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Создание Национально-революционной армии гоминьдана и советские военные советники.

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Ƚɭɦɚɧɢɬɚɪɧɵɟ ɧɚɭɤɢ. ɂɫɬɨɪɢɹ
ɝɟɪɹɯ ɢ ɧɚɫɢɥɢɹ ɧɚɞ ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɫɤɢɦ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɟɦ – ɨɞɢɧ ɲɚɝ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɢ ɛɵɥ ɭɫɩɟɲɧɨ ɫɞɟɥɚɧ, ɩɪɢɱɟɦ ɚɪɦɢɹɦɢ ɨɛɟɢɯ ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɛɨɪɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯ ɫɬɨɪɨɧ. ɉɪɟɫɬɭɩɥɟɧɢɹ ɬɚɤɨɝɨ ɪɨɞɚ
ɫɬɨɥɶ ɫɢɥɶɧɨ ɜɡɜɨɥɧɨɜɚɥɢ ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟ
ɦɧɟɧɢɟ, ɱɬɨ ɨɧɨ ɫɬɚɥɨ ɭɫɢɥɟɧɧɨ ɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɬɶ
ɧɚɤɚɡɚɧɢɹ ɷɬɢɯ ɡɥɨɞɟɹɧɢɣ. ɉɨɞ ɬɚɤɢɦ ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɦ ɥɢɞɟɪɵ ɫɬɪɚɧ Ⱥɧɬɚɧɬɵ ɛɵɥɢ ɜɵɧɭɠɞɟɧɵ ɩɨɞɧɹɬɶ ɷɬɭ ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɭ ɧɚ ɭɪɨɜɟɧɶ
ɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜ, ɚ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɩɨɛɟɞɵ ɧɚɞ Ƚɟɪɦɚɧɢɟɣ
ɫɞɟɥɚɬɶ ɟɟ ɩɪɟɞɦɟɬɨɦ ɦɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɩɟɪɟɝɨɜɨɪɨɜ ɢ ɦɢɪɧɨɝɨ ɭɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Ɇɢɪɨɜɵɟ ɜɨɣɧɵ XX ɜɟɤɚ: ɜ 4 ɤɧ. / ɨɬɜ. ɪɟɞ.
Ƚ.Ⱦ. ɒɤɭɧɞɢɧ. Ɇ., 2002. Ʉɧ. 1. ɉɟɪɜɚɹ ɦɢɪɨɜɚɹ ɜɨɣɧɚ: ɂɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɨɱɟɪɤ. ɋ. 506.
De Baer M. // Bulletin of International News
(Royal Institute of International Affairs). V.
XXII. ʋ 3. (Feb. 1945). P. 96.
Ʉɭɪɥɹɧɞɫɤɢɣ ȼ.ɂ. // Ɍɪɭɞɵ ȼɨɟɧɧɨ-ɸɪɢɞɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɚɤɚɞɟɦɢɢ. Ɇ., 1950. ȼɵɩ. 11. ɋ. 165.
The Times. 1915. March 9, 11.
Willis J.F. Prologue to Nuremberg: The Politics
and Diplomacy of Punishing War Criminals of
the First World War. Westport, 1982. P. 31.
6.
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15.
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17.
Papers Relating to the Foreign relations of the
United States: The Lansing Papers. 1914–1920.
V. 1. Washington, 1939. P. 503-504, 527-529.
Ɋɨɦɚɧɨɜ ȼ.ȼ. ȼ ɩɨɢɫɤɚɯ ɧɨɜɨɝɨ ɦɢɪɨɩɨɪɹɞɤɚ:
ɜɧɟɲɧɟɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɦɵɫɥɶ ɋɒȺ (1913–
1921 ɝɝ.). Ɇ.; Ɍɚɦɛɨɜ, 2005. ɋ. 84-87.
Horne J., Kramer A. German Atrocities 1914: A
History of Denial. New Haven-L., 2001. P. 331.
The New York Times. 1918. Oct. 14.
Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the
United States. 1918. Supplement 1. The World
War. V. 1. Washington, 1933. P. 358-359.
The New York Times. 1918. Oct. 5.
The Times. 1918. Oct. 14.
Ʌɥɨɣɞ Ⱦɠɨɪɞɠ Ⱦ. ɉɪɚɜɞɚ ɨ ɦɢɪɧɵɯ ɞɨɝɨɜɨɪɚɯ. Ɇ., 1957. Ɍ. 1. ɋ. 91-92.
Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the
United States. 1919. Paris Peace Conference. (Ⱦɚɥɟɟ FRUS. PPC). V. I. Washington, 1942. P. 341.
Hankey M. The Supreme Control at the Paris
Peace Conference 1919. A Commentary. L.,
1963. P. 13.
FRUS. PPC. V. II. Washington, 1942. P. 76-85.
FRUS. PPC. V. III. Washington, 1943. P. 536.
ɉɨɫɬɭɩɢɥɚ ɜ ɪɟɞɚɤɰɢɸ 9.09.2006 ɝ.
ɉɪɢɧɹɬɚ ɤ ɩɟɱɚɬɢ 25.10.2006 ɝ.
ɋɈɁȾȺɇɂȿ ɇȺɐɂɈɇȺɅɖɇɈ-ɊȿȼɈɅɘɐɂɈɇɇɈɃ ȺɊɆɂɂ ȽɈɆɂɇɖȾȺɇȺ
ɂ ɋɈȼȿɌɋɄɂȿ ȼɈȿɇɇɕȿ ɋɈȼȿɌɇɂɄɂ
ɋ.ȼ. Ʉɭɪɨɯɬɢɧ
Kurokhtin S.V. Creation of National Revolutionary Army of Kuomintang and the Soviet military advisers. This article deals with creation and reform NRA of Kuomintang with the help of the Soviet military advisers and instructors in 1920th years. It also gives analysis of political and military situation in province of
Kwangtung.
Ɋɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟ ɚɫɩɟɤɬɵ ɩɨɦɨɳɢ ɋɋɋɊ Ʉɚɧɬɨɧɫɤɨɦɭ ɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɭ ɋɭɧɶ əɬɫɟɧɚ ɧɚɲɥɢ
ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨ ɩɨɥɧɨɟ ɨɬɪɚɠɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɨɬɟɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɨɝɪɚɮɢɢ. Ʉɚɡɚɥɨɫɶ ɛɵ, ɨɫɧɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɢ ɜɫɟɫɬɨɪɨɧɧɟ ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɚ ɢ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɨɜɟɬɫɤɢɯ ɫɨɜɟɬɧɢɤɨɜ ɜ ɫɬɪɚɧɟ. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ
ɜ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɬɟɦ, ɱɬɨ ɚɤɰɟɧɬ ɜ ɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɢ ɤɢɬɚɣɫɤɨɣ ɪɟɜɨɥɸɰɢɢ ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɨ ɫɦɟɳɚɥɫɹ ɧɚ
ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɋɟɜɟɪɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɯɨɞɚ, ɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɷɬɚɩ
ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɫɨɜɟɬɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɝɪɭɩɩɵ (1923 – ɧɚɱɚɥɨ
1926 ɝ.) ɨɫɬɚɟɬɫɹ ɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɜ ɬɟɧɢ. Ɂɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟ ɪɚɫɲɢɪɟɧɢɟ ɜ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟ ɝɨɞɵ ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɨɜɨɣ ɛɚɡɵ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ ɜɨɫɩɨɥɧɢɬɶ ɷɬɨɬ
ɩɪɨɛɟɥ.
134
ȼ ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɦɵɣ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɜ Ʉɢɬɚɟ ɪɨɥɶ
ɜɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɧɵɯ ɫɢɥ ɜɨ ɜɧɭɬɪɢɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ
ɞɟɥɚɯ ɛɵɥɚ ɱɪɟɡɜɵɱɚɣɧɨ ɜɟɥɢɤɚ. ɉɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɜɟɫ ɬɨɣ ɢɥɢ ɢɧɨɣ ɩɚɪɬɢɢ ɢɥɢ ɝɪɭɩɩɢɪɨɜɤɢ ɧɚɩɪɹɦɭɸ ɡɚɜɢɫɟɥ ɨɬ ɛɨɟɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɢ
ɟɟ ɜɨɣɫɤ. ȼ ɫɭɳɧɨɫɬɢ, ɤ ɦɨɦɟɧɬɭ ɩɪɢɟɡɞɚ ɫɨɜɟɬɧɢɤɨɜ ɜ Ʉɢɬɚɣ ɭ ɝɨɦɢɧɶɞɚɧɚ ɧɟ ɛɵɥɨ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɚɪɦɢɢ. ɋɭɧɶ əɬɫɟɧɭ ɤɚɤ ɝɟɧɟɪɚɥɢɫɫɢɦɭɫɭ ɮɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɨ ɩɨɞɱɢɧɹɥɨɫɶ ɧɟɦɚɥɨɟ ɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɧɚɟɦɧɵɯ ɚɪɦɢɣ, ɤɚɠɞɚɹ ɢɡ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ
ɢɦɟɥɚ ɫɜɨɸ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɭɸ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɸ ɢ
ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɭ. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɝɟɧɟɪɚɥɵ, ɧɚɯɨɞɢɜɲɢɟɫɹ
ɧɚ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢ Ƚɭɚɧɞɭɧɚ, ɜ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢ ɛɵɥɢ ɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɧɨ ɧɟɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɵ ɨɬ
ȼɟɫɬɧɢɤ ɌȽɍ, ɜɵɩɭɫɤ 1 (45), 2007
ɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ, ɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ ɤɚɠɞɚɹ ɝɪɭɩɩɚ
ɜɨɣɫɤ ɢɦɟɥɚ ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟ ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɢ ɞɨɯɨɞɨɜ.
ȼɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟ ɬɚɤɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ ɜɟɳɟɣ
ɩɪɢɤɚɡɵ ɝɥɚɜɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɦɚɧɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɥɢɫɶ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɜ ɬɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ, ɟɫɥɢ ɫɨɜɩɚɞɚɥɢ ɫ
ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚɦɢ ɢ ɠɟɥɚɧɢɹɦɢ ɤɨɦɚɧɞɭɸɳɢɯ ɚɪɦɢɹɦɢ. Ʉɚɧɬɨɧɫɤɨɟ ɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ, ɜ ɫɢɥɭ
ɫɜɨɟɣ ɜɨɟɧɧɨɣ ɫɥɚɛɨɫɬɢ, ɛɵɥɨ ɜɵɧɭɠɞɟɧɨ
ɩɪɟɞɜɚɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɵɜɚɬɶ ɫɜɨɢ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɹ
ɫ ɜɨɥɟɣ ɢ ɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚɦɢ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɝɟɧɟɪɚɥɨɜ.
Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɜ ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨɣ
ɜɨɟɧɧɨɣ ɭɝɪɨɡɵ ɫɨ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ ɫɟɜɟɪɧɵɯ ɦɢɥɢɬɚɪɢɫɬɨɜ ɢ ɧɟɧɚɞɟɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɦɟɫɬɧɵɯ ɜɨɟɧɧɵɯ
ɤɥɢɤ ɋɭɧɶ əɬɫɟɧɭ ɛɵɥɨ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɧɚɞɟɠɧɨɣ ɩɚɪɬɢɣɧɨɣ ɚɪɦɢɢ.
ɉɟɪɟɞ ɫɨɜɟɬɫɤɢɦɢ ɫɨɜɟɬɧɢɤɚɦɢ ɧɚ ɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɷɬɚɩɟ ɫɬɨɹɥɢ ɡɚɞɚɱɢ ɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɹ
ɩɪɨɜɢɧɰɢɢ Ƚɭɚɧɞɭɧ ɢ ɪɟɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɯɨɬɹ ɛɵ
ɱɚɫɬɢ ɜɨɣɫɤ, ɮɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɨ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɜɲɢɯɫɹ ɜ
ɩɨɞɱɢɧɟɧɢɢ Ʉɚɧɬɨɧɚ. ɉɨ ɦɧɟɧɢɸ ɝɥɚɜɧɨɝɨ
ɜɨɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɜɟɬɧɢɤɚ ȼ. Ʉ. Ȼɥɸɯɟɪɚ, ɢɡɴɹɬɢɟ
ɞɨɯɨɞɨɜ ɦɢɥɢɬɚɪɢɫɬɨɜ ɜ ɩɨɥɶɡɭ ɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ ɹɜɥɹɥɨɫɶ ɟɞɢɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɦɟɪɨɣ, ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɸɳɟɣ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɜɥɚɫɬɢ ɩɚɪɬɢɢ ɢ ɩɨɞɱɢɧɟɧɢɟ ɟɣ ɚɪɦɢɢ [1]. ȼ ɫɜɹɡɢ ɫ ɷɬɢɦ
ɡɚɞɚɱɢ ɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɹ ɩɪɨɜɢɧɰɢɢ ɢ ɜɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ
ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɹ ɧɚɞ ɫɨɸɡɧɵɦɢ Ʉɚɧɬɨɧɭ ɜɨɣɫɤɚɦɢ ɛɵɥɢ ɫɜɹɡɚɧɵ ɫ ɥɢɤɜɢɞɚɰɢɟɣ
ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɢ ɫɛɨɪɚ ɧɚɥɨɝɨɜ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɦɢɥɢɬɚɪɢɫɬɚɦɢ ɫ ɩɨɞɱɢɧɟɧɧɵɯ ɢɦ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɣ.
ɋɭɧɶ əɬɫɟɧ, ɫɬɪɟɦɹɫɶ ɭɫɢɥɢɬɶ ɫɜɨɟ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɜ Ƚɭɚɧɞɭɧɟ, ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɥ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɟ ɫɨɸɡɵ ɫ ɨɞɧɢɦɢ ɦɢɥɢɬɚɪɢɫɬɚɦɢ ɩɪɨɬɢɜ ɞɪɭɝɢɯ.
Ɍɚɤɨɝɨ ɪɨɞɚ ɭɫɢɥɢɹ, ɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ, ɛɵɥɢ ɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɵ ɞɥɹ ɬɨɝɨ, ɱɬɨɛɵ ɩɪɨɜɟɫɬɢ ɫɬɨɥɶ
ɪɚɞɢɤɚɥɶɧɭɸ ɦɟɪɭ ɤɚɤ ɥɢɲɟɧɢɟ ɦɢɥɢɬɚɪɢɫɬɨɜ ɮɢɧɚɧɫɨɜɨɣ ɛɚɡɵ ɢɯ ɫɚɦɨɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ,
ɚ ɢɦɟɧɧɨ ɩɪɚɜɚ ɫɛɨɪɚ ɧɚɥɨɝɨɜ. Ʉɚɧɬɨɧɫɤɨɟ
ɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ ɧɟ ɦɨɝɥɨ ɫɞɟɥɚɬɶ ɷɬɨ ɞɨ ɬɟɯ
ɩɨɪ, ɩɨɤɚ ɧɟ ɢɦɟɥɨ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɩɟɪɟɬɶɫɹ
ɧɚ ɜɟɪɧɵɟ ɟɦɭ ɜɨɣɫɤɚ. ɉɨɷɬɨɦɭ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ
ɩɚɪɬɢɣɧɨɣ ɚɪɦɢɢ, ɞɚɠɟ ɧɟɫɦɨɬɪɹ ɧɚ ɟɟ ɦɚɥɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɧɚ ɩɟɪɜɵɯ ɩɨɪɚɯ, ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɫɱɢɬɚɬɶ ɜɚɠɧɵɦ ɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɟɦ – ɧɚɥɢɱɢɟ ɷɬɨɣ
ɫɢɥɵ ɞɟɥɚɥɨ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɬɚɤɬɢɤɭ ɥɚɜɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɝɨɦɢɧɶɞɚɧɨɜɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ ɦɟɠɞɭ
ɪɚɡɧɵɦɢ ɦɢɥɢɬɚɪɢɫɬɚɦɢ ɢ, ɜ ɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɦ ɫɱɟɬɟ,
ɜɟɥɨ ɜ ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɟ ɤ ɭɫɢɥɟɧɢɸ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɹ ɝɨɦɢɧɶɞɚɧɚ ɧɚɞ ɫɨɸɡɧɵɦɢ ɜɨɣɫɤɚɦɢ.
Ɉɞɧɢɦ ɢɡ ɩɟɪɜɵɯ ɲɚɝɨɜ ɧɚ ɩɭɬɢ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɩɚɪɬɢɣɧɨɣ ɚɪɦɢɢ ɫɬɚɥɨ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ
ɜɨɟɧɧɨɣ ɲɤɨɥɵ ȼɚɦɩɭ. ɇɚ ɟɟ ɛɚɡɟ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɥɨɫɶ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɧɨɜɵɯ ɱɚɫɬɟɣ, ɩɨɫɬɪɨ-
ɟɧɧɵɯ ɧɚ ɪɟɝɭɥɹɪɧɵɯ ɧɚɱɚɥɚɯ. ɉɟɪɟɞ ɲɤɨɥɨɣ
ɫɬɚɜɢɥɚɫɶ ɡɚɞɚɱɚ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɬɶ ɚɪɦɢɸ ɤɨɦɚɧɞɧɵɦ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɨɦ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɜ ɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɟɦ, ɩɨɩɚɞɚɹ ɜ ɜɨɣɫɤɚ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯ ɝɟɧɟɪɚɥɨɜ, ɩɨɦɨɝ ɛɵ
ɷɬɢ ɜɨɣɫɤɚ «ɪɟɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɫɧɢɡɭ» [2].
ɂɦɟɧɧɨ ɱɚɫɬɢ ȼɚɦɩɭ ɫɵɝɪɚɥɢ ɪɟɲɚɸɳɭɸ
ɪɨɥɶ ɜ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɯ ɩɨɛɟɞɚɯ Ʉɚɧɬɨɧɫɤɨɝɨ
ɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ ɢ ɩɨɫɥɭɠɢɥɢ ɨɫɧɨɜɨɣ ɞɥɹ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɇɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨ-ɪɟɜɨɥɸɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɚɪɦɢɢ
(ɇɊȺ) ɝɨɦɢɧɶɞɚɧɚ. Ɉɬɦɟɬɢɦ ɬɚɤɠɟ, ɱɬɨ ɤɚɤ
ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɲɤɨɥɵ, ɬɚɤ ɢ ɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚ ɨɛɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɜ ɧɟɣ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɢɫɶ ɩɨɞ ɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦ ɪɭɤɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɨɦ ɫɨɜɟɬɫɤɢɯ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɫɬɨɜ.
ɋ ɫɚɦɨɝɨ ɨɬɤɪɵɬɢɹ ɲɤɨɥɵ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɚɹ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɚɹ ɢ ɭɱɟɛɧɚɹ ɪɚɛɨɬɚ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɚɫɶ
ɢɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɨɪɚɦɢ
ȼ.ȿ. ɉɨɥɹɤɨɦ,
Ⱥ.ɂ. ɑɟɪɟɩɚɧɨɜɵɦ ɢ ɇ.ɂ. Ɍɟɪɟɲɚɬɨɜɵɦ.
ɋɢɫɬɟɦɚ ɨɛɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɤɭɪɫɚɧɬɨɜ ɢ ɭɱɟɛɧɵɟ ɩɪɨɝɪɚɦɦɵ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɚɬɵɜɚɥɢɫɶ ɫɨɜɦɟɫɬɧɨ ɪɭɫɫɤɢɦɢ ɢ ɤɢɬɚɣɫɤɢɦɢ ɩɪɟɩɨɞɚɜɚɬɟɥɹɦɢ ɫ ɭɱɟɬɨɦ
ɫɨɜɟɬɫɤɨɝɨ ɛɨɟɜɨɝɨ ɨɩɵɬɚ ɩɟɪɜɨɣ ɦɢɪɨɜɨɣ
ɜɨɣɧɵ ɢ ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɫɤɨɣ ɜɨɣɧɵ. ɉɪɢɛɵɬɢɟ ɜ
Ƚɭɚɧɞɭɧ ɜ ɨɤɬɹɛɪɟ 1924 ɝ. ɛɨɥɶɲɨɣ ɝɪɭɩɩɵ
ɫɨɜɟɬɧɢɤɨɜ ɜɨ ɝɥɚɜɟ ɫ ȼ. Ʉ. Ȼɥɸɯɟɪɨɦ –
Ɍ.Ⱥ. Ȼɟɫɫɱɚɫɬɧɨɜɚ, Ƚ.ɂ. Ƚɢɥɟɜɚ, Ɇ.ə. Ƚɦɢɪɵ,
ɂ.ə. Ɂɟɧɟɤɚ (Ɂɟɦɛɪɨɜɫɤɨɝɨ), Ɏ.Ƚ. Ɇɚɰɟɣɥɢɤɚ,
ɂ.ɇ. Ɂɢɥɶɛɟɪɬɚ, ə. ɉɨɥɥɨ, ȼ.ɉ. Ɋɨɝɚɱɟɜɚ,
ɂ.Ʉ. Ɇɚɦɚɟɜɚ, ȿ.Ⱥ. əɤɨɜɥɟɜɚ ɢ ɞɪ. – ɜɨ ɦɧɨɝɨɦ ɨɛɥɟɝɱɢɥɨ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɸ ɭɱɟɛɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚ ɜ ɲɤɨɥɟ. ɉɚɪɚɥɥɟɥɶɧɨ ɫ ɪɨɫɬɨɦ ɲɤɨɥɵ
ɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɜɚɥɚɫɶ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɬɚɤ ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɦɵɯ
«ɩɚɪɬɢɣɧɵɯ ɜɨɣɫɤ» – ɨɬ ɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɩɨɥɤɚ ɞɨ ɞɢɜɢɡɢɢ. ɗɬɨ ɞɚɥɨ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɋɭɧɶ əɬɫɟɧɭ
ɨɛɪɟɫɬɢ ɪɟɚɥɶɧɭɸ ɫɢɥɭ, ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɜɲɭɸ ɧɚɜɨɞɢɬɶ ɩɨɪɹɞɨɤ ɜ Ʉɚɧɬɨɧɟ ɢ Ƚɭɚɧɞɭɧɟ ɢ ɤɨɧɫɨɥɢɞɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɨɛɨɪɨɧɭ ɩɪɨɜɢɧɰɢɢ [3].
ɒɤɨɥɚ ȼɚɦɩɭ ɫɵɝɪɚɥɚ ɜɵɞɚɸɳɭɸɫɹ
ɪɨɥɶ ɜ ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɟ ɧɨɜɨɣ ɚɪɦɢɢ. Ɉɧɚ ɛɵɥɚ
ɫɨɡɞɚɧɚ ɜ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɟ ɫ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɟɦ I ɤɨɧɝɪɟɫɫɚ ɝɨɦɢɧɶɞɚɧɚ ɩɪɢ ɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ
ɩɨɦɨɳɢ ɋɨɜɟɬɫɤɨɝɨ ɋɨɸɡɚ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɜɵɞɟɥɢɥ ɧɚ ɷɬɢ ɰɟɥɢ 900 ɬɵɫ. ɪɭɛ., ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɜɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɟ ɢ ɛɨɟɩɪɢɩɚɫɵ [4].
ɋɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɨɬɦɟɬɢɬɶ, ɱɬɨ, ɩɨɦɢɦɨ ȼɚɦɩɭ,
ɫɨɜɟɬɫɤɢɟ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɫɬɵ ɪɚɛɨɬɚɥɢ ɜ ɸɧɶɧɚɧɶɫɤɨɣ, ɝɭɚɧɫɢɣɫɤɨɣ ɢ ɯɭɧɚɧɶɫɤɨɣ ɜɨɟɧɧɵɯ
ɲɤɨɥɚɯ. ɂɡ ɞɨɤɥɚɞɨɜ ɫɨɜɟɬɧɢɤɨɜ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ, ɱɬɨ
ɢɦɟɧɧɨ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɜɨɟɧɧɵɟ ɲɤɨɥɵ, ɪɭɤɨɜɨɞɢɦɵɟ
ɢɡ ɨɞɧɨɝɨ ɭɱɟɛɧɨɝɨ ɰɟɧɬɪɚ (ɢɧɫɩɟɤɰɢɹ ɜɨɟɧɧɨ-ɭɱɟɛɧɵɯ ɡɚɜɟɞɟɧɢɣ), ɢɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɨɪɵ ɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɵɜɚɥɢ ɩɨɥɭɱɢɬɶ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɜɥɢɹɬɶ ɧɚ
ɩɨɞɝɨɬɨɜɤɭ ɜɫɟɣ ɚɪɦɢɢ [2, ɞ. 8, ɥ. 19].
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Ƚɭɦɚɧɢɬɚɪɧɵɟ ɧɚɭɤɢ. ɂɫɬɨɪɢɹ
ɉɨɫɥɟ ɬɨɝɨ ɤɚɤ Ʉɚɧɬɨɧɫɤɨɟ ɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ, ɩɨɥɭɱɢɜ ɜ ɫɜɨɟ ɪɚɫɩɨɪɹɠɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɤɚ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɭɸ, ɧɨ ɜɟɪɧɭɸ ɢ ɛɨɟɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɭɸ ɩɚɪɬɢɣɧɭɸ ɚɪɦɢɸ, ɭɤɪɟɩɢɥɨ ɫɜɨɢ ɩɨɡɢɰɢɢ ɜ
ɩɪɨɜɢɧɰɢɢ Ƚɭɚɧɞɭɧ, ɫɨɜɟɬɫɤɢɟ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɫɬɵ
ɩɪɢɫɬɭɩɢɥɢ ɤ ɲɢɪɨɤɨɣ ɪɟɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɫɨɸɡɧɵɯ ɚɪɦɢɣ. ɉɟɪɟɞ ɫɨɜɟɬɧɢɤɚɦɢ ɛɵɥɢ ɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɡɚɞɚɱɢ: ɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɟ ɢ ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɮɢɧɚɧɫɨɜɨɝɨ ɚɩɩɚɪɚɬɚ ɜ ɪɭɤɚɯ
ɩɚɪɬɢɢ ɢ ɢɡɴɹɬɢɟ ɧɚɥɨɝɨɜ ɢ ɩɪɨɱɢɯ ɫɬɚɬɟɣ
ɞɨɯɨɞɚ ɢɡ ɪɭɤ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɝɟɧɟɪɚɥɨɜ, ɜɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ
ɟɞɢɧɵɯ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɮɨɪɦ, ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɵɯ ɲɬɚɬɨɜ, ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ
ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɫɧɚɛɠɟɧɢɹ ɚɪɦɢɢ.
Ɉɞɧɢɦ ɢɡ ɝɥɚɜɧɵɯ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜ, ɫɬɨɹɜɲɢɯ
ɩɟɪɟɞ ɫɨɜɟɬɫɤɢɦɢ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɫɬɚɦɢ, ɛɵɥɚ ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɜɨɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɦɚɧɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ. ɂɡ ɞɨɤɥɚɞɨɜ ɫɨɜɟɬɧɢɤɨɜ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ, ɱɬɨ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ ɝɟɧɟɪɚɥɨɜ, ɜɨɡɝɥɚɜɥɹɸɳɢɯ ɫɜɨɢ ɚɪɦɢɢ, ɩɨɱɬɢ ɢɫɱɟɪɩɵɜɚɥɢɫɶ ɥɢɱɧɨɫɬɧɵɦɢ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹɦɢ – ɫɬɪɨɝɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɭ ɫɭɛɨɪɞɢɧɚɰɢɢ
ɧɟ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɥɨ. Ƚɟɧɟɪɚɥɵ ɧɟ ɛɵɥɢ ɩɨɞɱɢɧɟɧɵ ɞɪɭɝ ɞɪɭɝɭ ɢ ɥɢɲɶ ɮɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɨ ɩɨɞɱɢɧɹɥɢɫɶ ɋɭɧɶ əɬɫɟɧɭ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɧɨɫɢɥ ɬɢɬɭɥ
ɝɟɧɟɪɚɥɢɫɫɢɦɭɫɚ.
Ⱦɥɹ ɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɹ ɪɭɤɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɜɫɟɦɢ ɚɪɦɢɹɦɢ ɩɨ ɢɧɢɰɢɚɬɢɜɟ ȼ.Ʉ. Ȼɥɸɯɟɪɚ ɩɪɢ Ʉɚɧɬɨɧɫɤɨɦ ɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɟ ɛɵɥ ɫɨɡɞɚɧ ȼɨɟɧɧɵɣ
ɫɨɜɟɬ, ɧɚ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ ɜɨɡɥɚɝɚɥɢɫɶ ɡɚɞɚɱɢ Ƚɥɚɜɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɦɚɧɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ. ɉɨ ɦɧɟɧɢɸ Ⱥ.ɂ. Ʉɚɪɬɭɧɨɜɨɣ, ɷɬɨɬ ɨɪɝɚɧ ɫɵɝɪɚɥ ɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɭɸ
ɪɨɥɶ ɜ ɪɟɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɢ ɢ ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɟ ɚɪɦɢɢ Ʉɚɧɬɨɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ [5]. ɂɡ ɞɨɤɥɚɞɚ ɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɢɤɚ ɸɠɧɨ-ɤɢɬɚɣɫɤɨɣ ɝɪɭɩɩɵ
ɇ.ȼ. Ʉɭɣɛɵɲɟɜɚ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ, ɱɬɨ ɡɚ ɤɨɪɨɬɤɢɣ
ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɫɜɨɟɝɨ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹ ȼɨɟɧɧɵɣ ɫɨɜɟɬ
ɭɫɩɟɥ ɡɚɜɨɟɜɚɬɶ ɚɜɬɨɪɢɬɟɬ ɭ ɫɬɚɪɨɝɨ ɤɨɦɚɧɞɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɚ ɚɪɦɢɣ. ɉɨ ɟɝɨ ɫɥɨɜɚɦ, ɢɥɥɸɫɬɪɚɰɢɟɣ ɷɬɨɦɭ ɹɜɥɟɧɢɸ ɦɨɠɟɬ ɫɥɭɠɢɬɶ ɬɨ, ɱɬɨ
ɝɟɧɟɪɚɥɵ ɫɨ ɜɫɟɦɢ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɸɳɢɦɢ ɭ ɧɢɯ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɚɦɢ, ɢɧɨɣ ɪɚɡ ɢ ɦɟɥɤɢɦɢ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɦɨɝɥɢ
ɛɵ ɛɵɬɶ ɪɚɡɪɟɲɟɧɵ ɢɦɢ ɫɚɦɢɦɢ ɢɥɢ Ƚɥɚɜɧɵɦ ɲɬɚɛɨɦ, ɨɛɪɚɳɚɥɢɫɶ ɜ ȼɨɟɧɧɵɣ ɫɨɜɟɬ. ȼ
ɞɨɤɥɚɞɟ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɨɬɦɟɱɚɟɬɫɹ, ɱɬɨ ɱɟɪɟɡ ȼɨɟɧɧɵɣ ɫɨɜɟɬ ɩɪɨɯɨɞɢɥɨ ɭɬɜɟɪɠɞɟɧɢɟ ɜɫɟɯ ɨɩɟɪɚɬɢɜɧɵɯ ɩɥɚɧɨɜ ɜɨɟɧɧɵɯ ɤɚɦɩɚɧɢɣ. ɋɨɜɟɬ
ɬɚɤɠɟ ɪɚɡɪɟɲɚɥ ɜɫɟ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɢɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɜɨɩɪɨɫɵ, ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɟ ɫ ɪɟɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɟɣ ɢ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɚɪɦɢɣ, ɢɯ ɫɧɚɛɠɟɧɢɟɦ ɢ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɪɚɛɨɬɨɣ ɜ ɧɢɯ [2, ɞ. 13, ɥ. 25].
ɉɟɪɜɨɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɨ ɉɨɥɢɬɛɸɪɨ ɐɂɄ ɝɨɦɢɧɶɞɚɧɚ ɜɤɥɸɱɢɥɨ ɜ ɫɨɫɬɚɜ ȼɨɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɜɟɬɚ ȼɚɧ ɐɡɢɧɜɷɹ, ɋɸɣ ɑɭɧɱɠɢ, Ʌɹɨ ɑɠɭɧɤɚɹ,
136
ɏɭ ɏɚɧɶɦɢɧɹ, Ɍɚɧɶ əɧɶɤɚɹ, ɑɚɧ Ʉɚɣɲɢ, ɑɠɭ
ɉɷɣɞɷ, ɍ ɑɚɨɲɭ ɢ ȼ.Ʉ. Ȼɥɸɯɟɪɚ [5, ɫ. 52].
ɉɨɫɥɟ ɨɬɴɟɡɞɚ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɟɝɨ ɜ ȼɨɟɧɧɵɣ ɫɨɜɟɬ ɜ
ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɵɯ ɱɥɟɧɨɜ ɜɨɲɥɢ ɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɢɤ
Ƚɥɚɜɧɨɝɨ ɲɬɚɛɚ ȼ.ɉ. Ɋɨɝɚɱɟɜ ɢ ɫɬɚɪɲɢɣ ɫɨɜɟɬɧɢɤ ɉɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɂ.ə. Ɋɚɡɝɨɧ (Ɉɥɶɝɢɧ) [2, ɞ. 13, ɥ. 26]. Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ,
ɦɨɠɧɨ ɤɨɧɫɬɚɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨɟ ɩɪɢɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟ ɫɨɜɟɬɫɤɢɯ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɫɬɨɜ ɜ ȼɨɟɧɧɨɦ ɫɨɜɟɬɟ ɢ ɢɯ ɡɧɚɱɢɦɭɸ ɪɨɥɶ ɜ ɩɪɢɧɹɬɢɢ ɤɥɸɱɟɜɵɯ
ɪɟɲɟɧɢɣ ɷɬɢɦ ɨɪɝɚɧɨɦ.
ȼɬɨɪɵɦ ɩɨ ɜɚɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɜɨɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɤɨɦɚɧɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɹɜɥɹɥɫɹ ɜɨɩɪɨɫ
ɪɟɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɱɚɫɬɟɣ ɫɨɸɡɧɵɯ Ʉɚɧɬɨɧɭ ɚɪɦɢɣ. Ⱦɥɹ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɟɞɢɧɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɢ ɫɧɚɛɠɟɧɢɹ Ʉɚɧɬɨɧɫɤɨɦɭ ɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɭ ɛɵɥɨ ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɶ ɬɜɟɪɞɭɸ
ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ ɜɨɣɫɤ. Ɍɚɤɠɟ ɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɥɨɫɶ ɩɪɢɞɚɬɶ ɫɨɸɡɧɵɦ ɚɪɦɢɹɦ ɟɞɢɧɵɟ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɮɨɪɦɵ. ɋɨɜɟɬɫɤɢɦɢ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɫɬɚɦɢ ɛɵɥɢ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɚɧɵ ɲɬɚɬɧɵɟ ɪɚɫɩɢɫɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɩɪɢɦɟɪɧɚɹ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɚɹ ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚ ɚɪɦɢɣ. ȼ
ɟɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɭ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɚ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ ɤɨɪɩɭɫɨɜ, ɫɨɫɬɨɹɳɢɯ ɢɡ ɞɢɜɢɡɢɣ, ɩɨɥɤɨɜ ɢ ɬ. ɞ. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɧɚ
ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɟ ɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɟ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɤɚɠɞɨɣ ɚɪɦɢɢ ɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɥɨ ɩɪɟɞɜɚɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ ɞɨɝɨɜɨɪɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɫ ɟɟ ɝɟɧɟɪɚɥɨɦ. ɗɬɢ
ɩɟɪɟɝɨɜɨɪɵ ɜɟɥɢɫɶ ɢɫɤɥɸɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɝɥɚɜɧɵɦ
ɜɨɟɧɧɵɦ ɫɨɜɟɬɧɢɤɨɦ. ɉɪɢ ɷɬɨɦ ɤɚɠɞɵɣ ɤɨɦɚɧɞɭɸɳɢɣ, ɤɚɠɞɚɹ ɝɪɭɩɩɚ ɜɨɣɫɤ ɫɬɪɟɦɢɥɢɫɶ ɜɵɝɨɜɨɪɢɬɶ ɫɟɛɟ ɢ ɛɨɥɶɲɭɸ ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ, ɢ ɛɨɥɶɲɭɸ ɫɜɨɛɨɞɭ ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɟɣ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ [1, ɫ. 455].
Ʉ ɫɟɪɟɞɢɧɟ 1925 ɝ. ɜɨɩɪɨɫ ɨ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɢ
ɧɨɜɨɣ ɪɟɜɨɥɸɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɚɪɦɢɢ ɜ Ƚɭɚɧɞɭɧɟ ɜɫɟ
ɟɳɟ
ɫɬɨɹɥ
ɨɫɬɪɨ.
ɉɨ
ɦɧɟɧɢɸ
Ɋ. Ⱥ. Ɇɢɪɨɜɢɰɤɨɣ, ɤɢɬɚɣɫɤɨɟ ɤɨɦɚɧɞɨɜɚɧɢɟ
ɜ ɷɬɨɬ ɩɟɪɢɨɞ ɩɨ-ɩɪɟɠɧɟɦɭ ɞɟɪɠɚɥɨ ɤɭɪɫ ɧɟ
ɧɚ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɇɨɜɨɣ ɟɞɢɧɨɣ ɚɪɦɢɢ, ɚ ɧɚ ɪɟɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɸ ɫɬɚɪɵɯ ɱɚɫɬɟɣ [6]. Ⱦɥɹ ɪɟɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɱɚɫɬɟɣ ɫɨɡɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɤɨɦɢɫɫɢɹ ɞɥɹ ɤɚɠɞɨɝɨ ɤɨɪɩɭɫɚ ɢɥɢ ɞɢɜɢɡɢɢ ɜ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɟ ɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɢɤɚ
Ƚɥɚɜɧɨɝɨ ɲɬɚɛɚ, ɤɨɦɚɧɞɢɪɚ ɪɟɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɭɟɦɨɝɨ
ɤɨɪɩɭɫɚ ɢɥɢ ɞɢɜɢɡɢɢ ɢ ɫɨɫɬɨɹɳɟɝɨ ɩɪɢ ɧɢɯ
ɪɭɫɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɨɜɟɬɧɢɤɚ.
ɋɨ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ ɝɟɧɟɪɚɥɢɬɟɬɚ ɛɵɥɨ ɩɨɥɭɱɟɧɨ
ɮɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɢɟ ɧɚ ɜɫɟ ɦɟɪɨɩɪɢɹɬɢɹ
ɩɚɪɬɢɢ. Ɋɟɚɥɶɧɨ ɠɟ ɧɟɦɚɥɚɹ ɱɚɫɬɶ ɝɟɧɟɪɚɥɨɜ
ɛɵɥɚ ɧɚɫɬɪɨɟɧɚ ɩɪɨɬɢɜ ɜɫɹɤɢɯ ɧɨɜɨɜɜɟɞɟɧɢɣ
ɜ ɢɯ ɱɚɫɬɹɯ. Ɋɚɡɭɦɟɟɬɫɹ, ɫɚɦɵɦ ɬɪɭɞɧɵɦ ɞɥɹ
ɧɢɯ ɛɵɥɨ ɩɪɢɦɢɪɢɬɶɫɹ ɫ ɥɢɲɟɧɢɟɦ ɩɪɚɜɚ ɧɚ
ɫɚɦɨɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ ɫɛɨɪ ɧɚɥɨɝɨɜ ɫ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɢ
ɫ ɭɱɪɟɠɞɟɧɢɟɦ ɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɬɚ ɩɨɥɢɬɤɨɦɢɫɫɚɪɨɜ.
ȼɟɫɬɧɢɤ ɌȽɍ, ɜɵɩɭɫɤ 1 (45), 2007
ɇɚ ɷɬɨɣ ɩɨɱɜɟ ɜ ɜɨɣɫɤɚɯ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɟɬ ɫɢɥɶɧɚɹ
ɨɩɩɨɡɢɰɢɹ ɧɨɜɨɜɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɦ ɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ.
Ɋɟɚɤɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ ɝɟɧɟɪɚɥɵ ɩɨɥɭɱɚɸɬ ɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɭ
ɜ ɥɢɰɟ ɩɪɚɜɨɝɨ ɤɪɵɥɚ ɝɨɦɢɧɶɞɚɧɚ ɢ Ƚɨɧɤɨɧɝɚ
[2, ɞ. 13, ɥ. 3].
ȼ ɧɟɧɚɞɟɠɧɵɯ ɜɨɣɫɤɨɜɵɯ ɱɚɫɬɹɯ ɫ ɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ ɫɨɜɟɬɧɢɤɨɜ ɛɵɥɚ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɨɜɚɧɚ
ɤɨɧɬɪɩɪɨɩɚɝɚɧɞɢɫɬɫɤɚɹ ɪɚɛɨɬɚ ɩɨ ɢɯ ɞɟɦɨɪɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ. Ⱥɪɦɢɢ, ɨɬɤɪɵɬɨ ɫɨɩɪɨɬɢɜɥɹɜɲɢɟɫɹ
ɪɟɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ, ɛɵɥɢ ɪɚɡɨɪɭɠɟɧɵ ɢ ɪɚɫɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɵ. Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɨɦ ɛɵɥɢ ɥɢɤɜɢɞɢɪɨɜɚɧɵ ɫɧɚɱɚɥɚ ɸɧɶɧɚɧɶɫɤɚɹ ɚɪɦɢɹ əɧ ɋɢɦɢɧɹ
ɢ ɝɭɚɧɫɢɣɫɤɚɹ Ʌɸ ɑɠɷɧɶɯɭɚɧɹ, ɚ ɡɚɬɟɦ –
ɝɭɚɧɞɭɧɫɤɚɹ ɚɪɦɢɹ ɋɸɣ ɑɭɧɱɠɢ. Ɉɫɬɚɥɶɧɵɟ
ɦɟɥɤɢɟ ɦɢɥɢɬɚɪɢɫɬɫɤɢɟ ɝɪɭɩɩɢɪɨɜɤɢ ɜɵɧɭɠɞɟɧɵ ɛɵɥɢ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɢɬɶɫɹ ɧɚ ɩɨɞɱɢɧɟɧɢɟ ɤɨɦɚɧɞɨɜɚɧɢɸ ɜ ɥɢɰɟ ȼɨɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɜɟɬɚ ɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ ɢ ɧɚ ɩɟɪɟɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ [4, ɫ. 66].
ȼ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ ɪɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɟɧɧɵɯ ɩɪɟɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɣ ɭɞɚɥɨɫɶ ɫɜɟɫɬɢ ɜɟɪɧɵɟ ɝɨɦɢɧɶɞɚɧɭ
ɜɨɣɫɤɚ ɜ ɤɨɪɩɭɫɚ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ, ɨɞɧɚɤɨ, ɨɫɬɚɜɚɥɢɫɶ ɜɟɫɶɦɚ ɪɚɡɧɨɤɚɥɢɛɟɪɧɵɦɢ ɩɨ ɫɜɨɟɣ
ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ, ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɢ ɜɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɸ
[2, ɞ. 22, ɥ. 12]. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ
ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɫɧɚɛɠɟɧɢɹ ɭɠɟ ɹɜɥɹɥɢɫɶ ɛɨɥɶɲɢɦ ɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɹɦɢ. Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɤ ɤɨɧɰɭ
1925 ɝ. ɛɵɥɢ ɩɨɥɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɫɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɵ (ɬɨɱɧɟɟ – ɛɨɥɶɲɟɣ ɱɚɫɬɶɸ ɩɟɪɟɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɵ ɢɡ
ɦɢɥɢɬɚɪɢɫɬɫɤɢɯ ɜɨɣɫɤ) ɲɟɫɬɶ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯ ɤɨɪɩɭɫɨɜ ɇɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨ-ɪɟɜɨɥɸɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ ɚɪɦɢɢ
(ɇɊȺ). Ɋɭɤɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɨ ɪɟɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɨɜɚɧɧɨɣ ɚɪɦɢɟɣ ɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɥ ȼɨɟɧɧɵɣ ɫɨɜɟɬ ɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ; ɢɫɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦ ɨɪɝɚɧɨɦ ȼɨɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɜɟɬɚ ɛɵɥ Ƚɥɚɜɧɵɣ ɲɬɚɛ ɇɊȺ.
ɉɨ ɪɟɲɟɧɢɸ ɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ ɛɵɥɨ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɨ ɐɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɟ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɫɧɚɛɠɟɧɢɹ ɚɪɦɢɢ. ɗɬɨ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɥɭɱɚɥɨ ɨɬ ɦɢɧɢɫɬɟɪɫɬɜɚ ɮɢɧɚɧɫɨɜ ɞɟɧɟɠɧɵɟ ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚ ɢ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɹɥɨ ɢɯ ɱɚɫɬɹɦ, ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɡɚɧɢɦɚɥɨɫɶ ɭɱɟɬɨɦ
ɜɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɢɹ, ɫɧɚɪɹɠɟɧɢɹ ɢ ɩɪɨɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɢɹ.
Ɍɚɤɢɦ ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ, ɮɢɧɚɧɫɨɜɚɹ ɛɚɡɚ ɇɊȺ ɛɵɥɚ
ɫɬɪɨɝɨ ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɢɡɨɜɚɧɚ [7].
ɉɨ ɧɚɫɬɨɹɧɢɸ ɫɨɜɟɬɧɢɤɨɜ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɥ
ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞ ɢ ɤ ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɢɡɨɜɚɧɧɨɣ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɟ ɩɨɞɝɨɬɨɜɤɢ ɢ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɬɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɨɮɢɰɟɪɫɤɨɝɨ ɤɨɪɩɭɫɚ ɇɊȺ, ɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ ɪɚɧɟɟ ɩɨɞɛɨɪ ɨɮɢɰɟɪɨɜ
ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɥɫɹ ɥɢɱɧɵɦɢ ɩɪɢɫɬɪɚɫɬɢɹɦɢ ɤɨɦɚɧɞɢɪɨɜ ɱɚɫɬɟɣ, ɱɬɨ ɫɧɢɠɚɥɨ ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɤɚɞɪɨɜɨɝɨ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɚ ɚɪɦɢɣ [7, ɫ. 25].
ɂɡ ɞɨɤɥɚɞɚ ɫɨɜɟɬɧɢɤɚ ȼ.ɇ. ɉɚɧɸɤɨɜɚ
(Ʉɨɦɢ) ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ, ɱɬɨ ɩɨɫɥɟ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɨɣ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɫɨɜɟɬɫɤɢɯ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɫɬɨɜ ɤɨɪɩɭɫɚ ɜ ɰɟɥɨɦ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɨ ɨɤɪɟɩɥɢ ɢ ɭɥɨɠɢɥɢɫɶ ɜ
ɲɬɚɬɧɵɟ ɢ ɛɸɞɠɟɬɧɵɟ ɧɨɪɦɵ. ȼ ɧɢɯ ɛɵɥɚ
ɧɚɥɚɠɟɧɚ ɲɬɚɛɧɚɹ ɪɚɛɨɬɚ [2, ɞ. 29, ɥ. 178].
ȼ ɨɬɱɟɬɚɯ ɫɨɜɟɬɧɢɤɨɜ ɨɬɦɟɱɚɥɨɫɶ ɬɚɤɠɟ,
ɱɬɨ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɪɭɫɫɤɢɯ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɨɪɨɜ ɜ ɤɨɪɩɭɫɚɯ ɛɵɥɨ ɩɪɨɱɧɵɦ, ɚ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ ɫ ɤɨɦɚɧɞɢɪɚɦɢ – ɤɚɤ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɨ, ɯɨɪɨɲɢɦɢ [2, ɞ. 29, ɥ. 42].
Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ ɜ ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɫɥɭɱɚɹɯ ɯɨɪɨɲɟɟ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟ ɤ ɫɨɜɟɬɫɤɢɦ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɫɬɚɦ ɫɨ ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵ
ɨɮɢɰɟɪɨɜ ɨɛɴɹɫɧɹɥɨɫɶ ɬɟɦ, ɱɬɨ ɨɧɢ ɧɚɞɟɹɥɢɫɶ ɩɪɨɞɟɦɨɧɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ ɬɟɦ ɫɚɦɵɦ ɫɜɨɸ
ɥɨɹɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɭ ɢ «ɩɨɥɭɱɢɬɶ ɱɬɨɧɢɛɭɞɶ ɨɬ ɪɭɫɫɤɢɯ ɞɥɹ ɫɜɨɟɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ» [2, ɞ. 29,
ɥ. 164]. Ɉɬɦɟɱɚɥɨɫɶ ɬɚɤɠɟ, ɱɬɨ ɜ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢ
ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɦɟɪɨɩɪɢɹɬɢɣ, ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɚɧɧɵɯ
ɫɨɜɟɬɧɢɤɚɦɢ, ɤɨɦɚɧɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɜɧɚɱɚɥɟ ɨɛɵɱɧɨ
ɛɵɜɚɥɢ ɨɫɬɨɪɨɠɧɵ, ɨɞɧɚɤɨ ɩɨɫɬɟɩɟɧɧɨ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɹ ɢɡɦɟɧɢɥɚɫɶ ɤ ɥɭɱɲɟɦɭ – ɭɞɚɥɨɫɶ ɞɨɫɬɢɱɶ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɭɪɨɜɧɹ ɜɡɚɢɦɨɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹ ɢ ɞɨɜɟɪɢɹ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɤɨɦɚɧɞɧɵɦ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɨɦ
ɱɚɫɬɟɣ ɢ ɫɨɜɟɬɫɤɢɦɢ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɫɬɚɦɢ. Ɍɟɦ ɧɟ
ɦɟɧɟɟ, ɤɚɤ ɨɬɦɟɱɚɸɬ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɨɪɵ, ɧɟ ɜɫɟɝɞɚ
ɢ ɧɟ ɜɫɟ ɢɯ ɫɨɜɟɬɵ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɢɫɶ ɜ ɠɢɡɧɶ ɰɟɥɢɤɨɦ [2, ɞ. 29, ɥ. 249].
ɉɪɨɰɟɫɫ ɪɟɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɜɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɧɵɯ
ɫɢɥ Ʉɚɧɬɨɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ ɤ ɧɚɱɚɥɭ
1926 ɝ. ɛɵɥ ɟɳɟ ɞɚɥɟɤ ɨɬ ɡɚɜɟɪɲɟɧɢɹ, ɯɨɬɹ
ɮɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɨ ɇɊȺ ɫɱɢɬɚɥɚɫɶ ɟɞɢɧɨɣ. ɋɟɩɚɪɚɬɢɡɦ ɜ ɤɨɪɩɭɫɚɯ, ɫɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯ ɢɡ ɛɵɜɲɢɯ ɫɨɸɡɧɵɯ ɚɪɦɢɣ, ɧɟ ɛɵɥ ɨɤɨɧɱɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ
ɢɡɠɢɬ. ɏɨɬɹ ɩɪɨɜɢɧɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɧɚɡɜɚɧɢɹ ɜɨɣɫɤ
ɛɵɥɢ ɭɩɪɚɡɞɧɟɧɵ, ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɢ ɡɟɦɥɹɱɟɫɬɜɚ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɹɥɢɫɶ ɫɪɟɞɢ ɨɮɢɰɟɪɨɜ ɢ ɫɨɥɞɚɬ. Ɉɮɢɰɟɪɵ ɯɭɧɶɧɚɧɶɰɵ ɬɹɝɨɬɟɥɢ ɤɨ 2-ɦɭ ɯɭɧɚɧɶɫɤɨɦɭ ɤɨɪɩɭɫɭ, ɸɧɶɧɚɧɶɰɵ – ɤ 3-ɦɭ, ɚ ɝɭɚɧɞɭɧɰɵ – ɤ 4-ɦɭ. Ʉɨɦɩɥɟɤɬɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɚɪɦɢɢ ɤɨɦɚɧɞɧɵɦ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɨɦ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɥɨɫɶ ɛɟɫɩɨɪɹɞɨɱɧɨ.
ɇɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɤɨɦɚɧɞɢɪɵ ɛɵɥɢ ɧɟ ɩɪɢɝɨɞɧɵ ɤ
ɢɫɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɸ ɫɜɨɢɯ ɨɛɹɡɚɧɧɨɫɬɟɣ ɢɥɢ ɧɟɛɥɚɝɨɧɚɞɟɠɧɵ, ɤɚɤ, ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ, ɤɨɦɚɧɞɢɪ 5-ɝɨ
ɤɨɪɩɭɫɚ Ʌɢ Ɏɭɥɢɧɶ. Ɉɞɧɚɤɨ, ɤɚɤ ɩɨɥɚɝɚɥ ɜɨɟɧɧɵɣ ɫɨɜɟɬɧɢɤ Ⱥ.ȼ. Ȼɥɚɝɨɞɚɬɨɜ, ɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ ɧɟ ɦɨɝɥɨ ɢɯ ɫɦɟɫɬɢɬɶ ɢɡ-ɡɚ ɩɨɩɭɥɹɪɧɨɫɬɢ ɜ ɬɟɯ ɫɥɨɹɯ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ, ɫ ɧɚɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɟɦ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɩɪɢɯɨɞɢɥɨɫɶ ɫɱɢɬɚɬɶɫɹ [3, ɫ. 150]. Ʉɚɤ
ɨɬɦɟɱɚɟɬ ɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɢɤ ɸɠɧɨ-ɤɢɬɚɣɫɤɨɣ ɝɪɭɩɩɵ
ȼ.ɇ. Ʉɭɣɛɵɲɟɜ, ɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɣ ɫɨɫɬɚɜ, ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ ɧɚɞɟɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɢ ɛɨɟɜɚɹ ɩɨɞɝɨɬɨɜɤɚ ɤɨɪɩɭɫɨɜ ɛɵɥɢ ɧɟɨɞɢɧɚɤɨɜɵ. ɉɨ ɟɝɨ ɦɧɟɧɢɸ, 1-ɣ,
2-ɣ ɢ 4-ɣ ɤɨɪɩɭɫɚ ɫɬɨɹɥɢ ɜ ɷɬɢɯ ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹɯ
ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɜɵɲɟ ɨɫɬɚɥɶɧɵɯ [2, ɞ. 22, ɥ. 130].
Ɍɟɦ ɧɟ ɦɟɧɟɟ, ɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɟ ɜɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɧɵɯ
ɫɢɥ Ƚɭɚɧɞɭɧɚ ɜ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɤɨɪɨɬɤɢɣ ɫɪɨɤ,
ɢɯ ɱɚɫɬɢɱɧɚɹ ɭɧɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɹ, ɥɢɲɟɧɢɟ ɮɢɧɚɧ137
Ƚɭɦɚɧɢɬɚɪɧɵɟ ɧɚɭɤɢ. ɂɫɬɨɪɢɹ
ɫɨɜɨɣ ɫɚɦɨɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɯ ɚɪɦɢɣ,
ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɜɵɫɲɟɝɨ ɜɨɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɚɩɩɚɪɚɬɚ ɢ
ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ ɫɧɚɛɠɟɧɢɹ ɜɨɣɫɤ, ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɩɪɨɩɚɝɚɧɞɵ ɜɨ ɜɫɟɣ ɚɪɦɢɢ – ɜɫɟ ɷɬɨ
ɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨɜɚɥɨ ɨɛ ɨɝɪɨɦɧɨɣ ɪɚɛɨɬɟ, ɩɪɨɞɟɥɚɧɧɨɣ ɫɨɜɟɬɫɤɢɦɢ ɜɨɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɫɬɚɦɢ. Ʉ ɧɚɱɚɥɭ 1926 ɝ. ɸɠɧɨ-ɤɢɬɚɣɫɤɚɹ
ɝɪɭɩɩɚ
ɜɤɥɸɱɚɥɚ
37 ɫɨɜɟɬɧɢɤɨɜ,
16 ɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɱɢɤɨɜ ɢ 14 ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ
ɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɥɚ. ɉɨɡɞɧɟɟ, ɤ ɚɩɪɟɥɸ 1926 ɝ., ɱɢɫɥɨ
ɫɨɜɟɬɧɢɤɨɜ ɭɜɟɥɢɱɟɧɨ ɞɨ 58 ɢ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ
ɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɥɚ ɞɨ 18 ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤ [6, ɫ. 63].
ȼ ɹɧɜɚɪɟ 1926 ɝ. ɝɪɭɩɩɚ, ɤɨɬɨɪɭɸ ɜ ɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟ ȼ.Ʉ. Ȼɥɸɯɟɪɚ ɜɨɡɝɥɚɜɥɹɥ ɇ.ȼ. Ʉɭɣɛɵɲɟɜ, ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɚɥɚ ɩɥɚɧ ɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɟɣ ɪɟɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ. Ɉɧ ɜɤɥɸɱɚɥ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟ ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɹ: 1) ɭɫɢɥɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɜ ɚɪɦɢɢ; 2) ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɟɞɢɧɨɣ ɜɨɟɧɧɨɣ ɲɤɨɥɵ ɧɚ
ɛɚɡɟ ȼɚɦɩɭ (ɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭ ɤɪɨɦɟ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɟɣ ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɥɢ ɟɳɟ ɱɟɬɵɪɟ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɦɟɥɤɢɟ ɲɤɨɥɵ); 3) ɩɪɟɜɪɚɳɟɧɢɟ Ƚɥɚɜɧɨɝɨ ɲɬɚɛɚ ɜ ɞɟɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɟɞɢɧɵɣ ɨɪɝɚɧ ɩɨ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɸ ɚɪɦɢɟɣ ɢ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɠɟɫɬɤɨɝɨ ɤɭɪɫɚ ɩɨ
ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɸ ɤ ɫɚɦɨɫɬɢɣɧɵɦ ɝɟɧɟɪɚɥɚɦ;
4) ɨɤɨɧɱɚɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɫɧɚɛɠɟɧɢɹ
ɚɪɦɢɢ. ɉɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɥɨɫɶ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɩɪɨɜɟɫɬɢ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɟ ɦɟɪɨɩɪɢɹɬɢɹ ɜ ɨɛɥɚɫɬɢ ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ
ɚɜɢɚɰɢɢ, ɭɥɭɱɲɟɧɢɹ ɫɚɧɢɬɚɪɧɨɝɨ ɞɟɥɚ, ɞɨɫɬɚɜɤɢ ɨɪɭɠɢɹ ɢ ɛɨɟɩɪɢɩɚɫɨɜ. ɉɨ ɦɧɟɧɢɸ
Ɋ.Ⱥ. Ɇɢɪɨɜɢɰɤɨɣ, ɷɬɨɬ ɩɥɚɧ ɛɵɥ ɪɟɚɥɶɧɵɦ,
ɧɨ ɧɟ ɞɥɹ Ʉɢɬɚɹ ɫɟɪɟɞɢɧɵ 1920-ɯ ɝɝ. [6, ɫ. 63].
ȼ ɰɟɥɨɦ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɨɜɟɬɧɢɤɨɜ ɢ ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɩɨɦɨɳɶ ɋɨɜɟɬɫɤɨɝɨ ɋɨɸɡɚ ɫɵɝɪɚɥɢ
ɜɚɠɧɭɸ ɪɨɥɶ ɜ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨ-ɪɟɜɨɥɸɰɢɨɧɧɨɦ
ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɢ Ʉɢɬɚɹ. Ɋɟɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹ ɜɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɧɵɯ ɫɢɥ, ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞ ɤ ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɢɡɨɜɚɧɧɨɣ ɚɪɦɢɢ,
ɥɢɲɟɧɢɟ ɫɨɸɡɧɵɯ Ʉɚɧɬɨɧɭ ɜɨɣɫɤ ɩɪɚɜɚ ɫɚɦɨɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɫɛɨɪɚ ɧɚɥɨɝɨɜ, ɭɫɩɟɲɧɵɟ
ɨɩɟɪɚɰɢɢ ɩɪɨɬɢɜ ɦɹɬɟɠɧɵɯ ɝɟɧɟɪɚɥɨɜ, ɜɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ ɩɨɥɢɬɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɢ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɩɨɥɢɬɚɩɩɚɪɚɬɚ ɜ ɜɨɣɫɤɚɯ ɩɪɨɯɨɞɢɥɢ ɩɪɢ ɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɦ ɭɱɚɫɬɢɢ ɪɭɫɫɤɢɯ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɨɪɨɜ. Ɂɚɦɟɬɢɦ, ɱɬɨ
ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɫɨɜɟɬɫɤɢɟ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɫɬɵ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨ
ɡɚɧɢɦɚɥɢ ɞɚɠɟ ɤɨɦɚɧɞɧɵɟ ɞɨɥɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɜ ɇɊȺ
ɜɩɪɟɞɶ ɞɨ ɩɨɞɵɫɤɚɧɢɹ ɧɭɠɧɵɯ ɤɚɧɞɢɞɚɬɭɪ
ɫɪɟɞɢ ɤɢɬɚɣɰɟɜ. Ɍɚɤ, Ⱦ. ɍɝɟɪ ɢɫɩɨɥɧɹɥ ɨɛɹɡɚɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɢɤɚ ɚɜɢɚɰɢɢ, ɉ. ɂ. ɋɦɢɪɧɨɜ
ɜɨɡɝɥɚɜɥɹɥ Ɇɨɪɫɤɨɟ ɛɸɪɨ, ȼ. ɉ. Ɋɨɝɚɱɟɜ ɛɵɥ
ɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɢɤɨɦ Ƚɥɚɜɧɨɝɨ ɲɬɚɛɚ.
Ƚɥɚɜɧɵɟ ɭɫɢɥɢɹ ɫɨɜɟɬɧɢɤɨɜ ɧɚ ɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɨɦ ɷɬɚɩɟ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɛɵɥɢ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɵ ɧɚ ɭɤɪɟ-
138
ɩɥɟɧɢɟ ɨɛɨɪɨɧɵ Ʉɚɧɬɨɧɚ ɢ ɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨ
ɩɚɪɬɢɣɧɨɣ ɚɪɦɢɢ. ɋɨɜɟɬɫɤɢɦɢ ɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɫɬɚɦɢ ɛɵɥɚ ɩɪɨɞɟɥɚɧɚ ɛɨɥɶɲɚɹ ɪɚɛɨɬɚ ɜ ɜɨɟɧɧɵɯ ɲɤɨɥɚɯ ɢ ɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ ɜ ɜɨɢɧɫɤɢɯ
ɱɚɫɬɹɯ. ɒɤɨɥɚ ȼɚɦɩɭ, ɝɞɟ ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟ ɫɨɜɟɬɧɢɤɨɜ ɛɵɥɨ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ ɫɢɥɶɧɨ, ɫɵɝɪɚɥɚ ɪɟɲɚɸɳɭɸ ɪɨɥɶ ɜ ɩɨɛɟɞɚɯ ɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ ɋɭɧɶ əɬɫɟɧɚ. ȼɨɤɪɭɝ ɧɟɟ ɫɝɪɭɩɩɢɪɨɜɚɥɢɫɶ ɥɭɱɲɢɟ ɢ
ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ ɩɪɟɞɚɧɧɵɟ ɝɨɦɢɧɶɞɚɧɭ ɜɨɣɫɤɚ.
ɂɦɟɧɧɨ ɧɚ ɛɚɡɟ ȼɚɦɩɭ ɛɵɥɢ ɫɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɵ
ɩɚɪɬɢɣɧɵɟ ɜɨɣɫɤɚ.
Ȼɥɚɝɨɞɚɪɹ ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɨɜɟɬɧɢɤɨɜ ɝɨɦɢɧɶɞɚɧ ɭɫɢɥɢɥ ɫɜɨɣ ɤɨɧɬɪɨɥɶ ɧɚɞ ɫɨɸɡɧɵɦɢ ɚɪɦɢɹɦɢ. ɋɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ ɩɚɪɬɢɣɧɵɯ ɜɨɣɫɤ ɫɞɟɥɚɥɨ ɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɣ ɬɚɤɬɢɤɭ ɥɚɜɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ Ʉɚɧɬɨɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚ ɦɟɠɞɭ ɪɚɡɧɵɦɢ ɦɢɥɢɬɚɪɢɫɬɚɦɢ ɢ, ɜ ɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɦ ɫɱɟɬɟ, ɩɨɡɜɨɥɢɥɨ
ɩɪɨɜɟɫɬɢ ɲɢɪɨɤɭɸ ɪɟɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɸ ɚɪɦɢɢ.
ɋɨɜɟɬɧɢɤɚɦɢ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɛɵɥɚ ɩɪɨɞɟɥɚɧɚ ɨɝɪɨɦɧɚɹ ɪɚɛɨɬɚ ɩɨ ɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɜɨɟɧɧɨɝɨ
ɤɨɦɚɧɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɸ ɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɵɯ
ɲɬɚɬɨɜ ɢ ɟɞɢɧɵɯ ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯ ɮɨɪɦ ɜɨɢɧɫɤɢɯ ɱɚɫɬɟɣ.
ȼɫɟ ɷɬɢ ɦɟɪɨɩɪɢɹɬɢɹ ɡɚɥɨɠɢɥɢ ɨɫɧɨɜɭ
ɞɥɹ ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɹ ɇɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨ-ɪɟɜɨɥɸɰɢɨɧɧɨɣ
ɚɪɦɢɢ ɢ ɭɫɩɟɲɧɨɝɨ ɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ ɋɟɜɟɪɧɨɝɨ
ɩɨɯɨɞɚ.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
ȼ.Ʉ. Ȼɥɸɯɟɪ ɜ Ʉɢɬɚɟ, 1924-1925 ɝɝ. ɇɨɜɵɟ
ɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬɵ ɝɥɚɜɧɨɝɨ ɜɨɟɧɧɨɝɨ ɫɨɜɟɬɧɢɤɚ. Ɇ.,
2003. ɋ. 436.
Ɋɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɢɣ ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ ɚɪɯɢɜ ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨ-ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ (ɊȽȺɋɉɂ). Ɏ. 627.
Ɉɩ. 1. Ⱦ. 22. Ʌ. 9.
Ȼɥɚɝɨɞɚɬɨɜ Ⱥ. ȼ. Ɂɚɩɢɫɤɢ ɨ ɤɢɬɚɣɫɤɨɣ ɪɟɜɨɥɸɰɢɢ 1925–1927 ɝɝ. Ɇ., 1979. ɋ. 147-148.
Ɇɚɦɚɟɜɚ ɇ.Ʌ. Ƚɨɦɢɧɶɞɚɧ ɜ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨ-ɪɟɜɨɥɸɰɢɨɧɧɨɦ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɢ Ʉɢɬɚɹ (1923–1927 ɝɝ.).
Ɇ., 1991. ɋ. 62.
Ʉɚɪɬɭɧɨɜɚ Ⱥ.ɂ. ɉɨɥɢɬɢɤɚ Ɇɨɫɤɜɵ ɜ ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨ-ɪɟɜɨɥɸɰɢɨɧɧɨɦ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɢ ɜ Ʉɢɬɚɟ:
ɜɨɟɧɧɵɣ ɚɫɩɟɤɬ (1923 – ɢɸɥɶ 1927 ɝ.). Ɇ.,
2001. ɋ. 52.
Ɇɢɪɨɜɢɰɤɚɹ Ɋ.Ⱥ. ɋɨɜɟɬɫɤɢɣ ɋɨɸɡ ɜ ɫɬɪɚɬɟɝɢɢ
ɝɨɦɢɧɶɞɚɧɚ (20–30-ɟ ɝɨɞɵ). Ɇ., 1990. ɋ. 62.
ɋɚɩɨɠɧɢɤɨɜ Ȼ.Ƚ. ɉɟɪɜɚɹ ɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɫɤɚɹ ɪɟɜɨɥɸɰɢɨɧɧɚɹ ɜɨɣɧɚ ɜ Ʉɢɬɚɟ. 1924–1927 ɝɝ. Ɇ.,
1954. ɋ. 23.
ɉɨɫɬɭɩɢɥɚ ɜ ɪɟɞɚɤɰɢɸ 20.09.2006 ɝ.
ɉɪɢɧɹɬɚ ɤ ɩɟɱɚɬɢ 30.10.2006 ɝ.
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