
98.78
100.85
100.3
-
-
-
-
-
-
100.59
103.33
100.08
-
-
-
-
-
-
99.71
102.13
100.19
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0
0
-
-
-
-
-
-
94.89
100
98.64
-
-
-
-
-
-
95.87
99.29
100
6
6
6
6
9
9
9
9
13
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
11.1
17.7
-
3.06
3.21
3.35
3.5
3.55
3.58
3.84
3.98
-
-
6.98
-
7.72
7.91
8.02
8.48
9.2
-
0.4
-
0.71
-
0.68
-
1.23
-
-
0.65
-
0.72
-
0.78
-
1.14
-
-
13.61
13.54
13.41
12.73
12.52
11.94
11.26
11.06
2503
2299
2299
2299
2377
2383
2414
2449
2576
-
109.77
110.62
109.58
114.72
115.38
113.96
117.28
114.23
-
100.63
100.43
100.2
100.05
99.5
99.5
98.9
99.63
-
104.39
104.41
106.38
105.18
-
102.07
100.51
97.79
-
102.7
102.6
103.49
102.8
-
100.86
99.74
98.66
11.37
12.7
11.62
8.63
5.3
3.88
3.01
-
-
5520
6145
6283
6653
6948
2788
2771
2489
2390
178
174
164
125
97
301
270
223.71
331
-
-
-
-
-
5278.7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
58
-
-
-
-
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.5
-
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.67
0.39
-
0.52
-
0.51
-
0.5
0.48
0.51
1014.01
-
1352.31
-
1309.59
-
1418.26
-
1770.91
37.41
39
39.66
41.55
39.48
39.06
38.01
36.77
36.88
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7.54
8.26
6.7
6.1
4.5
3.92
4.45
-
-
20.26
20.21
20.49
19.69
19.49
19.97
20.58
20.32
20.5
91.8
91.8
91.8
91.8
-
-
-
-
-
58000000
-
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
-
-
12900000
5400000
14000000
###
###
###
60230800
4368995.8
4383841
4394555.4
4399752.5
###
###
###
###
4397184
40.54
40.46
40.38
40.3
40.16
40.02
39.88
39.74
39.6
33.68
91.16
64.4
-44.6
-31.24
-
-
-
-
-
67.54
67.86
69.95
69.32
67.73
67.28
66.83
67.83
-
93.18
94.29
95.65
95.63
98.33
100.26
102.03
101.7
-
91.49
92.22
93.48
93.62
96.07
98
99.36
99.59
-
91.01
90.41
89.45
93.03
-
95.56
96.28
102.04
-
82.24
81.75
81.31
82.58
-
84.44
86.55
91.06
-
45.26
46.83
51.21
58.72
66.43
72.69
80.22
90.4
2434
2611
2626
2976
3204
3447
3587
3928
4291
-
-
-
-
10.59
-
18.6
26.22
31.43
72.48
72.06
72.4
72.46
72.2
74.63
74.35
74.77
74.48
38.8
38
38.8
39.1
39.6
39.8
40.1
40.9
41
-
-
-
-
-
-
15
15
15
15.48
34.31
140.41
75.75
28.52
16.87
19.95
18.84
26.55
72.5
86.52
131.06
63.69
39.1
25.99
43.96
37.47
48.3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
21
19.74
21.31
22.32
23.25
21.81
21.41
19.89
19.52
19.87
393.98
-
535.4
-
878.12
-
835.35
-
763.8
2.79
3.15
3.56
3.67
3.71
4.62
4.43
4.24
3.9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
38
38
38
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
264
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
2
2
-
-
-
81259
86003
94651
98044
103107
-
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
54.6
10.26
-
19.16
24.31
23.69
20.33
18.37
20.41
19.8
3892
3630
3500
3189
1511
1143
-
-
893
4669
4972
5214
6603
5879
5290
-
-
5872
0.16
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.18
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.28
0.29
0.29
0.3
0.3
0.32
0.33
0.34
0.35
14.8
16.7
18.2
17
15.9
15.2
14.3
15.9
15.3
6.2
7.1
7.7
7.4
6.9
6.4
6
6.3
6.1
9.6
10.8
11.9
11.2
10.4
9.9
9.3
10.2
9.8
40.6
39.4
41.2
38
36.3
34.7
35.2
35.6
34.8
22.2
21.2
22.8
21.9
20.9
19.1
18
18.7
18.7
6408004.2
6451159
6488444.6
6517747.5
###
###
###
###
6706816
59.46
59.54
59.62
59.7
59.84
59.98
60.12
60.26
60.4
-
-
-
-
-
-
43
46
47
39.6
38.4
36.1
35.1
32.2
32.3
32.2
28.3
28
37.2
35.1
33.7
33.3
31.4
31.4
31.5
28.7
28.7
38.1
36.3
34.6
34
31.7
31.7
31.7
28.6
28.4
13.26
13.15
-
-
-
-
-
10.27
-
7.01
6.89
-
-
-
-
-
6.7
-
22.52
22.83
-
-
-
-
-
23.08
-
4.53
4.46
-
-
-
-
-
4.41
-
22.41
22.92
-
-
-
-
-
28.61
-
7.85
7.83
-
-
-
-
-
8.96
-
20.49
19.96
-
-
-
-
-
15.31
-
1.93
1.95
-
-
-
-
-
2.67
-
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
###
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
description
9.2
8.99
8.73
-
-
Adolescent fertility rate is the number of births per 1,000 women ages 15-19. Source: United Nations Population Division, World Population Prospects.
-
-
-
-
-
Agricultural irrigated land refers to agricultural areas purposely provided with water, including land irrigated by controlled flooding. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
64.45
64.24
-
-
-
Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
1008.17
1017.66
-
-
-
Agricultural machinery refers to the number of wheel and crawler tractors (excluding garden tractors) in use in agriculture at the end of the calendar year specified or during the first quarter of the following year. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
-
-
-
-
-
Agricultural methane emissions are emissions from animals, animal waste, rice production, agricultural waste burning (nonenergy, on-site), and savannah burning. Source: International Energy Agency.
-
-
-
-
-
Agricultural nitrous oxide emissions are emissions produced through fertilizer use (synthetic and animal manure), animal waste management, agricultural waste burning (nonenergy, on-site), and savannah burning. Source: International Energy Agency.
8099.64
7411.19
8027.36
-
-
Agriculture value added per worker is a measure of agricultural productivity. Value added in agriculture measures the output of the agricultural sector (ISIC divisions 1-5) less the value of intermediate inputs. Agriculture comprises value added from forestry, hunting, and fishing as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Source: Derived from World Bank national accounts files and Food and Agriculture Organization, Production Yearbook and data files.
4.06
3.79
3.29
-
-
Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Note: For VAB countries, gross value added at factor cost is used as the denominator. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
133226
137697
128287
-
-
Registered carrier departures worldwide are domestic takeoffs and takeoffs abroad of air carriers registered in the country. Source: International Civil Aviation Organization, Civil Aviation Statistics of the World and ICAO staff estimates.
2.55
1.72
-
-
-
Clean energy is noncarbohydrate energy that does not produce carbon dioxide when generated. It includes hydropower and nuclear, geothermal, and solar power, among others. Source: International Energy Agency.
-
80.44
-
-
-
Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data.
-
16.34
-
-
-
Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data.
-
3.22
-
-
-
Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for industry are total withdrawals for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data.
-
-
-
-
-
Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture and industry are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production and for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data.
19.98
19.77
-
-
-
Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
0.23
0.23
-
-
-
Arable land (hectares per person) includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
-
-
-
-
-
Average number of times management met with tax officials is the average number of visits or required meetings with tax officials. Source: World Bank, Enterprise Surveys (http://www.enterprisesurveys.org/).
6.7
6.6
4.5
-
-
Bank capital to assets is the ratio of bank capital and reserves to total assets. Capital and reserves include funds contributed by owners, retained earnings, general and special reserves, provisions, and valuation adjustments. Capital includes tier 1 capital (paid-up shares and common stock), which is a common feature in all countries' banking systems, and total regulatory capital, which includes several specified types of subordinated debt instruments that need not be repaid if the funds are required to maintain minimum capital levels (these comprise tier 2 and tier 3 capital). Total assets include all nonfinancial and financial assets. Source: International Monetary Fund, Global Financial Stability Report.
5.4
4.5
5
-
-
Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans are the value of nonperforming loans divided by the total value of the loan portfolio (including nonperforming loans before the deduction of specific loan-loss provisions). The loan amount recorded as nonperforming should be the gross value of the loan as recorded on the balance sheet, not just the amount that is overdue. Source: International Monetary Fund, Global Financial Stability Report.
10.05
10
10.28
-
-
Crude birth rate indicates the number of live births occurring during the year, per 1,000 population estimated at midyear. Subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate provides the rate of natural increase, which is equal to the rate of population change in the absence of migration. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables), (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.
96311.9
-
-
-
-
Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Source: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, United States.
8.64
-
-
-
-
Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Source: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, United States.
-3
-3.72
-
-
-
Cash surplus or deficit is revenue (including grants) minus expense, minus net acquisition of nonfinancial assets. In the 1986 GFS manual nonfinancial assets were included under revenue and expenditure in gross terms. This cash surplus or deficit is closest to the earlier overall budget balance (still missing is lending minus repayments, which are now a financing item under net acquisition of financial assets). Source: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
117.99
114.1
-
-
-
Debt is the entire stock of direct government fixed-term contractual obligations to others outstanding on a particular date. It includes domestic and foreign liabilities such as currency and money deposits, securities other than shares, and loans. It is the gross amount of government liabilities reduced by the amount of equity and financial derivatives held by the government. Because debt is a stock rather than a flow, it is measured as of a given date, usually the last day of the fiscal year. Source: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
3908.4
3909
4388.5
-
-
Cereal yield, measured as kilograms per hectare of harvested land, includes wheat, rice, maize, barley, oats, rye, millet, sorghum, buckwheat, and mixed grains. Production data on cereals relate to crops harvested for dry grain only. Cereal crops harvested for hay or harvested green for food, feed, or silage and those used for grazing are excluded. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
1093
469
-
-
-
Children out of school are the number of primary-school-age children not enrolled in primary or secondary school. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
1534
1940
-
-
-
Children out of school are the number of primary-school-age children not enrolled in primary or secondary school. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
3.36
3.67
-
-
-
Combustible renewables and waste comprise solid biomass, liquid biomass, biogas, industrial waste, and municipal waste, measured as a percentage of total energy use. Source: International Energy Agency.
1769098
-
-
-
-
Port container traffic measures the flow of containers from land to sea transport modes., and vice versa, in twenty-foot equivalent units (TEUs), a standard-size container. Data refer to coastal shipping as well as international journeys. Transshipment traffic is counted as two lifts at the intermediate port (once to off-load and again as an outbound lift) and includes empty units. Source: Containerisation International, Containerisation International Yearbook.
4
4
4
5
-
Credit depth of information index measures rules affecting the scope, accessibility, and quality of credit information available through public or private credit registries. The index ranges from 0 to 6, with higher values indicating the availability of more credit information, from either a public registry or a private bureau, to facilitate lending decisions. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
84
81
-
-
-
Crop production index shows agricultural production for each year relative to the base period 1999-2001. It includes all crops except fodder crops. Regional and income group aggregates for the FAO's production indexes are calculated from the underlying values in international dollars, normalized to the base period 1999-2001. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
###
###
###
-
-
Current account balance is the sum of net exports of goods, services, net income, and net current transfers. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: International Monetary Fund, Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook and data files.
9.46
9.82
9.52
-
-
Crude death rate indicates the number of deaths occurring during the year, per 1,000 population estimated at midyear. Subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate provides the rate of natural increase, which is equal to the rate of population change in the absence of migration. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables), (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.
-
-
-
-
-
Deposit interest rate is the rate paid by commercial or similar banks for demand, time, or savings deposits. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and data files.
5
5
5
5
-
All documents required per shipment to export goods are recorded. It is assumed that the contract has already been agreed upon and signed by both parties. Documents required for clearance by government ministries, customs authorities, port and container terminal authorities, health and technical control agencies and banks are taken into account. Since payment is by letter of credit, all documents required by banks for the issuance or securing of a letter of credit are also taken into account. Documents that are renewed annually and that do not require renewal per shipment (for example, an annual tax clearance certificate) are not included. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
6
6
6
6
-
All documents required per shipment to import goods are recorded. It is assumed that the contract has already been agreed upon and signed by both parties. Documents required for clearance by government ministries, customs authorities, port and container terminal authorities, health and technical control agencies and banks are taken into account. Since payment is by letter of credit, all documents required by banks for the issuance or securing of a letter of credit are also taken into account. Documents that are renewed annually and that do not require renewal per shipment (for example, an annual tax clearance certificate) are not included. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
104.37
108.94
109.03
-
-
Domestic credit provided by the banking sector includes all credit to various sectors on a gross basis, with the exception of credit to the central government, which is net. The banking sector includes monetary authorities and deposit money banks, as well as other banking institutions where data are available (including institutions that do not accept transferable deposits but do incur such liabilities as time and savings deposits). Examples of other banking institutions are savings and mortgage loan institutions and building and loan associations. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
83.41
91.85
93.5
-
-
Domestic credit to private sector refers to financial resources provided to the private sector, such as through loans, purchases of nonequity securities, and trade credits and other accounts receivable, that establish a claim for repayment. For some countries these claims include credit to public enterprises. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
-
-
100
109
-
Ease of doing business index ranks economies from 1 to 181, with first place being the best. A high ranking means that the regulatory environment is conducive to business operation. The index ranks the simple average of the country's percentile rankings on 10 topics covered in Doing Business 2007: How to reform. The ranking on each topic is the simple average of the percentile rankings on its component indicators. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
5372.13
5627.83
-
-
-
Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants. Source: International Energy Agency, Energy Statistics and Balances of Non-OECD Countries and Energy Statistics of OECD Countries.
13.1
12.4
8.9
-
-
Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
11.2
11
8.3
-
-
Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
9.9
9.9
7.1
-
-
Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Industry corresponds to divisions 2-5 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories C-F (ISIC revision 3) and includes mining and quarrying (including oil production), manufacturing, construction, and public utilities (electricity, gas, and water). Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
29.8
30.5
22.4
-
-
Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Industry corresponds to divisions 2-5 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories C-F (ISIC revision 3) and includes mining and quarrying (including oil production), manufacturing, construction, and public utilities (electricity, gas, and water). Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
76.9
77.7
58.9
-
-
Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Services correspond to divisions 6-9 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories G-P (ISIC revision 3) and include wholesale and retail trade and restaurants and hotels; transport, storage, and communications; financing, insurance, real estate, and business services; and community, social, and personal services. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
59
58.4
44.3
-
-
Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Services correspond to divisions 6-9 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories G-P (ISIC revision 3) and include wholesale and retail trade and restaurants and hotels; transport, storage, and communications; financing, insurance, real estate, and business services; and community, social, and personal services. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
12
11.5
8.5
-
-
Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
47.7
48.2
48.4
-
-
Employment to population ratio is the proportion of a country's population that is employed. Ages 15 and older are generally considered the working-age population. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
66.69
62.25
-
-
-
Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport. Source: International Energy Agency and United Nations, Energy Statistics Yearbook.
10067
12149
-
-
-
Energy production refers to forms of primary energy--petroleum (crude oil, natural gas liquids, and oil from nonconventional sources), natural gas, solid fuels (coal, lignite, and other derived fuels), and combustible renewables and waste--and primary electricity, all converted into oil equivalents. Source: International Energy Agency.
-
-
-
-
-
Industrial methane emissions are emissions from the handling, transmission, and combustion of fossil fuels and biofuels. Source: International Energy Agency.
-
-
-
-
-
Industrial nitrous oxide emissions are emissions produced during the manufacturing of adipic acid and nitric acid. Source: International Energy Agency.
2711.05
2875.07
-
-
-
Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport. Source: International Energy Agency.
30224
32180
-
-
-
Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport. Source: International Energy Agency.
-
-
-
-
-
Public expenditure per student is the public current spending on education divided by the total number of students by level, as a percentage of GDP per capita. Public expenditure (current and capital) includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities). Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
-
-
-
-
-
Public expenditure per student is the public current spending on education divided by the total number of students by level, as a percentage of GDP per capita. Public expenditure (current and capital) includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities). Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
-
-
-
-
-
Public expenditure per student is the public current spending on education divided by the total number of students by level, as a percentage of GDP per capita. Public expenditure (current and capital) includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities). Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
40.27
41.81
-
-
-
Expense is cash payments for operating activities of the government in providing goods and services. It includes compensation of employees (such as wages and salaries), interest and subsidies, grants, social benefits, and other expenses such as rent and dividends. Source: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
-
-
-
-
-
Export values are the current value of exports (f.o.b.) converted to U.S. dollars and expressed as a percentage of the average for the base period (2000). UNCTAD's export value indexes are reported for most economies. For selected economies for which UNCTAD does not publish data, the export value indexes are derived from export volume indexes (line 72) and corresponding unit value indexes of exports (line 74) in the IMF's International Financial Statistics. Source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Handbook of Statistics and data files, and International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics.
-
-
-
-
-
Export volume indexes are derived from UNCTAD's volume index series and are the ratio of the export value indexes to the corresponding unit value indexes. Unit value indexes are based on data reported by countries that demonstrate consistency under UNCTAD quality controls, supplemented by UNCTAD's estimates using the previous year's trade values at the Standard International Trade Classification three-digit level as weights. For economies for which UNCTAD does not publish data, the export volume indexes (lines 72) in the IMF's International Financial Statistics are used. Source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Handbook of Statistics and data files, and International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics.
23.34
23.02
23.11
-
-
Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
1.4
1.41
1.51
-
-
Total fertility rate represents the number of children that would be born to a woman if she were to live to the end of her childbearing years and bear children in accordance with current age-specific fertility rates. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables). Available at http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp2008/index.htm. (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database, and (6) household surveys conducted by national agencies, Macro International, and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
1210.85
915.82
-
-
-
Fertilizer consumption (100 grams per hectare of arable land) measures the quantity of plant nutrients used per unit of arable land. Fertilizer products cover nitrogenous, potash, and phosphate fertilizers (including ground rock phosphate). Traditional nutrients--animal and plant manures--are not included. For the purpose of data dissemination, FAO has adopted the concept of a calendar year (January to December). Some countries compile fertilizer data on a calendar year basis, while others are on a split-year basis. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
-
-
-
-
-
Firms using banks to finance investment are the percentage of firms using banks to finance investments. Source: World Bank, Enterprise Surveys (http://www.enterprisesurveys.org/).
-
-
62
-
-
Fish species are based on Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2008. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known. Source: Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2008. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. www.fishbase.org. version (07/2008). Accessed: 28 September 2008.
4.38
9.09
13.41
-
-
Fixed broadband subscribers are users of the Internet who subscribe to paid high-speed access to the public Internet. High-speed access is at least 256 kilobits per second in one or both directions. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
89
87
-
-
-
Food production index covers food crops that are considered edible and that contain nutrients. Coffee and tea are excluded because, although edible, they have no nutritive value. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
###
###
###
-
-
Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and Balance of Payments databases, and World Bank, Global Development Finance.
29.34
29.58
-
-
-
Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
37822
38124
-
-
-
Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
92.89
93.45
-
-
-
Fossil fuel comprises coal, oil, petroleum, and natural gas products. Source: International Energy Agency.
###
###
###
-
-
GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
4.5
4.04
2.93
-
-
Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
23992.43
27902.14
31669.73
-
-
GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
36867
37787
38435
-
-
GDP per person employed is gross domestic product (GDP) divided by total employment in the economy. Purchasing power parity (PPP) GDP is GDP converted to 1990 constant international dollars using PPP rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP that a U.S. dollar has in the United States. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
9.57
9.35
-
-
-
GDP per unit of energy use is the PPP GDP per kilogram of oil equivalent of energy use. PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to 2005 constant international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. Source: International Energy Agency, and World Bank PPP data.
-
-
2.8
-
-
GEF benefits index for biodiversity is a composite index of relative biodiversity potential for each country based on the species represented in each country, their threat status, and the diversity of habitat types in each country. The index has been normalized so that values run from 0 (no biodiversity potential) to 100 (maximum biodiversity potential). Source: Kiran Dev Pandey, Piet Buys, Ken Chomitz, and David Wheeler's, "Biodiversity Conservation Indicators: New Tools for Priority Setting at the Global Environment Facility" (2006).
23650
25550
28400
-
-
GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
26150
27210
28300
-
-
GNI per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GNI is gross national income (GNI) converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current international dollars. Source: World Bank, International Comparison Program database.
###
###
###
-
-
GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
###
###
###
-
-
PPP GNI (formerly PPP GNP) is gross national income converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. Gross national income (GNI) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current international dollars. Source: World Bank, International Comparison Program database.
21.59
22.6
20.79
-
-
Gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment) consists of outlays on additions to the fixed assets of the economy plus net changes in the level of inventories. Fixed assets include land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. Inventories are stocks of goods held by firms to meet temporary or unexpected fluctuations in production or sales, and "work in progress." According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
99.52
102.61
-
-
-
Gross intake rate in grade 1 is the number of new entrants in the first grade of primary education regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population of the official primary entrance age. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
99.46
102.3
-
-
-
Gross intake rate in grade 1 is the number of new entrants in the first grade of primary education regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population of the official primary entrance age. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
11.83
9.94
9.55
-
-
Gross savings are calculated as gross national income less total consumption, plus net transfers. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
2280.36
2679.39
-
-
-
Total health expenditure is the sum of public and private health expenditures as a ratio of total population. It covers the provision of health services (preventive and curative), family planning activities, nutrition activities, and emergency aid designated for health but does not include provision of water and sanitation. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: World Health Organization National Health Account database (www.who.int/nha/en) supplemented by country data. Note: The latest updates on these data are accessible in WHO's National Health Accounts (NHA) website (http://www.who.int/nha/en/).
62.03
60.35
-
-
-
Public health expenditure consists of recurrent and capital spending from government (central and local) budgets, external borrowings and grants (including donations from international agencies and nongovernmental organizations), and social (or compulsory) health insurance funds. Total health expenditure is the sum of public and private health expenditure. It covers the provision of health services (preventive and curative), family planning activities, nutrition activities, and emergency aid designated for health but does not include provision of water and sanitation. Source: World Health Organization National Health Account database (www.who.int/nha/en) supplemented by country data. Note: The latest updates on these data are accessible in WHO's National Health Accounts (NHA) website (http://www.who.int/nha/en/).
9.54
9.59
-
-
-
Total health expenditure is the sum of public and private health expenditure. It covers the provision of health services (preventive and curative), family planning activities, nutrition activities, and emergency aid designated for health but does not include provision of water and sanitation. Source: World Health Organization National Health Account database (www.who.int/nha/en) supplemented by country data. Note: The latest updates on these data are accessible in WHO's National Health Accounts (NHA) website (http://www.who.int/nha/en/).
10.54
8.02
9.96
-
-
High-technology exports are products with high R&D intensity, such as in aerospace, computers, pharmaceuticals, scientific instruments, and electrical machinery. Source: United Nations, Comtrade database.
###
###
###
-
-
High-technology exports are products with high R&D intensity, such as in aerospace, computers, pharmaceuticals, scientific instruments, and electrical machinery. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: United Nations, Comtrade database.
29
25
25
25
-
Highest marginal tax rate (corporate rate) is the highest rate shown on the schedule of tax rates applied to the taxable income of corporations. Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers, Corporate Taxes: Worldwide Summaries, by permission of John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
-
-
110895
100334
-
Highest marginal tax rate (individual rate) is the highest rate shown on the schedule of tax rates applied to the taxable income of individuals. This series presents the income levels for individuals above which the highest marginal tax rates levied at the national level apply. Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers, Individual Taxes: Worldwide Summaries, by permission of John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
40
40
40
40
-
Highest marginal tax rate (individual rate) is the highest rate shown on the schedule of tax rates applied to the taxable income of individuals. Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers, Individual Taxes: Worldwide Summaries, by permission of John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
100
-
-
-
-
Households with television are the share of households with a television set. Some countries report only the number of households with a color television set, and therefore the true number may be higher than reported. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
3.34
2.98
3.21
-
-
Information and communication technology goods exports include telecommunications, audio and video, computer and related equipment; electronic components; and other information and communication technology goods. Software is excluded. Source: United Nations Statistics Division's Commodity Trade (Comtrade) database.
6.01
6.29
5.62
-
-
Information and communication technology goods imports include telecommunications, audio and video, computer and related equipment; electronic components; and other information and communication technology goods. Software is excluded. Source: United Nations Statistics Division's Commodity Trade (Comtrade) database.
1.65
1.62
1.68
-
-
Information and communication technology service exports include computer and communications services (telecommunications and postal and courier services) and information services (computer data and news-related service transactions). Source: International Monetary Fund, Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook and data files.
-
-
-
-
-
ISO certification ownership is the percentage of firms that have earned a quality certification recognized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Source: World Bank, Enterprise Surveys (http://www.enterprisesurveys.org/).
98
99
99
-
-
Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine. Source: WHO and UNICEF (http://www.who.int/immunization_monitoring/routine/en/).
98
99
99
-
-
Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against measles after receiving one dose of vaccine. Source: WHO and UNICEF (http://www.who.int/immunization_monitoring/routine/en/).
-
-
-
-
-
Import value indexes are the current value of imports (c.i.f.) converted to U.S. dollars and expressed as a percentage of the average for the base period (2000). UNCTAD's import value indexes are reported for most economies. For selected economies for which UNCTAD does not publish data, the import value indexes are derived from import volume indexes (line 73) and corresponding unit value indexes of imports (line 75) in the IMF's International Financial Statistics. Source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Handbook of Statistics and data files, and International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics.
-
-
-
-
-
Import volume indexes are derived from UNCTAD's volume index series and are the ratio of the import value indexes to the corresponding unit value indexes. Unit value indexes are based on data reported by countries that demonstrate consistency under UNCTAD quality controls, supplemented by UNCTAD's estimates using the previous year's trade values at the Standard International Trade Classification three-digit level as weights. For economies for which UNCTAD does not publish data, the import volume indexes (lines 73) in the IMF's International Financial Statistics are used. Source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Handbook of Statistics and data files, and International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics.
32.62
33.5
31.92
-
-
Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
98
-
-
-
-
Access to improved sanitation facilities refers to the percentage of the population with at least adequate access to excreta disposal facilities that can effectively prevent human, animal, and insect contact with excreta. Improved facilities range from simple but protected pit latrines to flush toilets with a sewerage connection. To be effective, facilities must be correctly constructed and properly maintained. Source: World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund, Joint Measurement Programme (JMP) (http://www.wssinfo.org/).
99
-
-
-
-
Access to improved sanitation facilities refers to the percentage of the population with at least adequate access to excreta disposal facilities that can effectively prevent human, animal, and insect contact with excreta. Improved facilities range from simple but protected pit latrines to flush toilets with a sewerage connection. To be effective, facilities must be correctly constructed and properly maintained. Source: World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund, Joint Measurement Programme (JMP) (http://www.wssinfo.org/).
99
-
-
-
-
Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling. Source: World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund, Joint Measurement Programme (JMP) (http://www.wssinfo.org/).
100
-
-
-
-
Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling. Source: World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund, Joint Measurement Programme (JMP) (http://www.wssinfo.org/).
6.02
6.14
5.52
-
-
Incidence of tuberculosis is the estimated number of new pulmonary, smear positive, and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis cases. Source: World Health Organization, Global Tuberculosis Control Report.
-
-
-
-
-
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Percentage shares by quintile may not sum to 100 because of rounding. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).
-
-
-
-
-
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).
-
-
-
-
-
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Percentage shares by quintile may not sum to 100 because of rounding. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).
-
-
-
-
-
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).
-
-
-
-
-
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Percentage shares by quintile may not sum to 100 because of rounding. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).
-
-
-
-
-
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Percentage shares by quintile may not sum to 100 because of rounding. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).
-
-
-
-
-
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Percentage shares by quintile may not sum to 100 because of rounding. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).
20.98
20.35
19.72
-
-
Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Note: For VAB countries, gross value added at factor cost is used as the denominator. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
3.23
2.87
3.44
-
-
Inflation as measured by the annual growth rate of the GDP implicit deflator shows the rate of price change in the economy as a whole. The GDP implicit deflator is the ratio of GDP in current local currency to GDP in constant local currency. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
3.2
2.9
4.15
-
-
Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and data files.
-
-
-
-
-
Informal payments to public officials are the percentage of firms expected to make informal payments to public officials to "get things done" with regard to customs, taxes, licenses, regulations, services, and the like. Source: World Bank, Enterprise Surveys (http://www.enterprisesurveys.org/).
4.58
4.53
4.54
-
-
Information and communications technology expenditures include computer hardware (computers, storage devices, printers, and other peripherals); computer software (operating systems, programming tools, utilities, applications, and internal software development); computer services (information technology consulting, computer and network systems integration, Web hosting, data processing services, and other services); and communications services (voice and data communications services) and wired and wireless communications equipment. Source: World Information Technology and Services Alliance, Digital Planet: The Global Information Economy, and Global Insight, Inc.
-
-
-
-
-
Interest rate spread is the interest rate charged by banks on loans to prime customers minus the interest rate paid by commercial or similar banks for demand, time, or savings deposits. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and data files.
2225.24
4536.95
-
-
-
International Internet bandwidth is the contracted capacity of international connections between countries for transmitting Internet traffic. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
-
-
-
-
-
International migrant stock is the number of people born in a country other than that in which they live. It also includes refugees. The data used to estimate the international migrant stock at a particular time are obtained mainly from population censuses. The estimates are derived from the data on foreign-born population--people who have residence in one country but were born in another country. When data on the foreign-born population are not available, data on foreign population--that is, people who are citizens of a country other than the country in which they reside--are used as estimates. After the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991 people living in one of the newly independent countries who were born in another were classified as international migrants. Estimates of migrant stock in the newly independent states from 1990 on are based on the 1989 census of the Soviet Union. For countries with information on the international migrant stock for at least two points in time, interpolation or extrapolation was used to estimate the international migrant stock on July 1 of the reference years. For countries with only one observation, estimates for the reference years were derived using rates of change in the migrant stock in the years preceding or following the single observation available. A model was used to estimate migrants for countries that had no data. Source: United Nations Population Division, Trends in Total Migrant Stock: 2008 Revision.
-
-
-
-
-
International voice traffic is the sum of international incoming and outgoing telephone traffic (in minutes). Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
3203400
###
4844609.5
-
-
Internet users are people with access to the worldwide network. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
28.73
29.98
43.11
-
-
Internet users are people with access to the worldwide network. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
###
###
5204880.6
-
-
Total labor force comprises people ages 15 and older who meet the International Labour Organization definition of the economically active population: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period. It includes both the employed and the unemployed. While national practices vary in the treatment of such groups as the armed forces and seasonal or part-time workers, in general the labor force includes the armed forces, the unemployed, and first-time job-seekers, but excludes homemakers and other unpaid caregivers and workers in the informal sector. Source: International Labour Organization, using World Bank population estimates.
43
43
43
-
-
Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15 and older that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
63.6
63.3
63.1
-
-
Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15 and older that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
54
53.9
54
-
-
Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15 and older that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
128900
128900
128900
-
-
Land area is a country's total area, excluding area under inland water bodies, national claims to continental shelf, and exclusive economic zones. In most cases the definition of inland water bodies includes major rivers and lakes. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
1200654
1190530
1196730
-
-
Land under cereal production refers to harvested area, although some countries report only sown or cultivated area. Cereals include wheat, rice, maize, barley, oats, rye, millet, sorghum, buckwheat, and mixed grains. Production data on cereals relate to crops harvested for dry grain only. Cereal crops harvested for hay or harvested green for food, feed, or silage and those used for grazing are excluded. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
3
-
-
-
-
Lead time to export is the median time (the value for 50 percent of shipments) from shipment point to port of loading. Data are from the Logistics Performance Index survey. Respondents provided separate values for the best case (10 percent of shipments) and the median case (50 percent of shipments). The data are exponentiated averages of the logarithm of single value responses and of midpoint values of range responses for the median case. Source: World Bank and Turku School of Economics, Logistic Performance Index Surveys. Data are available online at : http://www.worldbank.org/lpi. Summary results are published in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy, The Logistics Performance Index and Its Indicators report.
3.5
-
-
-
-
Lead time to import is the median time (the value for 50 percent of shipments) from port of discharge to arrival at the consignee. Data are from the Logistics Performance Index survey. Respondents provided separate values for the best case (10 percent of shipments) and the median case (50 percent of shipments). The data are exponentiated averages of the logarithm of single value responses and of midpoint values of range responses for the median case. Source: World Bank and Turku School of Economics, Logistic Performance Index Surveys. Data are available online at : http://www.worldbank.org/lpi. Summary results are published in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy, The Logistics Performance Index and Its Indicators report.
-
-
-
-
-
Lending interest rate is the rate charged by banks on loans to prime customers. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and data files.
81.92
81.83
82.35
-
-
Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables), (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.
77.21
77.07
77.69
-
-
Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables), (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.
79.51
79.39
79.96
-
-
Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life. Source: Derived from male and female life expectancy at birth. Male and female life expectancy source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables), (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.
318
292
280
-
-
Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. This indicator does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Source: Standard & Poor's, Emerging Stock Markets Factbook and supplemental S&P data.
-
-
97
-
-
Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
-
-
99.3
-
-
Youth literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15-24 who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
-
-
99.4
-
-
Youth literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15-24 who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
-
-
99.3
-
-
Youth literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15-24 who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
95
95
-
-
-
Livestock production index includes meat and milk from all sources, dairy products such as cheese, and eggs, honey, raw silk, wool, and hides and skins. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
3.36
-
-
2.96
-
Logistics Performance Index overall score reflects perceptions of a country's logistics based on efficiency of customs clearance process, quality of trade- and transport-related infrastructure, ease of arranging competitively priced shipments, quality of logistics services, ability to track and trace consignments, and frequency with which shipments reach the consignee within the scheduled time. The index ranges from 1 to 5, with a higher score representing better performance. Data are from Logistics Performance Index surveys conducted by the World Bank in partnership with academic and international institutions and private companies and individuals engaged in international logistics. 2009 round of surveys covered more than 5,000 country assessments by nearly 1,000 international freight forwarders. Respondents evaluate eight markets on six core dimensions on a scale from 1 (worst) to 5 (best). The markets are chosen based on the most important export and import markets of the respondent's country, random selection, and, for landlocked countries, neighboring countries that connect them with international markets. Scores for the six areas are averaged across all respondents and aggregated to a single score using principal components analysis. Details of the survey methodology and index construction methodology are in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete 2010: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy (2010). Source: World Bank and Turku School of Economics, Logistic Performance Index Surveys. Data are available online at : http://www.worldbank.org/lpi. Summary results are published in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy, The Logistics Performance Index and Its Indicators report.
55.6
50.3
49.6
-
-
Long-term unemployment refers to the number of people with continuous periods of unemployment extending for a year or longer, expressed as a percentage of the total unemployed. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
60.1
54.9
53.8
-
-
Long-term unemployment refers to the number of people with continuous periods of unemployment extending for a year or longer, expressed as a percentage of the total unemployed. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
48.1
42.1
42.8
-
-
Long-term unemployment refers to the number of people with continuous periods of unemployment extending for a year or longer, expressed as a percentage of the total unemployed. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
-
-
10
-
-
Mammal species are mammals excluding whales and porpoises. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known. Source: United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, and International Union for Conservation of Nature, Red List of Threatened Species.
-
-
2.38
-
-
Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment. Source: United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, as compiled by the World Resources Institute, based on data from national authorities, national legislation and international agreements.
-
-
12
-
-
Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment. Source: United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, as compiled by the World Resources Institute, based on data from national authorities, national legislation and international agreements.
77.87
84.84
25.4
-
-
Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. Listed companies does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Source: Standard & Poor's, Emerging Stock Markets Factbook and supplemental S&P data, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
###
###
###
-
-
Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. Listed companies does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: Standard & Poor's, Emerging Stock Markets Factbook and supplemental S&P data.
-
-
-
-
-
Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence. Source: Maternal Mortality: Estimates Developed by WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA and the World Bank.
31.56
31.98
29.02
-
-
Merchandise trade as a share of GDP is the sum of merchandise exports and imports divided by the value of GDP, all in current U.S. dollars. Source: World Trade Organization, and World Bank GDP estimates.
-
-
-
-
-
Methane emissions are those stemming from human activities such as agriculture and from industrial methane production. Source: World Resources Institute.
3.43
3.29
3.55
-
-
Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.) Source: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Note: Data for some countries are based on partial or uncertain data or rough estimates.
8.53
7.86
-
-
-
Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.) Source: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Note: Data for some countries are based on partial or uncertain data or rough estimates.
17150280
18537558
19774582
-
-
Mobile and fixed-line subscribers are total telephone subscribers (fixed-line plus mobile). Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
153.84
165.62
175.98
-
-
Mobile and fixed-line subscribers are total telephone subscribers (fixed-line plus mobile). Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
765.74
812.55
-
-
-
Mobile and fixed-line subscribers per employee are telephone subscribers (fixed-line plus mobile) divided by the total number of telecommunications employees. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
-
-
25.08
-
-
Mobile cellular prepaid tariff is based on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's low-user definition, which includes the cost of monthly mobile use for 25 outgoing calls per month spread over the same mobile network, other mobile networks, and mobile to fixed-line calls and during peak, off-peak, and weekend times as well as 30 text messages per month. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
98.49
109.85
122.8
-
-
Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
3.7
3.5
3.3
-
-
Infant mortality rate is the number of infants dying before reaching one year of age, per 1,000 live births in a given year. Source: Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UNICEF, WHO, World Bank, UNPD, universities and research institutions).
4.4
4.2
4
-
-
Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates. Source: Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UNICEF, WHO, World Bank, UNPD, universities and research institutions).
521.61
112.2
-
-
-
Motor vehicles include cars, buses, and freight vehicles but do not include two-wheelers. Population refers to midyear population in the year for which data are available. Source: International Road Federation, World Road Statistics and data files.
95.2
95.58
94.92
-
-
Net barter terms of trade index is calculated as the percentage ratio of the export unit value indexes to the import unit value indexes, measured relative to the base year 2000. Source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Handbook of Statistics and data files, and International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics.
-
-
-
-
-
Net migration is the net total of migrants during the period, that is, the total number of immigrants less the annual number of emigrants, including both citizens and noncitizens. Data are five-year estimates. To derive estimates of net migration, the United Nations Population Division takes into account the past migration history of a country or area, the migration policy of a country, and the influx of refugees in recent periods. The data to calculate these official estimates come from a variety of sources, including border statistics, administrative records, surveys, and censuses. When no official estimates can be made because of insufficient data, net migration is derived through the balance equation, which is the difference between overall population growth and the natural increase during the 1990-2000 intercensal period. Source: United Nations Population Division, World Population Prospects 2008.
-
-
-
-
-
New businesses registered are the number of new firms, defined as firms registered in the current year of reporting. Source: International Finance Corporation's micro, small, and medium-size enterprises database (http://www.ifc.org/ifcext/sme.nsf/Content/Resources).
-
-
-
-
-
Nitrous oxide emissions are emissions from agricultural biomass burning, industrial activities, and livestock management. Source: International Energy Agency.
-
-
-
-
-
Emissions per worker are total emissions of organic water pollutants divided by the number of industrial workers. Organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: World Bank and UNIDO's industry database.
-
-
-
-
-
Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
-
-
-
-
-
Other greenhouse gas emissions are by-product emissions of hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride. Source: International Energy Agency.
94.82
94.53
-
-
-
Out of pocket expenditure is any direct outlay by households, including gratuities and in-kind payments, to health practitioners and suppliers of pharmaceuticals, therapeutic appliances, and other goods and services whose primary intent is to contribute to the restoration or enhancement of the health status of individuals or population groups. It is a part of private health expenditure. Source: World Health Organization National Health Account database (www.who.int/nha/en) supplemented by country data. Note: The latest updates on these data are accessible in WHO's National Health Accounts (NHA) website (http://www.who.int/nha/en/).
35.97
-
-
-
-
Particulate matter concentrations refer to fine suspended particulates less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10) that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing significant health damage. Data for countries and aggregates for regions and income groups are urban-population weighted PM10 levels in residential areas of cities with more than 100,000 residents. The estimates represent the average annual exposure level of the average urban resident to outdoor particulate matter. The state of a country's technology and pollution controls is an important determinant of particulate matter concentrations. Source: Kiren Dev Pandey, David Wheeler, Bart Ostro, Uwe Deichmann, Kirk Hamilton, and Katherine Bolt. "Ambient Particulate Matter Concentrations in Residential and Pollution Hotspot Areas of World Cities: New Estimates Based on the Global Model of Ambient Particulates (GMAPS)," World Bank, Development Research Group and Environment Department (2006).
409.28
428.69
-
-
-
Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver). Source: International Road Federation, World Road Statistics and data files.
692
772
803
-
-
Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention--a product or process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years. Source: World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), WIPO Patent Report: Statistics on Worldwide Patent Activity. The International Bureau of WIPO assumes no responsibility with respect to the transformation of these data.
8.78
8.78
-
-
-
Permanent cropland is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
98.02
-
-
-
-
Persistence to last grade of primary is the percentage of children enrolled in the first grade of primary school who eventually reach the last grade of primary education. The estimate is based on the reconstructed cohort method. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
98.45
-
-
-
-
Persistence to last grade of primary is the percentage of children enrolled in the first grade of primary school who eventually reach the last grade of primary education. The estimate is based on the reconstructed cohort method. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
9.37
-
-
-
-
Personal computers are self-contained computers designed to be used by a single individual. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
-
11
11
-
-
Higher plants are native vascular plant species. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known. Source: United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, and International Union for Conservation of Nature, Red List of Threatened Species.
14.28
14.24
14.22
-
-
Population between the ages 0 to 14 as a percentage of the total population. Population is based on the de facto definition of population. Source: World Bank staff estimates from various sources including census reports, the United Nations Population Division's World Population Prospects, national statistical offices, household surveys conducted by national agencies, and Macro International.
67.6
67.59
67.59
-
-
Population ages 15 to 64 is the percentage of the total population that is in the age group 15 to 64. Population is based on the de facto definition of population. Source: World Bank staff estimates from various sources including census reports, the United Nations Population Division's World Population Prospects, national statistical offices, household surveys conducted by national agencies, and Macro International.
18.12
18.17
18.19
-
-
Population ages 65 and above as a percentage of the total population. Population is based on the de facto definition of population. Source: World Bank staff estimates from various sources including census reports, the United Nations Population Division's World Population Prospects, national statistical offices, household surveys conducted by national agencies, and Macro International.
99.9
99.9
-
-
-
Population covered by mobile cellular network is the percentage of people that live in areas served by a mobile cellular signal regardless of whether they use it. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
0.4
0.4
0.4
-
-
Annual population growth rate for year t is the exponential rate of growth of midyear population from year t-1 to t, expressed as a percentage . Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of the country of origin. Source: Derived from total population. Population source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables). Available at http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp2008/index.htm. (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database, and (6) World bank estimates based on the data from the sources above, household surveys conducted by national agencies, Macro International, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and refugees statistics from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
-
47.83
-
-
-
Population in largest city is the percentage of a country's urban population living in that country's largest metropolitan area. Source: United Nations, World Urbanization Prospects.
-
29.08
-
-
-
Population in urban agglomerations of more than one million is the percentage of a country's population living in metropolitan areas that in 2000 had a population of more than one million people. Source: United Nations, World Urbanization Prospects.
50.48
50.46
50.44
-
-
Female population is the percentage of the population that is female. Population is based on the de facto definition of population. Source: United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables). Available at http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp2008/index.htm.
11148460
11192763
11237094
-
-
Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of their country of origin. The values shown are midyear estimates. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables). Available at http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp2008/index.htm. (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database, and (6) World bank estimates based on the data from the sources above, household surveys conducted by national agencies, Macro International, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and refugees statistics from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
###
###
###
-
-
Portfolio equity includes net inflows from equity securities other than those recorded as direct investment and including shares, stocks, depository receipts (American or global), and direct purchases of shares in local stock markets by foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: International Monetary Fund, Balance of Payments database, and World Bank, Global Development Finance.
-
0.1
-
-
-
Prevalence of HIV is the percentage of people who are infected with HIV. Youth rates are as a percentage of the relevant age group. Source: UNAIDS and the WHO's Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic.
-
0.2
-
-
-
Prevalence of HIV is the percentage of people who are infected with HIV. Youth rates are as a percentage of the relevant age group. Source: UNAIDS and the WHO's Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic.
0.2
0.2
-
-
-
Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV. Source: UNAIDS and the WHO's Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic.
102.57
100.88
-
-
-
Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
103.76
101.87
-
-
-
Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
103.18
101.39
-
-
-
Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
0
0
39
46.9
-
Private credit bureau coverage reports the number of individuals or firms listed by a private credit bureau with current information on repayment history, unpaid debts, or credit outstanding. The number is expressed as a percentage of the adult population. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
-
-
-
-
-
Progression to secondary school refers to the number of new entrants to the first grade of secondary school in a given year as a percentage of the number of students enrolled in the final grade of primary school in the previous year. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
-
-
-
-
-
Progression to secondary school refers to the number of new entrants to the first grade of secondary school in a given year as a percentage of the number of students enrolled in the final grade of primary school in the previous year. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
13
16
14.7
14.7
-
Women in parliaments are the percentage of parliamentary seats in a single or lower chamber held by women. Source: United Nations, Women's Indicators and Statistics database (www.ipu.org).
37.5
38.7
0
0
-
Public credit registry coverage reports the number of individuals and firms listed in a public credit registry with current information on repayment history, unpaid debts, or credit outstanding. The number is expressed as a percentage of the adult population. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
-
-
-
-
-
Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities). Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
-
-
-
-
-
Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities). Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
1.19
-
1.41
-
-
Fuel prices refer to the pump prices of the most widely sold grade of diesel fuel. Prices have been converted from the local currency to U.S. dollars. Source: German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ).
1.16
-
1.23
-
-
Fuel prices refer to the pump prices of the most widely sold grade of gasoline. Prices have been converted from the local currency to U.S. dollars. Source: German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ).
10.54
10.29
-
-
-
Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment). Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
2509
2551
2552
-
-
Rail lines are the length of railway route available for train service, irrespective of the number of parallel tracks. Source: World Bank, Transportation, Water, and Urban Development Department, Transport Division.
112.93
110.32
-
-
-
Ratio of female to male tertiary enrollment is the percentage of men to women enrolled at tertiary level in public and private schools. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
100.03
100.17
-
-
-
Ratio of female to male primary enrollment is the percentage of girls to boys enrolled at primary level in public and private schools. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
97.29
94.67
-
-
-
Ratio of female to male secondary enrollment is the percentage of girls to boys enrolled at secondary level in public and private schools. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
98.59
97.29
-
-
-
Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education is the percentage of girls to boys enrolled at primary and secondary levels in public and private schools. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
-
-
-
-
-
Real interest rate is the lending interest rate adjusted for inflation as measured by the GDP deflator. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and data files using World Bank data on the GDP deflator.
2289
2228
2164
-
-
Refugees are people who are recognized as refugees under the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees or its 1967 Protocol, the 1969 Organization of African Unity Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, people recognized as refugees in accordance with the UNHCR statute, people granted refugee-like humanitarian status, and people provided temporary protection. Asylum seekers--people who have applied for asylum or refugee status and who have not yet received a decision or who are registered as asylum seekers--are excluded. Palestinian refugees are people (and their descendants) whose residence was Palestine between June 1946 and May 1948 and who lost their homes and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 Arab-Israeli conflict. Country of asylum is the country where an asylum claim was filed and granted. Source: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Statistical Yearbook and data files, complemented by statistics on Palestinian refugees under the mandate of the UNRWA as published on its website. Data from UNHCR are available online at: www.unhcr.org/statistics/populationdatabase.
90.8
91.8
67.4
-
-
Refugees are people who are recognized as refugees under the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees or its 1967 Protocol, the 1969 Organization of African Unity Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, people recognized as refugees in accordance with the UNHCR statute, people granted refugee-like humanitarian status, and people provided temporary protection. Asylum seekers--people who have applied for asylum or refugee status and who have not yet received a decision or who are registered as asylum seekers--are excluded. Palestinian refugees are people (and their descendants) whose residence was Palestine between June 1946 and May 1948 and who lost their homes and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 Arab-Israeli conflict. Country of origin generally refers to the nationality or country of citizenship of a claimant. Source: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Statistical Yearbook and data files, complemented by statistics on Palestinian refugees under the mandate of the UNRWA as published on its website. Data from UNHCR are available online at: www.unhcr.org/statistics/populationdatabase.
-
5181.92
5161.48
-
-
Renewable internal freshwater resources flows refer to internal renewable resources (internal river flows and groundwater from rainfall) in the country. Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita are calculated using the World Bank's population estimates. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data.
-
58
-
-
-
Renewable internal freshwater resources flows refer to internal renewable resources (internal river flows and groundwater from rainfall) in the country. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data.
0.54
0.57
-
-
-
Repeaters in primary school are the number of students enrolled in the same grade as in the previous year, as a percentage of all students enrolled in primary school. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
0.67
0.76
-
-
-
Repeaters in primary school are the number of students enrolled in the same grade as in the previous year, as a percentage of all students enrolled in primary school. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
0.5
0.5
-
-
-
Expenditures for research and development are current and capital expenditures (both public and private) on creative work undertaken systematically to increase knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture, and society, and the use of knowledge for new applications. R&D covers basic research, applied research, and experimental development. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
1795.53
1873.46
-
-
-
Researchers in R&D are professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods, or systems and in the management of the projects concerned. Postgraduate PhD students (ISCED97 level 6) engaged in R&D are included. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
37.98
39.05
-
-
-
Revenue is cash receipts from taxes, social contributions, and other revenues such as fines, fees, rent, and income from property or sales. Grants are also considered as revenue but are excluded here. Source: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
-
-
47
50
-
The rigidity of employment index measures the regulation of employment, specifically the hiring and firing of workers and the rigidity of working hours. This index is the average of three subindexes: a difficulty of hiring index, a rigidity of hours index, and a difficulty of firing index. The index ranges from 0 to 100, with higher values indicating more rigid regulations. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
-
-
-
-
-
Risk premium on lending is the interest rate charged by banks on loans to prime private sector customers minus the "risk free" treasury bill interest rate at which short-term government securities are issued or traded in the market. In some countries this spread may be negative, indicating that the market considers its best corporate clients to be lower risk than the government. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics database.
21.13
20.77
-
-
-
Road sector energy consumption is the total energy used in the road sector including petroleum products, natural gas, electricity, and combustible renewable and waste. Total energy consumption is the total country energy consumption. Source: International Road Federation, World Road Statistics and electronic files, except where noted, and International Energy Agency.
-
-
-
-
-
Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length. Source: International Road Federation, World Road Statistics and electronic files, except where noted.
###
###
###
-
-
Royalty and license fees are payments and receipts between residents and nonresidents for the authorized use of intangible, nonproduced, nonfinancial assets and proprietary rights (such as patents, copyrights, trademarks, industrial processes, and franchises) and for the use, through licensing agreements, of produced originals of prototypes (such as films and manuscripts). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: International Monetary Fund, Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook and data files.
###
###
###
-
-
Royalty and license fees are payments and receipts between residents and nonresidents for the authorized use of intangible, nonproduced, nonfinancial assets and proprietary rights (such as patents, copyrights, trademarks, industrial processes, and franchises) and for the use, through licensing agreements, of produced originals of prototypes (such as films and manuscripts). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: International Monetary Fund, Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook and data files.
###
4387563.1
###
-
-
Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population. Source: The data on urban population shares used to estimate rural population come from the United Nations, World Urbanization Prospects. Total population figures are World Bank estimates.
39.4
39.2
39
-
-
Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population. Source: World Bank Staff estimates based on United Nations, World Urbanization Prospects. -
-
-
-
-
S&P Global Equity Indices measure the U.S. dollar price change in the stock markets covered by the S&P/IFCI and S&P/Frontier BMI country indices. Source: Standard & Poor's, Global Stock Markets Factbook and supplemental S&P data.
68.67
68.58
-
-
-
Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Preprimary education refers to the initial stage of organized instruction, designed primarily to introduce very young children to a school-type environment. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
101.61
101.21
-
-
-
Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
99.35
99.4
-
-
-
Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
103.08
101.78
-
-
-
Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Secondary education completes the provision of basic education that began at the primary level, and aims at laying the foundations for lifelong learning and human development, by offering more subject- or skill-oriented instruction using more specialized teachers. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
92.13
90.96
-
-
-
Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Secondary education completes the provision of basic education that began at the primary level, and aims at laying the foundations for lifelong learning and human development, by offering more subject- or skill-oriented instruction using more specialized teachers. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
94.89
90.83
-
-
-
Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Tertiary education, whether or not to an advanced research qualification, normally requires, as a minimum condition of admission, the successful completion of education at the secondary level. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
-
-
-
-
-
Scientific and technical journal articles refer to the number of scientific and engineering articles published in the following fields: physics, biology, chemistry, mathematics, clinical medicine, biomedical research, engineering and technology, and earth and space sciences. Source: National Science Foundation, Science and Engineering Indicators.
39.92
52.62
61.23
79.24
-
Secure servers are servers using encryption technology in Internet transactions. Source: Netcraft (http://www.netcraft.com/) and World Bank population estimates.
74.96
75.86
76.98
-
-
Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Note: For VAB countries, gross value added at factor cost is used as the denominator. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
41.6
42
-
-
-
Share of women employed in the nonagricultural sector is the share of female workers in the nonagricultural sector (industry and services), expressed as a percentage of total employment in the nonagricultural sector. Industry includes mining and quarrying (including oil production), manufacturing, construction, electricity, gas, and water, corresponding to divisions 2-5 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories C-F (ISIC revision 3). Services include wholesale and retail trade and restaurants and hotels; transport, storage, and communications; financing, insurance, real estate, and business services; and community, social, and personal services-corresponding to divisions 6-9 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories G-P (ISIC revision 3). Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
15
15
15
15
-
Start-up procedures are those required to start a business, including interactions to obtain necessary permits and licenses and to complete all inscriptions, verifications, and notifications to start operations. Data are for businesses with specific characteristics of ownership, size, and type of production. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
40.18
48.52
29.68
-
-
Stocks traded refers to the total value of shares traded during the period. This indicator complements the market capitalization ratio by showing whether market size is matched by trading. Source: Standard & Poor's, Emerging Stock Markets Factbook and supplemental S&P data, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
60.84
64
59.18
-
-
Turnover ratio is the total value of shares traded during the period divided by the average market capitalization for the period. Average market capitalization is calculated as the average of the end-of-period values for the current period and the previous period. Source: Standard & Poor's, Emerging Stock Markets Factbook and supplemental S&P data.
3
3
3
3
-
Strength of legal rights index measures the degree to which collateral and bankruptcy laws protect the rights of borrowers and lenders and thus facilitate lending. The index ranges from 0 to 10, with higher scores indicating that these laws are better designed to expand access to credit. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
21
21
10
10
-
Tax payments by businesses are the total number of taxes paid by businesses, including electronic filing. The tax is counted as paid once a year even if payments are more frequent. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
19.78
19.92
-
-
-
Tax revenue refers to compulsory transfers to the central government for public purposes. Certain compulsory transfers such as fines, penalties, and most social security contributions are excluded. Refunds and corrections of erroneously collected tax revenue are treated as negative revenue. Source: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
-
-
-
-
-
Technicians in R&D and equivalent staff are people whose main tasks require technical knowledge and experience in engineering, physical and life sciences (technicians), or social sciences and humanities (equivalent staff). They participate in R&D by performing scientific and technical tasks involving the application of concepts and operational methods, normally under the supervision of researchers. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
3.9
3.7
-
-
-
Telecommunications revenue is the revenue from the provision of telecommunications services such as fixed-line, mobile, and data. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
-
-
3.45
-
-
Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities. Source: United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, as compiled by the World Resources Institute, based on data from national authorities, national legislation and international agreements.
-
-
111
-
-
Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities. Source: United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, as compiled by the World Resources Institute, based on data from national authorities, national legislation and international agreements.
38
38
19
19
-
Time required to start a business is the number of calendar days needed to complete the procedures to legally operate a business. If a procedure can be speeded up at additional cost, the fastest procedure, independent of cost, is chosen. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
264
264
224
224
-
Time to prepare and pay taxes is the time, in hours per year, it takes to prepare, file, and pay (or withhold) three major types of taxes: the corporate income tax, the value added or sales tax, and labor taxes, including payroll taxes and social security contributions. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
2
2
2
2
-
Time to resolve insolvency is the number of years from the filing for insolvency in court until the resolution of distressed assets. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
-
-
-
-
-
Total businesses registered. Because of underreporting of firms that have closed or exited, especially in developing countries, the data on total registered firms may be biased upward. Source: International Finance Corporation's micro, small, and medium-size enterprises database (http://www.ifc.org/ifcext/sme.nsf/Content/Resources).
###
###
###
-
-
Total reserves comprise holdings of monetary gold, special drawing rights, reserves of IMF members held by the IMF, and holdings of foreign exchange under the control of monetary authorities. The gold component of these reserves is valued at year-end (December 31) London prices. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and data files.
50.1
49.6
47.4
47.4
-
Total tax rate is the total amount of taxes payable by businesses (except for labor taxes) after accounting for deductions and exemptions as a percentage of profit. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
19.49
20.28
21.18
-
-
Trade in services is the sum of service exports and imports divided by the value of GDP, all in current U.S. dollars. Source: International Monetary Fund, Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
-
889
789
-
-
Trademark applications filed are applications to register a trademark with a national or regional Intellectual Property (IP) office. A trademark is a distinctive sign which identifies certain goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. A trademark provides protection to the owner of the mark by ensuring the exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services, or to authorize another to use it in return for payment. The period of protection varies, but a trademark can be renewed indefinitely beyond the time limit on payment of additional fees. Direct nonresident trademark applications are those filed by applicants from abroad directly at a given national IP office. Source: World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), WIPO Patent Report: Statistics on Worldwide Patent Activity. The International Bureau of WIPO assumes no responsibility with respect to the transformation of these data.
-
6416
6412
-
-
Trademark applications filed are applications to register a trademark with a national or regional Intellectual Property (IP) office. A trademark is a distinctive sign which identifies certain goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. A trademark provides protection to the owner of the mark by ensuring the exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services, or to authorize another to use it in return for payment. The period of protection varies, but a trademark can be renewed indefinitely beyond the time limit on payment of additional fees. Direct resident trademark applications are those filed by domestic applicants directly at a given national IP office. Source: World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), WIPO Patent Report: Statistics on Worldwide Patent Activity. The International Bureau of WIPO assumes no responsibility with respect to the transformation of these data.
0.19
0.2
-
-
-
Diesel is heavy oils used as a fuel for internal combustion in diesel engines. Source: International Road Federation, World Road Statistics and electronic files, except where noted, and International Energy Agency.
0.35
0.37
-
-
-
Gasoline is light hydrocarbon oil use in internal combustion engine such as motor vehicles, excluding aircraft. Source: International Road Federation, World Road Statistics and electronic files, except where noted, and International Energy Agency.
13.6
12.8
11.4
-
-
Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
5.6
5.2
5.1
-
-
Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
8.9
8.3
7.7
-
-
Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
34.7
32.1
28.9
-
-
Youth unemployment refers to the share of the labor force ages 15-24 without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
17.7
15.8
17
-
-
Youth unemployment refers to the share of the labor force ages 15-24 without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
###
6805199.9
###
-
-
Urban population refers to people living in urban areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated using World Bank population estimates and urban ratios from the United Nations World Urbanization Prospects. Source: World Bank Staff estimates based on United Nations, World Urbanization Prospects. 60.6
60.8
61
-
-
Urban population refers to people living in urban areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated using World Bank population estimates and urban ratios from the United Nations World Urbanization Prospects. Source: United Nations, World Urbanization Prospects.
-
-
-
-
-
Vehicles per kilometer of road include cars, buses, and freight vehicles but do not include two-wheelers. Roads refer to motorways, highways, main or national roads, secondary or regional roads, and other roads. A motorway is a road specially designed and built for motor traffic that separates the traffic flowing in opposite directions. Source: International Road Federation, World Road Statistics and data files.
28
27
26.7
-
-
Vulnerable employment is unpaid family workers and own-account workers as a percentage of total employment. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
28.3
28.2
27.1
-
-
Vulnerable employment is unpaid family workers and own-account workers as a percentage of total employment. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
28.2
27.7
27
-
-
Vulnerable employment is unpaid family workers and own-account workers as a percentage of total employment. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
-
-
-
-
-
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: chemicals (35). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
-
-
-
-
-
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: stone, ceramics, and glass (36). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
-
-
-
-
-
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: food and beverages (31). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
-
-
-
-
-
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: primary metals (ISIC division 37). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
-
-
-
-
-
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: other (38 and 39). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
-
-
-
-
-
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: paper and pulp (34). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
-
-
-
-
-
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: textiles (32). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
-
-
-
-
-
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: wood (33). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
###
###
###
-
-
Workers' remittances and compensation of employees comprise current transfers by migrant workers and wages and salaries earned by nonresident workers. Data are the sum of three items defined in the fifth edition of the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual: workers' remittances, compensation of employees, and migrants' transfers. Remittances are classified as current private transfers from migrant workers resident in the host country for more than a year, irrespective of their immigration status, to recipients in their country of origin. Migrants' transfers are defined as the net worth of migrants who are expected to remain in the host country for more than one year that is transferred from one country to another at the time of migration. Compensation of employees is the income of migrants who have lived in the host country for less than a year. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: World Bank staff estimates based on IMF balance of payments data.
Adolescent fertility rate is the number of births per 1,000 women ages 15-19. Source: United Nations Population Division, World Population Prospects.
Agricultural irrigated land refers to agricultural areas purposely provided with water, including land irrigated by controlled flooding. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Agricultural machinery refers to the number of wheel and crawler tractors (excluding garden tractors) in use in agriculture at the end of the calendar year specified or during the first quarter of the following year. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Agricultural methane emissions are emissions from animals, animal waste, rice production, agricultural waste burning (nonenergy, on-site), and savannah burning. Source: International Energy Agency.
Agricultural nitrous oxide emissions are emissions produced through fertilizer use (synthetic and animal manure), animal waste management, agricultural waste burning (nonenergy, on-site), and savannah burning. Source: International Energy Agency.
Agriculture value added per worker is a measure of agricultural productivity. Value added in agriculture measures the output of the agricultural sector (ISIC divisions 1-5) less the value of intermediate inputs. Agriculture comprises value added from forestry, hunting, and fishing as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Source: Derived from World Bank national accounts files and Food and Agriculture Organization, Production Yearbook and data files.
Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Note: For VAB countries, gross value added at factor cost is used as the denominator. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Registered carrier departures worldwide are domestic takeoffs and takeoffs abroad of air carriers registered in the country. Source: International Civil Aviation Organization, Civil Aviation Statistics of the World and ICAO staff estimates.
Clean energy is noncarbohydrate energy that does not produce carbon dioxide when generated. It includes hydropower and nuclear, geothermal, and solar power, among others. Source: International Energy Agency.
Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data.
Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data.
Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for industry are total withdrawals for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data.
Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture and industry are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production and for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data.
Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Arable land (hectares per person) includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Average number of times management met with tax officials is the average number of visits or required meetings with tax officials. Source: World Bank, Enterprise Surveys (http://www.enterprisesurveys.org/).
Bank capital to assets is the ratio of bank capital and reserves to total assets. Capital and reserves include funds contributed by owners, retained earnings, general and special reserves, provisions, and valuation adjustments. Capital includes tier 1 capital (paid-up shares and common stock), which is a common feature in all countries' banking systems, and total regulatory capital, which includes several specified types of subordinated debt instruments that need not be repaid if the funds are required to maintain minimum capital levels (these comprise tier 2 and tier 3 capital). Total assets include all nonfinancial and financial assets. Source: International Monetary Fund, Global Financial Stability Report.
Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans are the value of nonperforming loans divided by the total value of the loan portfolio (including nonperforming loans before the deduction of specific loan-loss provisions). The loan amount recorded as nonperforming should be the gross value of the loan as recorded on the balance sheet, not just the amount that is overdue. Source: International Monetary Fund, Global Financial Stability Report.
Crude birth rate indicates the number of live births occurring during the year, per 1,000 population estimated at midyear. Subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate provides the rate of natural increase, which is equal to the rate of population change in the absence of migration. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables), (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.
Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Source: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, United States.
Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Source: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, United States.
Cash surplus or deficit is revenue (including grants) minus expense, minus net acquisition of nonfinancial assets. In the 1986 GFS manual nonfinancial assets were included under revenue and expenditure in gross terms. This cash surplus or deficit is closest to the earlier overall budget balance (still missing is lending minus repayments, which are now a financing item under net acquisition of financial assets). Source: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
Debt is the entire stock of direct government fixed-term contractual obligations to others outstanding on a particular date. It includes domestic and foreign liabilities such as currency and money deposits, securities other than shares, and loans. It is the gross amount of government liabilities reduced by the amount of equity and financial derivatives held by the government. Because debt is a stock rather than a flow, it is measured as of a given date, usually the last day of the fiscal year. Source: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
Cereal yield, measured as kilograms per hectare of harvested land, includes wheat, rice, maize, barley, oats, rye, millet, sorghum, buckwheat, and mixed grains. Production data on cereals relate to crops harvested for dry grain only. Cereal crops harvested for hay or harvested green for food, feed, or silage and those used for grazing are excluded. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Children out of school are the number of primary-school-age children not enrolled in primary or secondary school. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Children out of school are the number of primary-school-age children not enrolled in primary or secondary school. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Combustible renewables and waste comprise solid biomass, liquid biomass, biogas, industrial waste, and municipal waste, measured as a percentage of total energy use. Source: International Energy Agency.
Port container traffic measures the flow of containers from land to sea transport modes., and vice versa, in twenty-foot equivalent units (TEUs), a standard-size container. Data refer to coastal shipping as well as international journeys. Transshipment traffic is counted as two lifts at the intermediate port (once to off-load and again as an outbound lift) and includes empty units. Source: Containerisation International, Containerisation International Yearbook.
Credit depth of information index measures rules affecting the scope, accessibility, and quality of credit information available through public or private credit registries. The index ranges from 0 to 6, with higher values indicating the availability of more credit information, from either a public registry or a private bureau, to facilitate lending decisions. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
Crop production index shows agricultural production for each year relative to the base period 1999-2001. It includes all crops except fodder crops. Regional and income group aggregates for the FAO's production indexes are calculated from the underlying values in international dollars, normalized to the base period 1999-2001. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Current account balance is the sum of net exports of goods, services, net income, and net current transfers. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: International Monetary Fund, Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook and data files.
Crude death rate indicates the number of deaths occurring during the year, per 1,000 population estimated at midyear. Subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate provides the rate of natural increase, which is equal to the rate of population change in the absence of migration. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables), (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.
Deposit interest rate is the rate paid by commercial or similar banks for demand, time, or savings deposits. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and data files.
All documents required per shipment to export goods are recorded. It is assumed that the contract has already been agreed upon and signed by both parties. Documents required for clearance by government ministries, customs authorities, port and container terminal authorities, health and technical control agencies and banks are taken into account. Since payment is by letter of credit, all documents required by banks for the issuance or securing of a letter of credit are also taken into account. Documents that are renewed annually and that do not require renewal per shipment (for example, an annual tax clearance certificate) are not included. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
All documents required per shipment to import goods are recorded. It is assumed that the contract has already been agreed upon and signed by both parties. Documents required for clearance by government ministries, customs authorities, port and container terminal authorities, health and technical control agencies and banks are taken into account. Since payment is by letter of credit, all documents required by banks for the issuance or securing of a letter of credit are also taken into account. Documents that are renewed annually and that do not require renewal per shipment (for example, an annual tax clearance certificate) are not included. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
Domestic credit provided by the banking sector includes all credit to various sectors on a gross basis, with the exception of credit to the central government, which is net. The banking sector includes monetary authorities and deposit money banks, as well as other banking institutions where data are available (including institutions that do not accept transferable deposits but do incur such liabilities as time and savings deposits). Examples of other banking institutions are savings and mortgage loan institutions and building and loan associations. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
Domestic credit to private sector refers to financial resources provided to the private sector, such as through loans, purchases of nonequity securities, and trade credits and other accounts receivable, that establish a claim for repayment. For some countries these claims include credit to public enterprises. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
Ease of doing business index ranks economies from 1 to 181, with first place being the best. A high ranking means that the regulatory environment is conducive to business operation. The index ranks the simple average of the country's percentile rankings on 10 topics covered in Doing Business 2007: How to reform. The ranking on each topic is the simple average of the percentile rankings on its component indicators. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants. Source: International Energy Agency, Energy Statistics and Balances of Non-OECD Countries and Energy Statistics of OECD Countries.
Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Industry corresponds to divisions 2-5 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories C-F (ISIC revision 3) and includes mining and quarrying (including oil production), manufacturing, construction, and public utilities (electricity, gas, and water). Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Industry corresponds to divisions 2-5 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories C-F (ISIC revision 3) and includes mining and quarrying (including oil production), manufacturing, construction, and public utilities (electricity, gas, and water). Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Services correspond to divisions 6-9 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories G-P (ISIC revision 3) and include wholesale and retail trade and restaurants and hotels; transport, storage, and communications; financing, insurance, real estate, and business services; and community, social, and personal services. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Services correspond to divisions 6-9 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories G-P (ISIC revision 3) and include wholesale and retail trade and restaurants and hotels; transport, storage, and communications; financing, insurance, real estate, and business services; and community, social, and personal services. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Employment to population ratio is the proportion of a country's population that is employed. Ages 15 and older are generally considered the working-age population. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport. Source: International Energy Agency and United Nations, Energy Statistics Yearbook.
Energy production refers to forms of primary energy--petroleum (crude oil, natural gas liquids, and oil from nonconventional sources), natural gas, solid fuels (coal, lignite, and other derived fuels), and combustible renewables and waste--and primary electricity, all converted into oil equivalents. Source: International Energy Agency.
Industrial methane emissions are emissions from the handling, transmission, and combustion of fossil fuels and biofuels. Source: International Energy Agency.
Industrial nitrous oxide emissions are emissions produced during the manufacturing of adipic acid and nitric acid. Source: International Energy Agency.
Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport. Source: International Energy Agency.
Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport. Source: International Energy Agency.
Public expenditure per student is the public current spending on education divided by the total number of students by level, as a percentage of GDP per capita. Public expenditure (current and capital) includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities). Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Public expenditure per student is the public current spending on education divided by the total number of students by level, as a percentage of GDP per capita. Public expenditure (current and capital) includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities). Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Public expenditure per student is the public current spending on education divided by the total number of students by level, as a percentage of GDP per capita. Public expenditure (current and capital) includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities). Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Expense is cash payments for operating activities of the government in providing goods and services. It includes compensation of employees (such as wages and salaries), interest and subsidies, grants, social benefits, and other expenses such as rent and dividends. Source: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
Export values are the current value of exports (f.o.b.) converted to U.S. dollars and expressed as a percentage of the average for the base period (2000). UNCTAD's export value indexes are reported for most economies. For selected economies for which UNCTAD does not publish data, the export value indexes are derived from export volume indexes (line 72) and corresponding unit value indexes of exports (line 74) in the IMF's International Financial Statistics. Source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Handbook of Statistics and data files, and International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics.
Export volume indexes are derived from UNCTAD's volume index series and are the ratio of the export value indexes to the corresponding unit value indexes. Unit value indexes are based on data reported by countries that demonstrate consistency under UNCTAD quality controls, supplemented by UNCTAD's estimates using the previous year's trade values at the Standard International Trade Classification three-digit level as weights. For economies for which UNCTAD does not publish data, the export volume indexes (lines 72) in the IMF's International Financial Statistics are used. Source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Handbook of Statistics and data files, and International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics.
Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Total fertility rate represents the number of children that would be born to a woman if she were to live to the end of her childbearing years and bear children in accordance with current age-specific fertility rates. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables). Available at http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp2008/index.htm. (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database, and (6) household surveys conducted by national agencies, Macro International, and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Fertilizer consumption (100 grams per hectare of arable land) measures the quantity of plant nutrients used per unit of arable land. Fertilizer products cover nitrogenous, potash, and phosphate fertilizers (including ground rock phosphate). Traditional nutrients--animal and plant manures--are not included. For the purpose of data dissemination, FAO has adopted the concept of a calendar year (January to December). Some countries compile fertilizer data on a calendar year basis, while others are on a split-year basis. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Firms using banks to finance investment are the percentage of firms using banks to finance investments. Source: World Bank, Enterprise Surveys (http://www.enterprisesurveys.org/).
Fish species are based on Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2008. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known. Source: Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2008. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. www.fishbase.org. version (07/2008). Accessed: 28 September 2008.
Fixed broadband subscribers are users of the Internet who subscribe to paid high-speed access to the public Internet. High-speed access is at least 256 kilobits per second in one or both directions. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Food production index covers food crops that are considered edible and that contain nutrients. Coffee and tea are excluded because, although edible, they have no nutritive value. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and Balance of Payments databases, and World Bank, Global Development Finance.
Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Fossil fuel comprises coal, oil, petroleum, and natural gas products. Source: International Energy Agency.
GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
GDP per person employed is gross domestic product (GDP) divided by total employment in the economy. Purchasing power parity (PPP) GDP is GDP converted to 1990 constant international dollars using PPP rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP that a U.S. dollar has in the United States. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
GDP per unit of energy use is the PPP GDP per kilogram of oil equivalent of energy use. PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to 2005 constant international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. Source: International Energy Agency, and World Bank PPP data.
GEF benefits index for biodiversity is a composite index of relative biodiversity potential for each country based on the species represented in each country, their threat status, and the diversity of habitat types in each country. The index has been normalized so that values run from 0 (no biodiversity potential) to 100 (maximum biodiversity potential). Source: Kiran Dev Pandey, Piet Buys, Ken Chomitz, and David Wheeler's, "Biodiversity Conservation Indicators: New Tools for Priority Setting at the Global Environment Facility" (2006).
GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
GNI per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GNI is gross national income (GNI) converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current international dollars. Source: World Bank, International Comparison Program database.
GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
PPP GNI (formerly PPP GNP) is gross national income converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. Gross national income (GNI) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current international dollars. Source: World Bank, International Comparison Program database.
Gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment) consists of outlays on additions to the fixed assets of the economy plus net changes in the level of inventories. Fixed assets include land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. Inventories are stocks of goods held by firms to meet temporary or unexpected fluctuations in production or sales, and "work in progress." According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Gross intake rate in grade 1 is the number of new entrants in the first grade of primary education regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population of the official primary entrance age. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Gross intake rate in grade 1 is the number of new entrants in the first grade of primary education regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population of the official primary entrance age. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Gross savings are calculated as gross national income less total consumption, plus net transfers. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Total health expenditure is the sum of public and private health expenditures as a ratio of total population. It covers the provision of health services (preventive and curative), family planning activities, nutrition activities, and emergency aid designated for health but does not include provision of water and sanitation. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: World Health Organization National Health Account database (www.who.int/nha/en) supplemented by country data. Note: The latest updates on these data are accessible in WHO's National Health Accounts (NHA) website (http://www.who.int/nha/en/).
Public health expenditure consists of recurrent and capital spending from government (central and local) budgets, external borrowings and grants (including donations from international agencies and nongovernmental organizations), and social (or compulsory) health insurance funds. Total health expenditure is the sum of public and private health expenditure. It covers the provision of health services (preventive and curative), family planning activities, nutrition activities, and emergency aid designated for health but does not include provision of water and sanitation. Source: World Health Organization National Health Account database (www.who.int/nha/en) supplemented by country data. Note: The latest updates on these data are accessible in WHO's National Health Accounts (NHA) website (http://www.who.int/nha/en/).
Total health expenditure is the sum of public and private health expenditure. It covers the provision of health services (preventive and curative), family planning activities, nutrition activities, and emergency aid designated for health but does not include provision of water and sanitation. Source: World Health Organization National Health Account database (www.who.int/nha/en) supplemented by country data. Note: The latest updates on these data are accessible in WHO's National Health Accounts (NHA) website (http://www.who.int/nha/en/).
High-technology exports are products with high R&D intensity, such as in aerospace, computers, pharmaceuticals, scientific instruments, and electrical machinery. Source: United Nations, Comtrade database.
High-technology exports are products with high R&D intensity, such as in aerospace, computers, pharmaceuticals, scientific instruments, and electrical machinery. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: United Nations, Comtrade database.
Highest marginal tax rate (corporate rate) is the highest rate shown on the schedule of tax rates applied to the taxable income of corporations. Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers, Corporate Taxes: Worldwide Summaries, by permission of John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Highest marginal tax rate (individual rate) is the highest rate shown on the schedule of tax rates applied to the taxable income of individuals. This series presents the income levels for individuals above which the highest marginal tax rates levied at the national level apply. Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers, Individual Taxes: Worldwide Summaries, by permission of John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Highest marginal tax rate (individual rate) is the highest rate shown on the schedule of tax rates applied to the taxable income of individuals. Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers, Individual Taxes: Worldwide Summaries, by permission of John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Households with television are the share of households with a television set. Some countries report only the number of households with a color television set, and therefore the true number may be higher than reported. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Information and communication technology goods exports include telecommunications, audio and video, computer and related equipment; electronic components; and other information and communication technology goods. Software is excluded. Source: United Nations Statistics Division's Commodity Trade (Comtrade) database.
Information and communication technology goods imports include telecommunications, audio and video, computer and related equipment; electronic components; and other information and communication technology goods. Software is excluded. Source: United Nations Statistics Division's Commodity Trade (Comtrade) database.
Information and communication technology service exports include computer and communications services (telecommunications and postal and courier services) and information services (computer data and news-related service transactions). Source: International Monetary Fund, Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook and data files.
ISO certification ownership is the percentage of firms that have earned a quality certification recognized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Source: World Bank, Enterprise Surveys (http://www.enterprisesurveys.org/).
Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine. Source: WHO and UNICEF (http://www.who.int/immunization_monitoring/routine/en/).
Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against measles after receiving one dose of vaccine. Source: WHO and UNICEF (http://www.who.int/immunization_monitoring/routine/en/).
Import value indexes are the current value of imports (c.i.f.) converted to U.S. dollars and expressed as a percentage of the average for the base period (2000). UNCTAD's import value indexes are reported for most economies. For selected economies for which UNCTAD does not publish data, the import value indexes are derived from import volume indexes (line 73) and corresponding unit value indexes of imports (line 75) in the IMF's International Financial Statistics. Source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Handbook of Statistics and data files, and International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics.
Import volume indexes are derived from UNCTAD's volume index series and are the ratio of the import value indexes to the corresponding unit value indexes. Unit value indexes are based on data reported by countries that demonstrate consistency under UNCTAD quality controls, supplemented by UNCTAD's estimates using the previous year's trade values at the Standard International Trade Classification three-digit level as weights. For economies for which UNCTAD does not publish data, the import volume indexes (lines 73) in the IMF's International Financial Statistics are used. Source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Handbook of Statistics and data files, and International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics.
Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Access to improved sanitation facilities refers to the percentage of the population with at least adequate access to excreta disposal facilities that can effectively prevent human, animal, and insect contact with excreta. Improved facilities range from simple but protected pit latrines to flush toilets with a sewerage connection. To be effective, facilities must be correctly constructed and properly maintained. Source: World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund, Joint Measurement Programme (JMP) (http://www.wssinfo.org/).
Access to improved sanitation facilities refers to the percentage of the population with at least adequate access to excreta disposal facilities that can effectively prevent human, animal, and insect contact with excreta. Improved facilities range from simple but protected pit latrines to flush toilets with a sewerage connection. To be effective, facilities must be correctly constructed and properly maintained. Source: World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund, Joint Measurement Programme (JMP) (http://www.wssinfo.org/).
Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling. Source: World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund, Joint Measurement Programme (JMP) (http://www.wssinfo.org/).
Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling. Source: World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund, Joint Measurement Programme (JMP) (http://www.wssinfo.org/).
Incidence of tuberculosis is the estimated number of new pulmonary, smear positive, and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis cases. Source: World Health Organization, Global Tuberculosis Control Report.
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Percentage shares by quintile may not sum to 100 because of rounding. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Percentage shares by quintile may not sum to 100 because of rounding. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Percentage shares by quintile may not sum to 100 because of rounding. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Percentage shares by quintile may not sum to 100 because of rounding. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Percentage shares by quintile may not sum to 100 because of rounding. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).
Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Note: For VAB countries, gross value added at factor cost is used as the denominator. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Inflation as measured by the annual growth rate of the GDP implicit deflator shows the rate of price change in the economy as a whole. The GDP implicit deflator is the ratio of GDP in current local currency to GDP in constant local currency. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and data files.
Informal payments to public officials are the percentage of firms expected to make informal payments to public officials to "get things done" with regard to customs, taxes, licenses, regulations, services, and the like. Source: World Bank, Enterprise Surveys (http://www.enterprisesurveys.org/).
Information and communications technology expenditures include computer hardware (computers, storage devices, printers, and other peripherals); computer software (operating systems, programming tools, utilities, applications, and internal software development); computer services (information technology consulting, computer and network systems integration, Web hosting, data processing services, and other services); and communications services (voice and data communications services) and wired and wireless communications equipment. Source: World Information Technology and Services Alliance, Digital Planet: The Global Information Economy, and Global Insight, Inc.
Interest rate spread is the interest rate charged by banks on loans to prime customers minus the interest rate paid by commercial or similar banks for demand, time, or savings deposits. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and data files.
International Internet bandwidth is the contracted capacity of international connections between countries for transmitting Internet traffic. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
International migrant stock is the number of people born in a country other than that in which they live. It also includes refugees. The data used to estimate the international migrant stock at a particular time are obtained mainly from population censuses. The estimates are derived from the data on foreign-born population--people who have residence in one country but were born in another country. When data on the foreign-born population are not available, data on foreign population--that is, people who are citizens of a country other than the country in which they reside--are used as estimates. After the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991 people living in one of the newly independent countries who were born in another were classified as international migrants. Estimates of migrant stock in the newly independent states from 1990 on are based on the 1989 census of the Soviet Union. For countries with information on the international migrant stock for at least two points in time, interpolation or extrapolation was used to estimate the international migrant stock on July 1 of the reference years. For countries with only one observation, estimates for the reference years were derived using rates of change in the migrant stock in the years preceding or following the single observation available. A model was used to estimate migrants for countries that had no data. Source: United Nations Population Division, Trends in Total Migrant Stock: 2008 Revision.
International voice traffic is the sum of international incoming and outgoing telephone traffic (in minutes). Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Internet users are people with access to the worldwide network. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Internet users are people with access to the worldwide network. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Total labor force comprises people ages 15 and older who meet the International Labour Organization definition of the economically active population: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period. It includes both the employed and the unemployed. While national practices vary in the treatment of such groups as the armed forces and seasonal or part-time workers, in general the labor force includes the armed forces, the unemployed, and first-time job-seekers, but excludes homemakers and other unpaid caregivers and workers in the informal sector. Source: International Labour Organization, using World Bank population estimates.
Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15 and older that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15 and older that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15 and older that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Land area is a country's total area, excluding area under inland water bodies, national claims to continental shelf, and exclusive economic zones. In most cases the definition of inland water bodies includes major rivers and lakes. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Land under cereal production refers to harvested area, although some countries report only sown or cultivated area. Cereals include wheat, rice, maize, barley, oats, rye, millet, sorghum, buckwheat, and mixed grains. Production data on cereals relate to crops harvested for dry grain only. Cereal crops harvested for hay or harvested green for food, feed, or silage and those used for grazing are excluded. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Lead time to export is the median time (the value for 50 percent of shipments) from shipment point to port of loading. Data are from the Logistics Performance Index survey. Respondents provided separate values for the best case (10 percent of shipments) and the median case (50 percent of shipments). The data are exponentiated averages of the logarithm of single value responses and of midpoint values of range responses for the median case. Source: World Bank and Turku School of Economics, Logistic Performance Index Surveys. Data are available online at : http://www.worldbank.org/lpi. Summary results are published in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy, The Logistics Performance Index and Its Indicators report.
Lead time to import is the median time (the value for 50 percent of shipments) from port of discharge to arrival at the consignee. Data are from the Logistics Performance Index survey. Respondents provided separate values for the best case (10 percent of shipments) and the median case (50 percent of shipments). The data are exponentiated averages of the logarithm of single value responses and of midpoint values of range responses for the median case. Source: World Bank and Turku School of Economics, Logistic Performance Index Surveys. Data are available online at : http://www.worldbank.org/lpi. Summary results are published in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy, The Logistics Performance Index and Its Indicators report.
Lending interest rate is the rate charged by banks on loans to prime customers. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and data files.
Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables), (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.
Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables), (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.
Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life. Source: Derived from male and female life expectancy at birth. Male and female life expectancy source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables), (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.
Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. This indicator does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Source: Standard & Poor's, Emerging Stock Markets Factbook and supplemental S&P data.
Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Youth literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15-24 who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Youth literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15-24 who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Youth literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15-24 who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Livestock production index includes meat and milk from all sources, dairy products such as cheese, and eggs, honey, raw silk, wool, and hides and skins. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Logistics Performance Index overall score reflects perceptions of a country's logistics based on efficiency of customs clearance process, quality of trade- and transport-related infrastructure, ease of arranging competitively priced shipments, quality of logistics services, ability to track and trace consignments, and frequency with which shipments reach the consignee within the scheduled time. The index ranges from 1 to 5, with a higher score representing better performance. Data are from Logistics Performance Index surveys conducted by the World Bank in partnership with academic and international institutions and private companies and individuals engaged in international logistics. 2009 round of surveys covered more than 5,000 country assessments by nearly 1,000 international freight forwarders. Respondents evaluate eight markets on six core dimensions on a scale from 1 (worst) to 5 (best). The markets are chosen based on the most important export and import markets of the respondent's country, random selection, and, for landlocked countries, neighboring countries that connect them with international markets. Scores for the six areas are averaged across all respondents and aggregated to a single score using principal components analysis. Details of the survey methodology and index construction methodology are in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete 2010: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy (2010). Source: World Bank and Turku School of Economics, Logistic Performance Index Surveys. Data are available online at : http://www.worldbank.org/lpi. Summary results are published in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy, The Logistics Performance Index and Its Indicators report.
Long-term unemployment refers to the number of people with continuous periods of unemployment extending for a year or longer, expressed as a percentage of the total unemployed. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Long-term unemployment refers to the number of people with continuous periods of unemployment extending for a year or longer, expressed as a percentage of the total unemployed. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Long-term unemployment refers to the number of people with continuous periods of unemployment extending for a year or longer, expressed as a percentage of the total unemployed. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Mammal species are mammals excluding whales and porpoises. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known. Source: United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, and International Union for Conservation of Nature, Red List of Threatened Species.
Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment. Source: United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, as compiled by the World Resources Institute, based on data from national authorities, national legislation and international agreements.
Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment. Source: United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, as compiled by the World Resources Institute, based on data from national authorities, national legislation and international agreements.
Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. Listed companies does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Source: Standard & Poor's, Emerging Stock Markets Factbook and supplemental S&P data, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. Listed companies does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: Standard & Poor's, Emerging Stock Markets Factbook and supplemental S&P data.
Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence. Source: Maternal Mortality: Estimates Developed by WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA and the World Bank.
Merchandise trade as a share of GDP is the sum of merchandise exports and imports divided by the value of GDP, all in current U.S. dollars. Source: World Trade Organization, and World Bank GDP estimates.
Methane emissions are those stemming from human activities such as agriculture and from industrial methane production. Source: World Resources Institute.
Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.) Source: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Note: Data for some countries are based on partial or uncertain data or rough estimates.
Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.) Source: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Note: Data for some countries are based on partial or uncertain data or rough estimates.
Mobile and fixed-line subscribers are total telephone subscribers (fixed-line plus mobile). Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Mobile and fixed-line subscribers are total telephone subscribers (fixed-line plus mobile). Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Mobile and fixed-line subscribers per employee are telephone subscribers (fixed-line plus mobile) divided by the total number of telecommunications employees. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Mobile cellular prepaid tariff is based on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's low-user definition, which includes the cost of monthly mobile use for 25 outgoing calls per month spread over the same mobile network, other mobile networks, and mobile to fixed-line calls and during peak, off-peak, and weekend times as well as 30 text messages per month. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Infant mortality rate is the number of infants dying before reaching one year of age, per 1,000 live births in a given year. Source: Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UNICEF, WHO, World Bank, UNPD, universities and research institutions).
Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates. Source: Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UNICEF, WHO, World Bank, UNPD, universities and research institutions).
Motor vehicles include cars, buses, and freight vehicles but do not include two-wheelers. Population refers to midyear population in the year for which data are available. Source: International Road Federation, World Road Statistics and data files.
Net barter terms of trade index is calculated as the percentage ratio of the export unit value indexes to the import unit value indexes, measured relative to the base year 2000. Source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Handbook of Statistics and data files, and International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics.
Net migration is the net total of migrants during the period, that is, the total number of immigrants less the annual number of emigrants, including both citizens and noncitizens. Data are five-year estimates. To derive estimates of net migration, the United Nations Population Division takes into account the past migration history of a country or area, the migration policy of a country, and the influx of refugees in recent periods. The data to calculate these official estimates come from a variety of sources, including border statistics, administrative records, surveys, and censuses. When no official estimates can be made because of insufficient data, net migration is derived through the balance equation, which is the difference between overall population growth and the natural increase during the 1990-2000 intercensal period. Source: United Nations Population Division, World Population Prospects 2008.
New businesses registered are the number of new firms, defined as firms registered in the current year of reporting. Source: International Finance Corporation's micro, small, and medium-size enterprises database (http://www.ifc.org/ifcext/sme.nsf/Content/Resources).
Nitrous oxide emissions are emissions from agricultural biomass burning, industrial activities, and livestock management. Source: International Energy Agency.
Emissions per worker are total emissions of organic water pollutants divided by the number of industrial workers. Organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: World Bank and UNIDO's industry database.
Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Other greenhouse gas emissions are by-product emissions of hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride. Source: International Energy Agency.
Out of pocket expenditure is any direct outlay by households, including gratuities and in-kind payments, to health practitioners and suppliers of pharmaceuticals, therapeutic appliances, and other goods and services whose primary intent is to contribute to the restoration or enhancement of the health status of individuals or population groups. It is a part of private health expenditure. Source: World Health Organization National Health Account database (www.who.int/nha/en) supplemented by country data. Note: The latest updates on these data are accessible in WHO's National Health Accounts (NHA) website (http://www.who.int/nha/en/).
Particulate matter concentrations refer to fine suspended particulates less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10) that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing significant health damage. Data for countries and aggregates for regions and income groups are urban-population weighted PM10 levels in residential areas of cities with more than 100,000 residents. The estimates represent the average annual exposure level of the average urban resident to outdoor particulate matter. The state of a country's technology and pollution controls is an important determinant of particulate matter concentrations. Source: Kiren Dev Pandey, David Wheeler, Bart Ostro, Uwe Deichmann, Kirk Hamilton, and Katherine Bolt. "Ambient Particulate Matter Concentrations in Residential and Pollution Hotspot Areas of World Cities: New Estimates Based on the Global Model of Ambient Particulates (GMAPS)," World Bank, Development Research Group and Environment Department (2006).
Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver). Source: International Road Federation, World Road Statistics and data files.
Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention--a product or process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years. Source: World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), WIPO Patent Report: Statistics on Worldwide Patent Activity. The International Bureau of WIPO assumes no responsibility with respect to the transformation of these data.
Permanent cropland is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Persistence to last grade of primary is the percentage of children enrolled in the first grade of primary school who eventually reach the last grade of primary education. The estimate is based on the reconstructed cohort method. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Persistence to last grade of primary is the percentage of children enrolled in the first grade of primary school who eventually reach the last grade of primary education. The estimate is based on the reconstructed cohort method. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Personal computers are self-contained computers designed to be used by a single individual. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Higher plants are native vascular plant species. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known. Source: United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, and International Union for Conservation of Nature, Red List of Threatened Species.
Population between the ages 0 to 14 as a percentage of the total population. Population is based on the de facto definition of population. Source: World Bank staff estimates from various sources including census reports, the United Nations Population Division's World Population Prospects, national statistical offices, household surveys conducted by national agencies, and Macro International.
Population ages 15 to 64 is the percentage of the total population that is in the age group 15 to 64. Population is based on the de facto definition of population. Source: World Bank staff estimates from various sources including census reports, the United Nations Population Division's World Population Prospects, national statistical offices, household surveys conducted by national agencies, and Macro International.
Population ages 65 and above as a percentage of the total population. Population is based on the de facto definition of population. Source: World Bank staff estimates from various sources including census reports, the United Nations Population Division's World Population Prospects, national statistical offices, household surveys conducted by national agencies, and Macro International.
Population covered by mobile cellular network is the percentage of people that live in areas served by a mobile cellular signal regardless of whether they use it. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Annual population growth rate for year t is the exponential rate of growth of midyear population from year t-1 to t, expressed as a percentage . Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of the country of origin. Source: Derived from total population. Population source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables). Available at http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp2008/index.htm. (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database, and (6) World bank estimates based on the data from the sources above, household surveys conducted by national agencies, Macro International, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and refugees statistics from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
Population in largest city is the percentage of a country's urban population living in that country's largest metropolitan area. Source: United Nations, World Urbanization Prospects.
Population in urban agglomerations of more than one million is the percentage of a country's population living in metropolitan areas that in 2000 had a population of more than one million people. Source: United Nations, World Urbanization Prospects.
Female population is the percentage of the population that is female. Population is based on the de facto definition of population. Source: United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables). Available at http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp2008/index.htm.
Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of their country of origin. The values shown are midyear estimates. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables). Available at http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp2008/index.htm. (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database, and (6) World bank estimates based on the data from the sources above, household surveys conducted by national agencies, Macro International, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and refugees statistics from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
Portfolio equity includes net inflows from equity securities other than those recorded as direct investment and including shares, stocks, depository receipts (American or global), and direct purchases of shares in local stock markets by foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: International Monetary Fund, Balance of Payments database, and World Bank, Global Development Finance.
Prevalence of HIV is the percentage of people who are infected with HIV. Youth rates are as a percentage of the relevant age group. Source: UNAIDS and the WHO's Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic.
Prevalence of HIV is the percentage of people who are infected with HIV. Youth rates are as a percentage of the relevant age group. Source: UNAIDS and the WHO's Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic.
Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV. Source: UNAIDS and the WHO's Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic.
Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Private credit bureau coverage reports the number of individuals or firms listed by a private credit bureau with current information on repayment history, unpaid debts, or credit outstanding. The number is expressed as a percentage of the adult population. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
Progression to secondary school refers to the number of new entrants to the first grade of secondary school in a given year as a percentage of the number of students enrolled in the final grade of primary school in the previous year. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Progression to secondary school refers to the number of new entrants to the first grade of secondary school in a given year as a percentage of the number of students enrolled in the final grade of primary school in the previous year. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Women in parliaments are the percentage of parliamentary seats in a single or lower chamber held by women. Source: United Nations, Women's Indicators and Statistics database (www.ipu.org).
Public credit registry coverage reports the number of individuals and firms listed in a public credit registry with current information on repayment history, unpaid debts, or credit outstanding. The number is expressed as a percentage of the adult population. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities). Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities). Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Fuel prices refer to the pump prices of the most widely sold grade of diesel fuel. Prices have been converted from the local currency to U.S. dollars. Source: German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ).
Fuel prices refer to the pump prices of the most widely sold grade of gasoline. Prices have been converted from the local currency to U.S. dollars. Source: German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ).
Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment). Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Rail lines are the length of railway route available for train service, irrespective of the number of parallel tracks. Source: World Bank, Transportation, Water, and Urban Development Department, Transport Division.
Ratio of female to male tertiary enrollment is the percentage of men to women enrolled at tertiary level in public and private schools. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Ratio of female to male primary enrollment is the percentage of girls to boys enrolled at primary level in public and private schools. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Ratio of female to male secondary enrollment is the percentage of girls to boys enrolled at secondary level in public and private schools. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education is the percentage of girls to boys enrolled at primary and secondary levels in public and private schools. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Real interest rate is the lending interest rate adjusted for inflation as measured by the GDP deflator. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and data files using World Bank data on the GDP deflator.
Refugees are people who are recognized as refugees under the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees or its 1967 Protocol, the 1969 Organization of African Unity Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, people recognized as refugees in accordance with the UNHCR statute, people granted refugee-like humanitarian status, and people provided temporary protection. Asylum seekers--people who have applied for asylum or refugee status and who have not yet received a decision or who are registered as asylum seekers--are excluded. Palestinian refugees are people (and their descendants) whose residence was Palestine between June 1946 and May 1948 and who lost their homes and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 Arab-Israeli conflict. Country of asylum is the country where an asylum claim was filed and granted. Source: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Statistical Yearbook and data files, complemented by statistics on Palestinian refugees under the mandate of the UNRWA as published on its website. Data from UNHCR are available online at: www.unhcr.org/statistics/populationdatabase.
Refugees are people who are recognized as refugees under the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees or its 1967 Protocol, the 1969 Organization of African Unity Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, people recognized as refugees in accordance with the UNHCR statute, people granted refugee-like humanitarian status, and people provided temporary protection. Asylum seekers--people who have applied for asylum or refugee status and who have not yet received a decision or who are registered as asylum seekers--are excluded. Palestinian refugees are people (and their descendants) whose residence was Palestine between June 1946 and May 1948 and who lost their homes and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 Arab-Israeli conflict. Country of origin generally refers to the nationality or country of citizenship of a claimant. Source: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Statistical Yearbook and data files, complemented by statistics on Palestinian refugees under the mandate of the UNRWA as published on its website. Data from UNHCR are available online at: www.unhcr.org/statistics/populationdatabase.
Renewable internal freshwater resources flows refer to internal renewable resources (internal river flows and groundwater from rainfall) in the country. Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita are calculated using the World Bank's population estimates. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data.
Renewable internal freshwater resources flows refer to internal renewable resources (internal river flows and groundwater from rainfall) in the country. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data.
Repeaters in primary school are the number of students enrolled in the same grade as in the previous year, as a percentage of all students enrolled in primary school. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Repeaters in primary school are the number of students enrolled in the same grade as in the previous year, as a percentage of all students enrolled in primary school. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Expenditures for research and development are current and capital expenditures (both public and private) on creative work undertaken systematically to increase knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture, and society, and the use of knowledge for new applications. R&D covers basic research, applied research, and experimental development. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Researchers in R&D are professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods, or systems and in the management of the projects concerned. Postgraduate PhD students (ISCED97 level 6) engaged in R&D are included. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Revenue is cash receipts from taxes, social contributions, and other revenues such as fines, fees, rent, and income from property or sales. Grants are also considered as revenue but are excluded here. Source: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
The rigidity of employment index measures the regulation of employment, specifically the hiring and firing of workers and the rigidity of working hours. This index is the average of three subindexes: a difficulty of hiring index, a rigidity of hours index, and a difficulty of firing index. The index ranges from 0 to 100, with higher values indicating more rigid regulations. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
Risk premium on lending is the interest rate charged by banks on loans to prime private sector customers minus the "risk free" treasury bill interest rate at which short-term government securities are issued or traded in the market. In some countries this spread may be negative, indicating that the market considers its best corporate clients to be lower risk than the government. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics database.
Road sector energy consumption is the total energy used in the road sector including petroleum products, natural gas, electricity, and combustible renewable and waste. Total energy consumption is the total country energy consumption. Source: International Road Federation, World Road Statistics and electronic files, except where noted, and International Energy Agency.
Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length. Source: International Road Federation, World Road Statistics and electronic files, except where noted.
Royalty and license fees are payments and receipts between residents and nonresidents for the authorized use of intangible, nonproduced, nonfinancial assets and proprietary rights (such as patents, copyrights, trademarks, industrial processes, and franchises) and for the use, through licensing agreements, of produced originals of prototypes (such as films and manuscripts). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: International Monetary Fund, Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook and data files.
Royalty and license fees are payments and receipts between residents and nonresidents for the authorized use of intangible, nonproduced, nonfinancial assets and proprietary rights (such as patents, copyrights, trademarks, industrial processes, and franchises) and for the use, through licensing agreements, of produced originals of prototypes (such as films and manuscripts). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: International Monetary Fund, Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook and data files.
Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population. Source: The data on urban population shares used to estimate rural population come from the United Nations, World Urbanization Prospects. Total population figures are World Bank estimates.
Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population. Source: World Bank Staff estimates based on United Nations, World Urbanization Prospects. S&P Global Equity Indices measure the U.S. dollar price change in the stock markets covered by the S&P/IFCI and S&P/Frontier BMI country indices. Source: Standard & Poor's, Global Stock Markets Factbook and supplemental S&P data.
Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Preprimary education refers to the initial stage of organized instruction, designed primarily to introduce very young children to a school-type environment. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Secondary education completes the provision of basic education that began at the primary level, and aims at laying the foundations for lifelong learning and human development, by offering more subject- or skill-oriented instruction using more specialized teachers. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Secondary education completes the provision of basic education that began at the primary level, and aims at laying the foundations for lifelong learning and human development, by offering more subject- or skill-oriented instruction using more specialized teachers. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Tertiary education, whether or not to an advanced research qualification, normally requires, as a minimum condition of admission, the successful completion of education at the secondary level. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Scientific and technical journal articles refer to the number of scientific and engineering articles published in the following fields: physics, biology, chemistry, mathematics, clinical medicine, biomedical research, engineering and technology, and earth and space sciences. Source: National Science Foundation, Science and Engineering Indicators.
Secure servers are servers using encryption technology in Internet transactions. Source: Netcraft (http://www.netcraft.com/) and World Bank population estimates.
Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Note: For VAB countries, gross value added at factor cost is used as the denominator. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Share of women employed in the nonagricultural sector is the share of female workers in the nonagricultural sector (industry and services), expressed as a percentage of total employment in the nonagricultural sector. Industry includes mining and quarrying (including oil production), manufacturing, construction, electricity, gas, and water, corresponding to divisions 2-5 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories C-F (ISIC revision 3). Services include wholesale and retail trade and restaurants and hotels; transport, storage, and communications; financing, insurance, real estate, and business services; and community, social, and personal services-corresponding to divisions 6-9 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories G-P (ISIC revision 3). Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Start-up procedures are those required to start a business, including interactions to obtain necessary permits and licenses and to complete all inscriptions, verifications, and notifications to start operations. Data are for businesses with specific characteristics of ownership, size, and type of production. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
Stocks traded refers to the total value of shares traded during the period. This indicator complements the market capitalization ratio by showing whether market size is matched by trading. Source: Standard & Poor's, Emerging Stock Markets Factbook and supplemental S&P data, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
Turnover ratio is the total value of shares traded during the period divided by the average market capitalization for the period. Average market capitalization is calculated as the average of the end-of-period values for the current period and the previous period. Source: Standard & Poor's, Emerging Stock Markets Factbook and supplemental S&P data.
Strength of legal rights index measures the degree to which collateral and bankruptcy laws protect the rights of borrowers and lenders and thus facilitate lending. The index ranges from 0 to 10, with higher scores indicating that these laws are better designed to expand access to credit. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
Tax payments by businesses are the total number of taxes paid by businesses, including electronic filing. The tax is counted as paid once a year even if payments are more frequent. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
Tax revenue refers to compulsory transfers to the central government for public purposes. Certain compulsory transfers such as fines, penalties, and most social security contributions are excluded. Refunds and corrections of erroneously collected tax revenue are treated as negative revenue. Source: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
Technicians in R&D and equivalent staff are people whose main tasks require technical knowledge and experience in engineering, physical and life sciences (technicians), or social sciences and humanities (equivalent staff). They participate in R&D by performing scientific and technical tasks involving the application of concepts and operational methods, normally under the supervision of researchers. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Telecommunications revenue is the revenue from the provision of telecommunications services such as fixed-line, mobile, and data. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities. Source: United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, as compiled by the World Resources Institute, based on data from national authorities, national legislation and international agreements.
Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities. Source: United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, as compiled by the World Resources Institute, based on data from national authorities, national legislation and international agreements.
Time required to start a business is the number of calendar days needed to complete the procedures to legally operate a business. If a procedure can be speeded up at additional cost, the fastest procedure, independent of cost, is chosen. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
Time to prepare and pay taxes is the time, in hours per year, it takes to prepare, file, and pay (or withhold) three major types of taxes: the corporate income tax, the value added or sales tax, and labor taxes, including payroll taxes and social security contributions. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
Time to resolve insolvency is the number of years from the filing for insolvency in court until the resolution of distressed assets. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
Total businesses registered. Because of underreporting of firms that have closed or exited, especially in developing countries, the data on total registered firms may be biased upward. Source: International Finance Corporation's micro, small, and medium-size enterprises database (http://www.ifc.org/ifcext/sme.nsf/Content/Resources).
Total reserves comprise holdings of monetary gold, special drawing rights, reserves of IMF members held by the IMF, and holdings of foreign exchange under the control of monetary authorities. The gold component of these reserves is valued at year-end (December 31) London prices. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and data files.
Total tax rate is the total amount of taxes payable by businesses (except for labor taxes) after accounting for deductions and exemptions as a percentage of profit. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
Trade in services is the sum of service exports and imports divided by the value of GDP, all in current U.S. dollars. Source: International Monetary Fund, Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
Trademark applications filed are applications to register a trademark with a national or regional Intellectual Property (IP) office. A trademark is a distinctive sign which identifies certain goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. A trademark provides protection to the owner of the mark by ensuring the exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services, or to authorize another to use it in return for payment. The period of protection varies, but a trademark can be renewed indefinitely beyond the time limit on payment of additional fees. Direct nonresident trademark applications are those filed by applicants from abroad directly at a given national IP office. Source: World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), WIPO Patent Report: Statistics on Worldwide Patent Activity. The International Bureau of WIPO assumes no responsibility with respect to the transformation of these data.
Trademark applications filed are applications to register a trademark with a national or regional Intellectual Property (IP) office. A trademark is a distinctive sign which identifies certain goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. A trademark provides protection to the owner of the mark by ensuring the exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services, or to authorize another to use it in return for payment. The period of protection varies, but a trademark can be renewed indefinitely beyond the time limit on payment of additional fees. Direct resident trademark applications are those filed by domestic applicants directly at a given national IP office. Source: World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), WIPO Patent Report: Statistics on Worldwide Patent Activity. The International Bureau of WIPO assumes no responsibility with respect to the transformation of these data.
Diesel is heavy oils used as a fuel for internal combustion in diesel engines. Source: International Road Federation, World Road Statistics and electronic files, except where noted, and International Energy Agency.
Gasoline is light hydrocarbon oil use in internal combustion engine such as motor vehicles, excluding aircraft. Source: International Road Federation, World Road Statistics and electronic files, except where noted, and International Energy Agency.
Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Youth unemployment refers to the share of the labor force ages 15-24 without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Youth unemployment refers to the share of the labor force ages 15-24 without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Urban population refers to people living in urban areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated using World Bank population estimates and urban ratios from the United Nations World Urbanization Prospects. Source: World Bank Staff estimates based on United Nations, World Urbanization Prospects. Urban population refers to people living in urban areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated using World Bank population estimates and urban ratios from the United Nations World Urbanization Prospects. Source: United Nations, World Urbanization Prospects.
Vehicles per kilometer of road include cars, buses, and freight vehicles but do not include two-wheelers. Roads refer to motorways, highways, main or national roads, secondary or regional roads, and other roads. A motorway is a road specially designed and built for motor traffic that separates the traffic flowing in opposite directions. Source: International Road Federation, World Road Statistics and data files.
Vulnerable employment is unpaid family workers and own-account workers as a percentage of total employment. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Vulnerable employment is unpaid family workers and own-account workers as a percentage of total employment. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Vulnerable employment is unpaid family workers and own-account workers as a percentage of total employment. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: chemicals (35). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: stone, ceramics, and glass (36). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: food and beverages (31). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: primary metals (ISIC division 37). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: other (38 and 39). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: paper and pulp (34). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: textiles (32). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: wood (33). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Workers' remittances and compensation of employees comprise current transfers by migrant workers and wages and salaries earned by nonresident workers. Data are the sum of three items defined in the fifth edition of the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual: workers' remittances, compensation of employees, and migrants' transfers. Remittances are classified as current private transfers from migrant workers resident in the host country for more than a year, irrespective of their immigration status, to recipients in their country of origin. Migrants' transfers are defined as the net worth of migrants who are expected to remain in the host country for more than one year that is transferred from one country to another at the time of migration. Compensation of employees is the income of migrants who have lived in the host country for less than a year. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: World Bank staff estimates based on IMF balance of payments data.
Adolescent fertility rate is the number of births per 1,000 women ages 15-19. Source: United Nations Population Division, World Population Prospects.
Agricultural irrigated land refers to agricultural areas purposely provided with water, including land irrigated by controlled flooding. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Agricultural machinery refers to the number of wheel and crawler tractors (excluding garden tractors) in use in agriculture at the end of the calendar year specified or during the first quarter of the following year. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Agricultural methane emissions are emissions from animals, animal waste, rice production, agricultural waste burning (nonenergy, on-site), and savannah burning. Source: International Energy Agency.
Agricultural nitrous oxide emissions are emissions produced through fertilizer use (synthetic and animal manure), animal waste management, agricultural waste burning (nonenergy, on-site), and savannah burning. Source: International Energy Agency.
Agriculture value added per worker is a measure of agricultural productivity. Value added in agriculture measures the output of the agricultural sector (ISIC divisions 1-5) less the value of intermediate inputs. Agriculture comprises value added from forestry, hunting, and fishing as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Source: Derived from World Bank national accounts files and Food and Agriculture Organization, Production Yearbook and data files.
Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Note: For VAB countries, gross value added at factor cost is used as the denominator. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Registered carrier departures worldwide are domestic takeoffs and takeoffs abroad of air carriers registered in the country. Source: International Civil Aviation Organization, Civil Aviation Statistics of the World and ICAO staff estimates.
Clean energy is noncarbohydrate energy that does not produce carbon dioxide when generated. It includes hydropower and nuclear, geothermal, and solar power, among others. Source: International Energy Agency.
Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data.
Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data.
Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for industry are total withdrawals for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data.
Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture and industry are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production and for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data.
Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Arable land (hectares per person) includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Average number of times management met with tax officials is the average number of visits or required meetings with tax officials. Source: World Bank, Enterprise Surveys (http://www.enterprisesurveys.org/).
Bank capital to assets is the ratio of bank capital and reserves to total assets. Capital and reserves include funds contributed by owners, retained earnings, general and special reserves, provisions, and valuation adjustments. Capital includes tier 1 capital (paid-up shares and common stock), which is a common feature in all countries' banking systems, and total regulatory capital, which includes several specified types of subordinated debt instruments that need not be repaid if the funds are required to maintain minimum capital levels (these comprise tier 2 and tier 3 capital). Total assets include all nonfinancial and financial assets. Source: International Monetary Fund, Global Financial Stability Report.
Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans are the value of nonperforming loans divided by the total value of the loan portfolio (including nonperforming loans before the deduction of specific loan-loss provisions). The loan amount recorded as nonperforming should be the gross value of the loan as recorded on the balance sheet, not just the amount that is overdue. Source: International Monetary Fund, Global Financial Stability Report.
Crude birth rate indicates the number of live births occurring during the year, per 1,000 population estimated at midyear. Subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate provides the rate of natural increase, which is equal to the rate of population change in the absence of migration. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables), (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.
Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Source: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, United States.
Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Source: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, United States.
Cash surplus or deficit is revenue (including grants) minus expense, minus net acquisition of nonfinancial assets. In the 1986 GFS manual nonfinancial assets were included under revenue and expenditure in gross terms. This cash surplus or deficit is closest to the earlier overall budget balance (still missing is lending minus repayments, which are now a financing item under net acquisition of financial assets). Source: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
Debt is the entire stock of direct government fixed-term contractual obligations to others outstanding on a particular date. It includes domestic and foreign liabilities such as currency and money deposits, securities other than shares, and loans. It is the gross amount of government liabilities reduced by the amount of equity and financial derivatives held by the government. Because debt is a stock rather than a flow, it is measured as of a given date, usually the last day of the fiscal year. Source: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
Cereal yield, measured as kilograms per hectare of harvested land, includes wheat, rice, maize, barley, oats, rye, millet, sorghum, buckwheat, and mixed grains. Production data on cereals relate to crops harvested for dry grain only. Cereal crops harvested for hay or harvested green for food, feed, or silage and those used for grazing are excluded. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Children out of school are the number of primary-school-age children not enrolled in primary or secondary school. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Children out of school are the number of primary-school-age children not enrolled in primary or secondary school. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Combustible renewables and waste comprise solid biomass, liquid biomass, biogas, industrial waste, and municipal waste, measured as a percentage of total energy use. Source: International Energy Agency.
Port container traffic measures the flow of containers from land to sea transport modes., and vice versa, in twenty-foot equivalent units (TEUs), a standard-size container. Data refer to coastal shipping as well as international journeys. Transshipment traffic is counted as two lifts at the intermediate port (once to off-load and again as an outbound lift) and includes empty units. Source: Containerisation International, Containerisation International Yearbook.
Credit depth of information index measures rules affecting the scope, accessibility, and quality of credit information available through public or private credit registries. The index ranges from 0 to 6, with higher values indicating the availability of more credit information, from either a public registry or a private bureau, to facilitate lending decisions. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
Crop production index shows agricultural production for each year relative to the base period 1999-2001. It includes all crops except fodder crops. Regional and income group aggregates for the FAO's production indexes are calculated from the underlying values in international dollars, normalized to the base period 1999-2001. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Current account balance is the sum of net exports of goods, services, net income, and net current transfers. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: International Monetary Fund, Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook and data files.
Crude death rate indicates the number of deaths occurring during the year, per 1,000 population estimated at midyear. Subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate provides the rate of natural increase, which is equal to the rate of population change in the absence of migration. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables), (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.
Deposit interest rate is the rate paid by commercial or similar banks for demand, time, or savings deposits. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and data files.
All documents required per shipment to export goods are recorded. It is assumed that the contract has already been agreed upon and signed by both parties. Documents required for clearance by government ministries, customs authorities, port and container terminal authorities, health and technical control agencies and banks are taken into account. Since payment is by letter of credit, all documents required by banks for the issuance or securing of a letter of credit are also taken into account. Documents that are renewed annually and that do not require renewal per shipment (for example, an annual tax clearance certificate) are not included. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
All documents required per shipment to import goods are recorded. It is assumed that the contract has already been agreed upon and signed by both parties. Documents required for clearance by government ministries, customs authorities, port and container terminal authorities, health and technical control agencies and banks are taken into account. Since payment is by letter of credit, all documents required by banks for the issuance or securing of a letter of credit are also taken into account. Documents that are renewed annually and that do not require renewal per shipment (for example, an annual tax clearance certificate) are not included. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
Domestic credit provided by the banking sector includes all credit to various sectors on a gross basis, with the exception of credit to the central government, which is net. The banking sector includes monetary authorities and deposit money banks, as well as other banking institutions where data are available (including institutions that do not accept transferable deposits but do incur such liabilities as time and savings deposits). Examples of other banking institutions are savings and mortgage loan institutions and building and loan associations. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
Domestic credit to private sector refers to financial resources provided to the private sector, such as through loans, purchases of nonequity securities, and trade credits and other accounts receivable, that establish a claim for repayment. For some countries these claims include credit to public enterprises. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
Ease of doing business index ranks economies from 1 to 181, with first place being the best. A high ranking means that the regulatory environment is conducive to business operation. The index ranks the simple average of the country's percentile rankings on 10 topics covered in Doing Business 2007: How to reform. The ranking on each topic is the simple average of the percentile rankings on its component indicators. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants. Source: International Energy Agency, Energy Statistics and Balances of Non-OECD Countries and Energy Statistics of OECD Countries.
Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Industry corresponds to divisions 2-5 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories C-F (ISIC revision 3) and includes mining and quarrying (including oil production), manufacturing, construction, and public utilities (electricity, gas, and water). Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Industry corresponds to divisions 2-5 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories C-F (ISIC revision 3) and includes mining and quarrying (including oil production), manufacturing, construction, and public utilities (electricity, gas, and water). Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Services correspond to divisions 6-9 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories G-P (ISIC revision 3) and include wholesale and retail trade and restaurants and hotels; transport, storage, and communications; financing, insurance, real estate, and business services; and community, social, and personal services. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Services correspond to divisions 6-9 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories G-P (ISIC revision 3) and include wholesale and retail trade and restaurants and hotels; transport, storage, and communications; financing, insurance, real estate, and business services; and community, social, and personal services. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Employment to population ratio is the proportion of a country's population that is employed. Ages 15 and older are generally considered the working-age population. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport. Source: International Energy Agency and United Nations, Energy Statistics Yearbook.
Energy production refers to forms of primary energy--petroleum (crude oil, natural gas liquids, and oil from nonconventional sources), natural gas, solid fuels (coal, lignite, and other derived fuels), and combustible renewables and waste--and primary electricity, all converted into oil equivalents. Source: International Energy Agency.
Industrial methane emissions are emissions from the handling, transmission, and combustion of fossil fuels and biofuels. Source: International Energy Agency.
Industrial nitrous oxide emissions are emissions produced during the manufacturing of adipic acid and nitric acid. Source: International Energy Agency.
Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport. Source: International Energy Agency.
Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport. Source: International Energy Agency.
Public expenditure per student is the public current spending on education divided by the total number of students by level, as a percentage of GDP per capita. Public expenditure (current and capital) includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities). Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Public expenditure per student is the public current spending on education divided by the total number of students by level, as a percentage of GDP per capita. Public expenditure (current and capital) includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities). Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Public expenditure per student is the public current spending on education divided by the total number of students by level, as a percentage of GDP per capita. Public expenditure (current and capital) includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities). Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Expense is cash payments for operating activities of the government in providing goods and services. It includes compensation of employees (such as wages and salaries), interest and subsidies, grants, social benefits, and other expenses such as rent and dividends. Source: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
Export values are the current value of exports (f.o.b.) converted to U.S. dollars and expressed as a percentage of the average for the base period (2000). UNCTAD's export value indexes are reported for most economies. For selected economies for which UNCTAD does not publish data, the export value indexes are derived from export volume indexes (line 72) and corresponding unit value indexes of exports (line 74) in the IMF's International Financial Statistics. Source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Handbook of Statistics and data files, and International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics.
Export volume indexes are derived from UNCTAD's volume index series and are the ratio of the export value indexes to the corresponding unit value indexes. Unit value indexes are based on data reported by countries that demonstrate consistency under UNCTAD quality controls, supplemented by UNCTAD's estimates using the previous year's trade values at the Standard International Trade Classification three-digit level as weights. For economies for which UNCTAD does not publish data, the export volume indexes (lines 72) in the IMF's International Financial Statistics are used. Source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Handbook of Statistics and data files, and International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics.
Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Total fertility rate represents the number of children that would be born to a woman if she were to live to the end of her childbearing years and bear children in accordance with current age-specific fertility rates. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables). Available at http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp2008/index.htm. (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database, and (6) household surveys conducted by national agencies, Macro International, and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Fertilizer consumption (100 grams per hectare of arable land) measures the quantity of plant nutrients used per unit of arable land. Fertilizer products cover nitrogenous, potash, and phosphate fertilizers (including ground rock phosphate). Traditional nutrients--animal and plant manures--are not included. For the purpose of data dissemination, FAO has adopted the concept of a calendar year (January to December). Some countries compile fertilizer data on a calendar year basis, while others are on a split-year basis. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Firms using banks to finance investment are the percentage of firms using banks to finance investments. Source: World Bank, Enterprise Surveys (http://www.enterprisesurveys.org/).
Fish species are based on Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2008. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known. Source: Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2008. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. www.fishbase.org. version (07/2008). Accessed: 28 September 2008.
Fixed broadband subscribers are users of the Internet who subscribe to paid high-speed access to the public Internet. High-speed access is at least 256 kilobits per second in one or both directions. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Food production index covers food crops that are considered edible and that contain nutrients. Coffee and tea are excluded because, although edible, they have no nutritive value. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and Balance of Payments databases, and World Bank, Global Development Finance.
Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
GDP per person employed is gross domestic product (GDP) divided by total employment in the economy. Purchasing power parity (PPP) GDP is GDP converted to 1990 constant international dollars using PPP rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP that a U.S. dollar has in the United States. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
GDP per unit of energy use is the PPP GDP per kilogram of oil equivalent of energy use. PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to 2005 constant international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. Source: International Energy Agency, and World Bank PPP data.
GEF benefits index for biodiversity is a composite index of relative biodiversity potential for each country based on the species represented in each country, their threat status, and the diversity of habitat types in each country. The index has been normalized so that values run from 0 (no biodiversity potential) to 100 (maximum biodiversity potential). Source: Kiran Dev Pandey, Piet Buys, Ken Chomitz, and David Wheeler's, "Biodiversity Conservation Indicators: New Tools for Priority Setting at the Global Environment Facility" (2006).
GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
GNI per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GNI is gross national income (GNI) converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current international dollars. Source: World Bank, International Comparison Program database.
GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
PPP GNI (formerly PPP GNP) is gross national income converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. Gross national income (GNI) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current international dollars. Source: World Bank, International Comparison Program database.
Gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment) consists of outlays on additions to the fixed assets of the economy plus net changes in the level of inventories. Fixed assets include land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. Inventories are stocks of goods held by firms to meet temporary or unexpected fluctuations in production or sales, and "work in progress." According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Gross intake rate in grade 1 is the number of new entrants in the first grade of primary education regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population of the official primary entrance age. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Gross intake rate in grade 1 is the number of new entrants in the first grade of primary education regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population of the official primary entrance age. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Gross savings are calculated as gross national income less total consumption, plus net transfers. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Total health expenditure is the sum of public and private health expenditures as a ratio of total population. It covers the provision of health services (preventive and curative), family planning activities, nutrition activities, and emergency aid designated for health but does not include provision of water and sanitation. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: World Health Organization National Health Account database (www.who.int/nha/en) supplemented by country data. Note: The latest updates on these data are accessible in WHO's National Health Accounts (NHA) website (http://www.who.int/nha/en/).
Public health expenditure consists of recurrent and capital spending from government (central and local) budgets, external borrowings and grants (including donations from international agencies and nongovernmental organizations), and social (or compulsory) health insurance funds. Total health expenditure is the sum of public and private health expenditure. It covers the provision of health services (preventive and curative), family planning activities, nutrition activities, and emergency aid designated for health but does not include provision of water and sanitation. Source: World Health Organization National Health Account database (www.who.int/nha/en) supplemented by country data. Note: The latest updates on these data are accessible in WHO's National Health Accounts (NHA) website (http://www.who.int/nha/en/).
Total health expenditure is the sum of public and private health expenditure. It covers the provision of health services (preventive and curative), family planning activities, nutrition activities, and emergency aid designated for health but does not include provision of water and sanitation. Source: World Health Organization National Health Account database (www.who.int/nha/en) supplemented by country data. Note: The latest updates on these data are accessible in WHO's National Health Accounts (NHA) website (http://www.who.int/nha/en/).
High-technology exports are products with high R&D intensity, such as in aerospace, computers, pharmaceuticals, scientific instruments, and electrical machinery. Source: United Nations, Comtrade database.
High-technology exports are products with high R&D intensity, such as in aerospace, computers, pharmaceuticals, scientific instruments, and electrical machinery. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: United Nations, Comtrade database.
Highest marginal tax rate (corporate rate) is the highest rate shown on the schedule of tax rates applied to the taxable income of corporations. Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers, Corporate Taxes: Worldwide Summaries, by permission of John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Highest marginal tax rate (individual rate) is the highest rate shown on the schedule of tax rates applied to the taxable income of individuals. This series presents the income levels for individuals above which the highest marginal tax rates levied at the national level apply. Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers, Individual Taxes: Worldwide Summaries, by permission of John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Highest marginal tax rate (individual rate) is the highest rate shown on the schedule of tax rates applied to the taxable income of individuals. Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers, Individual Taxes: Worldwide Summaries, by permission of John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Households with television are the share of households with a television set. Some countries report only the number of households with a color television set, and therefore the true number may be higher than reported. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Information and communication technology goods exports include telecommunications, audio and video, computer and related equipment; electronic components; and other information and communication technology goods. Software is excluded. Source: United Nations Statistics Division's Commodity Trade (Comtrade) database.
Information and communication technology goods imports include telecommunications, audio and video, computer and related equipment; electronic components; and other information and communication technology goods. Software is excluded. Source: United Nations Statistics Division's Commodity Trade (Comtrade) database.
Information and communication technology service exports include computer and communications services (telecommunications and postal and courier services) and information services (computer data and news-related service transactions). Source: International Monetary Fund, Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook and data files.
ISO certification ownership is the percentage of firms that have earned a quality certification recognized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Source: World Bank, Enterprise Surveys (http://www.enterprisesurveys.org/).
Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine. Source: WHO and UNICEF (http://www.who.int/immunization_monitoring/routine/en/).
Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against measles after receiving one dose of vaccine. Source: WHO and UNICEF (http://www.who.int/immunization_monitoring/routine/en/).
Import value indexes are the current value of imports (c.i.f.) converted to U.S. dollars and expressed as a percentage of the average for the base period (2000). UNCTAD's import value indexes are reported for most economies. For selected economies for which UNCTAD does not publish data, the import value indexes are derived from import volume indexes (line 73) and corresponding unit value indexes of imports (line 75) in the IMF's International Financial Statistics. Source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Handbook of Statistics and data files, and International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics.
Import volume indexes are derived from UNCTAD's volume index series and are the ratio of the import value indexes to the corresponding unit value indexes. Unit value indexes are based on data reported by countries that demonstrate consistency under UNCTAD quality controls, supplemented by UNCTAD's estimates using the previous year's trade values at the Standard International Trade Classification three-digit level as weights. For economies for which UNCTAD does not publish data, the import volume indexes (lines 73) in the IMF's International Financial Statistics are used. Source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Handbook of Statistics and data files, and International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics.
Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Access to improved sanitation facilities refers to the percentage of the population with at least adequate access to excreta disposal facilities that can effectively prevent human, animal, and insect contact with excreta. Improved facilities range from simple but protected pit latrines to flush toilets with a sewerage connection. To be effective, facilities must be correctly constructed and properly maintained. Source: World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund, Joint Measurement Programme (JMP) (http://www.wssinfo.org/).
Access to improved sanitation facilities refers to the percentage of the population with at least adequate access to excreta disposal facilities that can effectively prevent human, animal, and insect contact with excreta. Improved facilities range from simple but protected pit latrines to flush toilets with a sewerage connection. To be effective, facilities must be correctly constructed and properly maintained. Source: World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund, Joint Measurement Programme (JMP) (http://www.wssinfo.org/).
Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling. Source: World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund, Joint Measurement Programme (JMP) (http://www.wssinfo.org/).
Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling. Source: World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund, Joint Measurement Programme (JMP) (http://www.wssinfo.org/).
Incidence of tuberculosis is the estimated number of new pulmonary, smear positive, and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis cases. Source: World Health Organization, Global Tuberculosis Control Report.
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Percentage shares by quintile may not sum to 100 because of rounding. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Percentage shares by quintile may not sum to 100 because of rounding. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Percentage shares by quintile may not sum to 100 because of rounding. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Percentage shares by quintile may not sum to 100 because of rounding. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Percentage shares by quintile may not sum to 100 because of rounding. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).
Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Note: For VAB countries, gross value added at factor cost is used as the denominator. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Inflation as measured by the annual growth rate of the GDP implicit deflator shows the rate of price change in the economy as a whole. The GDP implicit deflator is the ratio of GDP in current local currency to GDP in constant local currency. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and data files.
Informal payments to public officials are the percentage of firms expected to make informal payments to public officials to "get things done" with regard to customs, taxes, licenses, regulations, services, and the like. Source: World Bank, Enterprise Surveys (http://www.enterprisesurveys.org/).
Information and communications technology expenditures include computer hardware (computers, storage devices, printers, and other peripherals); computer software (operating systems, programming tools, utilities, applications, and internal software development); computer services (information technology consulting, computer and network systems integration, Web hosting, data processing services, and other services); and communications services (voice and data communications services) and wired and wireless communications equipment. Source: World Information Technology and Services Alliance, Digital Planet: The Global Information Economy, and Global Insight, Inc.
Interest rate spread is the interest rate charged by banks on loans to prime customers minus the interest rate paid by commercial or similar banks for demand, time, or savings deposits. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and data files.
International Internet bandwidth is the contracted capacity of international connections between countries for transmitting Internet traffic. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
International migrant stock is the number of people born in a country other than that in which they live. It also includes refugees. The data used to estimate the international migrant stock at a particular time are obtained mainly from population censuses. The estimates are derived from the data on foreign-born population--people who have residence in one country but were born in another country. When data on the foreign-born population are not available, data on foreign population--that is, people who are citizens of a country other than the country in which they reside--are used as estimates. After the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991 people living in one of the newly independent countries who were born in another were classified as international migrants. Estimates of migrant stock in the newly independent states from 1990 on are based on the 1989 census of the Soviet Union. For countries with information on the international migrant stock for at least two points in time, interpolation or extrapolation was used to estimate the international migrant stock on July 1 of the reference years. For countries with only one observation, estimates for the reference years were derived using rates of change in the migrant stock in the years preceding or following the single observation available. A model was used to estimate migrants for countries that had no data. Source: United Nations Population Division, Trends in Total Migrant Stock: 2008 Revision.
International voice traffic is the sum of international incoming and outgoing telephone traffic (in minutes). Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Internet users are people with access to the worldwide network. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Internet users are people with access to the worldwide network. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Total labor force comprises people ages 15 and older who meet the International Labour Organization definition of the economically active population: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period. It includes both the employed and the unemployed. While national practices vary in the treatment of such groups as the armed forces and seasonal or part-time workers, in general the labor force includes the armed forces, the unemployed, and first-time job-seekers, but excludes homemakers and other unpaid caregivers and workers in the informal sector. Source: International Labour Organization, using World Bank population estimates.
Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15 and older that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15 and older that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15 and older that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Land area is a country's total area, excluding area under inland water bodies, national claims to continental shelf, and exclusive economic zones. In most cases the definition of inland water bodies includes major rivers and lakes. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Land under cereal production refers to harvested area, although some countries report only sown or cultivated area. Cereals include wheat, rice, maize, barley, oats, rye, millet, sorghum, buckwheat, and mixed grains. Production data on cereals relate to crops harvested for dry grain only. Cereal crops harvested for hay or harvested green for food, feed, or silage and those used for grazing are excluded. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Lead time to export is the median time (the value for 50 percent of shipments) from shipment point to port of loading. Data are from the Logistics Performance Index survey. Respondents provided separate values for the best case (10 percent of shipments) and the median case (50 percent of shipments). The data are exponentiated averages of the logarithm of single value responses and of midpoint values of range responses for the median case. Source: World Bank and Turku School of Economics, Logistic Performance Index Surveys. Data are available online at : http://www.worldbank.org/lpi. Summary results are published in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy, The Logistics Performance Index and Its Indicators report.
Lead time to import is the median time (the value for 50 percent of shipments) from port of discharge to arrival at the consignee. Data are from the Logistics Performance Index survey. Respondents provided separate values for the best case (10 percent of shipments) and the median case (50 percent of shipments). The data are exponentiated averages of the logarithm of single value responses and of midpoint values of range responses for the median case. Source: World Bank and Turku School of Economics, Logistic Performance Index Surveys. Data are available online at : http://www.worldbank.org/lpi. Summary results are published in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy, The Logistics Performance Index and Its Indicators report.
Lending interest rate is the rate charged by banks on loans to prime customers. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and data files.
Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables), (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.
Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables), (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.
Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life. Source: Derived from male and female life expectancy at birth. Male and female life expectancy source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables), (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.
Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. This indicator does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Source: Standard & Poor's, Emerging Stock Markets Factbook and supplemental S&P data.
Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Youth literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15-24 who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Youth literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15-24 who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Youth literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15-24 who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Livestock production index includes meat and milk from all sources, dairy products such as cheese, and eggs, honey, raw silk, wool, and hides and skins. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Logistics Performance Index overall score reflects perceptions of a country's logistics based on efficiency of customs clearance process, quality of trade- and transport-related infrastructure, ease of arranging competitively priced shipments, quality of logistics services, ability to track and trace consignments, and frequency with which shipments reach the consignee within the scheduled time. The index ranges from 1 to 5, with a higher score representing better performance. Data are from Logistics Performance Index surveys conducted by the World Bank in partnership with academic and international institutions and private companies and individuals engaged in international logistics. 2009 round of surveys covered more than 5,000 country assessments by nearly 1,000 international freight forwarders. Respondents evaluate eight markets on six core dimensions on a scale from 1 (worst) to 5 (best). The markets are chosen based on the most important export and import markets of the respondent's country, random selection, and, for landlocked countries, neighboring countries that connect them with international markets. Scores for the six areas are averaged across all respondents and aggregated to a single score using principal components analysis. Details of the survey methodology and index construction methodology are in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete 2010: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy (2010). Source: World Bank and Turku School of Economics, Logistic Performance Index Surveys. Data are available online at : http://www.worldbank.org/lpi. Summary results are published in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy, The Logistics Performance Index and Its Indicators report.
Long-term unemployment refers to the number of people with continuous periods of unemployment extending for a year or longer, expressed as a percentage of the total unemployed. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Long-term unemployment refers to the number of people with continuous periods of unemployment extending for a year or longer, expressed as a percentage of the total unemployed. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Long-term unemployment refers to the number of people with continuous periods of unemployment extending for a year or longer, expressed as a percentage of the total unemployed. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Mammal species are mammals excluding whales and porpoises. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known. Source: United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, and International Union for Conservation of Nature, Red List of Threatened Species.
Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment. Source: United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, as compiled by the World Resources Institute, based on data from national authorities, national legislation and international agreements.
Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment. Source: United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, as compiled by the World Resources Institute, based on data from national authorities, national legislation and international agreements.
Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. Listed companies does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Source: Standard & Poor's, Emerging Stock Markets Factbook and supplemental S&P data, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. Listed companies does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: Standard & Poor's, Emerging Stock Markets Factbook and supplemental S&P data.
Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence. Source: Maternal Mortality: Estimates Developed by WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA and the World Bank.
Merchandise trade as a share of GDP is the sum of merchandise exports and imports divided by the value of GDP, all in current U.S. dollars. Source: World Trade Organization, and World Bank GDP estimates.
Methane emissions are those stemming from human activities such as agriculture and from industrial methane production. Source: World Resources Institute.
Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.) Source: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Note: Data for some countries are based on partial or uncertain data or rough estimates.
Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.) Source: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Note: Data for some countries are based on partial or uncertain data or rough estimates.
Mobile and fixed-line subscribers are total telephone subscribers (fixed-line plus mobile). Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Mobile and fixed-line subscribers are total telephone subscribers (fixed-line plus mobile). Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Mobile and fixed-line subscribers per employee are telephone subscribers (fixed-line plus mobile) divided by the total number of telecommunications employees. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Mobile cellular prepaid tariff is based on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's low-user definition, which includes the cost of monthly mobile use for 25 outgoing calls per month spread over the same mobile network, other mobile networks, and mobile to fixed-line calls and during peak, off-peak, and weekend times as well as 30 text messages per month. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Infant mortality rate is the number of infants dying before reaching one year of age, per 1,000 live births in a given year. Source: Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UNICEF, WHO, World Bank, UNPD, universities and research institutions).
Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates. Source: Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UNICEF, WHO, World Bank, UNPD, universities and research institutions).
Motor vehicles include cars, buses, and freight vehicles but do not include two-wheelers. Population refers to midyear population in the year for which data are available. Source: International Road Federation, World Road Statistics and data files.
Net barter terms of trade index is calculated as the percentage ratio of the export unit value indexes to the import unit value indexes, measured relative to the base year 2000. Source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Handbook of Statistics and data files, and International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics.
Net migration is the net total of migrants during the period, that is, the total number of immigrants less the annual number of emigrants, including both citizens and noncitizens. Data are five-year estimates. To derive estimates of net migration, the United Nations Population Division takes into account the past migration history of a country or area, the migration policy of a country, and the influx of refugees in recent periods. The data to calculate these official estimates come from a variety of sources, including border statistics, administrative records, surveys, and censuses. When no official estimates can be made because of insufficient data, net migration is derived through the balance equation, which is the difference between overall population growth and the natural increase during the 1990-2000 intercensal period. Source: United Nations Population Division, World Population Prospects 2008.
New businesses registered are the number of new firms, defined as firms registered in the current year of reporting. Source: International Finance Corporation's micro, small, and medium-size enterprises database (http://www.ifc.org/ifcext/sme.nsf/Content/Resources).
Nitrous oxide emissions are emissions from agricultural biomass burning, industrial activities, and livestock management. Source: International Energy Agency.
Emissions per worker are total emissions of organic water pollutants divided by the number of industrial workers. Organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: World Bank and UNIDO's industry database.
Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Other greenhouse gas emissions are by-product emissions of hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride. Source: International Energy Agency.
Out of pocket expenditure is any direct outlay by households, including gratuities and in-kind payments, to health practitioners and suppliers of pharmaceuticals, therapeutic appliances, and other goods and services whose primary intent is to contribute to the restoration or enhancement of the health status of individuals or population groups. It is a part of private health expenditure. Source: World Health Organization National Health Account database (www.who.int/nha/en) supplemented by country data. Note: The latest updates on these data are accessible in WHO's National Health Accounts (NHA) website (http://www.who.int/nha/en/).
Particulate matter concentrations refer to fine suspended particulates less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10) that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing significant health damage. Data for countries and aggregates for regions and income groups are urban-population weighted PM10 levels in residential areas of cities with more than 100,000 residents. The estimates represent the average annual exposure level of the average urban resident to outdoor particulate matter. The state of a country's technology and pollution controls is an important determinant of particulate matter concentrations. Source: Kiren Dev Pandey, David Wheeler, Bart Ostro, Uwe Deichmann, Kirk Hamilton, and Katherine Bolt. "Ambient Particulate Matter Concentrations in Residential and Pollution Hotspot Areas of World Cities: New Estimates Based on the Global Model of Ambient Particulates (GMAPS)," World Bank, Development Research Group and Environment Department (2006).
Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver). Source: International Road Federation, World Road Statistics and data files.
Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention--a product or process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years. Source: World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), WIPO Patent Report: Statistics on Worldwide Patent Activity. The International Bureau of WIPO assumes no responsibility with respect to the transformation of these data.
Permanent cropland is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Persistence to last grade of primary is the percentage of children enrolled in the first grade of primary school who eventually reach the last grade of primary education. The estimate is based on the reconstructed cohort method. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Persistence to last grade of primary is the percentage of children enrolled in the first grade of primary school who eventually reach the last grade of primary education. The estimate is based on the reconstructed cohort method. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Personal computers are self-contained computers designed to be used by a single individual. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Higher plants are native vascular plant species. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known. Source: United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, and International Union for Conservation of Nature, Red List of Threatened Species.
Population between the ages 0 to 14 as a percentage of the total population. Population is based on the de facto definition of population. Source: World Bank staff estimates from various sources including census reports, the United Nations Population Division's World Population Prospects, national statistical offices, household surveys conducted by national agencies, and Macro International.
Population ages 15 to 64 is the percentage of the total population that is in the age group 15 to 64. Population is based on the de facto definition of population. Source: World Bank staff estimates from various sources including census reports, the United Nations Population Division's World Population Prospects, national statistical offices, household surveys conducted by national agencies, and Macro International.
Population ages 65 and above as a percentage of the total population. Population is based on the de facto definition of population. Source: World Bank staff estimates from various sources including census reports, the United Nations Population Division's World Population Prospects, national statistical offices, household surveys conducted by national agencies, and Macro International.
Population covered by mobile cellular network is the percentage of people that live in areas served by a mobile cellular signal regardless of whether they use it. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Annual population growth rate for year t is the exponential rate of growth of midyear population from year t-1 to t, expressed as a percentage . Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of the country of origin. Source: Derived from total population. Population source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables). Available at http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp2008/index.htm. (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database, and (6) World bank estimates based on the data from the sources above, household surveys conducted by national agencies, Macro International, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and refugees statistics from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
Population in largest city is the percentage of a country's urban population living in that country's largest metropolitan area. Source: United Nations, World Urbanization Prospects.
Population in urban agglomerations of more than one million is the percentage of a country's population living in metropolitan areas that in 2000 had a population of more than one million people. Source: United Nations, World Urbanization Prospects.
Female population is the percentage of the population that is female. Population is based on the de facto definition of population. Source: United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables). Available at http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp2008/index.htm.
Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of their country of origin. The values shown are midyear estimates. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables). Available at http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp2008/index.htm. (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database, and (6) World bank estimates based on the data from the sources above, household surveys conducted by national agencies, Macro International, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and refugees statistics from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
Portfolio equity includes net inflows from equity securities other than those recorded as direct investment and including shares, stocks, depository receipts (American or global), and direct purchases of shares in local stock markets by foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: International Monetary Fund, Balance of Payments database, and World Bank, Global Development Finance.
Prevalence of HIV is the percentage of people who are infected with HIV. Youth rates are as a percentage of the relevant age group. Source: UNAIDS and the WHO's Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic.
Prevalence of HIV is the percentage of people who are infected with HIV. Youth rates are as a percentage of the relevant age group. Source: UNAIDS and the WHO's Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic.
Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV. Source: UNAIDS and the WHO's Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic.
Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Private credit bureau coverage reports the number of individuals or firms listed by a private credit bureau with current information on repayment history, unpaid debts, or credit outstanding. The number is expressed as a percentage of the adult population. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
Progression to secondary school refers to the number of new entrants to the first grade of secondary school in a given year as a percentage of the number of students enrolled in the final grade of primary school in the previous year. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Progression to secondary school refers to the number of new entrants to the first grade of secondary school in a given year as a percentage of the number of students enrolled in the final grade of primary school in the previous year. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Women in parliaments are the percentage of parliamentary seats in a single or lower chamber held by women. Source: United Nations, Women's Indicators and Statistics database (www.ipu.org).
Public credit registry coverage reports the number of individuals and firms listed in a public credit registry with current information on repayment history, unpaid debts, or credit outstanding. The number is expressed as a percentage of the adult population. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities). Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities). Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Fuel prices refer to the pump prices of the most widely sold grade of diesel fuel. Prices have been converted from the local currency to U.S. dollars. Source: German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ).
Fuel prices refer to the pump prices of the most widely sold grade of gasoline. Prices have been converted from the local currency to U.S. dollars. Source: German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ).
Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment). Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Rail lines are the length of railway route available for train service, irrespective of the number of parallel tracks. Source: World Bank, Transportation, Water, and Urban Development Department, Transport Division.
Ratio of female to male tertiary enrollment is the percentage of men to women enrolled at tertiary level in public and private schools. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Ratio of female to male primary enrollment is the percentage of girls to boys enrolled at primary level in public and private schools. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Ratio of female to male secondary enrollment is the percentage of girls to boys enrolled at secondary level in public and private schools. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education is the percentage of girls to boys enrolled at primary and secondary levels in public and private schools. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Real interest rate is the lending interest rate adjusted for inflation as measured by the GDP deflator. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and data files using World Bank data on the GDP deflator.
Refugees are people who are recognized as refugees under the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees or its 1967 Protocol, the 1969 Organization of African Unity Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, people recognized as refugees in accordance with the UNHCR statute, people granted refugee-like humanitarian status, and people provided temporary protection. Asylum seekers--people who have applied for asylum or refugee status and who have not yet received a decision or who are registered as asylum seekers--are excluded. Palestinian refugees are people (and their descendants) whose residence was Palestine between June 1946 and May 1948 and who lost their homes and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 Arab-Israeli conflict. Country of asylum is the country where an asylum claim was filed and granted. Source: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Statistical Yearbook and data files, complemented by statistics on Palestinian refugees under the mandate of the UNRWA as published on its website. Data from UNHCR are available online at: www.unhcr.org/statistics/populationdatabase.
Refugees are people who are recognized as refugees under the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees or its 1967 Protocol, the 1969 Organization of African Unity Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, people recognized as refugees in accordance with the UNHCR statute, people granted refugee-like humanitarian status, and people provided temporary protection. Asylum seekers--people who have applied for asylum or refugee status and who have not yet received a decision or who are registered as asylum seekers--are excluded. Palestinian refugees are people (and their descendants) whose residence was Palestine between June 1946 and May 1948 and who lost their homes and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 Arab-Israeli conflict. Country of origin generally refers to the nationality or country of citizenship of a claimant. Source: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Statistical Yearbook and data files, complemented by statistics on Palestinian refugees under the mandate of the UNRWA as published on its website. Data from UNHCR are available online at: www.unhcr.org/statistics/populationdatabase.
Renewable internal freshwater resources flows refer to internal renewable resources (internal river flows and groundwater from rainfall) in the country. Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita are calculated using the World Bank's population estimates. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data.
Renewable internal freshwater resources flows refer to internal renewable resources (internal river flows and groundwater from rainfall) in the country. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data.
Repeaters in primary school are the number of students enrolled in the same grade as in the previous year, as a percentage of all students enrolled in primary school. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Repeaters in primary school are the number of students enrolled in the same grade as in the previous year, as a percentage of all students enrolled in primary school. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Expenditures for research and development are current and capital expenditures (both public and private) on creative work undertaken systematically to increase knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture, and society, and the use of knowledge for new applications. R&D covers basic research, applied research, and experimental development. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Researchers in R&D are professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods, or systems and in the management of the projects concerned. Postgraduate PhD students (ISCED97 level 6) engaged in R&D are included. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Revenue is cash receipts from taxes, social contributions, and other revenues such as fines, fees, rent, and income from property or sales. Grants are also considered as revenue but are excluded here. Source: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
The rigidity of employment index measures the regulation of employment, specifically the hiring and firing of workers and the rigidity of working hours. This index is the average of three subindexes: a difficulty of hiring index, a rigidity of hours index, and a difficulty of firing index. The index ranges from 0 to 100, with higher values indicating more rigid regulations. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
Risk premium on lending is the interest rate charged by banks on loans to prime private sector customers minus the "risk free" treasury bill interest rate at which short-term government securities are issued or traded in the market. In some countries this spread may be negative, indicating that the market considers its best corporate clients to be lower risk than the government. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics database.
Road sector energy consumption is the total energy used in the road sector including petroleum products, natural gas, electricity, and combustible renewable and waste. Total energy consumption is the total country energy consumption. Source: International Road Federation, World Road Statistics and electronic files, except where noted, and International Energy Agency.
Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length. Source: International Road Federation, World Road Statistics and electronic files, except where noted.
Royalty and license fees are payments and receipts between residents and nonresidents for the authorized use of intangible, nonproduced, nonfinancial assets and proprietary rights (such as patents, copyrights, trademarks, industrial processes, and franchises) and for the use, through licensing agreements, of produced originals of prototypes (such as films and manuscripts). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: International Monetary Fund, Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook and data files.
Royalty and license fees are payments and receipts between residents and nonresidents for the authorized use of intangible, nonproduced, nonfinancial assets and proprietary rights (such as patents, copyrights, trademarks, industrial processes, and franchises) and for the use, through licensing agreements, of produced originals of prototypes (such as films and manuscripts). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: International Monetary Fund, Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook and data files.
Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population. Source: The data on urban population shares used to estimate rural population come from the United Nations, World Urbanization Prospects. Total population figures are World Bank estimates.
Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population. Source: World Bank Staff estimates based on United Nations, World Urbanization Prospects. S&P Global Equity Indices measure the U.S. dollar price change in the stock markets covered by the S&P/IFCI and S&P/Frontier BMI country indices. Source: Standard & Poor's, Global Stock Markets Factbook and supplemental S&P data.
Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Preprimary education refers to the initial stage of organized instruction, designed primarily to introduce very young children to a school-type environment. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Secondary education completes the provision of basic education that began at the primary level, and aims at laying the foundations for lifelong learning and human development, by offering more subject- or skill-oriented instruction using more specialized teachers. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Secondary education completes the provision of basic education that began at the primary level, and aims at laying the foundations for lifelong learning and human development, by offering more subject- or skill-oriented instruction using more specialized teachers. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Tertiary education, whether or not to an advanced research qualification, normally requires, as a minimum condition of admission, the successful completion of education at the secondary level. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Scientific and technical journal articles refer to the number of scientific and engineering articles published in the following fields: physics, biology, chemistry, mathematics, clinical medicine, biomedical research, engineering and technology, and earth and space sciences. Source: National Science Foundation, Science and Engineering Indicators.
Secure servers are servers using encryption technology in Internet transactions. Source: Netcraft (http://www.netcraft.com/) and World Bank population estimates.
Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Note: For VAB countries, gross value added at factor cost is used as the denominator. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Share of women employed in the nonagricultural sector is the share of female workers in the nonagricultural sector (industry and services), expressed as a percentage of total employment in the nonagricultural sector. Industry includes mining and quarrying (including oil production), manufacturing, construction, electricity, gas, and water, corresponding to divisions 2-5 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories C-F (ISIC revision 3). Services include wholesale and retail trade and restaurants and hotels; transport, storage, and communications; financing, insurance, real estate, and business services; and community, social, and personal services-corresponding to divisions 6-9 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories G-P (ISIC revision 3). Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Start-up procedures are those required to start a business, including interactions to obtain necessary permits and licenses and to complete all inscriptions, verifications, and notifications to start operations. Data are for businesses with specific characteristics of ownership, size, and type of production. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
Stocks traded refers to the total value of shares traded during the period. This indicator complements the market capitalization ratio by showing whether market size is matched by trading. Source: Standard & Poor's, Emerging Stock Markets Factbook and supplemental S&P data, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
Turnover ratio is the total value of shares traded during the period divided by the average market capitalization for the period. Average market capitalization is calculated as the average of the end-of-period values for the current period and the previous period. Source: Standard & Poor's, Emerging Stock Markets Factbook and supplemental S&P data.
Strength of legal rights index measures the degree to which collateral and bankruptcy laws protect the rights of borrowers and lenders and thus facilitate lending. The index ranges from 0 to 10, with higher scores indicating that these laws are better designed to expand access to credit. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
Tax payments by businesses are the total number of taxes paid by businesses, including electronic filing. The tax is counted as paid once a year even if payments are more frequent. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
Tax revenue refers to compulsory transfers to the central government for public purposes. Certain compulsory transfers such as fines, penalties, and most social security contributions are excluded. Refunds and corrections of erroneously collected tax revenue are treated as negative revenue. Source: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
Technicians in R&D and equivalent staff are people whose main tasks require technical knowledge and experience in engineering, physical and life sciences (technicians), or social sciences and humanities (equivalent staff). They participate in R&D by performing scientific and technical tasks involving the application of concepts and operational methods, normally under the supervision of researchers. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Telecommunications revenue is the revenue from the provision of telecommunications services such as fixed-line, mobile, and data. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities. Source: United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, as compiled by the World Resources Institute, based on data from national authorities, national legislation and international agreements.
Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities. Source: United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, as compiled by the World Resources Institute, based on data from national authorities, national legislation and international agreements.
Time required to start a business is the number of calendar days needed to complete the procedures to legally operate a business. If a procedure can be speeded up at additional cost, the fastest procedure, independent of cost, is chosen. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
Time to prepare and pay taxes is the time, in hours per year, it takes to prepare, file, and pay (or withhold) three major types of taxes: the corporate income tax, the value added or sales tax, and labor taxes, including payroll taxes and social security contributions. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
Time to resolve insolvency is the number of years from the filing for insolvency in court until the resolution of distressed assets. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
Total businesses registered. Because of underreporting of firms that have closed or exited, especially in developing countries, the data on total registered firms may be biased upward. Source: International Finance Corporation's micro, small, and medium-size enterprises database (http://www.ifc.org/ifcext/sme.nsf/Content/Resources).
Total reserves comprise holdings of monetary gold, special drawing rights, reserves of IMF members held by the IMF, and holdings of foreign exchange under the control of monetary authorities. The gold component of these reserves is valued at year-end (December 31) London prices. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and data files.
Total tax rate is the total amount of taxes payable by businesses (except for labor taxes) after accounting for deductions and exemptions as a percentage of profit. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
Trade in services is the sum of service exports and imports divided by the value of GDP, all in current U.S. dollars. Source: International Monetary Fund, Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
Trademark applications filed are applications to register a trademark with a national or regional Intellectual Property (IP) office. A trademark is a distinctive sign which identifies certain goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. A trademark provides protection to the owner of the mark by ensuring the exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services, or to authorize another to use it in return for payment. The period of protection varies, but a trademark can be renewed indefinitely beyond the time limit on payment of additional fees. Direct nonresident trademark applications are those filed by applicants from abroad directly at a given national IP office. Source: World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), WIPO Patent Report: Statistics on Worldwide Patent Activity. The International Bureau of WIPO assumes no responsibility with respect to the transformation of these data.
Trademark applications filed are applications to register a trademark with a national or regional Intellectual Property (IP) office. A trademark is a distinctive sign which identifies certain goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. A trademark provides protection to the owner of the mark by ensuring the exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services, or to authorize another to use it in return for payment. The period of protection varies, but a trademark can be renewed indefinitely beyond the time limit on payment of additional fees. Direct resident trademark applications are those filed by domestic applicants directly at a given national IP office. Source: World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), WIPO Patent Report: Statistics on Worldwide Patent Activity. The International Bureau of WIPO assumes no responsibility with respect to the transformation of these data.
Diesel is heavy oils used as a fuel for internal combustion in diesel engines. Source: International Road Federation, World Road Statistics and electronic files, except where noted, and International Energy Agency.
Gasoline is light hydrocarbon oil use in internal combustion engine such as motor vehicles, excluding aircraft. Source: International Road Federation, World Road Statistics and electronic files, except where noted, and International Energy Agency.
Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Youth unemployment refers to the share of the labor force ages 15-24 without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Youth unemployment refers to the share of the labor force ages 15-24 without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Urban population refers to people living in urban areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated using World Bank population estimates and urban ratios from the United Nations World Urbanization Prospects. Source: World Bank Staff estimates based on United Nations, World Urbanization Prospects. Urban population refers to people living in urban areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated using World Bank population estimates and urban ratios from the United Nations World Urbanization Prospects. Source: United Nations, World Urbanization Prospects.
Vehicles per kilometer of road include cars, buses, and freight vehicles but do not include two-wheelers. Roads refer to motorways, highways, main or national roads, secondary or regional roads, and other roads. A motorway is a road specially designed and built for motor traffic that separates the traffic flowing in opposite directions. Source: International Road Federation, World Road Statistics and data files.
Vulnerable employment is unpaid family workers and own-account workers as a percentage of total employment. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Vulnerable employment is unpaid family workers and own-account workers as a percentage of total employment. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Vulnerable employment is unpaid family workers and own-account workers as a percentage of total employment. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: chemicals (35). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: stone, ceramics, and glass (36). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: food and beverages (31). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: primary metals (ISIC division 37). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: other (38 and 39). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: paper and pulp (34). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: textiles (32). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: wood (33). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Workers' remittances and compensation of employees comprise current transfers by migrant workers and wages and salaries earned by nonresident workers. Data are the sum of three items defined in the fifth edition of the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual: workers' remittances, compensation of employees, and migrants' transfers. Remittances are classified as current private transfers from migrant workers resident in the host country for more than a year, irrespective of their immigration status, to recipients in their country of origin. Migrants' transfers are defined as the net worth of migrants who are expected to remain in the host country for more than one year that is transferred from one country to another at the time of migration. Compensation of employees is the income of migrants who have lived in the host country for less than a year. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: World Bank staff estimates based on IMF balance of payments data.
Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Agricultural machinery refers to the number of wheel and crawler tractors (excluding garden tractors) in use in agriculture at the end of the calendar year specified or during the first quarter of the following year. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Agricultural nitrous oxide emissions are emissions produced through fertilizer use (synthetic and animal manure), animal waste management, agricultural waste burning (nonenergy, on-site), and savannah burning. Source: International Energy Agency.
Agriculture value added per worker is a measure of agricultural productivity. Value added in agriculture measures the output of the agricultural sector (ISIC divisions 1-5) less the value of intermediate inputs. Agriculture comprises value added from forestry, hunting, and fishing as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Source: Derived from World Bank national accounts files and Food and Agriculture Organization, Production Yearbook and data files.
Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Note: For VAB countries, gross value added at factor cost is used as the denominator. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data.
Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data.
Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for industry are total withdrawals for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data.
Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture and industry are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production and for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data.
Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Arable land (hectares per person) includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Bank capital to assets is the ratio of bank capital and reserves to total assets. Capital and reserves include funds contributed by owners, retained earnings, general and special reserves, provisions, and valuation adjustments. Capital includes tier 1 capital (paid-up shares and common stock), which is a common feature in all countries' banking systems, and total regulatory capital, which includes several specified types of subordinated debt instruments that need not be repaid if the funds are required to maintain minimum capital levels (these comprise tier 2 and tier 3 capital). Total assets include all nonfinancial and financial assets. Source: International Monetary Fund, Global Financial Stability Report.
Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans are the value of nonperforming loans divided by the total value of the loan portfolio (including nonperforming loans before the deduction of specific loan-loss provisions). The loan amount recorded as nonperforming should be the gross value of the loan as recorded on the balance sheet, not just the amount that is overdue. Source: International Monetary Fund, Global Financial Stability Report.
Crude birth rate indicates the number of live births occurring during the year, per 1,000 population estimated at midyear. Subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate provides the rate of natural increase, which is equal to the rate of population change in the absence of migration. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables), (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.
Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Source: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, United States.
Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Source: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, United States.
Cash surplus or deficit is revenue (including grants) minus expense, minus net acquisition of nonfinancial assets. In the 1986 GFS manual nonfinancial assets were included under revenue and expenditure in gross terms. This cash surplus or deficit is closest to the earlier overall budget balance (still missing is lending minus repayments, which are now a financing item under net acquisition of financial assets). Source: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
Debt is the entire stock of direct government fixed-term contractual obligations to others outstanding on a particular date. It includes domestic and foreign liabilities such as currency and money deposits, securities other than shares, and loans. It is the gross amount of government liabilities reduced by the amount of equity and financial derivatives held by the government. Because debt is a stock rather than a flow, it is measured as of a given date, usually the last day of the fiscal year. Source: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
Cereal yield, measured as kilograms per hectare of harvested land, includes wheat, rice, maize, barley, oats, rye, millet, sorghum, buckwheat, and mixed grains. Production data on cereals relate to crops harvested for dry grain only. Cereal crops harvested for hay or harvested green for food, feed, or silage and those used for grazing are excluded. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Port container traffic measures the flow of containers from land to sea transport modes., and vice versa, in twenty-foot equivalent units (TEUs), a standard-size container. Data refer to coastal shipping as well as international journeys. Transshipment traffic is counted as two lifts at the intermediate port (once to off-load and again as an outbound lift) and includes empty units. Source: Containerisation International, Containerisation International Yearbook.
Credit depth of information index measures rules affecting the scope, accessibility, and quality of credit information available through public or private credit registries. The index ranges from 0 to 6, with higher values indicating the availability of more credit information, from either a public registry or a private bureau, to facilitate lending decisions. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
Crop production index shows agricultural production for each year relative to the base period 1999-2001. It includes all crops except fodder crops. Regional and income group aggregates for the FAO's production indexes are calculated from the underlying values in international dollars, normalized to the base period 1999-2001. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Crude death rate indicates the number of deaths occurring during the year, per 1,000 population estimated at midyear. Subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate provides the rate of natural increase, which is equal to the rate of population change in the absence of migration. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables), (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.
All documents required per shipment to export goods are recorded. It is assumed that the contract has already been agreed upon and signed by both parties. Documents required for clearance by government ministries, customs authorities, port and container terminal authorities, health and technical control agencies and banks are taken into account. Since payment is by letter of credit, all documents required by banks for the issuance or securing of a letter of credit are also taken into account. Documents that are renewed annually and that do not require renewal per shipment (for example, an annual tax clearance certificate) are not included. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
All documents required per shipment to import goods are recorded. It is assumed that the contract has already been agreed upon and signed by both parties. Documents required for clearance by government ministries, customs authorities, port and container terminal authorities, health and technical control agencies and banks are taken into account. Since payment is by letter of credit, all documents required by banks for the issuance or securing of a letter of credit are also taken into account. Documents that are renewed annually and that do not require renewal per shipment (for example, an annual tax clearance certificate) are not included. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
Domestic credit provided by the banking sector includes all credit to various sectors on a gross basis, with the exception of credit to the central government, which is net. The banking sector includes monetary authorities and deposit money banks, as well as other banking institutions where data are available (including institutions that do not accept transferable deposits but do incur such liabilities as time and savings deposits). Examples of other banking institutions are savings and mortgage loan institutions and building and loan associations. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
Domestic credit to private sector refers to financial resources provided to the private sector, such as through loans, purchases of nonequity securities, and trade credits and other accounts receivable, that establish a claim for repayment. For some countries these claims include credit to public enterprises. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
Ease of doing business index ranks economies from 1 to 181, with first place being the best. A high ranking means that the regulatory environment is conducive to business operation. The index ranks the simple average of the country's percentile rankings on 10 topics covered in Doing Business 2007: How to reform. The ranking on each topic is the simple average of the percentile rankings on its component indicators. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
Electric power consumption measures the production of power plants and combined heat and power plants less transmission, distribution, and transformation losses and own use by heat and power plants. Source: International Energy Agency, Energy Statistics and Balances of Non-OECD Countries and Energy Statistics of OECD Countries.
Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Industry corresponds to divisions 2-5 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories C-F (ISIC revision 3) and includes mining and quarrying (including oil production), manufacturing, construction, and public utilities (electricity, gas, and water). Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Industry corresponds to divisions 2-5 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories C-F (ISIC revision 3) and includes mining and quarrying (including oil production), manufacturing, construction, and public utilities (electricity, gas, and water). Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Services correspond to divisions 6-9 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories G-P (ISIC revision 3) and include wholesale and retail trade and restaurants and hotels; transport, storage, and communications; financing, insurance, real estate, and business services; and community, social, and personal services. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Services correspond to divisions 6-9 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories G-P (ISIC revision 3) and include wholesale and retail trade and restaurants and hotels; transport, storage, and communications; financing, insurance, real estate, and business services; and community, social, and personal services. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Employment to population ratio is the proportion of a country's population that is employed. Ages 15 and older are generally considered the working-age population. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport. Source: International Energy Agency and United Nations, Energy Statistics Yearbook.
Energy production refers to forms of primary energy--petroleum (crude oil, natural gas liquids, and oil from nonconventional sources), natural gas, solid fuels (coal, lignite, and other derived fuels), and combustible renewables and waste--and primary electricity, all converted into oil equivalents. Source: International Energy Agency.
Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport. Source: International Energy Agency.
Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport. Source: International Energy Agency.
Public expenditure per student is the public current spending on education divided by the total number of students by level, as a percentage of GDP per capita. Public expenditure (current and capital) includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities). Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Public expenditure per student is the public current spending on education divided by the total number of students by level, as a percentage of GDP per capita. Public expenditure (current and capital) includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities). Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Public expenditure per student is the public current spending on education divided by the total number of students by level, as a percentage of GDP per capita. Public expenditure (current and capital) includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities). Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Expense is cash payments for operating activities of the government in providing goods and services. It includes compensation of employees (such as wages and salaries), interest and subsidies, grants, social benefits, and other expenses such as rent and dividends. Source: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
Export values are the current value of exports (f.o.b.) converted to U.S. dollars and expressed as a percentage of the average for the base period (2000). UNCTAD's export value indexes are reported for most economies. For selected economies for which UNCTAD does not publish data, the export value indexes are derived from export volume indexes (line 72) and corresponding unit value indexes of exports (line 74) in the IMF's International Financial Statistics. Source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Handbook of Statistics and data files, and International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics.
Export volume indexes are derived from UNCTAD's volume index series and are the ratio of the export value indexes to the corresponding unit value indexes. Unit value indexes are based on data reported by countries that demonstrate consistency under UNCTAD quality controls, supplemented by UNCTAD's estimates using the previous year's trade values at the Standard International Trade Classification three-digit level as weights. For economies for which UNCTAD does not publish data, the export volume indexes (lines 72) in the IMF's International Financial Statistics are used. Source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Handbook of Statistics and data files, and International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics.
Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Total fertility rate represents the number of children that would be born to a woman if she were to live to the end of her childbearing years and bear children in accordance with current age-specific fertility rates. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables). Available at http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp2008/index.htm. (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database, and (6) household surveys conducted by national agencies, Macro International, and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Fertilizer consumption (100 grams per hectare of arable land) measures the quantity of plant nutrients used per unit of arable land. Fertilizer products cover nitrogenous, potash, and phosphate fertilizers (including ground rock phosphate). Traditional nutrients--animal and plant manures--are not included. For the purpose of data dissemination, FAO has adopted the concept of a calendar year (January to December). Some countries compile fertilizer data on a calendar year basis, while others are on a split-year basis. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Fish species are based on Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2008. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known. Source: Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2008. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. www.fishbase.org. version (07/2008). Accessed: 28 September 2008.
Fixed broadband subscribers are users of the Internet who subscribe to paid high-speed access to the public Internet. High-speed access is at least 256 kilobits per second in one or both directions. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Food production index covers food crops that are considered edible and that contain nutrients. Coffee and tea are excluded because, although edible, they have no nutritive value. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and Balance of Payments databases, and World Bank, Global Development Finance.
Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees of at least 5 meters in situ, whether productive or not, and excludes tree stands in agricultural production systems (for example, in fruit plantations and agroforestry systems) and trees in urban parks and gardens. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
GDP per person employed is gross domestic product (GDP) divided by total employment in the economy. Purchasing power parity (PPP) GDP is GDP converted to 1990 constant international dollars using PPP rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP that a U.S. dollar has in the United States. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
GDP per unit of energy use is the PPP GDP per kilogram of oil equivalent of energy use. PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to 2005 constant international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. Source: International Energy Agency, and World Bank PPP data.
GEF benefits index for biodiversity is a composite index of relative biodiversity potential for each country based on the species represented in each country, their threat status, and the diversity of habitat types in each country. The index has been normalized so that values run from 0 (no biodiversity potential) to 100 (maximum biodiversity potential). Source: Kiran Dev Pandey, Piet Buys, Ken Chomitz, and David Wheeler's, "Biodiversity Conservation Indicators: New Tools for Priority Setting at the Global Environment Facility" (2006).
GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
GNI per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GNI is gross national income (GNI) converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current international dollars. Source: World Bank, International Comparison Program database.
GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
PPP GNI (formerly PPP GNP) is gross national income converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. Gross national income (GNI) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current international dollars. Source: World Bank, International Comparison Program database.
Gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment) consists of outlays on additions to the fixed assets of the economy plus net changes in the level of inventories. Fixed assets include land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. Inventories are stocks of goods held by firms to meet temporary or unexpected fluctuations in production or sales, and "work in progress." According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Gross intake rate in grade 1 is the number of new entrants in the first grade of primary education regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population of the official primary entrance age. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Gross intake rate in grade 1 is the number of new entrants in the first grade of primary education regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population of the official primary entrance age. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Total health expenditure is the sum of public and private health expenditures as a ratio of total population. It covers the provision of health services (preventive and curative), family planning activities, nutrition activities, and emergency aid designated for health but does not include provision of water and sanitation. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: World Health Organization National Health Account database (www.who.int/nha/en) supplemented by country data. Note: The latest updates on these data are accessible in WHO's National Health Accounts (NHA) website (http://www.who.int/nha/en/).
Public health expenditure consists of recurrent and capital spending from government (central and local) budgets, external borrowings and grants (including donations from international agencies and nongovernmental organizations), and social (or compulsory) health insurance funds. Total health expenditure is the sum of public and private health expenditure. It covers the provision of health services (preventive and curative), family planning activities, nutrition activities, and emergency aid designated for health but does not include provision of water and sanitation. Source: World Health Organization National Health Account database (www.who.int/nha/en) supplemented by country data. Note: The latest updates on these data are accessible in WHO's National Health Accounts (NHA) website (http://www.who.int/nha/en/).
Total health expenditure is the sum of public and private health expenditure. It covers the provision of health services (preventive and curative), family planning activities, nutrition activities, and emergency aid designated for health but does not include provision of water and sanitation. Source: World Health Organization National Health Account database (www.who.int/nha/en) supplemented by country data. Note: The latest updates on these data are accessible in WHO's National Health Accounts (NHA) website (http://www.who.int/nha/en/).
Highest marginal tax rate (corporate rate) is the highest rate shown on the schedule of tax rates applied to the taxable income of corporations. Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers, Corporate Taxes: Worldwide Summaries, by permission of John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Highest marginal tax rate (individual rate) is the highest rate shown on the schedule of tax rates applied to the taxable income of individuals. This series presents the income levels for individuals above which the highest marginal tax rates levied at the national level apply. Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers, Individual Taxes: Worldwide Summaries, by permission of John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Highest marginal tax rate (individual rate) is the highest rate shown on the schedule of tax rates applied to the taxable income of individuals. Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers, Individual Taxes: Worldwide Summaries, by permission of John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Households with television are the share of households with a television set. Some countries report only the number of households with a color television set, and therefore the true number may be higher than reported. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Information and communication technology goods exports include telecommunications, audio and video, computer and related equipment; electronic components; and other information and communication technology goods. Software is excluded. Source: United Nations Statistics Division's Commodity Trade (Comtrade) database.
Information and communication technology goods imports include telecommunications, audio and video, computer and related equipment; electronic components; and other information and communication technology goods. Software is excluded. Source: United Nations Statistics Division's Commodity Trade (Comtrade) database.
Information and communication technology service exports include computer and communications services (telecommunications and postal and courier services) and information services (computer data and news-related service transactions). Source: International Monetary Fund, Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook and data files.
Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine. Source: WHO and UNICEF (http://www.who.int/immunization_monitoring/routine/en/).
Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against measles after receiving one dose of vaccine. Source: WHO and UNICEF (http://www.who.int/immunization_monitoring/routine/en/).
Import value indexes are the current value of imports (c.i.f.) converted to U.S. dollars and expressed as a percentage of the average for the base period (2000). UNCTAD's import value indexes are reported for most economies. For selected economies for which UNCTAD does not publish data, the import value indexes are derived from import volume indexes (line 73) and corresponding unit value indexes of imports (line 75) in the IMF's International Financial Statistics. Source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Handbook of Statistics and data files, and International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics.
Import volume indexes are derived from UNCTAD's volume index series and are the ratio of the import value indexes to the corresponding unit value indexes. Unit value indexes are based on data reported by countries that demonstrate consistency under UNCTAD quality controls, supplemented by UNCTAD's estimates using the previous year's trade values at the Standard International Trade Classification three-digit level as weights. For economies for which UNCTAD does not publish data, the import volume indexes (lines 73) in the IMF's International Financial Statistics are used. Source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Handbook of Statistics and data files, and International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics.
Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Access to improved sanitation facilities refers to the percentage of the population with at least adequate access to excreta disposal facilities that can effectively prevent human, animal, and insect contact with excreta. Improved facilities range from simple but protected pit latrines to flush toilets with a sewerage connection. To be effective, facilities must be correctly constructed and properly maintained. Source: World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund, Joint Measurement Programme (JMP) (http://www.wssinfo.org/).
Access to improved sanitation facilities refers to the percentage of the population with at least adequate access to excreta disposal facilities that can effectively prevent human, animal, and insect contact with excreta. Improved facilities range from simple but protected pit latrines to flush toilets with a sewerage connection. To be effective, facilities must be correctly constructed and properly maintained. Source: World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund, Joint Measurement Programme (JMP) (http://www.wssinfo.org/).
Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling. Source: World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund, Joint Measurement Programme (JMP) (http://www.wssinfo.org/).
Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling. Source: World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund, Joint Measurement Programme (JMP) (http://www.wssinfo.org/).
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Percentage shares by quintile may not sum to 100 because of rounding. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Percentage shares by quintile may not sum to 100 because of rounding. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Percentage shares by quintile may not sum to 100 because of rounding. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Percentage shares by quintile may not sum to 100 because of rounding. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Percentage shares by quintile may not sum to 100 because of rounding. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).
Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Note: For VAB countries, gross value added at factor cost is used as the denominator. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Inflation as measured by the annual growth rate of the GDP implicit deflator shows the rate of price change in the economy as a whole. The GDP implicit deflator is the ratio of GDP in current local currency to GDP in constant local currency. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and data files.
Informal payments to public officials are the percentage of firms expected to make informal payments to public officials to "get things done" with regard to customs, taxes, licenses, regulations, services, and the like. Source: World Bank, Enterprise Surveys (http://www.enterprisesurveys.org/).
Information and communications technology expenditures include computer hardware (computers, storage devices, printers, and other peripherals); computer software (operating systems, programming tools, utilities, applications, and internal software development); computer services (information technology consulting, computer and network systems integration, Web hosting, data processing services, and other services); and communications services (voice and data communications services) and wired and wireless communications equipment. Source: World Information Technology and Services Alliance, Digital Planet: The Global Information Economy, and Global Insight, Inc.
Interest rate spread is the interest rate charged by banks on loans to prime customers minus the interest rate paid by commercial or similar banks for demand, time, or savings deposits. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and data files.
International Internet bandwidth is the contracted capacity of international connections between countries for transmitting Internet traffic. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
International migrant stock is the number of people born in a country other than that in which they live. It also includes refugees. The data used to estimate the international migrant stock at a particular time are obtained mainly from population censuses. The estimates are derived from the data on foreign-born population--people who have residence in one country but were born in another country. When data on the foreign-born population are not available, data on foreign population--that is, people who are citizens of a country other than the country in which they reside--are used as estimates. After the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991 people living in one of the newly independent countries who were born in another were classified as international migrants. Estimates of migrant stock in the newly independent states from 1990 on are based on the 1989 census of the Soviet Union. For countries with information on the international migrant stock for at least two points in time, interpolation or extrapolation was used to estimate the international migrant stock on July 1 of the reference years. For countries with only one observation, estimates for the reference years were derived using rates of change in the migrant stock in the years preceding or following the single observation available. A model was used to estimate migrants for countries that had no data. Source: United Nations Population Division, Trends in Total Migrant Stock: 2008 Revision.
International voice traffic is the sum of international incoming and outgoing telephone traffic (in minutes). Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Internet users are people with access to the worldwide network. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Internet users are people with access to the worldwide network. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Total labor force comprises people ages 15 and older who meet the International Labour Organization definition of the economically active population: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period. It includes both the employed and the unemployed. While national practices vary in the treatment of such groups as the armed forces and seasonal or part-time workers, in general the labor force includes the armed forces, the unemployed, and first-time job-seekers, but excludes homemakers and other unpaid caregivers and workers in the informal sector. Source: International Labour Organization, using World Bank population estimates.
Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15 and older that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15 and older that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15 and older that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Land area is a country's total area, excluding area under inland water bodies, national claims to continental shelf, and exclusive economic zones. In most cases the definition of inland water bodies includes major rivers and lakes. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Land under cereal production refers to harvested area, although some countries report only sown or cultivated area. Cereals include wheat, rice, maize, barley, oats, rye, millet, sorghum, buckwheat, and mixed grains. Production data on cereals relate to crops harvested for dry grain only. Cereal crops harvested for hay or harvested green for food, feed, or silage and those used for grazing are excluded. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Lead time to export is the median time (the value for 50 percent of shipments) from shipment point to port of loading. Data are from the Logistics Performance Index survey. Respondents provided separate values for the best case (10 percent of shipments) and the median case (50 percent of shipments). The data are exponentiated averages of the logarithm of single value responses and of midpoint values of range responses for the median case. Source: World Bank and Turku School of Economics, Logistic Performance Index Surveys. Data are available online at : http://www.worldbank.org/lpi. Summary results are published in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy, The Logistics Performance Index and Its Indicators report.
Lead time to import is the median time (the value for 50 percent of shipments) from port of discharge to arrival at the consignee. Data are from the Logistics Performance Index survey. Respondents provided separate values for the best case (10 percent of shipments) and the median case (50 percent of shipments). The data are exponentiated averages of the logarithm of single value responses and of midpoint values of range responses for the median case. Source: World Bank and Turku School of Economics, Logistic Performance Index Surveys. Data are available online at : http://www.worldbank.org/lpi. Summary results are published in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy, The Logistics Performance Index and Its Indicators report.
Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables), (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.
Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables), (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.
Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life. Source: Derived from male and female life expectancy at birth. Male and female life expectancy source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables), (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.
Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. This indicator does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Source: Standard & Poor's, Emerging Stock Markets Factbook and supplemental S&P data.
Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Youth literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15-24 who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Youth literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15-24 who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Youth literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15-24 who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Logistics Performance Index overall score reflects perceptions of a country's logistics based on efficiency of customs clearance process, quality of trade- and transport-related infrastructure, ease of arranging competitively priced shipments, quality of logistics services, ability to track and trace consignments, and frequency with which shipments reach the consignee within the scheduled time. The index ranges from 1 to 5, with a higher score representing better performance. Data are from Logistics Performance Index surveys conducted by the World Bank in partnership with academic and international institutions and private companies and individuals engaged in international logistics. 2009 round of surveys covered more than 5,000 country assessments by nearly 1,000 international freight forwarders. Respondents evaluate eight markets on six core dimensions on a scale from 1 (worst) to 5 (best). The markets are chosen based on the most important export and import markets of the respondent's country, random selection, and, for landlocked countries, neighboring countries that connect them with international markets. Scores for the six areas are averaged across all respondents and aggregated to a single score using principal components analysis. Details of the survey methodology and index construction methodology are in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete 2010: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy (2010). Source: World Bank and Turku School of Economics, Logistic Performance Index Surveys. Data are available online at : http://www.worldbank.org/lpi. Summary results are published in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy, The Logistics Performance Index and Its Indicators report.
Long-term unemployment refers to the number of people with continuous periods of unemployment extending for a year or longer, expressed as a percentage of the total unemployed. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Long-term unemployment refers to the number of people with continuous periods of unemployment extending for a year or longer, expressed as a percentage of the total unemployed. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Long-term unemployment refers to the number of people with continuous periods of unemployment extending for a year or longer, expressed as a percentage of the total unemployed. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Mammal species are mammals excluding whales and porpoises. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known. Source: United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, and International Union for Conservation of Nature, Red List of Threatened Species.
Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment. Source: United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, as compiled by the World Resources Institute, based on data from national authorities, national legislation and international agreements.
Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment. Source: United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, as compiled by the World Resources Institute, based on data from national authorities, national legislation and international agreements.
Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. Listed companies does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Source: Standard & Poor's, Emerging Stock Markets Factbook and supplemental S&P data, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. Listed companies does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: Standard & Poor's, Emerging Stock Markets Factbook and supplemental S&P data.
Maternal mortality ratio is the number of women who die during pregnancy and childbirth, per 100,000 live births. The data are estimated with a regression model using information on fertility, birth attendants, and HIV prevalence. Source: Maternal Mortality: Estimates Developed by WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA and the World Bank.
Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.) Source: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Note: Data for some countries are based on partial or uncertain data or rough estimates.
Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.) Source: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Note: Data for some countries are based on partial or uncertain data or rough estimates.
Mobile and fixed-line subscribers are total telephone subscribers (fixed-line plus mobile). Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Mobile and fixed-line subscribers are total telephone subscribers (fixed-line plus mobile). Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Mobile and fixed-line subscribers per employee are telephone subscribers (fixed-line plus mobile) divided by the total number of telecommunications employees. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Mobile cellular prepaid tariff is based on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's low-user definition, which includes the cost of monthly mobile use for 25 outgoing calls per month spread over the same mobile network, other mobile networks, and mobile to fixed-line calls and during peak, off-peak, and weekend times as well as 30 text messages per month. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Infant mortality rate is the number of infants dying before reaching one year of age, per 1,000 live births in a given year. Source: Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UNICEF, WHO, World Bank, UNPD, universities and research institutions).
Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates. Source: Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UNICEF, WHO, World Bank, UNPD, universities and research institutions).
Net barter terms of trade index is calculated as the percentage ratio of the export unit value indexes to the import unit value indexes, measured relative to the base year 2000. Source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Handbook of Statistics and data files, and International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics.
Net migration is the net total of migrants during the period, that is, the total number of immigrants less the annual number of emigrants, including both citizens and noncitizens. Data are five-year estimates. To derive estimates of net migration, the United Nations Population Division takes into account the past migration history of a country or area, the migration policy of a country, and the influx of refugees in recent periods. The data to calculate these official estimates come from a variety of sources, including border statistics, administrative records, surveys, and censuses. When no official estimates can be made because of insufficient data, net migration is derived through the balance equation, which is the difference between overall population growth and the natural increase during the 1990-2000 intercensal period. Source: United Nations Population Division, World Population Prospects 2008.
New businesses registered are the number of new firms, defined as firms registered in the current year of reporting. Source: International Finance Corporation's micro, small, and medium-size enterprises database (http://www.ifc.org/ifcext/sme.nsf/Content/Resources).
Emissions per worker are total emissions of organic water pollutants divided by the number of industrial workers. Organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: World Bank and UNIDO's industry database.
Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Out of pocket expenditure is any direct outlay by households, including gratuities and in-kind payments, to health practitioners and suppliers of pharmaceuticals, therapeutic appliances, and other goods and services whose primary intent is to contribute to the restoration or enhancement of the health status of individuals or population groups. It is a part of private health expenditure. Source: World Health Organization National Health Account database (www.who.int/nha/en) supplemented by country data. Note: The latest updates on these data are accessible in WHO's National Health Accounts (NHA) website (http://www.who.int/nha/en/).
Particulate matter concentrations refer to fine suspended particulates less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10) that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing significant health damage. Data for countries and aggregates for regions and income groups are urban-population weighted PM10 levels in residential areas of cities with more than 100,000 residents. The estimates represent the average annual exposure level of the average urban resident to outdoor particulate matter. The state of a country's technology and pollution controls is an important determinant of particulate matter concentrations. Source: Kiren Dev Pandey, David Wheeler, Bart Ostro, Uwe Deichmann, Kirk Hamilton, and Katherine Bolt. "Ambient Particulate Matter Concentrations in Residential and Pollution Hotspot Areas of World Cities: New Estimates Based on the Global Model of Ambient Particulates (GMAPS)," World Bank, Development Research Group and Environment Department (2006).
Passenger cars refer to road motor vehicles, other than two-wheelers, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine people (including the driver). Source: International Road Federation, World Road Statistics and data files.
Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention--a product or process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years. Source: World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), WIPO Patent Report: Statistics on Worldwide Patent Activity. The International Bureau of WIPO assumes no responsibility with respect to the transformation of these data.
Permanent cropland is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Persistence to last grade of primary is the percentage of children enrolled in the first grade of primary school who eventually reach the last grade of primary education. The estimate is based on the reconstructed cohort method. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Persistence to last grade of primary is the percentage of children enrolled in the first grade of primary school who eventually reach the last grade of primary education. The estimate is based on the reconstructed cohort method. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Personal computers are self-contained computers designed to be used by a single individual. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Higher plants are native vascular plant species. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known. Source: United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, and International Union for Conservation of Nature, Red List of Threatened Species.
Population between the ages 0 to 14 as a percentage of the total population. Population is based on the de facto definition of population. Source: World Bank staff estimates from various sources including census reports, the United Nations Population Division's World Population Prospects, national statistical offices, household surveys conducted by national agencies, and Macro International.
Population ages 15 to 64 is the percentage of the total population that is in the age group 15 to 64. Population is based on the de facto definition of population. Source: World Bank staff estimates from various sources including census reports, the United Nations Population Division's World Population Prospects, national statistical offices, household surveys conducted by national agencies, and Macro International.
Population ages 65 and above as a percentage of the total population. Population is based on the de facto definition of population. Source: World Bank staff estimates from various sources including census reports, the United Nations Population Division's World Population Prospects, national statistical offices, household surveys conducted by national agencies, and Macro International.
Population covered by mobile cellular network is the percentage of people that live in areas served by a mobile cellular signal regardless of whether they use it. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Annual population growth rate for year t is the exponential rate of growth of midyear population from year t-1 to t, expressed as a percentage . Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of the country of origin. Source: Derived from total population. Population source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables). Available at http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp2008/index.htm. (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database, and (6) World bank estimates based on the data from the sources above, household surveys conducted by national agencies, Macro International, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and refugees statistics from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
Population in urban agglomerations of more than one million is the percentage of a country's population living in metropolitan areas that in 2000 had a population of more than one million people. Source: United Nations, World Urbanization Prospects.
Female population is the percentage of the population that is female. Population is based on the de facto definition of population. Source: United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables). Available at http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp2008/index.htm.
Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of their country of origin. The values shown are midyear estimates. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables). Available at http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp2008/index.htm. (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database, and (6) World bank estimates based on the data from the sources above, household surveys conducted by national agencies, Macro International, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and refugees statistics from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
Portfolio equity includes net inflows from equity securities other than those recorded as direct investment and including shares, stocks, depository receipts (American or global), and direct purchases of shares in local stock markets by foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: International Monetary Fund, Balance of Payments database, and World Bank, Global Development Finance.
Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Private credit bureau coverage reports the number of individuals or firms listed by a private credit bureau with current information on repayment history, unpaid debts, or credit outstanding. The number is expressed as a percentage of the adult population. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
Progression to secondary school refers to the number of new entrants to the first grade of secondary school in a given year as a percentage of the number of students enrolled in the final grade of primary school in the previous year. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Progression to secondary school refers to the number of new entrants to the first grade of secondary school in a given year as a percentage of the number of students enrolled in the final grade of primary school in the previous year. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Public credit registry coverage reports the number of individuals and firms listed in a public credit registry with current information on repayment history, unpaid debts, or credit outstanding. The number is expressed as a percentage of the adult population. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities). Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities). Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment). Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education is the percentage of girls to boys enrolled at primary and secondary levels in public and private schools. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Refugees are people who are recognized as refugees under the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees or its 1967 Protocol, the 1969 Organization of African Unity Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, people recognized as refugees in accordance with the UNHCR statute, people granted refugee-like humanitarian status, and people provided temporary protection. Asylum seekers--people who have applied for asylum or refugee status and who have not yet received a decision or who are registered as asylum seekers--are excluded. Palestinian refugees are people (and their descendants) whose residence was Palestine between June 1946 and May 1948 and who lost their homes and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 Arab-Israeli conflict. Country of asylum is the country where an asylum claim was filed and granted. Source: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Statistical Yearbook and data files, complemented by statistics on Palestinian refugees under the mandate of the UNRWA as published on its website. Data from UNHCR are available online at: www.unhcr.org/statistics/populationdatabase.
Refugees are people who are recognized as refugees under the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees or its 1967 Protocol, the 1969 Organization of African Unity Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, people recognized as refugees in accordance with the UNHCR statute, people granted refugee-like humanitarian status, and people provided temporary protection. Asylum seekers--people who have applied for asylum or refugee status and who have not yet received a decision or who are registered as asylum seekers--are excluded. Palestinian refugees are people (and their descendants) whose residence was Palestine between June 1946 and May 1948 and who lost their homes and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 Arab-Israeli conflict. Country of origin generally refers to the nationality or country of citizenship of a claimant. Source: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Statistical Yearbook and data files, complemented by statistics on Palestinian refugees under the mandate of the UNRWA as published on its website. Data from UNHCR are available online at: www.unhcr.org/statistics/populationdatabase.
Renewable internal freshwater resources flows refer to internal renewable resources (internal river flows and groundwater from rainfall) in the country. Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita are calculated using the World Bank's population estimates. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data.
Repeaters in primary school are the number of students enrolled in the same grade as in the previous year, as a percentage of all students enrolled in primary school. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Repeaters in primary school are the number of students enrolled in the same grade as in the previous year, as a percentage of all students enrolled in primary school. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Expenditures for research and development are current and capital expenditures (both public and private) on creative work undertaken systematically to increase knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture, and society, and the use of knowledge for new applications. R&D covers basic research, applied research, and experimental development. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Researchers in R&D are professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods, or systems and in the management of the projects concerned. Postgraduate PhD students (ISCED97 level 6) engaged in R&D are included. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Revenue is cash receipts from taxes, social contributions, and other revenues such as fines, fees, rent, and income from property or sales. Grants are also considered as revenue but are excluded here. Source: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
The rigidity of employment index measures the regulation of employment, specifically the hiring and firing of workers and the rigidity of working hours. This index is the average of three subindexes: a difficulty of hiring index, a rigidity of hours index, and a difficulty of firing index. The index ranges from 0 to 100, with higher values indicating more rigid regulations. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
Risk premium on lending is the interest rate charged by banks on loans to prime private sector customers minus the "risk free" treasury bill interest rate at which short-term government securities are issued or traded in the market. In some countries this spread may be negative, indicating that the market considers its best corporate clients to be lower risk than the government. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics database.
Road sector energy consumption is the total energy used in the road sector including petroleum products, natural gas, electricity, and combustible renewable and waste. Total energy consumption is the total country energy consumption. Source: International Road Federation, World Road Statistics and electronic files, except where noted, and International Energy Agency.
Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones, as a percentage of all the country's roads, measured in length. Source: International Road Federation, World Road Statistics and electronic files, except where noted.
Royalty and license fees are payments and receipts between residents and nonresidents for the authorized use of intangible, nonproduced, nonfinancial assets and proprietary rights (such as patents, copyrights, trademarks, industrial processes, and franchises) and for the use, through licensing agreements, of produced originals of prototypes (such as films and manuscripts). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: International Monetary Fund, Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook and data files.
Royalty and license fees are payments and receipts between residents and nonresidents for the authorized use of intangible, nonproduced, nonfinancial assets and proprietary rights (such as patents, copyrights, trademarks, industrial processes, and franchises) and for the use, through licensing agreements, of produced originals of prototypes (such as films and manuscripts). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: International Monetary Fund, Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook and data files.
Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population. Source: The data on urban population shares used to estimate rural population come from the United Nations, World Urbanization Prospects. Total population figures are World Bank estimates.
Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population. Source: World Bank Staff estimates based on United Nations, World Urbanization Prospects. Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Preprimary education refers to the initial stage of organized instruction, designed primarily to introduce very young children to a school-type environment. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Secondary education completes the provision of basic education that began at the primary level, and aims at laying the foundations for lifelong learning and human development, by offering more subject- or skill-oriented instruction using more specialized teachers. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Secondary education completes the provision of basic education that began at the primary level, and aims at laying the foundations for lifelong learning and human development, by offering more subject- or skill-oriented instruction using more specialized teachers. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Tertiary education, whether or not to an advanced research qualification, normally requires, as a minimum condition of admission, the successful completion of education at the secondary level. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Scientific and technical journal articles refer to the number of scientific and engineering articles published in the following fields: physics, biology, chemistry, mathematics, clinical medicine, biomedical research, engineering and technology, and earth and space sciences. Source: National Science Foundation, Science and Engineering Indicators.
Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Note: For VAB countries, gross value added at factor cost is used as the denominator. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Share of women employed in the nonagricultural sector is the share of female workers in the nonagricultural sector (industry and services), expressed as a percentage of total employment in the nonagricultural sector. Industry includes mining and quarrying (including oil production), manufacturing, construction, electricity, gas, and water, corresponding to divisions 2-5 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories C-F (ISIC revision 3). Services include wholesale and retail trade and restaurants and hotels; transport, storage, and communications; financing, insurance, real estate, and business services; and community, social, and personal services-corresponding to divisions 6-9 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories G-P (ISIC revision 3). Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Start-up procedures are those required to start a business, including interactions to obtain necessary permits and licenses and to complete all inscriptions, verifications, and notifications to start operations. Data are for businesses with specific characteristics of ownership, size, and type of production. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
Stocks traded refers to the total value of shares traded during the period. This indicator complements the market capitalization ratio by showing whether market size is matched by trading. Source: Standard & Poor's, Emerging Stock Markets Factbook and supplemental S&P data, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
Turnover ratio is the total value of shares traded during the period divided by the average market capitalization for the period. Average market capitalization is calculated as the average of the end-of-period values for the current period and the previous period. Source: Standard & Poor's, Emerging Stock Markets Factbook and supplemental S&P data.
Strength of legal rights index measures the degree to which collateral and bankruptcy laws protect the rights of borrowers and lenders and thus facilitate lending. The index ranges from 0 to 10, with higher scores indicating that these laws are better designed to expand access to credit. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
Tax payments by businesses are the total number of taxes paid by businesses, including electronic filing. The tax is counted as paid once a year even if payments are more frequent. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
Tax revenue refers to compulsory transfers to the central government for public purposes. Certain compulsory transfers such as fines, penalties, and most social security contributions are excluded. Refunds and corrections of erroneously collected tax revenue are treated as negative revenue. Source: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
Technicians in R&D and equivalent staff are people whose main tasks require technical knowledge and experience in engineering, physical and life sciences (technicians), or social sciences and humanities (equivalent staff). They participate in R&D by performing scientific and technical tasks involving the application of concepts and operational methods, normally under the supervision of researchers. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Telecommunications revenue is the revenue from the provision of telecommunications services such as fixed-line, mobile, and data. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities. Source: United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, as compiled by the World Resources Institute, based on data from national authorities, national legislation and international agreements.
Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities. Source: United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, as compiled by the World Resources Institute, based on data from national authorities, national legislation and international agreements.
Time required to start a business is the number of calendar days needed to complete the procedures to legally operate a business. If a procedure can be speeded up at additional cost, the fastest procedure, independent of cost, is chosen. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
Time to prepare and pay taxes is the time, in hours per year, it takes to prepare, file, and pay (or withhold) three major types of taxes: the corporate income tax, the value added or sales tax, and labor taxes, including payroll taxes and social security contributions. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
Total businesses registered. Because of underreporting of firms that have closed or exited, especially in developing countries, the data on total registered firms may be biased upward. Source: International Finance Corporation's micro, small, and medium-size enterprises database (http://www.ifc.org/ifcext/sme.nsf/Content/Resources).
Total reserves comprise holdings of monetary gold, special drawing rights, reserves of IMF members held by the IMF, and holdings of foreign exchange under the control of monetary authorities. The gold component of these reserves is valued at year-end (December 31) London prices. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and data files.
Trade in services is the sum of service exports and imports divided by the value of GDP, all in current U.S. dollars. Source: International Monetary Fund, Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
Trademark applications filed are applications to register a trademark with a national or regional Intellectual Property (IP) office. A trademark is a distinctive sign which identifies certain goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. A trademark provides protection to the owner of the mark by ensuring the exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services, or to authorize another to use it in return for payment. The period of protection varies, but a trademark can be renewed indefinitely beyond the time limit on payment of additional fees. Direct nonresident trademark applications are those filed by applicants from abroad directly at a given national IP office. Source: World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), WIPO Patent Report: Statistics on Worldwide Patent Activity. The International Bureau of WIPO assumes no responsibility with respect to the transformation of these data.
Trademark applications filed are applications to register a trademark with a national or regional Intellectual Property (IP) office. A trademark is a distinctive sign which identifies certain goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. A trademark provides protection to the owner of the mark by ensuring the exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services, or to authorize another to use it in return for payment. The period of protection varies, but a trademark can be renewed indefinitely beyond the time limit on payment of additional fees. Direct resident trademark applications are those filed by domestic applicants directly at a given national IP office. Source: World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), WIPO Patent Report: Statistics on Worldwide Patent Activity. The International Bureau of WIPO assumes no responsibility with respect to the transformation of these data.
Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Youth unemployment refers to the share of the labor force ages 15-24 without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Youth unemployment refers to the share of the labor force ages 15-24 without work but available for and seeking employment. Definitions of labor force and unemployment differ by country. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Urban population refers to people living in urban areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated using World Bank population estimates and urban ratios from the United Nations World Urbanization Prospects. Source: World Bank Staff estimates based on United Nations, World Urbanization Prospects. Urban population refers to people living in urban areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated using World Bank population estimates and urban ratios from the United Nations World Urbanization Prospects. Source: United Nations, World Urbanization Prospects.
Vehicles per kilometer of road include cars, buses, and freight vehicles but do not include two-wheelers. Roads refer to motorways, highways, main or national roads, secondary or regional roads, and other roads. A motorway is a road specially designed and built for motor traffic that separates the traffic flowing in opposite directions. Source: International Road Federation, World Road Statistics and data files.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: chemicals (35). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: stone, ceramics, and glass (36). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: food and beverages (31). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: primary metals (ISIC division 37). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: other (38 and 39). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: paper and pulp (34). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: textiles (32). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: wood (33). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Workers' remittances and compensation of employees comprise current transfers by migrant workers and wages and salaries earned by nonresident workers. Data are the sum of three items defined in the fifth edition of the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual: workers' remittances, compensation of employees, and migrants' transfers. Remittances are classified as current private transfers from migrant workers resident in the host country for more than a year, irrespective of their immigration status, to recipients in their country of origin. Migrants' transfers are defined as the net worth of migrants who are expected to remain in the host country for more than one year that is transferred from one country to another at the time of migration. Compensation of employees is the income of migrants who have lived in the host country for less than a year. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: World Bank staff estimates based on IMF balance of payments data.
Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Agricultural machinery refers to the number of wheel and crawler tractors (excluding garden tractors) in use in agriculture at the end of the calendar year specified or during the first quarter of the following year. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Agriculture value added per worker is a measure of agricultural productivity. Value added in agriculture measures the output of the agricultural sector (ISIC divisions 1-5) less the value of intermediate inputs. Agriculture comprises value added from forestry, hunting, and fishing as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Source: Derived from World Bank national accounts files and Food and Agriculture Organization, Production Yearbook and data files.
Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Note: For VAB countries, gross value added at factor cost is used as the denominator. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data.
Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data.
Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for industry are total withdrawals for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data.
Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture and industry are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production and for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data.
Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Arable land (hectares per person) includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Bank capital to assets is the ratio of bank capital and reserves to total assets. Capital and reserves include funds contributed by owners, retained earnings, general and special reserves, provisions, and valuation adjustments. Capital includes tier 1 capital (paid-up shares and common stock), which is a common feature in all countries' banking systems, and total regulatory capital, which includes several specified types of subordinated debt instruments that need not be repaid if the funds are required to maintain minimum capital levels (these comprise tier 2 and tier 3 capital). Total assets include all nonfinancial and financial assets. Source: International Monetary Fund, Global Financial Stability Report.
Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans are the value of nonperforming loans divided by the total value of the loan portfolio (including nonperforming loans before the deduction of specific loan-loss provisions). The loan amount recorded as nonperforming should be the gross value of the loan as recorded on the balance sheet, not just the amount that is overdue. Source: International Monetary Fund, Global Financial Stability Report.
Crude birth rate indicates the number of live births occurring during the year, per 1,000 population estimated at midyear. Subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate provides the rate of natural increase, which is equal to the rate of population change in the absence of migration. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables), (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.
Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Source: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, United States.
Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Source: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, United States.
Cash surplus or deficit is revenue (including grants) minus expense, minus net acquisition of nonfinancial assets. In the 1986 GFS manual nonfinancial assets were included under revenue and expenditure in gross terms. This cash surplus or deficit is closest to the earlier overall budget balance (still missing is lending minus repayments, which are now a financing item under net acquisition of financial assets). Source: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
Debt is the entire stock of direct government fixed-term contractual obligations to others outstanding on a particular date. It includes domestic and foreign liabilities such as currency and money deposits, securities other than shares, and loans. It is the gross amount of government liabilities reduced by the amount of equity and financial derivatives held by the government. Because debt is a stock rather than a flow, it is measured as of a given date, usually the last day of the fiscal year. Source: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
Cereal yield, measured as kilograms per hectare of harvested land, includes wheat, rice, maize, barley, oats, rye, millet, sorghum, buckwheat, and mixed grains. Production data on cereals relate to crops harvested for dry grain only. Cereal crops harvested for hay or harvested green for food, feed, or silage and those used for grazing are excluded. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Port container traffic measures the flow of containers from land to sea transport modes., and vice versa, in twenty-foot equivalent units (TEUs), a standard-size container. Data refer to coastal shipping as well as international journeys. Transshipment traffic is counted as two lifts at the intermediate port (once to off-load and again as an outbound lift) and includes empty units. Source: Containerisation International, Containerisation International Yearbook.
Credit depth of information index measures rules affecting the scope, accessibility, and quality of credit information available through public or private credit registries. The index ranges from 0 to 6, with higher values indicating the availability of more credit information, from either a public registry or a private bureau, to facilitate lending decisions. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
Crop production index shows agricultural production for each year relative to the base period 1999-2001. It includes all crops except fodder crops. Regional and income group aggregates for the FAO's production indexes are calculated from the underlying values in international dollars, normalized to the base period 1999-2001. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Crude death rate indicates the number of deaths occurring during the year, per 1,000 population estimated at midyear. Subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate provides the rate of natural increase, which is equal to the rate of population change in the absence of migration. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables), (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.
All documents required per shipment to export goods are recorded. It is assumed that the contract has already been agreed upon and signed by both parties. Documents required for clearance by government ministries, customs authorities, port and container terminal authorities, health and technical control agencies and banks are taken into account. Since payment is by letter of credit, all documents required by banks for the issuance or securing of a letter of credit are also taken into account. Documents that are renewed annually and that do not require renewal per shipment (for example, an annual tax clearance certificate) are not included. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
All documents required per shipment to import goods are recorded. It is assumed that the contract has already been agreed upon and signed by both parties. Documents required for clearance by government ministries, customs authorities, port and container terminal authorities, health and technical control agencies and banks are taken into account. Since payment is by letter of credit, all documents required by banks for the issuance or securing of a letter of credit are also taken into account. Documents that are renewed annually and that do not require renewal per shipment (for example, an annual tax clearance certificate) are not included. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
Domestic credit provided by the banking sector includes all credit to various sectors on a gross basis, with the exception of credit to the central government, which is net. The banking sector includes monetary authorities and deposit money banks, as well as other banking institutions where data are available (including institutions that do not accept transferable deposits but do incur such liabilities as time and savings deposits). Examples of other banking institutions are savings and mortgage loan institutions and building and loan associations. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
Domestic credit to private sector refers to financial resources provided to the private sector, such as through loans, purchases of nonequity securities, and trade credits and other accounts receivable, that establish a claim for repayment. For some countries these claims include credit to public enterprises. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
Ease of doing business index ranks economies from 1 to 181, with first place being the best. A high ranking means that the regulatory environment is conducive to business operation. The index ranks the simple average of the country's percentile rankings on 10 topics covered in Doing Business 2007: How to reform. The ranking on each topic is the simple average of the percentile rankings on its component indicators. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Industry corresponds to divisions 2-5 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories C-F (ISIC revision 3) and includes mining and quarrying (including oil production), manufacturing, construction, and public utilities (electricity, gas, and water). Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Industry corresponds to divisions 2-5 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories C-F (ISIC revision 3) and includes mining and quarrying (including oil production), manufacturing, construction, and public utilities (electricity, gas, and water). Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Services correspond to divisions 6-9 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories G-P (ISIC revision 3) and include wholesale and retail trade and restaurants and hotels; transport, storage, and communications; financing, insurance, real estate, and business services; and community, social, and personal services. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Services correspond to divisions 6-9 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories G-P (ISIC revision 3) and include wholesale and retail trade and restaurants and hotels; transport, storage, and communications; financing, insurance, real estate, and business services; and community, social, and personal services. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport. Source: International Energy Agency and United Nations, Energy Statistics Yearbook.
Public expenditure per student is the public current spending on education divided by the total number of students by level, as a percentage of GDP per capita. Public expenditure (current and capital) includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities). Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Public expenditure per student is the public current spending on education divided by the total number of students by level, as a percentage of GDP per capita. Public expenditure (current and capital) includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities). Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Public expenditure per student is the public current spending on education divided by the total number of students by level, as a percentage of GDP per capita. Public expenditure (current and capital) includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities). Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Expense is cash payments for operating activities of the government in providing goods and services. It includes compensation of employees (such as wages and salaries), interest and subsidies, grants, social benefits, and other expenses such as rent and dividends. Source: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
Export values are the current value of exports (f.o.b.) converted to U.S. dollars and expressed as a percentage of the average for the base period (2000). UNCTAD's export value indexes are reported for most economies. For selected economies for which UNCTAD does not publish data, the export value indexes are derived from export volume indexes (line 72) and corresponding unit value indexes of exports (line 74) in the IMF's International Financial Statistics. Source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Handbook of Statistics and data files, and International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics.
Export volume indexes are derived from UNCTAD's volume index series and are the ratio of the export value indexes to the corresponding unit value indexes. Unit value indexes are based on data reported by countries that demonstrate consistency under UNCTAD quality controls, supplemented by UNCTAD's estimates using the previous year's trade values at the Standard International Trade Classification three-digit level as weights. For economies for which UNCTAD does not publish data, the export volume indexes (lines 72) in the IMF's International Financial Statistics are used. Source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Handbook of Statistics and data files, and International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics.
Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Total fertility rate represents the number of children that would be born to a woman if she were to live to the end of her childbearing years and bear children in accordance with current age-specific fertility rates. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables). Available at http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp2008/index.htm. (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database, and (6) household surveys conducted by national agencies, Macro International, and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Fertilizer consumption (100 grams per hectare of arable land) measures the quantity of plant nutrients used per unit of arable land. Fertilizer products cover nitrogenous, potash, and phosphate fertilizers (including ground rock phosphate). Traditional nutrients--animal and plant manures--are not included. For the purpose of data dissemination, FAO has adopted the concept of a calendar year (January to December). Some countries compile fertilizer data on a calendar year basis, while others are on a split-year basis. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Fish species are based on Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2008. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known. Source: Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2008. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. www.fishbase.org. version (07/2008). Accessed: 28 September 2008.
Fixed broadband subscribers are users of the Internet who subscribe to paid high-speed access to the public Internet. High-speed access is at least 256 kilobits per second in one or both directions. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and Balance of Payments databases, and World Bank, Global Development Finance.
GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
GDP per person employed is gross domestic product (GDP) divided by total employment in the economy. Purchasing power parity (PPP) GDP is GDP converted to 1990 constant international dollars using PPP rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP that a U.S. dollar has in the United States. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
GDP per unit of energy use is the PPP GDP per kilogram of oil equivalent of energy use. PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to 2005 constant international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. Source: International Energy Agency, and World Bank PPP data.
GEF benefits index for biodiversity is a composite index of relative biodiversity potential for each country based on the species represented in each country, their threat status, and the diversity of habitat types in each country. The index has been normalized so that values run from 0 (no biodiversity potential) to 100 (maximum biodiversity potential). Source: Kiran Dev Pandey, Piet Buys, Ken Chomitz, and David Wheeler's, "Biodiversity Conservation Indicators: New Tools for Priority Setting at the Global Environment Facility" (2006).
GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
GNI per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GNI is gross national income (GNI) converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current international dollars. Source: World Bank, International Comparison Program database.
GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
PPP GNI (formerly PPP GNP) is gross national income converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. Gross national income (GNI) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current international dollars. Source: World Bank, International Comparison Program database.
Gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment) consists of outlays on additions to the fixed assets of the economy plus net changes in the level of inventories. Fixed assets include land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. Inventories are stocks of goods held by firms to meet temporary or unexpected fluctuations in production or sales, and "work in progress." According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Total health expenditure is the sum of public and private health expenditures as a ratio of total population. It covers the provision of health services (preventive and curative), family planning activities, nutrition activities, and emergency aid designated for health but does not include provision of water and sanitation. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: World Health Organization National Health Account database (www.who.int/nha/en) supplemented by country data. Note: The latest updates on these data are accessible in WHO's National Health Accounts (NHA) website (http://www.who.int/nha/en/).
Public health expenditure consists of recurrent and capital spending from government (central and local) budgets, external borrowings and grants (including donations from international agencies and nongovernmental organizations), and social (or compulsory) health insurance funds. Total health expenditure is the sum of public and private health expenditure. It covers the provision of health services (preventive and curative), family planning activities, nutrition activities, and emergency aid designated for health but does not include provision of water and sanitation. Source: World Health Organization National Health Account database (www.who.int/nha/en) supplemented by country data. Note: The latest updates on these data are accessible in WHO's National Health Accounts (NHA) website (http://www.who.int/nha/en/).
Total health expenditure is the sum of public and private health expenditure. It covers the provision of health services (preventive and curative), family planning activities, nutrition activities, and emergency aid designated for health but does not include provision of water and sanitation. Source: World Health Organization National Health Account database (www.who.int/nha/en) supplemented by country data. Note: The latest updates on these data are accessible in WHO's National Health Accounts (NHA) website (http://www.who.int/nha/en/).
Highest marginal tax rate (individual rate) is the highest rate shown on the schedule of tax rates applied to the taxable income of individuals. This series presents the income levels for individuals above which the highest marginal tax rates levied at the national level apply. Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers, Individual Taxes: Worldwide Summaries, by permission of John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Households with television are the share of households with a television set. Some countries report only the number of households with a color television set, and therefore the true number may be higher than reported. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Child immunization measures the percentage of children ages 12-23 months who received vaccinations before 12 months or at any time before the survey. A child is considered adequately immunized against diphtheria, pertussis (or whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) after receiving three doses of vaccine. Source: WHO and UNICEF (http://www.who.int/immunization_monitoring/routine/en/).
Import value indexes are the current value of imports (c.i.f.) converted to U.S. dollars and expressed as a percentage of the average for the base period (2000). UNCTAD's import value indexes are reported for most economies. For selected economies for which UNCTAD does not publish data, the import value indexes are derived from import volume indexes (line 73) and corresponding unit value indexes of imports (line 75) in the IMF's International Financial Statistics. Source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Handbook of Statistics and data files, and International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics.
Import volume indexes are derived from UNCTAD's volume index series and are the ratio of the import value indexes to the corresponding unit value indexes. Unit value indexes are based on data reported by countries that demonstrate consistency under UNCTAD quality controls, supplemented by UNCTAD's estimates using the previous year's trade values at the Standard International Trade Classification three-digit level as weights. For economies for which UNCTAD does not publish data, the import volume indexes (lines 73) in the IMF's International Financial Statistics are used. Source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Handbook of Statistics and data files, and International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics.
Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Access to improved sanitation facilities refers to the percentage of the population with at least adequate access to excreta disposal facilities that can effectively prevent human, animal, and insect contact with excreta. Improved facilities range from simple but protected pit latrines to flush toilets with a sewerage connection. To be effective, facilities must be correctly constructed and properly maintained. Source: World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund, Joint Measurement Programme (JMP) (http://www.wssinfo.org/).
Access to improved sanitation facilities refers to the percentage of the population with at least adequate access to excreta disposal facilities that can effectively prevent human, animal, and insect contact with excreta. Improved facilities range from simple but protected pit latrines to flush toilets with a sewerage connection. To be effective, facilities must be correctly constructed and properly maintained. Source: World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund, Joint Measurement Programme (JMP) (http://www.wssinfo.org/).
Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling. Source: World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund, Joint Measurement Programme (JMP) (http://www.wssinfo.org/).
Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling. Source: World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund, Joint Measurement Programme (JMP) (http://www.wssinfo.org/).
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Percentage shares by quintile may not sum to 100 because of rounding. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Percentage shares by quintile may not sum to 100 because of rounding. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Percentage shares by quintile may not sum to 100 because of rounding. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Percentage shares by quintile may not sum to 100 because of rounding. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Percentage shares by quintile may not sum to 100 because of rounding. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).
Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Note: For VAB countries, gross value added at factor cost is used as the denominator. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and data files.
Information and communications technology expenditures include computer hardware (computers, storage devices, printers, and other peripherals); computer software (operating systems, programming tools, utilities, applications, and internal software development); computer services (information technology consulting, computer and network systems integration, Web hosting, data processing services, and other services); and communications services (voice and data communications services) and wired and wireless communications equipment. Source: World Information Technology and Services Alliance, Digital Planet: The Global Information Economy, and Global Insight, Inc.
International Internet bandwidth is the contracted capacity of international connections between countries for transmitting Internet traffic. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
International migrant stock is the number of people born in a country other than that in which they live. It also includes refugees. The data used to estimate the international migrant stock at a particular time are obtained mainly from population censuses. The estimates are derived from the data on foreign-born population--people who have residence in one country but were born in another country. When data on the foreign-born population are not available, data on foreign population--that is, people who are citizens of a country other than the country in which they reside--are used as estimates. After the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991 people living in one of the newly independent countries who were born in another were classified as international migrants. Estimates of migrant stock in the newly independent states from 1990 on are based on the 1989 census of the Soviet Union. For countries with information on the international migrant stock for at least two points in time, interpolation or extrapolation was used to estimate the international migrant stock on July 1 of the reference years. For countries with only one observation, estimates for the reference years were derived using rates of change in the migrant stock in the years preceding or following the single observation available. A model was used to estimate migrants for countries that had no data. Source: United Nations Population Division, Trends in Total Migrant Stock: 2008 Revision.
Total labor force comprises people ages 15 and older who meet the International Labour Organization definition of the economically active population: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period. It includes both the employed and the unemployed. While national practices vary in the treatment of such groups as the armed forces and seasonal or part-time workers, in general the labor force includes the armed forces, the unemployed, and first-time job-seekers, but excludes homemakers and other unpaid caregivers and workers in the informal sector. Source: International Labour Organization, using World Bank population estimates.
Land under cereal production refers to harvested area, although some countries report only sown or cultivated area. Cereals include wheat, rice, maize, barley, oats, rye, millet, sorghum, buckwheat, and mixed grains. Production data on cereals relate to crops harvested for dry grain only. Cereal crops harvested for hay or harvested green for food, feed, or silage and those used for grazing are excluded. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Lead time to export is the median time (the value for 50 percent of shipments) from shipment point to port of loading. Data are from the Logistics Performance Index survey. Respondents provided separate values for the best case (10 percent of shipments) and the median case (50 percent of shipments). The data are exponentiated averages of the logarithm of single value responses and of midpoint values of range responses for the median case. Source: World Bank and Turku School of Economics, Logistic Performance Index Surveys. Data are available online at : http://www.worldbank.org/lpi. Summary results are published in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy, The Logistics Performance Index and Its Indicators report.
Lead time to import is the median time (the value for 50 percent of shipments) from port of discharge to arrival at the consignee. Data are from the Logistics Performance Index survey. Respondents provided separate values for the best case (10 percent of shipments) and the median case (50 percent of shipments). The data are exponentiated averages of the logarithm of single value responses and of midpoint values of range responses for the median case. Source: World Bank and Turku School of Economics, Logistic Performance Index Surveys. Data are available online at : http://www.worldbank.org/lpi. Summary results are published in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy, The Logistics Performance Index and Its Indicators report.
Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables), (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.
Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables), (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.
Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life. Source: Derived from male and female life expectancy at birth. Male and female life expectancy source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables), (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.
Logistics Performance Index overall score reflects perceptions of a country's logistics based on efficiency of customs clearance process, quality of trade- and transport-related infrastructure, ease of arranging competitively priced shipments, quality of logistics services, ability to track and trace consignments, and frequency with which shipments reach the consignee within the scheduled time. The index ranges from 1 to 5, with a higher score representing better performance. Data are from Logistics Performance Index surveys conducted by the World Bank in partnership with academic and international institutions and private companies and individuals engaged in international logistics. 2009 round of surveys covered more than 5,000 country assessments by nearly 1,000 international freight forwarders. Respondents evaluate eight markets on six core dimensions on a scale from 1 (worst) to 5 (best). The markets are chosen based on the most important export and import markets of the respondent's country, random selection, and, for landlocked countries, neighboring countries that connect them with international markets. Scores for the six areas are averaged across all respondents and aggregated to a single score using principal components analysis. Details of the survey methodology and index construction methodology are in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete 2010: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy (2010). Source: World Bank and Turku School of Economics, Logistic Performance Index Surveys. Data are available online at : http://www.worldbank.org/lpi. Summary results are published in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy, The Logistics Performance Index and Its Indicators report.
Mammal species are mammals excluding whales and porpoises. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known. Source: United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, and International Union for Conservation of Nature, Red List of Threatened Species.
Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment. Source: United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, as compiled by the World Resources Institute, based on data from national authorities, national legislation and international agreements.
Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment. Source: United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, as compiled by the World Resources Institute, based on data from national authorities, national legislation and international agreements.
Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. Listed companies does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Source: Standard & Poor's, Emerging Stock Markets Factbook and supplemental S&P data, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. Listed companies does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: Standard & Poor's, Emerging Stock Markets Factbook and supplemental S&P data.
Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.) Source: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Note: Data for some countries are based on partial or uncertain data or rough estimates.
Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.) Source: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Note: Data for some countries are based on partial or uncertain data or rough estimates.
Mobile and fixed-line subscribers per employee are telephone subscribers (fixed-line plus mobile) divided by the total number of telecommunications employees. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Mobile cellular prepaid tariff is based on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's low-user definition, which includes the cost of monthly mobile use for 25 outgoing calls per month spread over the same mobile network, other mobile networks, and mobile to fixed-line calls and during peak, off-peak, and weekend times as well as 30 text messages per month. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Net migration is the net total of migrants during the period, that is, the total number of immigrants less the annual number of emigrants, including both citizens and noncitizens. Data are five-year estimates. To derive estimates of net migration, the United Nations Population Division takes into account the past migration history of a country or area, the migration policy of a country, and the influx of refugees in recent periods. The data to calculate these official estimates come from a variety of sources, including border statistics, administrative records, surveys, and censuses. When no official estimates can be made because of insufficient data, net migration is derived through the balance equation, which is the difference between overall population growth and the natural increase during the 1990-2000 intercensal period. Source: United Nations Population Division, World Population Prospects 2008.
Emissions per worker are total emissions of organic water pollutants divided by the number of industrial workers. Organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: World Bank and UNIDO's industry database.
Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Out of pocket expenditure is any direct outlay by households, including gratuities and in-kind payments, to health practitioners and suppliers of pharmaceuticals, therapeutic appliances, and other goods and services whose primary intent is to contribute to the restoration or enhancement of the health status of individuals or population groups. It is a part of private health expenditure. Source: World Health Organization National Health Account database (www.who.int/nha/en) supplemented by country data. Note: The latest updates on these data are accessible in WHO's National Health Accounts (NHA) website (http://www.who.int/nha/en/).
Particulate matter concentrations refer to fine suspended particulates less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10) that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing significant health damage. Data for countries and aggregates for regions and income groups are urban-population weighted PM10 levels in residential areas of cities with more than 100,000 residents. The estimates represent the average annual exposure level of the average urban resident to outdoor particulate matter. The state of a country's technology and pollution controls is an important determinant of particulate matter concentrations. Source: Kiren Dev Pandey, David Wheeler, Bart Ostro, Uwe Deichmann, Kirk Hamilton, and Katherine Bolt. "Ambient Particulate Matter Concentrations in Residential and Pollution Hotspot Areas of World Cities: New Estimates Based on the Global Model of Ambient Particulates (GMAPS)," World Bank, Development Research Group and Environment Department (2006).
Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention--a product or process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years. Source: World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), WIPO Patent Report: Statistics on Worldwide Patent Activity. The International Bureau of WIPO assumes no responsibility with respect to the transformation of these data.
Permanent cropland is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Higher plants are native vascular plant species. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known. Source: United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, and International Union for Conservation of Nature, Red List of Threatened Species.
Population between the ages 0 to 14 as a percentage of the total population. Population is based on the de facto definition of population. Source: World Bank staff estimates from various sources including census reports, the United Nations Population Division's World Population Prospects, national statistical offices, household surveys conducted by national agencies, and Macro International.
Population ages 15 to 64 is the percentage of the total population that is in the age group 15 to 64. Population is based on the de facto definition of population. Source: World Bank staff estimates from various sources including census reports, the United Nations Population Division's World Population Prospects, national statistical offices, household surveys conducted by national agencies, and Macro International.
Population ages 65 and above as a percentage of the total population. Population is based on the de facto definition of population. Source: World Bank staff estimates from various sources including census reports, the United Nations Population Division's World Population Prospects, national statistical offices, household surveys conducted by national agencies, and Macro International.
Population covered by mobile cellular network is the percentage of people that live in areas served by a mobile cellular signal regardless of whether they use it. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Annual population growth rate for year t is the exponential rate of growth of midyear population from year t-1 to t, expressed as a percentage . Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of the country of origin. Source: Derived from total population. Population source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables). Available at http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp2008/index.htm. (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database, and (6) World bank estimates based on the data from the sources above, household surveys conducted by national agencies, Macro International, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and refugees statistics from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
Female population is the percentage of the population that is female. Population is based on the de facto definition of population. Source: United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables). Available at http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp2008/index.htm.
Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of their country of origin. The values shown are midyear estimates. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables). Available at http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp2008/index.htm. (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database, and (6) World bank estimates based on the data from the sources above, household surveys conducted by national agencies, Macro International, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and refugees statistics from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
Portfolio equity includes net inflows from equity securities other than those recorded as direct investment and including shares, stocks, depository receipts (American or global), and direct purchases of shares in local stock markets by foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: International Monetary Fund, Balance of Payments database, and World Bank, Global Development Finance.
Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Primary completion rate is the percentage of students completing the last year of primary school. It is calculated by taking the total number of students in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities). Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities). Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Refugees are people who are recognized as refugees under the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees or its 1967 Protocol, the 1969 Organization of African Unity Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, people recognized as refugees in accordance with the UNHCR statute, people granted refugee-like humanitarian status, and people provided temporary protection. Asylum seekers--people who have applied for asylum or refugee status and who have not yet received a decision or who are registered as asylum seekers--are excluded. Palestinian refugees are people (and their descendants) whose residence was Palestine between June 1946 and May 1948 and who lost their homes and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 Arab-Israeli conflict. Country of asylum is the country where an asylum claim was filed and granted. Source: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Statistical Yearbook and data files, complemented by statistics on Palestinian refugees under the mandate of the UNRWA as published on its website. Data from UNHCR are available online at: www.unhcr.org/statistics/populationdatabase.
Refugees are people who are recognized as refugees under the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees or its 1967 Protocol, the 1969 Organization of African Unity Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, people recognized as refugees in accordance with the UNHCR statute, people granted refugee-like humanitarian status, and people provided temporary protection. Asylum seekers--people who have applied for asylum or refugee status and who have not yet received a decision or who are registered as asylum seekers--are excluded. Palestinian refugees are people (and their descendants) whose residence was Palestine between June 1946 and May 1948 and who lost their homes and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 Arab-Israeli conflict. Country of origin generally refers to the nationality or country of citizenship of a claimant. Source: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Statistical Yearbook and data files, complemented by statistics on Palestinian refugees under the mandate of the UNRWA as published on its website. Data from UNHCR are available online at: www.unhcr.org/statistics/populationdatabase.
Expenditures for research and development are current and capital expenditures (both public and private) on creative work undertaken systematically to increase knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture, and society, and the use of knowledge for new applications. R&D covers basic research, applied research, and experimental development. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Researchers in R&D are professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods, or systems and in the management of the projects concerned. Postgraduate PhD students (ISCED97 level 6) engaged in R&D are included. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
The rigidity of employment index measures the regulation of employment, specifically the hiring and firing of workers and the rigidity of working hours. This index is the average of three subindexes: a difficulty of hiring index, a rigidity of hours index, and a difficulty of firing index. The index ranges from 0 to 100, with higher values indicating more rigid regulations. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
Risk premium on lending is the interest rate charged by banks on loans to prime private sector customers minus the "risk free" treasury bill interest rate at which short-term government securities are issued or traded in the market. In some countries this spread may be negative, indicating that the market considers its best corporate clients to be lower risk than the government. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics database.
Road sector energy consumption is the total energy used in the road sector including petroleum products, natural gas, electricity, and combustible renewable and waste. Total energy consumption is the total country energy consumption. Source: International Road Federation, World Road Statistics and electronic files, except where noted, and International Energy Agency.
Royalty and license fees are payments and receipts between residents and nonresidents for the authorized use of intangible, nonproduced, nonfinancial assets and proprietary rights (such as patents, copyrights, trademarks, industrial processes, and franchises) and for the use, through licensing agreements, of produced originals of prototypes (such as films and manuscripts). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: International Monetary Fund, Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook and data files.
Royalty and license fees are payments and receipts between residents and nonresidents for the authorized use of intangible, nonproduced, nonfinancial assets and proprietary rights (such as patents, copyrights, trademarks, industrial processes, and franchises) and for the use, through licensing agreements, of produced originals of prototypes (such as films and manuscripts). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: International Monetary Fund, Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook and data files.
Rural population refers to people living in rural areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated as the difference between total population and urban population. Source: The data on urban population shares used to estimate rural population come from the United Nations, World Urbanization Prospects. Total population figures are World Bank estimates.
Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Preprimary education refers to the initial stage of organized instruction, designed primarily to introduce very young children to a school-type environment. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Secondary education completes the provision of basic education that began at the primary level, and aims at laying the foundations for lifelong learning and human development, by offering more subject- or skill-oriented instruction using more specialized teachers. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Secondary education completes the provision of basic education that began at the primary level, and aims at laying the foundations for lifelong learning and human development, by offering more subject- or skill-oriented instruction using more specialized teachers. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Tertiary education, whether or not to an advanced research qualification, normally requires, as a minimum condition of admission, the successful completion of education at the secondary level. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Note: For VAB countries, gross value added at factor cost is used as the denominator. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Share of women employed in the nonagricultural sector is the share of female workers in the nonagricultural sector (industry and services), expressed as a percentage of total employment in the nonagricultural sector. Industry includes mining and quarrying (including oil production), manufacturing, construction, electricity, gas, and water, corresponding to divisions 2-5 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories C-F (ISIC revision 3). Services include wholesale and retail trade and restaurants and hotels; transport, storage, and communications; financing, insurance, real estate, and business services; and community, social, and personal services-corresponding to divisions 6-9 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories G-P (ISIC revision 3). Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Start-up procedures are those required to start a business, including interactions to obtain necessary permits and licenses and to complete all inscriptions, verifications, and notifications to start operations. Data are for businesses with specific characteristics of ownership, size, and type of production. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
Turnover ratio is the total value of shares traded during the period divided by the average market capitalization for the period. Average market capitalization is calculated as the average of the end-of-period values for the current period and the previous period. Source: Standard & Poor's, Emerging Stock Markets Factbook and supplemental S&P data.
Strength of legal rights index measures the degree to which collateral and bankruptcy laws protect the rights of borrowers and lenders and thus facilitate lending. The index ranges from 0 to 10, with higher scores indicating that these laws are better designed to expand access to credit. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
Tax revenue refers to compulsory transfers to the central government for public purposes. Certain compulsory transfers such as fines, penalties, and most social security contributions are excluded. Refunds and corrections of erroneously collected tax revenue are treated as negative revenue. Source: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
Technicians in R&D and equivalent staff are people whose main tasks require technical knowledge and experience in engineering, physical and life sciences (technicians), or social sciences and humanities (equivalent staff). They participate in R&D by performing scientific and technical tasks involving the application of concepts and operational methods, normally under the supervision of researchers. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Telecommunications revenue is the revenue from the provision of telecommunications services such as fixed-line, mobile, and data. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Total reserves comprise holdings of monetary gold, special drawing rights, reserves of IMF members held by the IMF, and holdings of foreign exchange under the control of monetary authorities. The gold component of these reserves is valued at year-end (December 31) London prices. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and data files.
Trademark applications filed are applications to register a trademark with a national or regional Intellectual Property (IP) office. A trademark is a distinctive sign which identifies certain goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. A trademark provides protection to the owner of the mark by ensuring the exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services, or to authorize another to use it in return for payment. The period of protection varies, but a trademark can be renewed indefinitely beyond the time limit on payment of additional fees. Direct nonresident trademark applications are those filed by applicants from abroad directly at a given national IP office. Source: World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), WIPO Patent Report: Statistics on Worldwide Patent Activity. The International Bureau of WIPO assumes no responsibility with respect to the transformation of these data.
Trademark applications filed are applications to register a trademark with a national or regional Intellectual Property (IP) office. A trademark is a distinctive sign which identifies certain goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. A trademark provides protection to the owner of the mark by ensuring the exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services, or to authorize another to use it in return for payment. The period of protection varies, but a trademark can be renewed indefinitely beyond the time limit on payment of additional fees. Direct resident trademark applications are those filed by domestic applicants directly at a given national IP office. Source: World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), WIPO Patent Report: Statistics on Worldwide Patent Activity. The International Bureau of WIPO assumes no responsibility with respect to the transformation of these data.
Vehicles per kilometer of road include cars, buses, and freight vehicles but do not include two-wheelers. Roads refer to motorways, highways, main or national roads, secondary or regional roads, and other roads. A motorway is a road specially designed and built for motor traffic that separates the traffic flowing in opposite directions. Source: International Road Federation, World Road Statistics and data files.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: chemicals (35). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: stone, ceramics, and glass (36). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: food and beverages (31). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: primary metals (ISIC division 37). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: other (38 and 39). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: paper and pulp (34). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: textiles (32). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: wood (33). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Workers' remittances and compensation of employees comprise current transfers by migrant workers and wages and salaries earned by nonresident workers. Data are the sum of three items defined in the fifth edition of the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual: workers' remittances, compensation of employees, and migrants' transfers. Remittances are classified as current private transfers from migrant workers resident in the host country for more than a year, irrespective of their immigration status, to recipients in their country of origin. Migrants' transfers are defined as the net worth of migrants who are expected to remain in the host country for more than one year that is transferred from one country to another at the time of migration. Compensation of employees is the income of migrants who have lived in the host country for less than a year. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: World Bank staff estimates based on IMF balance of payments data.
Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Agricultural machinery refers to the number of wheel and crawler tractors (excluding garden tractors) in use in agriculture at the end of the calendar year specified or during the first quarter of the following year. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Agriculture value added per worker is a measure of agricultural productivity. Value added in agriculture measures the output of the agricultural sector (ISIC divisions 1-5) less the value of intermediate inputs. Agriculture comprises value added from forestry, hunting, and fishing as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Source: Derived from World Bank national accounts files and Food and Agriculture Organization, Production Yearbook and data files.
Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Note: For VAB countries, gross value added at factor cost is used as the denominator. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data.
Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data.
Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for industry are total withdrawals for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data.
Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture and industry are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production and for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data.
Bank capital to assets is the ratio of bank capital and reserves to total assets. Capital and reserves include funds contributed by owners, retained earnings, general and special reserves, provisions, and valuation adjustments. Capital includes tier 1 capital (paid-up shares and common stock), which is a common feature in all countries' banking systems, and total regulatory capital, which includes several specified types of subordinated debt instruments that need not be repaid if the funds are required to maintain minimum capital levels (these comprise tier 2 and tier 3 capital). Total assets include all nonfinancial and financial assets. Source: International Monetary Fund, Global Financial Stability Report.
Crude birth rate indicates the number of live births occurring during the year, per 1,000 population estimated at midyear. Subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate provides the rate of natural increase, which is equal to the rate of population change in the absence of migration. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables), (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.
Cash surplus or deficit is revenue (including grants) minus expense, minus net acquisition of nonfinancial assets. In the 1986 GFS manual nonfinancial assets were included under revenue and expenditure in gross terms. This cash surplus or deficit is closest to the earlier overall budget balance (still missing is lending minus repayments, which are now a financing item under net acquisition of financial assets). Source: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
Debt is the entire stock of direct government fixed-term contractual obligations to others outstanding on a particular date. It includes domestic and foreign liabilities such as currency and money deposits, securities other than shares, and loans. It is the gross amount of government liabilities reduced by the amount of equity and financial derivatives held by the government. Because debt is a stock rather than a flow, it is measured as of a given date, usually the last day of the fiscal year. Source: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
Port container traffic measures the flow of containers from land to sea transport modes., and vice versa, in twenty-foot equivalent units (TEUs), a standard-size container. Data refer to coastal shipping as well as international journeys. Transshipment traffic is counted as two lifts at the intermediate port (once to off-load and again as an outbound lift) and includes empty units. Source: Containerisation International, Containerisation International Yearbook.
Crude death rate indicates the number of deaths occurring during the year, per 1,000 population estimated at midyear. Subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate provides the rate of natural increase, which is equal to the rate of population change in the absence of migration. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables), (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.
All documents required per shipment to export goods are recorded. It is assumed that the contract has already been agreed upon and signed by both parties. Documents required for clearance by government ministries, customs authorities, port and container terminal authorities, health and technical control agencies and banks are taken into account. Since payment is by letter of credit, all documents required by banks for the issuance or securing of a letter of credit are also taken into account. Documents that are renewed annually and that do not require renewal per shipment (for example, an annual tax clearance certificate) are not included. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
All documents required per shipment to import goods are recorded. It is assumed that the contract has already been agreed upon and signed by both parties. Documents required for clearance by government ministries, customs authorities, port and container terminal authorities, health and technical control agencies and banks are taken into account. Since payment is by letter of credit, all documents required by banks for the issuance or securing of a letter of credit are also taken into account. Documents that are renewed annually and that do not require renewal per shipment (for example, an annual tax clearance certificate) are not included. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
Domestic credit provided by the banking sector includes all credit to various sectors on a gross basis, with the exception of credit to the central government, which is net. The banking sector includes monetary authorities and deposit money banks, as well as other banking institutions where data are available (including institutions that do not accept transferable deposits but do incur such liabilities as time and savings deposits). Examples of other banking institutions are savings and mortgage loan institutions and building and loan associations. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
Ease of doing business index ranks economies from 1 to 181, with first place being the best. A high ranking means that the regulatory environment is conducive to business operation. The index ranks the simple average of the country's percentile rankings on 10 topics covered in Doing Business 2007: How to reform. The ranking on each topic is the simple average of the percentile rankings on its component indicators. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Industry corresponds to divisions 2-5 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories C-F (ISIC revision 3) and includes mining and quarrying (including oil production), manufacturing, construction, and public utilities (electricity, gas, and water). Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Industry corresponds to divisions 2-5 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories C-F (ISIC revision 3) and includes mining and quarrying (including oil production), manufacturing, construction, and public utilities (electricity, gas, and water). Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Services correspond to divisions 6-9 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories G-P (ISIC revision 3) and include wholesale and retail trade and restaurants and hotels; transport, storage, and communications; financing, insurance, real estate, and business services; and community, social, and personal services. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Services correspond to divisions 6-9 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories G-P (ISIC revision 3) and include wholesale and retail trade and restaurants and hotels; transport, storage, and communications; financing, insurance, real estate, and business services; and community, social, and personal services. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport. Source: International Energy Agency and United Nations, Energy Statistics Yearbook.
Public expenditure per student is the public current spending on education divided by the total number of students by level, as a percentage of GDP per capita. Public expenditure (current and capital) includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities). Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Public expenditure per student is the public current spending on education divided by the total number of students by level, as a percentage of GDP per capita. Public expenditure (current and capital) includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities). Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Public expenditure per student is the public current spending on education divided by the total number of students by level, as a percentage of GDP per capita. Public expenditure (current and capital) includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities). Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Export values are the current value of exports (f.o.b.) converted to U.S. dollars and expressed as a percentage of the average for the base period (2000). UNCTAD's export value indexes are reported for most economies. For selected economies for which UNCTAD does not publish data, the export value indexes are derived from export volume indexes (line 72) and corresponding unit value indexes of exports (line 74) in the IMF's International Financial Statistics. Source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Handbook of Statistics and data files, and International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics.
Export volume indexes are derived from UNCTAD's volume index series and are the ratio of the export value indexes to the corresponding unit value indexes. Unit value indexes are based on data reported by countries that demonstrate consistency under UNCTAD quality controls, supplemented by UNCTAD's estimates using the previous year's trade values at the Standard International Trade Classification three-digit level as weights. For economies for which UNCTAD does not publish data, the export volume indexes (lines 72) in the IMF's International Financial Statistics are used. Source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Handbook of Statistics and data files, and International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics.
Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Total fertility rate represents the number of children that would be born to a woman if she were to live to the end of her childbearing years and bear children in accordance with current age-specific fertility rates. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables). Available at http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp2008/index.htm. (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database, and (6) household surveys conducted by national agencies, Macro International, and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Fertilizer consumption (100 grams per hectare of arable land) measures the quantity of plant nutrients used per unit of arable land. Fertilizer products cover nitrogenous, potash, and phosphate fertilizers (including ground rock phosphate). Traditional nutrients--animal and plant manures--are not included. For the purpose of data dissemination, FAO has adopted the concept of a calendar year (January to December). Some countries compile fertilizer data on a calendar year basis, while others are on a split-year basis. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and Balance of Payments databases, and World Bank, Global Development Finance.
GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
GEF benefits index for biodiversity is a composite index of relative biodiversity potential for each country based on the species represented in each country, their threat status, and the diversity of habitat types in each country. The index has been normalized so that values run from 0 (no biodiversity potential) to 100 (maximum biodiversity potential). Source: Kiran Dev Pandey, Piet Buys, Ken Chomitz, and David Wheeler's, "Biodiversity Conservation Indicators: New Tools for Priority Setting at the Global Environment Facility" (2006).
GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
GNI per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GNI is gross national income (GNI) converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current international dollars. Source: World Bank, International Comparison Program database.
GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
PPP GNI (formerly PPP GNP) is gross national income converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. Gross national income (GNI) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current international dollars. Source: World Bank, International Comparison Program database.
Gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment) consists of outlays on additions to the fixed assets of the economy plus net changes in the level of inventories. Fixed assets include land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. Inventories are stocks of goods held by firms to meet temporary or unexpected fluctuations in production or sales, and "work in progress." According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Total health expenditure is the sum of public and private health expenditures as a ratio of total population. It covers the provision of health services (preventive and curative), family planning activities, nutrition activities, and emergency aid designated for health but does not include provision of water and sanitation. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: World Health Organization National Health Account database (www.who.int/nha/en) supplemented by country data. Note: The latest updates on these data are accessible in WHO's National Health Accounts (NHA) website (http://www.who.int/nha/en/).
Public health expenditure consists of recurrent and capital spending from government (central and local) budgets, external borrowings and grants (including donations from international agencies and nongovernmental organizations), and social (or compulsory) health insurance funds. Total health expenditure is the sum of public and private health expenditure. It covers the provision of health services (preventive and curative), family planning activities, nutrition activities, and emergency aid designated for health but does not include provision of water and sanitation. Source: World Health Organization National Health Account database (www.who.int/nha/en) supplemented by country data. Note: The latest updates on these data are accessible in WHO's National Health Accounts (NHA) website (http://www.who.int/nha/en/).
Total health expenditure is the sum of public and private health expenditure. It covers the provision of health services (preventive and curative), family planning activities, nutrition activities, and emergency aid designated for health but does not include provision of water and sanitation. Source: World Health Organization National Health Account database (www.who.int/nha/en) supplemented by country data. Note: The latest updates on these data are accessible in WHO's National Health Accounts (NHA) website (http://www.who.int/nha/en/).
Households with television are the share of households with a television set. Some countries report only the number of households with a color television set, and therefore the true number may be higher than reported. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Import value indexes are the current value of imports (c.i.f.) converted to U.S. dollars and expressed as a percentage of the average for the base period (2000). UNCTAD's import value indexes are reported for most economies. For selected economies for which UNCTAD does not publish data, the import value indexes are derived from import volume indexes (line 73) and corresponding unit value indexes of imports (line 75) in the IMF's International Financial Statistics. Source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Handbook of Statistics and data files, and International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics.
Import volume indexes are derived from UNCTAD's volume index series and are the ratio of the import value indexes to the corresponding unit value indexes. Unit value indexes are based on data reported by countries that demonstrate consistency under UNCTAD quality controls, supplemented by UNCTAD's estimates using the previous year's trade values at the Standard International Trade Classification three-digit level as weights. For economies for which UNCTAD does not publish data, the import volume indexes (lines 73) in the IMF's International Financial Statistics are used. Source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Handbook of Statistics and data files, and International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics.
Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Access to improved sanitation facilities refers to the percentage of the population with at least adequate access to excreta disposal facilities that can effectively prevent human, animal, and insect contact with excreta. Improved facilities range from simple but protected pit latrines to flush toilets with a sewerage connection. To be effective, facilities must be correctly constructed and properly maintained. Source: World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund, Joint Measurement Programme (JMP) (http://www.wssinfo.org/).
Access to improved sanitation facilities refers to the percentage of the population with at least adequate access to excreta disposal facilities that can effectively prevent human, animal, and insect contact with excreta. Improved facilities range from simple but protected pit latrines to flush toilets with a sewerage connection. To be effective, facilities must be correctly constructed and properly maintained. Source: World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund, Joint Measurement Programme (JMP) (http://www.wssinfo.org/).
Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling. Source: World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund, Joint Measurement Programme (JMP) (http://www.wssinfo.org/).
Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling. Source: World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund, Joint Measurement Programme (JMP) (http://www.wssinfo.org/).
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Percentage shares by quintile may not sum to 100 because of rounding. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Percentage shares by quintile may not sum to 100 because of rounding. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Percentage shares by quintile may not sum to 100 because of rounding. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Percentage shares by quintile may not sum to 100 because of rounding. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Percentage shares by quintile may not sum to 100 because of rounding. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).
Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Note: For VAB countries, gross value added at factor cost is used as the denominator. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Information and communications technology expenditures include computer hardware (computers, storage devices, printers, and other peripherals); computer software (operating systems, programming tools, utilities, applications, and internal software development); computer services (information technology consulting, computer and network systems integration, Web hosting, data processing services, and other services); and communications services (voice and data communications services) and wired and wireless communications equipment. Source: World Information Technology and Services Alliance, Digital Planet: The Global Information Economy, and Global Insight, Inc.
International migrant stock is the number of people born in a country other than that in which they live. It also includes refugees. The data used to estimate the international migrant stock at a particular time are obtained mainly from population censuses. The estimates are derived from the data on foreign-born population--people who have residence in one country but were born in another country. When data on the foreign-born population are not available, data on foreign population--that is, people who are citizens of a country other than the country in which they reside--are used as estimates. After the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991 people living in one of the newly independent countries who were born in another were classified as international migrants. Estimates of migrant stock in the newly independent states from 1990 on are based on the 1989 census of the Soviet Union. For countries with information on the international migrant stock for at least two points in time, interpolation or extrapolation was used to estimate the international migrant stock on July 1 of the reference years. For countries with only one observation, estimates for the reference years were derived using rates of change in the migrant stock in the years preceding or following the single observation available. A model was used to estimate migrants for countries that had no data. Source: United Nations Population Division, Trends in Total Migrant Stock: 2008 Revision.
Total labor force comprises people ages 15 and older who meet the International Labour Organization definition of the economically active population: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period. It includes both the employed and the unemployed. While national practices vary in the treatment of such groups as the armed forces and seasonal or part-time workers, in general the labor force includes the armed forces, the unemployed, and first-time job-seekers, but excludes homemakers and other unpaid caregivers and workers in the informal sector. Source: International Labour Organization, using World Bank population estimates.
Land under cereal production refers to harvested area, although some countries report only sown or cultivated area. Cereals include wheat, rice, maize, barley, oats, rye, millet, sorghum, buckwheat, and mixed grains. Production data on cereals relate to crops harvested for dry grain only. Cereal crops harvested for hay or harvested green for food, feed, or silage and those used for grazing are excluded. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Lead time to export is the median time (the value for 50 percent of shipments) from shipment point to port of loading. Data are from the Logistics Performance Index survey. Respondents provided separate values for the best case (10 percent of shipments) and the median case (50 percent of shipments). The data are exponentiated averages of the logarithm of single value responses and of midpoint values of range responses for the median case. Source: World Bank and Turku School of Economics, Logistic Performance Index Surveys. Data are available online at : http://www.worldbank.org/lpi. Summary results are published in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy, The Logistics Performance Index and Its Indicators report.
Lead time to import is the median time (the value for 50 percent of shipments) from port of discharge to arrival at the consignee. Data are from the Logistics Performance Index survey. Respondents provided separate values for the best case (10 percent of shipments) and the median case (50 percent of shipments). The data are exponentiated averages of the logarithm of single value responses and of midpoint values of range responses for the median case. Source: World Bank and Turku School of Economics, Logistic Performance Index Surveys. Data are available online at : http://www.worldbank.org/lpi. Summary results are published in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy, The Logistics Performance Index and Its Indicators report.
Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables), (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.
Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables), (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.
Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life. Source: Derived from male and female life expectancy at birth. Male and female life expectancy source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables), (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.
Logistics Performance Index overall score reflects perceptions of a country's logistics based on efficiency of customs clearance process, quality of trade- and transport-related infrastructure, ease of arranging competitively priced shipments, quality of logistics services, ability to track and trace consignments, and frequency with which shipments reach the consignee within the scheduled time. The index ranges from 1 to 5, with a higher score representing better performance. Data are from Logistics Performance Index surveys conducted by the World Bank in partnership with academic and international institutions and private companies and individuals engaged in international logistics. 2009 round of surveys covered more than 5,000 country assessments by nearly 1,000 international freight forwarders. Respondents evaluate eight markets on six core dimensions on a scale from 1 (worst) to 5 (best). The markets are chosen based on the most important export and import markets of the respondent's country, random selection, and, for landlocked countries, neighboring countries that connect them with international markets. Scores for the six areas are averaged across all respondents and aggregated to a single score using principal components analysis. Details of the survey methodology and index construction methodology are in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete 2010: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy (2010). Source: World Bank and Turku School of Economics, Logistic Performance Index Surveys. Data are available online at : http://www.worldbank.org/lpi. Summary results are published in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy, The Logistics Performance Index and Its Indicators report.
Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment. Source: United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, as compiled by the World Resources Institute, based on data from national authorities, national legislation and international agreements.
Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment. Source: United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, as compiled by the World Resources Institute, based on data from national authorities, national legislation and international agreements.
Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. Listed companies does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Source: Standard & Poor's, Emerging Stock Markets Factbook and supplemental S&P data, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. Listed companies does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: Standard & Poor's, Emerging Stock Markets Factbook and supplemental S&P data.
Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.) Source: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Note: Data for some countries are based on partial or uncertain data or rough estimates.
Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.) Source: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Note: Data for some countries are based on partial or uncertain data or rough estimates.
Mobile cellular prepaid tariff is based on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's low-user definition, which includes the cost of monthly mobile use for 25 outgoing calls per month spread over the same mobile network, other mobile networks, and mobile to fixed-line calls and during peak, off-peak, and weekend times as well as 30 text messages per month. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provide access to the public switched telephone network. Post-paid and prepaid subscriptions are included. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database, and World Bank estimates. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Net migration is the net total of migrants during the period, that is, the total number of immigrants less the annual number of emigrants, including both citizens and noncitizens. Data are five-year estimates. To derive estimates of net migration, the United Nations Population Division takes into account the past migration history of a country or area, the migration policy of a country, and the influx of refugees in recent periods. The data to calculate these official estimates come from a variety of sources, including border statistics, administrative records, surveys, and censuses. When no official estimates can be made because of insufficient data, net migration is derived through the balance equation, which is the difference between overall population growth and the natural increase during the 1990-2000 intercensal period. Source: United Nations Population Division, World Population Prospects 2008.
Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Out of pocket expenditure is any direct outlay by households, including gratuities and in-kind payments, to health practitioners and suppliers of pharmaceuticals, therapeutic appliances, and other goods and services whose primary intent is to contribute to the restoration or enhancement of the health status of individuals or population groups. It is a part of private health expenditure. Source: World Health Organization National Health Account database (www.who.int/nha/en) supplemented by country data. Note: The latest updates on these data are accessible in WHO's National Health Accounts (NHA) website (http://www.who.int/nha/en/).
Particulate matter concentrations refer to fine suspended particulates less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10) that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing significant health damage. Data for countries and aggregates for regions and income groups are urban-population weighted PM10 levels in residential areas of cities with more than 100,000 residents. The estimates represent the average annual exposure level of the average urban resident to outdoor particulate matter. The state of a country's technology and pollution controls is an important determinant of particulate matter concentrations. Source: Kiren Dev Pandey, David Wheeler, Bart Ostro, Uwe Deichmann, Kirk Hamilton, and Katherine Bolt. "Ambient Particulate Matter Concentrations in Residential and Pollution Hotspot Areas of World Cities: New Estimates Based on the Global Model of Ambient Particulates (GMAPS)," World Bank, Development Research Group and Environment Department (2006).
Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention--a product or process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years. Source: World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), WIPO Patent Report: Statistics on Worldwide Patent Activity. The International Bureau of WIPO assumes no responsibility with respect to the transformation of these data.
Annual population growth rate for year t is the exponential rate of growth of midyear population from year t-1 to t, expressed as a percentage . Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of the country of origin. Source: Derived from total population. Population source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables). Available at http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp2008/index.htm. (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database, and (6) World bank estimates based on the data from the sources above, household surveys conducted by national agencies, Macro International, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and refugees statistics from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of their country of origin. The values shown are midyear estimates. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables). Available at http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp2008/index.htm. (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database, and (6) World bank estimates based on the data from the sources above, household surveys conducted by national agencies, Macro International, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and refugees statistics from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
Refugees are people who are recognized as refugees under the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees or its 1967 Protocol, the 1969 Organization of African Unity Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, people recognized as refugees in accordance with the UNHCR statute, people granted refugee-like humanitarian status, and people provided temporary protection. Asylum seekers--people who have applied for asylum or refugee status and who have not yet received a decision or who are registered as asylum seekers--are excluded. Palestinian refugees are people (and their descendants) whose residence was Palestine between June 1946 and May 1948 and who lost their homes and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 Arab-Israeli conflict. Country of asylum is the country where an asylum claim was filed and granted. Source: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Statistical Yearbook and data files, complemented by statistics on Palestinian refugees under the mandate of the UNRWA as published on its website. Data from UNHCR are available online at: www.unhcr.org/statistics/populationdatabase.
Refugees are people who are recognized as refugees under the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees or its 1967 Protocol, the 1969 Organization of African Unity Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, people recognized as refugees in accordance with the UNHCR statute, people granted refugee-like humanitarian status, and people provided temporary protection. Asylum seekers--people who have applied for asylum or refugee status and who have not yet received a decision or who are registered as asylum seekers--are excluded. Palestinian refugees are people (and their descendants) whose residence was Palestine between June 1946 and May 1948 and who lost their homes and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 Arab-Israeli conflict. Country of origin generally refers to the nationality or country of citizenship of a claimant. Source: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Statistical Yearbook and data files, complemented by statistics on Palestinian refugees under the mandate of the UNRWA as published on its website. Data from UNHCR are available online at: www.unhcr.org/statistics/populationdatabase.
Expenditures for research and development are current and capital expenditures (both public and private) on creative work undertaken systematically to increase knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture, and society, and the use of knowledge for new applications. R&D covers basic research, applied research, and experimental development. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Risk premium on lending is the interest rate charged by banks on loans to prime private sector customers minus the "risk free" treasury bill interest rate at which short-term government securities are issued or traded in the market. In some countries this spread may be negative, indicating that the market considers its best corporate clients to be lower risk than the government. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics database.
Royalty and license fees are payments and receipts between residents and nonresidents for the authorized use of intangible, nonproduced, nonfinancial assets and proprietary rights (such as patents, copyrights, trademarks, industrial processes, and franchises) and for the use, through licensing agreements, of produced originals of prototypes (such as films and manuscripts). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: International Monetary Fund, Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook and data files.
Royalty and license fees are payments and receipts between residents and nonresidents for the authorized use of intangible, nonproduced, nonfinancial assets and proprietary rights (such as patents, copyrights, trademarks, industrial processes, and franchises) and for the use, through licensing agreements, of produced originals of prototypes (such as films and manuscripts). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: International Monetary Fund, Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook and data files.
Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Secondary education completes the provision of basic education that began at the primary level, and aims at laying the foundations for lifelong learning and human development, by offering more subject- or skill-oriented instruction using more specialized teachers. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Secondary education completes the provision of basic education that began at the primary level, and aims at laying the foundations for lifelong learning and human development, by offering more subject- or skill-oriented instruction using more specialized teachers. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Tertiary education, whether or not to an advanced research qualification, normally requires, as a minimum condition of admission, the successful completion of education at the secondary level. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Note: For VAB countries, gross value added at factor cost is used as the denominator. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Share of women employed in the nonagricultural sector is the share of female workers in the nonagricultural sector (industry and services), expressed as a percentage of total employment in the nonagricultural sector. Industry includes mining and quarrying (including oil production), manufacturing, construction, electricity, gas, and water, corresponding to divisions 2-5 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories C-F (ISIC revision 3). Services include wholesale and retail trade and restaurants and hotels; transport, storage, and communications; financing, insurance, real estate, and business services; and community, social, and personal services-corresponding to divisions 6-9 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories G-P (ISIC revision 3). Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Technicians in R&D and equivalent staff are people whose main tasks require technical knowledge and experience in engineering, physical and life sciences (technicians), or social sciences and humanities (equivalent staff). They participate in R&D by performing scientific and technical tasks involving the application of concepts and operational methods, normally under the supervision of researchers. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Trademark applications filed are applications to register a trademark with a national or regional Intellectual Property (IP) office. A trademark is a distinctive sign which identifies certain goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. A trademark provides protection to the owner of the mark by ensuring the exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services, or to authorize another to use it in return for payment. The period of protection varies, but a trademark can be renewed indefinitely beyond the time limit on payment of additional fees. Direct nonresident trademark applications are those filed by applicants from abroad directly at a given national IP office. Source: World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), WIPO Patent Report: Statistics on Worldwide Patent Activity. The International Bureau of WIPO assumes no responsibility with respect to the transformation of these data.
Trademark applications filed are applications to register a trademark with a national or regional Intellectual Property (IP) office. A trademark is a distinctive sign which identifies certain goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. A trademark provides protection to the owner of the mark by ensuring the exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services, or to authorize another to use it in return for payment. The period of protection varies, but a trademark can be renewed indefinitely beyond the time limit on payment of additional fees. Direct resident trademark applications are those filed by domestic applicants directly at a given national IP office. Source: World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), WIPO Patent Report: Statistics on Worldwide Patent Activity. The International Bureau of WIPO assumes no responsibility with respect to the transformation of these data.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: chemicals (35). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: stone, ceramics, and glass (36). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: food and beverages (31). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: primary metals (ISIC division 37). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: other (38 and 39). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: paper and pulp (34). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: textiles (32). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: wood (33). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Workers' remittances and compensation of employees comprise current transfers by migrant workers and wages and salaries earned by nonresident workers. Data are the sum of three items defined in the fifth edition of the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual: workers' remittances, compensation of employees, and migrants' transfers. Remittances are classified as current private transfers from migrant workers resident in the host country for more than a year, irrespective of their immigration status, to recipients in their country of origin. Migrants' transfers are defined as the net worth of migrants who are expected to remain in the host country for more than one year that is transferred from one country to another at the time of migration. Compensation of employees is the income of migrants who have lived in the host country for less than a year. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: World Bank staff estimates based on IMF balance of payments data.
Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Agricultural machinery refers to the number of wheel and crawler tractors (excluding garden tractors) in use in agriculture at the end of the calendar year specified or during the first quarter of the following year. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Note: For VAB countries, gross value added at factor cost is used as the denominator. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data.
Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data.
Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for industry are total withdrawals for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data.
Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture and industry are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production and for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data.
Bank capital to assets is the ratio of bank capital and reserves to total assets. Capital and reserves include funds contributed by owners, retained earnings, general and special reserves, provisions, and valuation adjustments. Capital includes tier 1 capital (paid-up shares and common stock), which is a common feature in all countries' banking systems, and total regulatory capital, which includes several specified types of subordinated debt instruments that need not be repaid if the funds are required to maintain minimum capital levels (these comprise tier 2 and tier 3 capital). Total assets include all nonfinancial and financial assets. Source: International Monetary Fund, Global Financial Stability Report.
Crude birth rate indicates the number of live births occurring during the year, per 1,000 population estimated at midyear. Subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate provides the rate of natural increase, which is equal to the rate of population change in the absence of migration. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables), (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.
Debt is the entire stock of direct government fixed-term contractual obligations to others outstanding on a particular date. It includes domestic and foreign liabilities such as currency and money deposits, securities other than shares, and loans. It is the gross amount of government liabilities reduced by the amount of equity and financial derivatives held by the government. Because debt is a stock rather than a flow, it is measured as of a given date, usually the last day of the fiscal year. Source: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
Crude death rate indicates the number of deaths occurring during the year, per 1,000 population estimated at midyear. Subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate provides the rate of natural increase, which is equal to the rate of population change in the absence of migration. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables), (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.
All documents required per shipment to export goods are recorded. It is assumed that the contract has already been agreed upon and signed by both parties. Documents required for clearance by government ministries, customs authorities, port and container terminal authorities, health and technical control agencies and banks are taken into account. Since payment is by letter of credit, all documents required by banks for the issuance or securing of a letter of credit are also taken into account. Documents that are renewed annually and that do not require renewal per shipment (for example, an annual tax clearance certificate) are not included. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
All documents required per shipment to import goods are recorded. It is assumed that the contract has already been agreed upon and signed by both parties. Documents required for clearance by government ministries, customs authorities, port and container terminal authorities, health and technical control agencies and banks are taken into account. Since payment is by letter of credit, all documents required by banks for the issuance or securing of a letter of credit are also taken into account. Documents that are renewed annually and that do not require renewal per shipment (for example, an annual tax clearance certificate) are not included. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
Domestic credit provided by the banking sector includes all credit to various sectors on a gross basis, with the exception of credit to the central government, which is net. The banking sector includes monetary authorities and deposit money banks, as well as other banking institutions where data are available (including institutions that do not accept transferable deposits but do incur such liabilities as time and savings deposits). Examples of other banking institutions are savings and mortgage loan institutions and building and loan associations. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Services correspond to divisions 6-9 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories G-P (ISIC revision 3) and include wholesale and retail trade and restaurants and hotels; transport, storage, and communications; financing, insurance, real estate, and business services; and community, social, and personal services. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Services correspond to divisions 6-9 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories G-P (ISIC revision 3) and include wholesale and retail trade and restaurants and hotels; transport, storage, and communications; financing, insurance, real estate, and business services; and community, social, and personal services. Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Export values are the current value of exports (f.o.b.) converted to U.S. dollars and expressed as a percentage of the average for the base period (2000). UNCTAD's export value indexes are reported for most economies. For selected economies for which UNCTAD does not publish data, the export value indexes are derived from export volume indexes (line 72) and corresponding unit value indexes of exports (line 74) in the IMF's International Financial Statistics. Source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Handbook of Statistics and data files, and International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics.
Export volume indexes are derived from UNCTAD's volume index series and are the ratio of the export value indexes to the corresponding unit value indexes. Unit value indexes are based on data reported by countries that demonstrate consistency under UNCTAD quality controls, supplemented by UNCTAD's estimates using the previous year's trade values at the Standard International Trade Classification three-digit level as weights. For economies for which UNCTAD does not publish data, the export volume indexes (lines 72) in the IMF's International Financial Statistics are used. Source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Handbook of Statistics and data files, and International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics.
Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Total fertility rate represents the number of children that would be born to a woman if she were to live to the end of her childbearing years and bear children in accordance with current age-specific fertility rates. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables). Available at http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp2008/index.htm. (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database, and (6) household surveys conducted by national agencies, Macro International, and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Fertilizer consumption (100 grams per hectare of arable land) measures the quantity of plant nutrients used per unit of arable land. Fertilizer products cover nitrogenous, potash, and phosphate fertilizers (including ground rock phosphate). Traditional nutrients--animal and plant manures--are not included. For the purpose of data dissemination, FAO has adopted the concept of a calendar year (January to December). Some countries compile fertilizer data on a calendar year basis, while others are on a split-year basis. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and Balance of Payments databases, and World Bank, Global Development Finance.
GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
GNI per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GNI is gross national income (GNI) converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current international dollars. Source: World Bank, International Comparison Program database.
GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
PPP GNI (formerly PPP GNP) is gross national income converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. Gross national income (GNI) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current international dollars. Source: World Bank, International Comparison Program database.
Gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment) consists of outlays on additions to the fixed assets of the economy plus net changes in the level of inventories. Fixed assets include land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. Inventories are stocks of goods held by firms to meet temporary or unexpected fluctuations in production or sales, and "work in progress." According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Total health expenditure is the sum of public and private health expenditures as a ratio of total population. It covers the provision of health services (preventive and curative), family planning activities, nutrition activities, and emergency aid designated for health but does not include provision of water and sanitation. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: World Health Organization National Health Account database (www.who.int/nha/en) supplemented by country data. Note: The latest updates on these data are accessible in WHO's National Health Accounts (NHA) website (http://www.who.int/nha/en/).
Public health expenditure consists of recurrent and capital spending from government (central and local) budgets, external borrowings and grants (including donations from international agencies and nongovernmental organizations), and social (or compulsory) health insurance funds. Total health expenditure is the sum of public and private health expenditure. It covers the provision of health services (preventive and curative), family planning activities, nutrition activities, and emergency aid designated for health but does not include provision of water and sanitation. Source: World Health Organization National Health Account database (www.who.int/nha/en) supplemented by country data. Note: The latest updates on these data are accessible in WHO's National Health Accounts (NHA) website (http://www.who.int/nha/en/).
Import value indexes are the current value of imports (c.i.f.) converted to U.S. dollars and expressed as a percentage of the average for the base period (2000). UNCTAD's import value indexes are reported for most economies. For selected economies for which UNCTAD does not publish data, the import value indexes are derived from import volume indexes (line 73) and corresponding unit value indexes of imports (line 75) in the IMF's International Financial Statistics. Source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Handbook of Statistics and data files, and International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics.
Import volume indexes are derived from UNCTAD's volume index series and are the ratio of the import value indexes to the corresponding unit value indexes. Unit value indexes are based on data reported by countries that demonstrate consistency under UNCTAD quality controls, supplemented by UNCTAD's estimates using the previous year's trade values at the Standard International Trade Classification three-digit level as weights. For economies for which UNCTAD does not publish data, the import volume indexes (lines 73) in the IMF's International Financial Statistics are used. Source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Handbook of Statistics and data files, and International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics.
Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling. Source: World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund, Joint Measurement Programme (JMP) (http://www.wssinfo.org/).
Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole, protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling. Source: World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund, Joint Measurement Programme (JMP) (http://www.wssinfo.org/).
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Percentage shares by quintile may not sum to 100 because of rounding. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Percentage shares by quintile may not sum to 100 because of rounding. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Percentage shares by quintile may not sum to 100 because of rounding. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Percentage shares by quintile may not sum to 100 because of rounding. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).
Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Percentage shares by quintile may not sum to 100 because of rounding. Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).
Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Note: For VAB countries, gross value added at factor cost is used as the denominator. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Information and communications technology expenditures include computer hardware (computers, storage devices, printers, and other peripherals); computer software (operating systems, programming tools, utilities, applications, and internal software development); computer services (information technology consulting, computer and network systems integration, Web hosting, data processing services, and other services); and communications services (voice and data communications services) and wired and wireless communications equipment. Source: World Information Technology and Services Alliance, Digital Planet: The Global Information Economy, and Global Insight, Inc.
International migrant stock is the number of people born in a country other than that in which they live. It also includes refugees. The data used to estimate the international migrant stock at a particular time are obtained mainly from population censuses. The estimates are derived from the data on foreign-born population--people who have residence in one country but were born in another country. When data on the foreign-born population are not available, data on foreign population--that is, people who are citizens of a country other than the country in which they reside--are used as estimates. After the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991 people living in one of the newly independent countries who were born in another were classified as international migrants. Estimates of migrant stock in the newly independent states from 1990 on are based on the 1989 census of the Soviet Union. For countries with information on the international migrant stock for at least two points in time, interpolation or extrapolation was used to estimate the international migrant stock on July 1 of the reference years. For countries with only one observation, estimates for the reference years were derived using rates of change in the migrant stock in the years preceding or following the single observation available. A model was used to estimate migrants for countries that had no data. Source: United Nations Population Division, Trends in Total Migrant Stock: 2008 Revision.
Total labor force comprises people ages 15 and older who meet the International Labour Organization definition of the economically active population: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period. It includes both the employed and the unemployed. While national practices vary in the treatment of such groups as the armed forces and seasonal or part-time workers, in general the labor force includes the armed forces, the unemployed, and first-time job-seekers, but excludes homemakers and other unpaid caregivers and workers in the informal sector. Source: International Labour Organization, using World Bank population estimates.
Lead time to export is the median time (the value for 50 percent of shipments) from shipment point to port of loading. Data are from the Logistics Performance Index survey. Respondents provided separate values for the best case (10 percent of shipments) and the median case (50 percent of shipments). The data are exponentiated averages of the logarithm of single value responses and of midpoint values of range responses for the median case. Source: World Bank and Turku School of Economics, Logistic Performance Index Surveys. Data are available online at : http://www.worldbank.org/lpi. Summary results are published in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy, The Logistics Performance Index and Its Indicators report.
Lead time to import is the median time (the value for 50 percent of shipments) from port of discharge to arrival at the consignee. Data are from the Logistics Performance Index survey. Respondents provided separate values for the best case (10 percent of shipments) and the median case (50 percent of shipments). The data are exponentiated averages of the logarithm of single value responses and of midpoint values of range responses for the median case. Source: World Bank and Turku School of Economics, Logistic Performance Index Surveys. Data are available online at : http://www.worldbank.org/lpi. Summary results are published in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy, The Logistics Performance Index and Its Indicators report.
Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables), (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.
Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables), (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.
Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life. Source: Derived from male and female life expectancy at birth. Male and female life expectancy source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables), (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.
Logistics Performance Index overall score reflects perceptions of a country's logistics based on efficiency of customs clearance process, quality of trade- and transport-related infrastructure, ease of arranging competitively priced shipments, quality of logistics services, ability to track and trace consignments, and frequency with which shipments reach the consignee within the scheduled time. The index ranges from 1 to 5, with a higher score representing better performance. Data are from Logistics Performance Index surveys conducted by the World Bank in partnership with academic and international institutions and private companies and individuals engaged in international logistics. 2009 round of surveys covered more than 5,000 country assessments by nearly 1,000 international freight forwarders. Respondents evaluate eight markets on six core dimensions on a scale from 1 (worst) to 5 (best). The markets are chosen based on the most important export and import markets of the respondent's country, random selection, and, for landlocked countries, neighboring countries that connect them with international markets. Scores for the six areas are averaged across all respondents and aggregated to a single score using principal components analysis. Details of the survey methodology and index construction methodology are in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete 2010: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy (2010). Source: World Bank and Turku School of Economics, Logistic Performance Index Surveys. Data are available online at : http://www.worldbank.org/lpi. Summary results are published in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy, The Logistics Performance Index and Its Indicators report.
Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.) Source: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Note: Data for some countries are based on partial or uncertain data or rough estimates.
Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.) Source: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Note: Data for some countries are based on partial or uncertain data or rough estimates.
Mobile cellular prepaid tariff is based on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's low-user definition, which includes the cost of monthly mobile use for 25 outgoing calls per month spread over the same mobile network, other mobile networks, and mobile to fixed-line calls and during peak, off-peak, and weekend times as well as 30 text messages per month. Source: International Telecommunication Union, World Telecommunication Development Report and database. Note: Please cite the International Telecommunication Union for third-party use of these data.
Net migration is the net total of migrants during the period, that is, the total number of immigrants less the annual number of emigrants, including both citizens and noncitizens. Data are five-year estimates. To derive estimates of net migration, the United Nations Population Division takes into account the past migration history of a country or area, the migration policy of a country, and the influx of refugees in recent periods. The data to calculate these official estimates come from a variety of sources, including border statistics, administrative records, surveys, and censuses. When no official estimates can be made because of insufficient data, net migration is derived through the balance equation, which is the difference between overall population growth and the natural increase during the 1990-2000 intercensal period. Source: United Nations Population Division, World Population Prospects 2008.
Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Out of pocket expenditure is any direct outlay by households, including gratuities and in-kind payments, to health practitioners and suppliers of pharmaceuticals, therapeutic appliances, and other goods and services whose primary intent is to contribute to the restoration or enhancement of the health status of individuals or population groups. It is a part of private health expenditure. Source: World Health Organization National Health Account database (www.who.int/nha/en) supplemented by country data. Note: The latest updates on these data are accessible in WHO's National Health Accounts (NHA) website (http://www.who.int/nha/en/).
Particulate matter concentrations refer to fine suspended particulates less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10) that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing significant health damage. Data for countries and aggregates for regions and income groups are urban-population weighted PM10 levels in residential areas of cities with more than 100,000 residents. The estimates represent the average annual exposure level of the average urban resident to outdoor particulate matter. The state of a country's technology and pollution controls is an important determinant of particulate matter concentrations. Source: Kiren Dev Pandey, David Wheeler, Bart Ostro, Uwe Deichmann, Kirk Hamilton, and Katherine Bolt. "Ambient Particulate Matter Concentrations in Residential and Pollution Hotspot Areas of World Cities: New Estimates Based on the Global Model of Ambient Particulates (GMAPS)," World Bank, Development Research Group and Environment Department (2006).
Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention--a product or process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years. Source: World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), WIPO Patent Report: Statistics on Worldwide Patent Activity. The International Bureau of WIPO assumes no responsibility with respect to the transformation of these data.
Annual population growth rate for year t is the exponential rate of growth of midyear population from year t-1 to t, expressed as a percentage . Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of the country of origin. Source: Derived from total population. Population source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables). Available at http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp2008/index.htm. (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database, and (6) World bank estimates based on the data from the sources above, household surveys conducted by national agencies, Macro International, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and refugees statistics from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of their country of origin. The values shown are midyear estimates. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables). Available at http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp2008/index.htm. (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database, and (6) World bank estimates based on the data from the sources above, household surveys conducted by national agencies, Macro International, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and refugees statistics from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
Refugees are people who are recognized as refugees under the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees or its 1967 Protocol, the 1969 Organization of African Unity Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, people recognized as refugees in accordance with the UNHCR statute, people granted refugee-like humanitarian status, and people provided temporary protection. Asylum seekers--people who have applied for asylum or refugee status and who have not yet received a decision or who are registered as asylum seekers--are excluded. Palestinian refugees are people (and their descendants) whose residence was Palestine between June 1946 and May 1948 and who lost their homes and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 Arab-Israeli conflict. Country of asylum is the country where an asylum claim was filed and granted. Source: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Statistical Yearbook and data files, complemented by statistics on Palestinian refugees under the mandate of the UNRWA as published on its website. Data from UNHCR are available online at: www.unhcr.org/statistics/populationdatabase.
Refugees are people who are recognized as refugees under the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees or its 1967 Protocol, the 1969 Organization of African Unity Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, people recognized as refugees in accordance with the UNHCR statute, people granted refugee-like humanitarian status, and people provided temporary protection. Asylum seekers--people who have applied for asylum or refugee status and who have not yet received a decision or who are registered as asylum seekers--are excluded. Palestinian refugees are people (and their descendants) whose residence was Palestine between June 1946 and May 1948 and who lost their homes and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 Arab-Israeli conflict. Country of origin generally refers to the nationality or country of citizenship of a claimant. Source: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Statistical Yearbook and data files, complemented by statistics on Palestinian refugees under the mandate of the UNRWA as published on its website. Data from UNHCR are available online at: www.unhcr.org/statistics/populationdatabase.
Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Secondary education completes the provision of basic education that began at the primary level, and aims at laying the foundations for lifelong learning and human development, by offering more subject- or skill-oriented instruction using more specialized teachers. Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.
Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Note: For VAB countries, gross value added at factor cost is used as the denominator. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Share of women employed in the nonagricultural sector is the share of female workers in the nonagricultural sector (industry and services), expressed as a percentage of total employment in the nonagricultural sector. Industry includes mining and quarrying (including oil production), manufacturing, construction, electricity, gas, and water, corresponding to divisions 2-5 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories C-F (ISIC revision 3). Services include wholesale and retail trade and restaurants and hotels; transport, storage, and communications; financing, insurance, real estate, and business services; and community, social, and personal services-corresponding to divisions 6-9 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories G-P (ISIC revision 3). Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Trademark applications filed are applications to register a trademark with a national or regional Intellectual Property (IP) office. A trademark is a distinctive sign which identifies certain goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. A trademark provides protection to the owner of the mark by ensuring the exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services, or to authorize another to use it in return for payment. The period of protection varies, but a trademark can be renewed indefinitely beyond the time limit on payment of additional fees. Direct nonresident trademark applications are those filed by applicants from abroad directly at a given national IP office. Source: World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), WIPO Patent Report: Statistics on Worldwide Patent Activity. The International Bureau of WIPO assumes no responsibility with respect to the transformation of these data.
Trademark applications filed are applications to register a trademark with a national or regional Intellectual Property (IP) office. A trademark is a distinctive sign which identifies certain goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. A trademark provides protection to the owner of the mark by ensuring the exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services, or to authorize another to use it in return for payment. The period of protection varies, but a trademark can be renewed indefinitely beyond the time limit on payment of additional fees. Direct resident trademark applications are those filed by domestic applicants directly at a given national IP office. Source: World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), WIPO Patent Report: Statistics on Worldwide Patent Activity. The International Bureau of WIPO assumes no responsibility with respect to the transformation of these data.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: chemicals (35). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: stone, ceramics, and glass (36). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: food and beverages (31). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: primary metals (ISIC division 37). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: other (38 and 39). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: paper and pulp (34). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: textiles (32). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: wood (33). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Workers' remittances and compensation of employees comprise current transfers by migrant workers and wages and salaries earned by nonresident workers. Data are the sum of three items defined in the fifth edition of the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual: workers' remittances, compensation of employees, and migrants' transfers. Remittances are classified as current private transfers from migrant workers resident in the host country for more than a year, irrespective of their immigration status, to recipients in their country of origin. Migrants' transfers are defined as the net worth of migrants who are expected to remain in the host country for more than one year that is transferred from one country to another at the time of migration. Compensation of employees is the income of migrants who have lived in the host country for less than a year. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: World Bank staff estimates based on IMF balance of payments data.
Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Agriculture corresponds to ISIC divisions 1-5 and includes forestry, hunting, and fishing, as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Note: For VAB countries, gross value added at factor cost is used as the denominator. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data.
Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for industry are total withdrawals for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data.
Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture and industry are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production and for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data.
Bank capital to assets is the ratio of bank capital and reserves to total assets. Capital and reserves include funds contributed by owners, retained earnings, general and special reserves, provisions, and valuation adjustments. Capital includes tier 1 capital (paid-up shares and common stock), which is a common feature in all countries' banking systems, and total regulatory capital, which includes several specified types of subordinated debt instruments that need not be repaid if the funds are required to maintain minimum capital levels (these comprise tier 2 and tier 3 capital). Total assets include all nonfinancial and financial assets. Source: International Monetary Fund, Global Financial Stability Report.
Crude birth rate indicates the number of live births occurring during the year, per 1,000 population estimated at midyear. Subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate provides the rate of natural increase, which is equal to the rate of population change in the absence of migration. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables), (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.
Crude death rate indicates the number of deaths occurring during the year, per 1,000 population estimated at midyear. Subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate provides the rate of natural increase, which is equal to the rate of population change in the absence of migration. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables), (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.
All documents required per shipment to export goods are recorded. It is assumed that the contract has already been agreed upon and signed by both parties. Documents required for clearance by government ministries, customs authorities, port and container terminal authorities, health and technical control agencies and banks are taken into account. Since payment is by letter of credit, all documents required by banks for the issuance or securing of a letter of credit are also taken into account. Documents that are renewed annually and that do not require renewal per shipment (for example, an annual tax clearance certificate) are not included. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
All documents required per shipment to import goods are recorded. It is assumed that the contract has already been agreed upon and signed by both parties. Documents required for clearance by government ministries, customs authorities, port and container terminal authorities, health and technical control agencies and banks are taken into account. Since payment is by letter of credit, all documents required by banks for the issuance or securing of a letter of credit are also taken into account. Documents that are renewed annually and that do not require renewal per shipment (for example, an annual tax clearance certificate) are not included. Source: World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).
Domestic credit provided by the banking sector includes all credit to various sectors on a gross basis, with the exception of credit to the central government, which is net. The banking sector includes monetary authorities and deposit money banks, as well as other banking institutions where data are available (including institutions that do not accept transferable deposits but do incur such liabilities as time and savings deposits). Examples of other banking institutions are savings and mortgage loan institutions and building and loan associations. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.
Export volume indexes are derived from UNCTAD's volume index series and are the ratio of the export value indexes to the corresponding unit value indexes. Unit value indexes are based on data reported by countries that demonstrate consistency under UNCTAD quality controls, supplemented by UNCTAD's estimates using the previous year's trade values at the Standard International Trade Classification three-digit level as weights. For economies for which UNCTAD does not publish data, the export volume indexes (lines 72) in the IMF's International Financial Statistics are used. Source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Handbook of Statistics and data files, and International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics.
Total fertility rate represents the number of children that would be born to a woman if she were to live to the end of her childbearing years and bear children in accordance with current age-specific fertility rates. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables). Available at http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp2008/index.htm. (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database, and (6) household surveys conducted by national agencies, Macro International, and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Fertilizer consumption (100 grams per hectare of arable land) measures the quantity of plant nutrients used per unit of arable land. Fertilizer products cover nitrogenous, potash, and phosphate fertilizers (including ground rock phosphate). Traditional nutrients--animal and plant manures--are not included. For the purpose of data dissemination, FAO has adopted the concept of a calendar year (January to December). Some countries compile fertilizer data on a calendar year basis, while others are on a split-year basis. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and Balance of Payments databases, and World Bank, Global Development Finance.
GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment) consists of outlays on additions to the fixed assets of the economy plus net changes in the level of inventories. Fixed assets include land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. Inventories are stocks of goods held by firms to meet temporary or unexpected fluctuations in production or sales, and "work in progress." According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Public health expenditure consists of recurrent and capital spending from government (central and local) budgets, external borrowings and grants (including donations from international agencies and nongovernmental organizations), and social (or compulsory) health insurance funds. Total health expenditure is the sum of public and private health expenditure. It covers the provision of health services (preventive and curative), family planning activities, nutrition activities, and emergency aid designated for health but does not include provision of water and sanitation. Source: World Health Organization National Health Account database (www.who.int/nha/en) supplemented by country data. Note: The latest updates on these data are accessible in WHO's National Health Accounts (NHA) website (http://www.who.int/nha/en/).
Import volume indexes are derived from UNCTAD's volume index series and are the ratio of the import value indexes to the corresponding unit value indexes. Unit value indexes are based on data reported by countries that demonstrate consistency under UNCTAD quality controls, supplemented by UNCTAD's estimates using the previous year's trade values at the Standard International Trade Classification three-digit level as weights. For economies for which UNCTAD does not publish data, the import volume indexes (lines 73) in the IMF's International Financial Statistics are used. Source: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Handbook of Statistics and data files, and International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics.
Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Note: For VAB countries, gross value added at factor cost is used as the denominator. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Information and communications technology expenditures include computer hardware (computers, storage devices, printers, and other peripherals); computer software (operating systems, programming tools, utilities, applications, and internal software development); computer services (information technology consulting, computer and network systems integration, Web hosting, data processing services, and other services); and communications services (voice and data communications services) and wired and wireless communications equipment. Source: World Information Technology and Services Alliance, Digital Planet: The Global Information Economy, and Global Insight, Inc.
International migrant stock is the number of people born in a country other than that in which they live. It also includes refugees. The data used to estimate the international migrant stock at a particular time are obtained mainly from population censuses. The estimates are derived from the data on foreign-born population--people who have residence in one country but were born in another country. When data on the foreign-born population are not available, data on foreign population--that is, people who are citizens of a country other than the country in which they reside--are used as estimates. After the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991 people living in one of the newly independent countries who were born in another were classified as international migrants. Estimates of migrant stock in the newly independent states from 1990 on are based on the 1989 census of the Soviet Union. For countries with information on the international migrant stock for at least two points in time, interpolation or extrapolation was used to estimate the international migrant stock on July 1 of the reference years. For countries with only one observation, estimates for the reference years were derived using rates of change in the migrant stock in the years preceding or following the single observation available. A model was used to estimate migrants for countries that had no data. Source: United Nations Population Division, Trends in Total Migrant Stock: 2008 Revision.
Total labor force comprises people ages 15 and older who meet the International Labour Organization definition of the economically active population: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period. It includes both the employed and the unemployed. While national practices vary in the treatment of such groups as the armed forces and seasonal or part-time workers, in general the labor force includes the armed forces, the unemployed, and first-time job-seekers, but excludes homemakers and other unpaid caregivers and workers in the informal sector. Source: International Labour Organization, using World Bank population estimates.
Lead time to export is the median time (the value for 50 percent of shipments) from shipment point to port of loading. Data are from the Logistics Performance Index survey. Respondents provided separate values for the best case (10 percent of shipments) and the median case (50 percent of shipments). The data are exponentiated averages of the logarithm of single value responses and of midpoint values of range responses for the median case. Source: World Bank and Turku School of Economics, Logistic Performance Index Surveys. Data are available online at : http://www.worldbank.org/lpi. Summary results are published in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy, The Logistics Performance Index and Its Indicators report.
Lead time to import is the median time (the value for 50 percent of shipments) from port of discharge to arrival at the consignee. Data are from the Logistics Performance Index survey. Respondents provided separate values for the best case (10 percent of shipments) and the median case (50 percent of shipments). The data are exponentiated averages of the logarithm of single value responses and of midpoint values of range responses for the median case. Source: World Bank and Turku School of Economics, Logistic Performance Index Surveys. Data are available online at : http://www.worldbank.org/lpi. Summary results are published in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy, The Logistics Performance Index and Its Indicators report.
Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life. Source: Derived from male and female life expectancy at birth. Male and female life expectancy source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables), (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.
Logistics Performance Index overall score reflects perceptions of a country's logistics based on efficiency of customs clearance process, quality of trade- and transport-related infrastructure, ease of arranging competitively priced shipments, quality of logistics services, ability to track and trace consignments, and frequency with which shipments reach the consignee within the scheduled time. The index ranges from 1 to 5, with a higher score representing better performance. Data are from Logistics Performance Index surveys conducted by the World Bank in partnership with academic and international institutions and private companies and individuals engaged in international logistics. 2009 round of surveys covered more than 5,000 country assessments by nearly 1,000 international freight forwarders. Respondents evaluate eight markets on six core dimensions on a scale from 1 (worst) to 5 (best). The markets are chosen based on the most important export and import markets of the respondent's country, random selection, and, for landlocked countries, neighboring countries that connect them with international markets. Scores for the six areas are averaged across all respondents and aggregated to a single score using principal components analysis. Details of the survey methodology and index construction methodology are in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete 2010: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy (2010). Source: World Bank and Turku School of Economics, Logistic Performance Index Surveys. Data are available online at : http://www.worldbank.org/lpi. Summary results are published in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy, The Logistics Performance Index and Its Indicators report.
Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.) Source: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Note: Data for some countries are based on partial or uncertain data or rough estimates.
Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.) Source: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Note: Data for some countries are based on partial or uncertain data or rough estimates.
Net migration is the net total of migrants during the period, that is, the total number of immigrants less the annual number of emigrants, including both citizens and noncitizens. Data are five-year estimates. To derive estimates of net migration, the United Nations Population Division takes into account the past migration history of a country or area, the migration policy of a country, and the influx of refugees in recent periods. The data to calculate these official estimates come from a variety of sources, including border statistics, administrative records, surveys, and censuses. When no official estimates can be made because of insufficient data, net migration is derived through the balance equation, which is the difference between overall population growth and the natural increase during the 1990-2000 intercensal period. Source: United Nations Population Division, World Population Prospects 2008.
Particulate matter concentrations refer to fine suspended particulates less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10) that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing significant health damage. Data for countries and aggregates for regions and income groups are urban-population weighted PM10 levels in residential areas of cities with more than 100,000 residents. The estimates represent the average annual exposure level of the average urban resident to outdoor particulate matter. The state of a country's technology and pollution controls is an important determinant of particulate matter concentrations. Source: Kiren Dev Pandey, David Wheeler, Bart Ostro, Uwe Deichmann, Kirk Hamilton, and Katherine Bolt. "Ambient Particulate Matter Concentrations in Residential and Pollution Hotspot Areas of World Cities: New Estimates Based on the Global Model of Ambient Particulates (GMAPS)," World Bank, Development Research Group and Environment Department (2006).
Annual population growth rate for year t is the exponential rate of growth of midyear population from year t-1 to t, expressed as a percentage . Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of the country of origin. Source: Derived from total population. Population source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables). Available at http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp2008/index.htm. (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database, and (6) World bank estimates based on the data from the sources above, household surveys conducted by national agencies, Macro International, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and refugees statistics from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of their country of origin. The values shown are midyear estimates. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables). Available at http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp2008/index.htm. (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database, and (6) World bank estimates based on the data from the sources above, household surveys conducted by national agencies, Macro International, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and refugees statistics from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
Refugees are people who are recognized as refugees under the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees or its 1967 Protocol, the 1969 Organization of African Unity Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, people recognized as refugees in accordance with the UNHCR statute, people granted refugee-like humanitarian status, and people provided temporary protection. Asylum seekers--people who have applied for asylum or refugee status and who have not yet received a decision or who are registered as asylum seekers--are excluded. Palestinian refugees are people (and their descendants) whose residence was Palestine between June 1946 and May 1948 and who lost their homes and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 Arab-Israeli conflict. Country of asylum is the country where an asylum claim was filed and granted. Source: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Statistical Yearbook and data files, complemented by statistics on Palestinian refugees under the mandate of the UNRWA as published on its website. Data from UNHCR are available online at: www.unhcr.org/statistics/populationdatabase.
Refugees are people who are recognized as refugees under the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees or its 1967 Protocol, the 1969 Organization of African Unity Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, people recognized as refugees in accordance with the UNHCR statute, people granted refugee-like humanitarian status, and people provided temporary protection. Asylum seekers--people who have applied for asylum or refugee status and who have not yet received a decision or who are registered as asylum seekers--are excluded. Palestinian refugees are people (and their descendants) whose residence was Palestine between June 1946 and May 1948 and who lost their homes and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 Arab-Israeli conflict. Country of origin generally refers to the nationality or country of citizenship of a claimant. Source: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Statistical Yearbook and data files, complemented by statistics on Palestinian refugees under the mandate of the UNRWA as published on its website. Data from UNHCR are available online at: www.unhcr.org/statistics/populationdatabase.
Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Note: For VAB countries, gross value added at factor cost is used as the denominator. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Share of women employed in the nonagricultural sector is the share of female workers in the nonagricultural sector (industry and services), expressed as a percentage of total employment in the nonagricultural sector. Industry includes mining and quarrying (including oil production), manufacturing, construction, electricity, gas, and water, corresponding to divisions 2-5 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories C-F (ISIC revision 3). Services include wholesale and retail trade and restaurants and hotels; transport, storage, and communications; financing, insurance, real estate, and business services; and community, social, and personal services-corresponding to divisions 6-9 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories G-P (ISIC revision 3). Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Trademark applications filed are applications to register a trademark with a national or regional Intellectual Property (IP) office. A trademark is a distinctive sign which identifies certain goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. A trademark provides protection to the owner of the mark by ensuring the exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services, or to authorize another to use it in return for payment. The period of protection varies, but a trademark can be renewed indefinitely beyond the time limit on payment of additional fees. Direct nonresident trademark applications are those filed by applicants from abroad directly at a given national IP office. Source: World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), WIPO Patent Report: Statistics on Worldwide Patent Activity. The International Bureau of WIPO assumes no responsibility with respect to the transformation of these data.
Trademark applications filed are applications to register a trademark with a national or regional Intellectual Property (IP) office. A trademark is a distinctive sign which identifies certain goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. A trademark provides protection to the owner of the mark by ensuring the exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services, or to authorize another to use it in return for payment. The period of protection varies, but a trademark can be renewed indefinitely beyond the time limit on payment of additional fees. Direct resident trademark applications are those filed by domestic applicants directly at a given national IP office. Source: World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), WIPO Patent Report: Statistics on Worldwide Patent Activity. The International Bureau of WIPO assumes no responsibility with respect to the transformation of these data.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: chemicals (35). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: stone, ceramics, and glass (36). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: food and beverages (31). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: primary metals (ISIC division 37). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: other (38 and 39). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: paper and pulp (34). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: textiles (32). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: wood (33). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Workers' remittances and compensation of employees comprise current transfers by migrant workers and wages and salaries earned by nonresident workers. Data are the sum of three items defined in the fifth edition of the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual: workers' remittances, compensation of employees, and migrants' transfers. Remittances are classified as current private transfers from migrant workers resident in the host country for more than a year, irrespective of their immigration status, to recipients in their country of origin. Migrants' transfers are defined as the net worth of migrants who are expected to remain in the host country for more than one year that is transferred from one country to another at the time of migration. Compensation of employees is the income of migrants who have lived in the host country for less than a year. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: World Bank staff estimates based on IMF balance of payments data.
Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture and industry are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production and for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data.
Total fertility rate represents the number of children that would be born to a woman if she were to live to the end of her childbearing years and bear children in accordance with current age-specific fertility rates. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables). Available at http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp2008/index.htm. (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database, and (6) household surveys conducted by national agencies, Macro International, and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Fertilizer consumption (100 grams per hectare of arable land) measures the quantity of plant nutrients used per unit of arable land. Fertilizer products cover nitrogenous, potash, and phosphate fertilizers (including ground rock phosphate). Traditional nutrients--animal and plant manures--are not included. For the purpose of data dissemination, FAO has adopted the concept of a calendar year (January to December). Some countries compile fertilizer data on a calendar year basis, while others are on a split-year basis. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment) consists of outlays on additions to the fixed assets of the economy plus net changes in the level of inventories. Fixed assets include land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. Inventories are stocks of goods held by firms to meet temporary or unexpected fluctuations in production or sales, and "work in progress." According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Public health expenditure consists of recurrent and capital spending from government (central and local) budgets, external borrowings and grants (including donations from international agencies and nongovernmental organizations), and social (or compulsory) health insurance funds. Total health expenditure is the sum of public and private health expenditure. It covers the provision of health services (preventive and curative), family planning activities, nutrition activities, and emergency aid designated for health but does not include provision of water and sanitation. Source: World Health Organization National Health Account database (www.who.int/nha/en) supplemented by country data. Note: The latest updates on these data are accessible in WHO's National Health Accounts (NHA) website (http://www.who.int/nha/en/).
International migrant stock is the number of people born in a country other than that in which they live. It also includes refugees. The data used to estimate the international migrant stock at a particular time are obtained mainly from population censuses. The estimates are derived from the data on foreign-born population--people who have residence in one country but were born in another country. When data on the foreign-born population are not available, data on foreign population--that is, people who are citizens of a country other than the country in which they reside--are used as estimates. After the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991 people living in one of the newly independent countries who were born in another were classified as international migrants. Estimates of migrant stock in the newly independent states from 1990 on are based on the 1989 census of the Soviet Union. For countries with information on the international migrant stock for at least two points in time, interpolation or extrapolation was used to estimate the international migrant stock on July 1 of the reference years. For countries with only one observation, estimates for the reference years were derived using rates of change in the migrant stock in the years preceding or following the single observation available. A model was used to estimate migrants for countries that had no data. Source: United Nations Population Division, Trends in Total Migrant Stock: 2008 Revision.
Lead time to export is the median time (the value for 50 percent of shipments) from shipment point to port of loading. Data are from the Logistics Performance Index survey. Respondents provided separate values for the best case (10 percent of shipments) and the median case (50 percent of shipments). The data are exponentiated averages of the logarithm of single value responses and of midpoint values of range responses for the median case. Source: World Bank and Turku School of Economics, Logistic Performance Index Surveys. Data are available online at : http://www.worldbank.org/lpi. Summary results are published in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy, The Logistics Performance Index and Its Indicators report.
Lead time to import is the median time (the value for 50 percent of shipments) from port of discharge to arrival at the consignee. Data are from the Logistics Performance Index survey. Respondents provided separate values for the best case (10 percent of shipments) and the median case (50 percent of shipments). The data are exponentiated averages of the logarithm of single value responses and of midpoint values of range responses for the median case. Source: World Bank and Turku School of Economics, Logistic Performance Index Surveys. Data are available online at : http://www.worldbank.org/lpi. Summary results are published in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy, The Logistics Performance Index and Its Indicators report.
Logistics Performance Index overall score reflects perceptions of a country's logistics based on efficiency of customs clearance process, quality of trade- and transport-related infrastructure, ease of arranging competitively priced shipments, quality of logistics services, ability to track and trace consignments, and frequency with which shipments reach the consignee within the scheduled time. The index ranges from 1 to 5, with a higher score representing better performance. Data are from Logistics Performance Index surveys conducted by the World Bank in partnership with academic and international institutions and private companies and individuals engaged in international logistics. 2009 round of surveys covered more than 5,000 country assessments by nearly 1,000 international freight forwarders. Respondents evaluate eight markets on six core dimensions on a scale from 1 (worst) to 5 (best). The markets are chosen based on the most important export and import markets of the respondent's country, random selection, and, for landlocked countries, neighboring countries that connect them with international markets. Scores for the six areas are averaged across all respondents and aggregated to a single score using principal components analysis. Details of the survey methodology and index construction methodology are in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete 2010: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy (2010). Source: World Bank and Turku School of Economics, Logistic Performance Index Surveys. Data are available online at : http://www.worldbank.org/lpi. Summary results are published in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy, The Logistics Performance Index and Its Indicators report.
Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.) Source: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Note: Data for some countries are based on partial or uncertain data or rough estimates.
Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.) Source: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Note: Data for some countries are based on partial or uncertain data or rough estimates.
Net migration is the net total of migrants during the period, that is, the total number of immigrants less the annual number of emigrants, including both citizens and noncitizens. Data are five-year estimates. To derive estimates of net migration, the United Nations Population Division takes into account the past migration history of a country or area, the migration policy of a country, and the influx of refugees in recent periods. The data to calculate these official estimates come from a variety of sources, including border statistics, administrative records, surveys, and censuses. When no official estimates can be made because of insufficient data, net migration is derived through the balance equation, which is the difference between overall population growth and the natural increase during the 1990-2000 intercensal period. Source: United Nations Population Division, World Population Prospects 2008.
Particulate matter concentrations refer to fine suspended particulates less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10) that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing significant health damage. Data for countries and aggregates for regions and income groups are urban-population weighted PM10 levels in residential areas of cities with more than 100,000 residents. The estimates represent the average annual exposure level of the average urban resident to outdoor particulate matter. The state of a country's technology and pollution controls is an important determinant of particulate matter concentrations. Source: Kiren Dev Pandey, David Wheeler, Bart Ostro, Uwe Deichmann, Kirk Hamilton, and Katherine Bolt. "Ambient Particulate Matter Concentrations in Residential and Pollution Hotspot Areas of World Cities: New Estimates Based on the Global Model of Ambient Particulates (GMAPS)," World Bank, Development Research Group and Environment Department (2006).
Annual population growth rate for year t is the exponential rate of growth of midyear population from year t-1 to t, expressed as a percentage . Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of the country of origin. Source: Derived from total population. Population source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables). Available at http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp2008/index.htm. (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database, and (6) World bank estimates based on the data from the sources above, household surveys conducted by national agencies, Macro International, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and refugees statistics from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of their country of origin. The values shown are midyear estimates. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables). Available at http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp2008/index.htm. (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database, and (6) World bank estimates based on the data from the sources above, household surveys conducted by national agencies, Macro International, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and refugees statistics from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
Refugees are people who are recognized as refugees under the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees or its 1967 Protocol, the 1969 Organization of African Unity Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, people recognized as refugees in accordance with the UNHCR statute, people granted refugee-like humanitarian status, and people provided temporary protection. Asylum seekers--people who have applied for asylum or refugee status and who have not yet received a decision or who are registered as asylum seekers--are excluded. Palestinian refugees are people (and their descendants) whose residence was Palestine between June 1946 and May 1948 and who lost their homes and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 Arab-Israeli conflict. Country of asylum is the country where an asylum claim was filed and granted. Source: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Statistical Yearbook and data files, complemented by statistics on Palestinian refugees under the mandate of the UNRWA as published on its website. Data from UNHCR are available online at: www.unhcr.org/statistics/populationdatabase.
Refugees are people who are recognized as refugees under the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees or its 1967 Protocol, the 1969 Organization of African Unity Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, people recognized as refugees in accordance with the UNHCR statute, people granted refugee-like humanitarian status, and people provided temporary protection. Asylum seekers--people who have applied for asylum or refugee status and who have not yet received a decision or who are registered as asylum seekers--are excluded. Palestinian refugees are people (and their descendants) whose residence was Palestine between June 1946 and May 1948 and who lost their homes and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 Arab-Israeli conflict. Country of origin generally refers to the nationality or country of citizenship of a claimant. Source: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Statistical Yearbook and data files, complemented by statistics on Palestinian refugees under the mandate of the UNRWA as published on its website. Data from UNHCR are available online at: www.unhcr.org/statistics/populationdatabase.
Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Note: For VAB countries, gross value added at factor cost is used as the denominator. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Share of women employed in the nonagricultural sector is the share of female workers in the nonagricultural sector (industry and services), expressed as a percentage of total employment in the nonagricultural sector. Industry includes mining and quarrying (including oil production), manufacturing, construction, electricity, gas, and water, corresponding to divisions 2-5 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories C-F (ISIC revision 3). Services include wholesale and retail trade and restaurants and hotels; transport, storage, and communications; financing, insurance, real estate, and business services; and community, social, and personal services-corresponding to divisions 6-9 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories G-P (ISIC revision 3). Source: International Labour Organization, Key Indicators of the Labour Market database.
Trademark applications filed are applications to register a trademark with a national or regional Intellectual Property (IP) office. A trademark is a distinctive sign which identifies certain goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. A trademark provides protection to the owner of the mark by ensuring the exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services, or to authorize another to use it in return for payment. The period of protection varies, but a trademark can be renewed indefinitely beyond the time limit on payment of additional fees. Direct nonresident trademark applications are those filed by applicants from abroad directly at a given national IP office. Source: World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), WIPO Patent Report: Statistics on Worldwide Patent Activity. The International Bureau of WIPO assumes no responsibility with respect to the transformation of these data.
Trademark applications filed are applications to register a trademark with a national or regional Intellectual Property (IP) office. A trademark is a distinctive sign which identifies certain goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. A trademark provides protection to the owner of the mark by ensuring the exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services, or to authorize another to use it in return for payment. The period of protection varies, but a trademark can be renewed indefinitely beyond the time limit on payment of additional fees. Direct resident trademark applications are those filed by domestic applicants directly at a given national IP office. Source: World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), WIPO Patent Report: Statistics on Worldwide Patent Activity. The International Bureau of WIPO assumes no responsibility with respect to the transformation of these data.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: chemicals (35). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: stone, ceramics, and glass (36). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: food and beverages (31). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: primary metals (ISIC division 37). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: other (38 and 39). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: paper and pulp (34). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: textiles (32). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Industry shares of emissions of organic water pollutants refer to emissions from manufacturing activities as defined by two-digit divisions of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 2: wood (33). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. Source: 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, "Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.
Workers' remittances and compensation of employees comprise current transfers by migrant workers and wages and salaries earned by nonresident workers. Data are the sum of three items defined in the fifth edition of the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual: workers' remittances, compensation of employees, and migrants' transfers. Remittances are classified as current private transfers from migrant workers resident in the host country for more than a year, irrespective of their immigration status, to recipients in their country of origin. Migrants' transfers are defined as the net worth of migrants who are expected to remain in the host country for more than one year that is transferred from one country to another at the time of migration. Compensation of employees is the income of migrants who have lived in the host country for less than a year. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: World Bank staff estimates based on IMF balance of payments data.
Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture and industry are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production and for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data.
Fertilizer consumption (100 grams per hectare of arable land) measures the quantity of plant nutrients used per unit of arable land. Fertilizer products cover nitrogenous, potash, and phosphate fertilizers (including ground rock phosphate). Traditional nutrients--animal and plant manures--are not included. For the purpose of data dissemination, FAO has adopted the concept of a calendar year (January to December). Some countries compile fertilizer data on a calendar year basis, while others are on a split-year basis. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.
GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
International migrant stock is the number of people born in a country other than that in which they live. It also includes refugees. The data used to estimate the international migrant stock at a particular time are obtained mainly from population censuses. The estimates are derived from the data on foreign-born population--people who have residence in one country but were born in another country. When data on the foreign-born population are not available, data on foreign population--that is, people who are citizens of a country other than the country in which they reside--are used as estimates. After the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991 people living in one of the newly independent countries who were born in another were classified as international migrants. Estimates of migrant stock in the newly independent states from 1990 on are based on the 1989 census of the Soviet Union. For countries with information on the international migrant stock for at least two points in time, interpolation or extrapolation was used to estimate the international migrant stock on July 1 of the reference years. For countries with only one observation, estimates for the reference years were derived using rates of change in the migrant stock in the years preceding or following the single observation available. A model was used to estimate migrants for countries that had no data. Source: United Nations Population Division, Trends in Total Migrant Stock: 2008 Revision.
Logistics Performance Index overall score reflects perceptions of a country's logistics based on efficiency of customs clearance process, quality of trade- and transport-related infrastructure, ease of arranging competitively priced shipments, quality of logistics services, ability to track and trace consignments, and frequency with which shipments reach the consignee within the scheduled time. The index ranges from 1 to 5, with a higher score representing better performance. Data are from Logistics Performance Index surveys conducted by the World Bank in partnership with academic and international institutions and private companies and individuals engaged in international logistics. 2009 round of surveys covered more than 5,000 country assessments by nearly 1,000 international freight forwarders. Respondents evaluate eight markets on six core dimensions on a scale from 1 (worst) to 5 (best). The markets are chosen based on the most important export and import markets of the respondent's country, random selection, and, for landlocked countries, neighboring countries that connect them with international markets. Scores for the six areas are averaged across all respondents and aggregated to a single score using principal components analysis. Details of the survey methodology and index construction methodology are in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete 2010: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy (2010). Source: World Bank and Turku School of Economics, Logistic Performance Index Surveys. Data are available online at : http://www.worldbank.org/lpi. Summary results are published in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy, The Logistics Performance Index and Its Indicators report.
Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.) Source: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Note: Data for some countries are based on partial or uncertain data or rough estimates.
Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.) Source: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Note: Data for some countries are based on partial or uncertain data or rough estimates.
Net migration is the net total of migrants during the period, that is, the total number of immigrants less the annual number of emigrants, including both citizens and noncitizens. Data are five-year estimates. To derive estimates of net migration, the United Nations Population Division takes into account the past migration history of a country or area, the migration policy of a country, and the influx of refugees in recent periods. The data to calculate these official estimates come from a variety of sources, including border statistics, administrative records, surveys, and censuses. When no official estimates can be made because of insufficient data, net migration is derived through the balance equation, which is the difference between overall population growth and the natural increase during the 1990-2000 intercensal period. Source: United Nations Population Division, World Population Prospects 2008.
Particulate matter concentrations refer to fine suspended particulates less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10) that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing significant health damage. Data for countries and aggregates for regions and income groups are urban-population weighted PM10 levels in residential areas of cities with more than 100,000 residents. The estimates represent the average annual exposure level of the average urban resident to outdoor particulate matter. The state of a country's technology and pollution controls is an important determinant of particulate matter concentrations. Source: Kiren Dev Pandey, David Wheeler, Bart Ostro, Uwe Deichmann, Kirk Hamilton, and Katherine Bolt. "Ambient Particulate Matter Concentrations in Residential and Pollution Hotspot Areas of World Cities: New Estimates Based on the Global Model of Ambient Particulates (GMAPS)," World Bank, Development Research Group and Environment Department (2006).
Annual population growth rate for year t is the exponential rate of growth of midyear population from year t-1 to t, expressed as a percentage . Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of the country of origin. Source: Derived from total population. Population source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables). Available at http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp2008/index.htm. (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database, and (6) World bank estimates based on the data from the sources above, household surveys conducted by national agencies, Macro International, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and refugees statistics from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of their country of origin. The values shown are midyear estimates. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables). Available at http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp2008/index.htm. (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database, and (6) World bank estimates based on the data from the sources above, household surveys conducted by national agencies, Macro International, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and refugees statistics from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
Refugees are people who are recognized as refugees under the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees or its 1967 Protocol, the 1969 Organization of African Unity Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, people recognized as refugees in accordance with the UNHCR statute, people granted refugee-like humanitarian status, and people provided temporary protection. Asylum seekers--people who have applied for asylum or refugee status and who have not yet received a decision or who are registered as asylum seekers--are excluded. Palestinian refugees are people (and their descendants) whose residence was Palestine between June 1946 and May 1948 and who lost their homes and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 Arab-Israeli conflict. Country of asylum is the country where an asylum claim was filed and granted. Source: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Statistical Yearbook and data files, complemented by statistics on Palestinian refugees under the mandate of the UNRWA as published on its website. Data from UNHCR are available online at: www.unhcr.org/statistics/populationdatabase.
Refugees are people who are recognized as refugees under the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees or its 1967 Protocol, the 1969 Organization of African Unity Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, people recognized as refugees in accordance with the UNHCR statute, people granted refugee-like humanitarian status, and people provided temporary protection. Asylum seekers--people who have applied for asylum or refugee status and who have not yet received a decision or who are registered as asylum seekers--are excluded. Palestinian refugees are people (and their descendants) whose residence was Palestine between June 1946 and May 1948 and who lost their homes and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 Arab-Israeli conflict. Country of origin generally refers to the nationality or country of citizenship of a claimant. Source: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Statistical Yearbook and data files, complemented by statistics on Palestinian refugees under the mandate of the UNRWA as published on its website. Data from UNHCR are available online at: www.unhcr.org/statistics/populationdatabase.
Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Note: For VAB countries, gross value added at factor cost is used as the denominator. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Trademark applications filed are applications to register a trademark with a national or regional Intellectual Property (IP) office. A trademark is a distinctive sign which identifies certain goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. A trademark provides protection to the owner of the mark by ensuring the exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services, or to authorize another to use it in return for payment. The period of protection varies, but a trademark can be renewed indefinitely beyond the time limit on payment of additional fees. Direct nonresident trademark applications are those filed by applicants from abroad directly at a given national IP office. Source: World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), WIPO Patent Report: Statistics on Worldwide Patent Activity. The International Bureau of WIPO assumes no responsibility with respect to the transformation of these data.
Trademark applications filed are applications to register a trademark with a national or regional Intellectual Property (IP) office. A trademark is a distinctive sign which identifies certain goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. A trademark provides protection to the owner of the mark by ensuring the exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services, or to authorize another to use it in return for payment. The period of protection varies, but a trademark can be renewed indefinitely beyond the time limit on payment of additional fees. Direct resident trademark applications are those filed by domestic applicants directly at a given national IP office. Source: World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), WIPO Patent Report: Statistics on Worldwide Patent Activity. The International Bureau of WIPO assumes no responsibility with respect to the transformation of these data.
Workers' remittances and compensation of employees comprise current transfers by migrant workers and wages and salaries earned by nonresident workers. Data are the sum of three items defined in the fifth edition of the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual: workers' remittances, compensation of employees, and migrants' transfers. Remittances are classified as current private transfers from migrant workers resident in the host country for more than a year, irrespective of their immigration status, to recipients in their country of origin. Migrants' transfers are defined as the net worth of migrants who are expected to remain in the host country for more than one year that is transferred from one country to another at the time of migration. Compensation of employees is the income of migrants who have lived in the host country for less than a year. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: World Bank staff estimates based on IMF balance of payments data.
GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
International migrant stock is the number of people born in a country other than that in which they live. It also includes refugees. The data used to estimate the international migrant stock at a particular time are obtained mainly from population censuses. The estimates are derived from the data on foreign-born population--people who have residence in one country but were born in another country. When data on the foreign-born population are not available, data on foreign population--that is, people who are citizens of a country other than the country in which they reside--are used as estimates. After the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991 people living in one of the newly independent countries who were born in another were classified as international migrants. Estimates of migrant stock in the newly independent states from 1990 on are based on the 1989 census of the Soviet Union. For countries with information on the international migrant stock for at least two points in time, interpolation or extrapolation was used to estimate the international migrant stock on July 1 of the reference years. For countries with only one observation, estimates for the reference years were derived using rates of change in the migrant stock in the years preceding or following the single observation available. A model was used to estimate migrants for countries that had no data. Source: United Nations Population Division, Trends in Total Migrant Stock: 2008 Revision.
Logistics Performance Index overall score reflects perceptions of a country's logistics based on efficiency of customs clearance process, quality of trade- and transport-related infrastructure, ease of arranging competitively priced shipments, quality of logistics services, ability to track and trace consignments, and frequency with which shipments reach the consignee within the scheduled time. The index ranges from 1 to 5, with a higher score representing better performance. Data are from Logistics Performance Index surveys conducted by the World Bank in partnership with academic and international institutions and private companies and individuals engaged in international logistics. 2009 round of surveys covered more than 5,000 country assessments by nearly 1,000 international freight forwarders. Respondents evaluate eight markets on six core dimensions on a scale from 1 (worst) to 5 (best). The markets are chosen based on the most important export and import markets of the respondent's country, random selection, and, for landlocked countries, neighboring countries that connect them with international markets. Scores for the six areas are averaged across all respondents and aggregated to a single score using principal components analysis. Details of the survey methodology and index construction methodology are in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete 2010: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy (2010). Source: World Bank and Turku School of Economics, Logistic Performance Index Surveys. Data are available online at : http://www.worldbank.org/lpi. Summary results are published in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy, The Logistics Performance Index and Its Indicators report.
Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.) Source: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Note: Data for some countries are based on partial or uncertain data or rough estimates.
Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.) Source: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Note: Data for some countries are based on partial or uncertain data or rough estimates.
Particulate matter concentrations refer to fine suspended particulates less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10) that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing significant health damage. Data for countries and aggregates for regions and income groups are urban-population weighted PM10 levels in residential areas of cities with more than 100,000 residents. The estimates represent the average annual exposure level of the average urban resident to outdoor particulate matter. The state of a country's technology and pollution controls is an important determinant of particulate matter concentrations. Source: Kiren Dev Pandey, David Wheeler, Bart Ostro, Uwe Deichmann, Kirk Hamilton, and Katherine Bolt. "Ambient Particulate Matter Concentrations in Residential and Pollution Hotspot Areas of World Cities: New Estimates Based on the Global Model of Ambient Particulates (GMAPS)," World Bank, Development Research Group and Environment Department (2006).
Annual population growth rate for year t is the exponential rate of growth of midyear population from year t-1 to t, expressed as a percentage . Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of the country of origin. Source: Derived from total population. Population source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables). Available at http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp2008/index.htm. (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database, and (6) World bank estimates based on the data from the sources above, household surveys conducted by national agencies, Macro International, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and refugees statistics from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of their country of origin. The values shown are midyear estimates. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables). Available at http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp2008/index.htm. (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database, and (6) World bank estimates based on the data from the sources above, household surveys conducted by national agencies, Macro International, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and refugees statistics from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
Refugees are people who are recognized as refugees under the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees or its 1967 Protocol, the 1969 Organization of African Unity Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, people recognized as refugees in accordance with the UNHCR statute, people granted refugee-like humanitarian status, and people provided temporary protection. Asylum seekers--people who have applied for asylum or refugee status and who have not yet received a decision or who are registered as asylum seekers--are excluded. Palestinian refugees are people (and their descendants) whose residence was Palestine between June 1946 and May 1948 and who lost their homes and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 Arab-Israeli conflict. Country of asylum is the country where an asylum claim was filed and granted. Source: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Statistical Yearbook and data files, complemented by statistics on Palestinian refugees under the mandate of the UNRWA as published on its website. Data from UNHCR are available online at: www.unhcr.org/statistics/populationdatabase.
Refugees are people who are recognized as refugees under the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees or its 1967 Protocol, the 1969 Organization of African Unity Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, people recognized as refugees in accordance with the UNHCR statute, people granted refugee-like humanitarian status, and people provided temporary protection. Asylum seekers--people who have applied for asylum or refugee status and who have not yet received a decision or who are registered as asylum seekers--are excluded. Palestinian refugees are people (and their descendants) whose residence was Palestine between June 1946 and May 1948 and who lost their homes and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 Arab-Israeli conflict. Country of origin generally refers to the nationality or country of citizenship of a claimant. Source: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Statistical Yearbook and data files, complemented by statistics on Palestinian refugees under the mandate of the UNRWA as published on its website. Data from UNHCR are available online at: www.unhcr.org/statistics/populationdatabase.
Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Note: For VAB countries, gross value added at factor cost is used as the denominator. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
Workers' remittances and compensation of employees comprise current transfers by migrant workers and wages and salaries earned by nonresident workers. Data are the sum of three items defined in the fifth edition of the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual: workers' remittances, compensation of employees, and migrants' transfers. Remittances are classified as current private transfers from migrant workers resident in the host country for more than a year, irrespective of their immigration status, to recipients in their country of origin. Migrants' transfers are defined as the net worth of migrants who are expected to remain in the host country for more than one year that is transferred from one country to another at the time of migration. Compensation of employees is the income of migrants who have lived in the host country for less than a year. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Source: World Bank staff estimates based on IMF balance of payments data.
GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
International migrant stock is the number of people born in a country other than that in which they live. It also includes refugees. The data used to estimate the international migrant stock at a particular time are obtained mainly from population censuses. The estimates are derived from the data on foreign-born population--people who have residence in one country but were born in another country. When data on the foreign-born population are not available, data on foreign population--that is, people who are citizens of a country other than the country in which they reside--are used as estimates. After the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991 people living in one of the newly independent countries who were born in another were classified as international migrants. Estimates of migrant stock in the newly independent states from 1990 on are based on the 1989 census of the Soviet Union. For countries with information on the international migrant stock for at least two points in time, interpolation or extrapolation was used to estimate the international migrant stock on July 1 of the reference years. For countries with only one observation, estimates for the reference years were derived using rates of change in the migrant stock in the years preceding or following the single observation available. A model was used to estimate migrants for countries that had no data. Source: United Nations Population Division, Trends in Total Migrant Stock: 2008 Revision.
Logistics Performance Index overall score reflects perceptions of a country's logistics based on efficiency of customs clearance process, quality of trade- and transport-related infrastructure, ease of arranging competitively priced shipments, quality of logistics services, ability to track and trace consignments, and frequency with which shipments reach the consignee within the scheduled time. The index ranges from 1 to 5, with a higher score representing better performance. Data are from Logistics Performance Index surveys conducted by the World Bank in partnership with academic and international institutions and private companies and individuals engaged in international logistics. 2009 round of surveys covered more than 5,000 country assessments by nearly 1,000 international freight forwarders. Respondents evaluate eight markets on six core dimensions on a scale from 1 (worst) to 5 (best). The markets are chosen based on the most important export and import markets of the respondent's country, random selection, and, for landlocked countries, neighboring countries that connect them with international markets. Scores for the six areas are averaged across all respondents and aggregated to a single score using principal components analysis. Details of the survey methodology and index construction methodology are in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete 2010: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy (2010). Source: World Bank and Turku School of Economics, Logistic Performance Index Surveys. Data are available online at : http://www.worldbank.org/lpi. Summary results are published in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy, The Logistics Performance Index and Its Indicators report.
Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.) Source: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Note: Data for some countries are based on partial or uncertain data or rough estimates.
Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.) Source: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Note: Data for some countries are based on partial or uncertain data or rough estimates.
Annual population growth rate for year t is the exponential rate of growth of midyear population from year t-1 to t, expressed as a percentage . Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of the country of origin. Source: Derived from total population. Population source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables). Available at http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp2008/index.htm. (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database, and (6) World bank estimates based on the data from the sources above, household surveys conducted by national agencies, Macro International, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and refugees statistics from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of their country of origin. The values shown are midyear estimates. Source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables). Available at http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp2008/index.htm. (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database, and (6) World bank estimates based on the data from the sources above, household surveys conducted by national agencies, Macro International, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and refugees statistics from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
Refugees are people who are recognized as refugees under the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees or its 1967 Protocol, the 1969 Organization of African Unity Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, people recognized as refugees in accordance with the UNHCR statute, people granted refugee-like humanitarian status, and people provided temporary protection. Asylum seekers--people who have applied for asylum or refugee status and who have not yet received a decision or who are registered as asylum seekers--are excluded. Palestinian refugees are people (and their descendants) whose residence was Palestine between June 1946 and May 1948 and who lost their homes and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 Arab-Israeli conflict. Country of asylum is the country where an asylum claim was filed and granted. Source: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Statistical Yearbook and data files, complemented by statistics on Palestinian refugees under the mandate of the UNRWA as published on its website. Data from UNHCR are available online at: www.unhcr.org/statistics/populationdatabase.
Refugees are people who are recognized as refugees under the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees or its 1967 Protocol, the 1969 Organization of African Unity Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, people recognized as refugees in accordance with the UNHCR statute, people granted refugee-like humanitarian status, and people provided temporary protection. Asylum seekers--people who have applied for asylum or refugee status and who have not yet received a decision or who are registered as asylum seekers--are excluded. Palestinian refugees are people (and their descendants) whose residence was Palestine between June 1946 and May 1948 and who lost their homes and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 Arab-Israeli conflict. Country of origin generally refers to the nationality or country of citizenship of a claimant. Source: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Statistical Yearbook and data files, complemented by statistics on Palestinian refugees under the mandate of the UNRWA as published on its website. Data from UNHCR are available online at: www.unhcr.org/statistics/populationdatabase.
GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
International migrant stock is the number of people born in a country other than that in which they live. It also includes refugees. The data used to estimate the international migrant stock at a particular time are obtained mainly from population censuses. The estimates are derived from the data on foreign-born population--people who have residence in one country but were born in another country. When data on the foreign-born population are not available, data on foreign population--that is, people who are citizens of a country other than the country in which they reside--are used as estimates. After the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991 people living in one of the newly independent countries who were born in another were classified as international migrants. Estimates of migrant stock in the newly independent states from 1990 on are based on the 1989 census of the Soviet Union. For countries with information on the international migrant stock for at least two points in time, interpolation or extrapolation was used to estimate the international migrant stock on July 1 of the reference years. For countries with only one observation, estimates for the reference years were derived using rates of change in the migrant stock in the years preceding or following the single observation available. A model was used to estimate migrants for countries that had no data. Source: United Nations Population Division, Trends in Total Migrant Stock: 2008 Revision.
Logistics Performance Index overall score reflects perceptions of a country's logistics based on efficiency of customs clearance process, quality of trade- and transport-related infrastructure, ease of arranging competitively priced shipments, quality of logistics services, ability to track and trace consignments, and frequency with which shipments reach the consignee within the scheduled time. The index ranges from 1 to 5, with a higher score representing better performance. Data are from Logistics Performance Index surveys conducted by the World Bank in partnership with academic and international institutions and private companies and individuals engaged in international logistics. 2009 round of surveys covered more than 5,000 country assessments by nearly 1,000 international freight forwarders. Respondents evaluate eight markets on six core dimensions on a scale from 1 (worst) to 5 (best). The markets are chosen based on the most important export and import markets of the respondent's country, random selection, and, for landlocked countries, neighboring countries that connect them with international markets. Scores for the six areas are averaged across all respondents and aggregated to a single score using principal components analysis. Details of the survey methodology and index construction methodology are in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete 2010: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy (2010). Source: World Bank and Turku School of Economics, Logistic Performance Index Surveys. Data are available online at : http://www.worldbank.org/lpi. Summary results are published in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy, The Logistics Performance Index and Its Indicators report.
Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.) Source: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Note: Data for some countries are based on partial or uncertain data or rough estimates.
Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.) Source: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Note: Data for some countries are based on partial or uncertain data or rough estimates.
Annual population growth rate for year t is the exponential rate of growth of midyear population from year t-1 to t, expressed as a percentage . Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of the country of origin. Source: Derived from total population. Population source: (1) United Nations Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (advanced Excel tables). Available at http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp2008/index.htm. (2) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (3) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (4) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, (5) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database, and (6) World bank estimates based on the data from the sources above, household surveys conducted by national agencies, Macro International, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and refugees statistics from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
Refugees are people who are recognized as refugees under the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees or its 1967 Protocol, the 1969 Organization of African Unity Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, people recognized as refugees in accordance with the UNHCR statute, people granted refugee-like humanitarian status, and people provided temporary protection. Asylum seekers--people who have applied for asylum or refugee status and who have not yet received a decision or who are registered as asylum seekers--are excluded. Palestinian refugees are people (and their descendants) whose residence was Palestine between June 1946 and May 1948 and who lost their homes and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 Arab-Israeli conflict. Country of asylum is the country where an asylum claim was filed and granted. Source: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Statistical Yearbook and data files, complemented by statistics on Palestinian refugees under the mandate of the UNRWA as published on its website. Data from UNHCR are available online at: www.unhcr.org/statistics/populationdatabase.
Refugees are people who are recognized as refugees under the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees or its 1967 Protocol, the 1969 Organization of African Unity Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, people recognized as refugees in accordance with the UNHCR statute, people granted refugee-like humanitarian status, and people provided temporary protection. Asylum seekers--people who have applied for asylum or refugee status and who have not yet received a decision or who are registered as asylum seekers--are excluded. Palestinian refugees are people (and their descendants) whose residence was Palestine between June 1946 and May 1948 and who lost their homes and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 Arab-Israeli conflict. Country of origin generally refers to the nationality or country of citizenship of a claimant. Source: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Statistical Yearbook and data files, complemented by statistics on Palestinian refugees under the mandate of the UNRWA as published on its website. Data from UNHCR are available online at: www.unhcr.org/statistics/populationdatabase.
GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.
International migrant stock is the number of people born in a country other than that in which they live. It also includes refugees. The data used to estimate the international migrant stock at a particular time are obtained mainly from population censuses. The estimates are derived from the data on foreign-born population--people who have residence in one country but were born in another country. When data on the foreign-born population are not available, data on foreign population--that is, people who are citizens of a country other than the country in which they reside--are used as estimates. After the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991 people living in one of the newly independent countries who were born in another were classified as international migrants. Estimates of migrant stock in the newly independent states from 1990 on are based on the 1989 census of the Soviet Union. For countries with information on the international migrant stock for at least two points in time, interpolation or extrapolation was used to estimate the international migrant stock on July 1 of the reference years. For countries with only one observation, estimates for the reference years were derived using rates of change in the migrant stock in the years preceding or following the single observation available. A model was used to estimate migrants for countries that had no data. Source: United Nations Population Division, Trends in Total Migrant Stock: 2008 Revision.
Logistics Performance Index overall score reflects perceptions of a country's logistics based on efficiency of customs clearance process, quality of trade- and transport-related infrastructure, ease of arranging competitively priced shipments, quality of logistics services, ability to track and trace consignments, and frequency with which shipments reach the consignee within the scheduled time. The index ranges from 1 to 5, with a higher score representing better performance. Data are from Logistics Performance Index surveys conducted by the World Bank in partnership with academic and international institutions and private companies and individuals engaged in international logistics. 2009 round of surveys covered more than 5,000 country assessments by nearly 1,000 international freight forwarders. Respondents evaluate eight markets on six core dimensions on a scale from 1 (worst) to 5 (best). The markets are chosen based on the most important export and import markets of the respondent's country, random selection, and, for landlocked countries, neighboring countries that connect them with international markets. Scores for the six areas are averaged across all respondents and aggregated to a single score using principal components analysis. Details of the survey methodology and index construction methodology are in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete 2010: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy (2010). Source: World Bank and Turku School of Economics, Logistic Performance Index Surveys. Data are available online at : http://www.worldbank.org/lpi. Summary results are published in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy, The Logistics Performance Index and Its Indicators report.
Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.) Source: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Note: Data for some countries are based on partial or uncertain data or rough estimates.
Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.) Source: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Note: Data for some countries are based on partial or uncertain data or rough estimates.
International migrant stock is the number of people born in a country other than that in which they live. It also includes refugees. The data used to estimate the international migrant stock at a particular time are obtained mainly from population censuses. The estimates are derived from the data on foreign-born population--people who have residence in one country but were born in another country. When data on the foreign-born population are not available, data on foreign population--that is, people who are citizens of a country other than the country in which they reside--are used as estimates. After the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991 people living in one of the newly independent countries who were born in another were classified as international migrants. Estimates of migrant stock in the newly independent states from 1990 on are based on the 1989 census of the Soviet Union. For countries with information on the international migrant stock for at least two points in time, interpolation or extrapolation was used to estimate the international migrant stock on July 1 of the reference years. For countries with only one observation, estimates for the reference years were derived using rates of change in the migrant stock in the years preceding or following the single observation available. A model was used to estimate migrants for countries that had no data. Source: United Nations Population Division, Trends in Total Migrant Stock: 2008 Revision.
Logistics Performance Index overall score reflects perceptions of a country's logistics based on efficiency of customs clearance process, quality of trade- and transport-related infrastructure, ease of arranging competitively priced shipments, quality of logistics services, ability to track and trace consignments, and frequency with which shipments reach the consignee within the scheduled time. The index ranges from 1 to 5, with a higher score representing better performance. Data are from Logistics Performance Index surveys conducted by the World Bank in partnership with academic and international institutions and private companies and individuals engaged in international logistics. 2009 round of surveys covered more than 5,000 country assessments by nearly 1,000 international freight forwarders. Respondents evaluate eight markets on six core dimensions on a scale from 1 (worst) to 5 (best). The markets are chosen based on the most important export and import markets of the respondent's country, random selection, and, for landlocked countries, neighboring countries that connect them with international markets. Scores for the six areas are averaged across all respondents and aggregated to a single score using principal components analysis. Details of the survey methodology and index construction methodology are in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete 2010: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy (2010). Source: World Bank and Turku School of Economics, Logistic Performance Index Surveys. Data are available online at : http://www.worldbank.org/lpi. Summary results are published in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy, The Logistics Performance Index and Its Indicators report.
Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.) Source: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Note: Data for some countries are based on partial or uncertain data or rough estimates.
Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.) Source: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Note: Data for some countries are based on partial or uncertain data or rough estimates.
Logistics Performance Index overall score reflects perceptions of a country's logistics based on efficiency of customs clearance process, quality of trade- and transport-related infrastructure, ease of arranging competitively priced shipments, quality of logistics services, ability to track and trace consignments, and frequency with which shipments reach the consignee within the scheduled time. The index ranges from 1 to 5, with a higher score representing better performance. Data are from Logistics Performance Index surveys conducted by the World Bank in partnership with academic and international institutions and private companies and individuals engaged in international logistics. 2009 round of surveys covered more than 5,000 country assessments by nearly 1,000 international freight forwarders. Respondents evaluate eight markets on six core dimensions on a scale from 1 (worst) to 5 (best). The markets are chosen based on the most important export and import markets of the respondent's country, random selection, and, for landlocked countries, neighboring countries that connect them with international markets. Scores for the six areas are averaged across all respondents and aggregated to a single score using principal components analysis. Details of the survey methodology and index construction methodology are in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete 2010: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy (2010). Source: World Bank and Turku School of Economics, Logistic Performance Index Surveys. Data are available online at : http://www.worldbank.org/lpi. Summary results are published in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy, The Logistics Performance Index and Its Indicators report.
Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.) Source: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Note: Data for some countries are based on partial or uncertain data or rough estimates.
Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.) Source: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Note: Data for some countries are based on partial or uncertain data or rough estimates.
Logistics Performance Index overall score reflects perceptions of a country's logistics based on efficiency of customs clearance process, quality of trade- and transport-related infrastructure, ease of arranging competitively priced shipments, quality of logistics services, ability to track and trace consignments, and frequency with which shipments reach the consignee within the scheduled time. The index ranges from 1 to 5, with a higher score representing better performance. Data are from Logistics Performance Index surveys conducted by the World Bank in partnership with academic and international institutions and private companies and individuals engaged in international logistics. 2009 round of surveys covered more than 5,000 country assessments by nearly 1,000 international freight forwarders. Respondents evaluate eight markets on six core dimensions on a scale from 1 (worst) to 5 (best). The markets are chosen based on the most important export and import markets of the respondent's country, random selection, and, for landlocked countries, neighboring countries that connect them with international markets. Scores for the six areas are averaged across all respondents and aggregated to a single score using principal components analysis. Details of the survey methodology and index construction methodology are in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete 2010: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy (2010). Source: World Bank and Turku School of Economics, Logistic Performance Index Surveys. Data are available online at : http://www.worldbank.org/lpi. Summary results are published in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy, The Logistics Performance Index and Its Indicators report.
Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.) Source: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Note: Data for some countries are based on partial or uncertain data or rough estimates.
Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.) Source: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Note: Data for some countries are based on partial or uncertain data or rough estimates.
Logistics Performance Index overall score reflects perceptions of a country's logistics based on efficiency of customs clearance process, quality of trade- and transport-related infrastructure, ease of arranging competitively priced shipments, quality of logistics services, ability to track and trace consignments, and frequency with which shipments reach the consignee within the scheduled time. The index ranges from 1 to 5, with a higher score representing better performance. Data are from Logistics Performance Index surveys conducted by the World Bank in partnership with academic and international institutions and private companies and individuals engaged in international logistics. 2009 round of surveys covered more than 5,000 country assessments by nearly 1,000 international freight forwarders. Respondents evaluate eight markets on six core dimensions on a scale from 1 (worst) to 5 (best). The markets are chosen based on the most important export and import markets of the respondent's country, random selection, and, for landlocked countries, neighboring countries that connect them with international markets. Scores for the six areas are averaged across all respondents and aggregated to a single score using principal components analysis. Details of the survey methodology and index construction methodology are in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete 2010: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy (2010). Source: World Bank and Turku School of Economics, Logistic Performance Index Surveys. Data are available online at : http://www.worldbank.org/lpi. Summary results are published in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy, The Logistics Performance Index and Its Indicators report.
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