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262
DOI 10.15393/j9.art.2016.3764
??? 821.161.1.09??1917/1992??
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?????????. ?????? ????????? ??????? ????????? л???????╗ ?????? ??
??????? ???????-?????? ?.??????????? л???? ?????, ???а? ???╗, ?????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ????? ??????? ????? ?а??????? ?????, ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????. ?????? ??????? ?а?????????
?а????????????? ???????????? л????????╗ ??????. ?????????? ??????????-????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?.???????????, л?????????????????╗ ?? ????????????; ???? ???? ?а???; ??????????, ????????,
?????????? ????? ???????????? ??????а? ?????????????. ????????,
????? ??????, ????? ?а???, ??? ?????????? ????????? ????????, ???????
?? ???????? ??????, ?????????? ?а????????????? ??????? ????????
??????? ???????? ????????????? ????, ??????? ?????????? ?????. ?????? ???????? ?а?????? ????????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????? ?а???????, ??????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ????????? ??????
??????. ?а????????? ??????? ?.??????????? л???? ?????, ??? ?а???╗
???????? ?а??????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ?? ???????????, ?? ???? ??
????, ?а???????????????, ????????? ???? ?а?????.
???????? ?????: ?.??????????, ??????, ??????? ??????, ????, ???????????? ??????, ??????? ??????????
?
а ?????????? ?.???????????, ?????? ?? ?????? (???? ??
???????) ????????-?????????? ?????? ???????? ??а????,
???????-?????? л???? ?????, ??? ?а???╗ ????????, ???????,
??????????? ?????. ?? ?????????а? ?????????, ???????
?????? ??????? ???? ?????, ???????????? ??? ?????, л??
??????? ?????, ?? ?? ??????????╗1, ????????????? ??? ?????????а? ????? ??? ?????????? ?а?????????, ?а??????? ????????? (???, ???????, ?а???? ??????? ?????????????, ??? ?????
???? ??? ?????), ????? ????, ???????, ??? ???????, ?? ???????
?????? ?а??????????, ?????? ??????????? ??????.
??????? ?????? (???????-?????? ?. ?????????? л???? ?????, ??? ? ???╗) 263
?????? ?а ????? ??????????? ?? ???? ???????-??????
?.???????????а? ????? ???? ??????, ?????? ?????? ???????.
????????? ??? ??????? ????? л??????╗, ?.??.??????????
??????????? ????????: л?а??? ?? ?? ???? ?а???? ?.????, ?а???
?? ?? ?????????? ?а????????? ????? ????? ???????????,
?а???? ???????? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ?а??????
??????, ????? (???????? ??????), ?? ????? ??????????, ??????????????, ????? ?????? (??????, ???????? ????). ???????
?а??????? ????????????????? ????? ?????? ???????????
?а????????? ????? ?а????????╗ [6, 304].
?????? ????? ?а??????? ?????, ?????????????? ?????
?????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? (????? л????????╗,
??????, л????????╗ ??-??????, ?????? ??, ??? ?????????,
??????????? ???????? ????а? ???? ??????? ???? ???? ????
?? ?????, ?? ???, ?????? ?а???????? ?? ????????? ?????????),
?а?????????? ????? ?????????? ???????-?????? ?.???????????. л??????? ????????. ?????? ???, ???? ?а????? ????????.
????? ???? ????? ??????, ?а??????? ???╗ (405). ???????????? ?????????????а? ??? ?? ?????? л??????? ?????╗, ??
?ал?????, ???????? ???╗, ??? ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ???????,
?а???? ?а?????? ?? ??????? (?а??????? ??? ?????) ?? ???????????? ?????. ??? ?????????????а? ??? ??? ?? ??????
???????????, ?? ?а?????????.
??? ?? ?????????? л????????╗ ?????? ?? л???????╗?
??????? ???????? ???????????? л????????╗ ?????? ??????,
??? ????????, ??????????? ???????, ?а??? ??? ???? ???????
????????????, ??????????? ?????????? ????????. л???????
?а?????? ????????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????????
?????, ??? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ???, ?? ??????? ????,
????????????? ???? ?????? ????????╗ [6, 306?307]. ?? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?.??.??????????, л??????а? ??? ????????? ?а???????????????? ????????
?????????????? ????????, ???????????? ?? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????-???????????? ????????╗ [5, 8].
???????????, ?а??????? ?????? ?????? л?????????? ?а?????????????????╗ ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ?а?? ????? ????. ?а???? ??? ?а??????????, ?? ????
?????? ?? л????????╗ ????? ?????????? ??????, ??????? ??
264
?. ?. ????????
??????? (?а?? ?????? ????????) ???????. ???, ????????,
???????? ???????? ?????? ????? ???????? ?.??????? ?а???????????? ???????? л??? ????? ??????? <?> ?а????????
??????????????????? ?????? ???????. ?????????? ?а??????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ????????. ???? ????? ????????? ?? ?????? ????? ????????????????? ????????, ?а??????
????????????? ??????????╗ [4, 241].
?а?.??????????? ???????? ?а??????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ?? ???????????, ?? ???? ?? ????, ??? ?а?.???????,
?а???????????????, ????????? ???? ?а?????.
????????? ?а?????, ??? ?а???????-?????? л???? ?????, ???
?а???╗ ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ?? ?а?? ??????????. ??? л?????????????? ??????╗; ?? ????? ???????? ??
????? ????? ??????????; ??? ????????? ?????? ??????????
?????????, ??? ??? ?????? ???????: л???????? ????? ???
????????. <?> ????????? ??? ??? ?а????????????. ??? ?а????
????. ?а?????, ?а???????, ?а??????????? ?? ?????! ?а?????,
?а????????? ?а???? <?> ?а?а??????? ??? ???? ?????????
?а?а????? ?????? ????╗ (407, 408); ????? ????? ???? ?? ????
???? ?а???? ???? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?а???????????????
??????, ?а????, ????????, ??? ???????, ??????? ???????, ????
?????????? ?а??????. ?????????? ???????? ?а??????????
????????? ????, ??? ????? ?????, ?? ????????а? ???? ?а????????-??????? ?? ????? (?а?? ?????? ?????) ??? ????????,
??? ??? ???? ?? ?а????. ??????????? ?????????? ?????????
?????????? ?а?.??????????? ?????????, ??????, ??????? ????????? ???????????? ???? ????, ?????? ???????? ???????.
??? ????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ?а?а??????, ?а?а?????????????. ???????????? ???????, ?????????? ?????????,
????? ???? ?а???, ?????? ?????????,а? ??? ??????????????
??????????, ??? ?????? ?а????? ??????.
?????????? ????????? ????????, ??????? ?? ????????
??????, ?????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ????, ??????? ?????????? ?????, ?а?????? ???????????
?? ??? ?????: л???а?а???? ????????? ???. ????????? ?? ?????????,а? ??????? ???? ?????.а? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????
??-??????? ????. ?? ????? ???? ?????????╗ (417).
?????? ?????????? (???????????) ??????????? ??????
???????? ?а?????? ?а???????, ??????? ????? ?????? ????????
??????? ?????? (???????-?????? ?. ?????????? л???? ?????, ??? ? ???╗) 265
?????? ????????? ?????? ??????. ??????а? ??? ?а???????
??????-?????????????? ??????, ?????????? ?а????????????
??????, ?а????????????а? ?????? ??????. ?????? ??? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ?ал????????????
???????? ?а????????? ??????╗, ?? ?а?.???????, ??? ?? ???
????????, ??? ??????? ???????? ?? ???????? ????? ?????????? ????????????, ??? ?????? ???????????????, ????????
?? ????????? ?????????? ?а??????????? ?????????? ??????
????????. ?а?.??????????? л????????╗ ?ал???????╗ ????? ???????, ??????? ????????? ??????????? ???????, ?а???а? ???????????, ?а?????????? ?? ?? ?а???????? ??????????????,
?а?а??????? ??????????????? (??????? ????? ???????????
?а????? ???????? ?а?????? ?а??????? л?????????╗а(??., ????.:
[3, 111?114])). ????? ???????? ??????, л??? ?а???? ?????. ?а????? ?а?????? ??????????, ?а??????? ??????-?? ?????????.
?а??????? ??????? ???? ???????, ??? ?? ???????.
?а?? ????? ???????, ????? ?а???????. ????? ???? ????????.
?? ????? ?а????? ??? ?а????????, ??? ??????????. <?>
?а??? ??? ?а??? ????? ??????? ????? ????????╗ (487).
????? ????а? ??????, ?????? ???????. ?? ???????? ????
??????? ?????? ???? (?а????????????? ???????) ????????
???: л?????? ?????????, ???????? (?????? ???.а? ?.??.)╗ (486).
??? ?????? ? ???? ????????? (???????) ???????? ??????.
??? ???? ?????????? ????? ???????????? ??????а? ?????????????а ? ??????????? ?а ?????? ???????. ?? ??????
?.??.???????????, л?а?????? ???? ???? ?? ?а??????? ?????????
?????? (???????????? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ??????????, ???
???????????-???????????????, ???????? ???????, ?????? ??????? ???????), ?а?а?????? ??????? ?а?????, ?? ????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ?????╗ [6, 307]. ??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????-???????, ?а?а???????-?????? ?.??????????? ?????? ?????? (???????, ?????????
?а???????) ???? ??????, ??? ?а????, ?? ??????????????
???????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ???????, ?а????????????? ?? ????? ????????? ????? ????? ?????????? ????????????, ??? ?? ??? ????????, ??????????,
???????????? ???? ???? ?????.
266
?. ?. ????????
?а?????????????? ??????? ?а??????????????, ?а?????????
??????????? ???????????? ??????. ?а?????-?? ???? ??? ????
?а?а?.???????????, ?? ?а??????????? ??????? ??????, ??? ??
???????? ??????. ???? ?а???, ??? ?а???? ??????????? ????
(?а?????) ????????????????, ????????? ????????? ???? (???
?а?? ???????? ??????) ?? ?????, ?? ??????? ???????? ?? ????
???? ???????????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ?а???????:
л??????????, ??? ?а?????????!╗а? ?????????? ????? ?а?????????, ?а????? ????? ???????? ?а???? ???????????? ?а????? ??????. ??? ?а?а????????? ??????? ?.??????????? ?????
?????? ???????????? ?а ????????? ???????? ????????
?а?????????? ???????: ?а????????? ?????? ?? ?????, ?а??
????? ?а????? ???????????, ?а???????? ??????? ?а?.??. ???
?????????????? ??????????? ??????.
????????? ????????, ??? ?????????????? ?????????? (??
?.????????? ?а??????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ???????),
????????? ?а???????????? ??????????? ????????, ????????? ???? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????
???????????. ??? ??????? ????, ??????, ?а?????? ?.????????? л?????????? ?????????╗, ?а??????? л?????, ???????????
?а?????? ?????? (???????????? ?а????????????????, ?????????? ?а??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????.а?
?.??.), ??????????, ?а??????????, ??? ??????????? ????? ????????????? ?а??????? ????????????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ??????: ?????? ????????????? ???????╗ [2, 171].
?а??????? ?????? ?.??????????? ???? ???????????, ???????,
??? ???????, ??????????? ?а?????? ????????, ??? ??? ?????
?? ???????????, ?а??????????-????????? ????????. (????????, ??? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ??????
????????? ?????? ????????????.) ???, л???? ?? ???????? ????
??????????? ???? ??????╗, ?.??.???????? ?????????? ???:
л????? ????????????? ?а??? ???????????? ?????, ??????????????????? ?? ????????????╗ [1, 385].
?а???????-?????? л???? ?????, ??? ?а???╗ ????????????
л??????????????╗. ?.??.???????? ????? ?????: л?а???????
?????? ????????????? ????? ????? ???????????. ????? ????????????? ?а?????????????? ????????? <?> ???????????,
??????? ????????? ????? ?? ??????,а? ?????? ????????, ??
??????? ?????? (???????-?????? ?. ?????????? л???? ?????, ??? ? ???╗) 267
?? ????????????, ?? ?????????. ?????????? ????? ??????
???? ?? ???? ??? ?? ?? ????? ?????????????. <?> ?????
???????????? ?а???? ?а????????? ???? ??? ?????????, ???????? ?????????, ???????, ?????????, ?? ?????????????
??????? ???????? ?????? ?а?.а?.╗ [1, 386].
?а????????? ??????? ?.??????????? ??? ?????? ???. ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ???? ?????? ?а????????
?а?????, ?? ???? ????, ?а?????????????, ??????? ??? ?а??????????, ???? ?? ?а???????, ?а???????, ????? ??? ????? ??
??????????? ????????, ?а????????? ?? ?? ??????? ?? ?а????????? ?????????????.
?????? ?????????? ?а???????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????. ?????? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????
?????? (???? ???? ????? ??????).
л?????? ??,а? ??????????? ???? ?????.а? ?? ??? ?????
??????╗ (411). ????????? ?а????? ??? ?? ???????? ????а? ????
?? ??? ????? ???????? ???? ????? ???????????: л????????
?? ????????? ?? ?????. ?? ?????? ???? ??????.а? ???!а?
?????? ?????.а? ????? ????!╗ (412).
????? ???????????? ?а???, ??????? ??????, ??? л????? ???
????? ??????а? ???? ?????╗ (413) ?а?????????? ??????. ???????? ?????, ???????а? л????? ????? ????? ?а???????. ?? ?????? ??????а? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?а?????. ?а???
??????, ??? ?????? ???? ??????? ???????. ??? ?????, ?? ?а?????╗
(415). ????? ?а?.??????????? ????????? ????-?-???? ??? ?????
??????????? ????????? ??????. ?.??.???????? ?????: л??????
?????????? ?а?????? ?? ??????, ?а???????: ???-?? ????????? ?????
?????? ?? ??-??? ?????? ???? (?????????, ?а259)╗ [1, 387].
????? ????????, ??? ?а???????-?????? ?.??????????? л?????????????????╗ ?????????????? ?? ?????? ?а??????????, ??
?а?а?????????? ????? (???? ?? ??????, ??? ??????????????
?????????? ??????? ???????????).
?,а???????, ??? ???? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ?.???????????, ??????? ?а?????? ???????? ?????????????: ???????
?????? ?? ????? ???????????? ??? ????, ??? л???????
?????╗ ??? ???? ?а?????? ???????-???????? ?? ????? ????
л???????╗. ??????? ?? ????? ????????????? ???????????
??? ???????-?????? ?.??????????? ??? ??????? ???, ??????,
??? ????? ??????? ?а????? ????.
?. ?. ????????
268
??? ?????????, ?????? ?????, ?а?????? ????????? ???????.
?? ?????а? ????. ? ??? ?????? ?а????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ????а? л?? ????????╗. ?? ???????? ??? ?????????
???????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ???????????, ???? ????????? ??????, ?????????????? ?????????
?а??????? ?????????? (?а?а?????) ?????? л????? ??????????
?????????╗, ???????? ?а???????????, ???? ?а??????? ?????
?????????? ???????а? ?????? ???????. ?? ??????? ????
?а????: л????????? ???! ?а?????? ????????? ???? ??????
??? ?а???? ?????????? ?? ????. ?а?????? ?а????? ???????
?????. ?а?????-?????? ???????? ??????, ????? ???? ???????:
?? ????? ?????????, ?а??? ???? ????????!.. ?????????? ?а????
?????????????!..╗ (499). ?? ???????? ??? ??????? ?а???????
?????? (???? ???? ?а???? ????????? ???????????? ?а???????? ???????? ??). ???????? ???, ??? ?а??????, ??? ?? ????????, ???? ???? ?????? л?? ????????╗. ???? ???? ?а???????
?.??????????? ????????????? ?????, ?а ???? ???? ?????
???????????, ??? ??????? ?????????? ?????????.
??????????
1
???????????.??. ???? ?????, ??? ?а???а// ???????????.??. ???????? ????
?а??? ??????. ???????. ??????. ?.: ?????, 2004. ?.а407. ????? ?????? ??
??? ??????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?????? ? ????????? ?????? ????????
? ??????? ???????.
?????? ??????????
1. ?????????.??. ??????? ????????????? ??????????.а? ?.: ?????. ???.,
1971.а? 414а?.
2. ????????.??. ????????-????????? ????? ??????? ??????????.а? ?.:
???, 1986.а? 200а?.
3. ?????????.??. л?????? ???????╗ ??? ????????? ??????? ??????? ??????????а// ???????? ??????? ??????????.а? ????????????: ??????,
1984.а? ?.а111?114.
4. ????????.??. ???????? ?.??.??????? ?а????????: ????????? ??????????
??????? ??????а// ??????? ??????????? ??? ????? ?а?а?????.а? ?.,
2006.а? ???.а11.а? ?.а240?242.
5. ??????????.??. ???????????а// ?????? ?а??????????? ????????: ????????? ?????????? ??????????.а? ?.: ????????, 1991.а? ?.?3?20.
6. ???????????.??. ??????? ??????????.а? ???????: ???-?? ??????????
????????????, 1984.а? 336а?.
??????? ?????? (???????-?????? ?. ?????????? л???? ?????, ??? ? ???╗) 269
AnnaаE.аStrukova
Petrozavodsk State University
(Petrozavodsk, Russian Federation)
annaneyolova@yandex.ru
CHILDREN?S UTOPIA
(AаTale by E.аUspensky ?Uncle Fyodor,
His Dog and His Cat?)
Abstract. This article analyzes the specifics of the ?children?s? utopia based on
E.?Uspensky?s tale ?Uncle Fyodor, his Dog and his Cat?, that represents aаchildhood
dream of aаgood life, of the achievement of children?s aspirations. Theаanalysis
is conducted in comparison with the specific features of theаclassic ?adult?
utopia. The folkloristic and fairy character of Uspensky?s children?s utopia is
remarked here as well as the ?superconductivity? of its space; the role of aаgame
in the utopia; the lack of aаcommon feature of any classic utopia which is the
?absence of aаhero?. It is concluded among other things that social structure of
aаsociety, which plays the main role in the ?adult? utopia, is substituted here for
familiar to aаchild daily routines that organize existence. Special attention in
the article is given to the episode with the Sun presented to the characters by the
scientists of the Institute of Solar physics that is replete with the symbolic meaning.
In E.?Uspensky?s tale ?Uncle Fyodor, his Dog and his Cat? adult and children
levels of meaning do not exist separately but interact and penetrate one into
another.
Keywords: E.?Uspensky, utopia, children?s utopia, game, literary fairy tales,
children?s literature
References
1. Likhachev?D.?S. Poetika drevnerusskoy literatury [The Poetics of Old Russian
Literature]. Leningrad, Khudozhestvennaya literatura Publ., 1971. 414?p.
2. Neyolov?E.?M. Volshebno-skazochnye korni nauchnoy fantastiki [Magical
Fairy Tale Roots of Science Fiction]. Leningrad, Leningrad State University
Publ., 1986. 200аp.
3. Rogachev?V.?A. лPamyat? detstva╗ kak kategoriya poetiki detskoy literatury
[?Memory of Childhood? as aаCategory of Poetics of Children?s Literature].
Problemy detskoy literatury [The Problems of Children?s Literature]. Petrozavodsk, Petrozavodsk State University Publ., 1984, pp.а111?114.
4. Torshin?A.?A. Trilogiya N.?N.?Nosova oаNeznayke: nedetskoe soderzhanie
detskoy skazki [Trilogy of N.?N.?Nosov about Neznayka: Unchildish Content
of aаChildren?s Tale]. Mirovaya slovesnost? dlya detey iаoаdetyakh [World Literature for Children and about Children]. Moscow, 2006, issueа11, pp.а240?242.
5. Chalikova?V.?A. Predislovie [Introduction]. Utopiya iаutopicheskoe myshlenie:
antologiya zarubezhnoy literatury [Utopia and Utopian Thinking: Anthology
of Foreign Literature]. Moscow, Progress Publ., 1991, pp.а3?20.
6. Chernysheva?T.?A. Priroda fantastiki [Nature of The Fantastika]. Irkutsk, Irkutsk
State University Publ., 1984. 336аp.
йа??????????.??., 2016
???? ??????????? ?а????????: 20.09.2015
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