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Литературные герои Н. В. Гоголя в графических и живописных произведениях И. Е. Репина. К вопросу о морфологической проблеме русской художественной культуры конца XIX - начала XX века.pdf

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2016
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?а?????????? ????????????? ?. ?. ??????.
?а??????? ?а??????????????? ????????
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????? XIXа? ?????? XX ????
1
2
??? ?????? ?а??????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????,
?????????? ?????????, 119034, ??????, ??. ???????????, 21
??????-????????????????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????,
?????????? ?????????, 199034, ?????-?????????, ??????????????? ???., 17
? ?????? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ??????? ??????? ??????????: ?. ?. ?????? ?а?. ?. ??????. ?? ???? ????????? ???????? ??????? ???? ?? ?????????? ????????????.
?????????? ???????????, ?????????? ?а ??????????? ?????? ??????, ????????? ?а ??????
??????, ????? ?????? ?а??????? ?????? ????? ?а????????????? ?????? ?????????, ??????????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ???????. ?????????? ??? ???????????? ?. ?. ??????
?а?. ?. ?????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?? ??????? ????????????? л??????????????╗ ?а??????????????? ????? ??????? ???????? XIXа?. ??? ?а?????? ???? ????????????? ????? ??? ?? ?????????? ??????? ?а???????????? ?????, ?а????????? ?????????? ???????? ???? (???????????
????), ???????? ????? ???????????? ?????? ?а??????????, ?????????? ???????? ??????????????? ?????????? ?а???????? ??????????-??????????? ????????. ????????. 46а????. ??.а11.
???????? ?????: ?????, ??????, ???????, ????????, ??????????, ??????? ????????, ?????????? ??????????, ?????????? ?????????????.
DOI: 10.21638/11701/spbu15.2016.301
NIKOLAI GOGOL?S LITERARY CHARACTERS IN THE ILYA REPIN?S GRAPHIC AND
PICTORIAL WORKS. TOWARD THE QUESTION OF THE MORPHOLOGICAL PROBLEM
IN RUSSIAN ARTISTIC CULTURE OF THE LATE 19th AND EARLY 20th CENTURY
L. I. Andrushchenko1,2
1
2
Research Institute of Theory and History of Fine Arts of the Russian Academy of Arts,
21, ul. Prechistenka, Moscow, 119034, Russian Federation
The Russian Academy of Fine Arts Museum,
17, University nab., St. Petersburg, 199034, Russian Federation
This article is dedicated to the cultural heritage of two prominent Russian creative figures: Ilya Repin and Nikolai Gogol. The objective of this study is to show the artistic relationship between the
aforementioned figures while drawing on their artistic oeuvre for examples. A comparative analysis
of Gogol and Repin?s work has been carried out and a multitude of links between the artist and the
й ?????-????????????? ??????????????? ???????????, 2016
4
DOI: 10.21638/11701/spbu15.2016.301
great writer?s body of work have been researched. By analysing Repin?s paintings, graphics and theatrical works related to Gogol, the artist?s lesser known works have been studied and new aspects of his
artistic life have been examined. The common subject matter of I. Repin and N. Gogol?s works indicate
not only the influence of the tendentious ?literary? democratic line of 19th century Russian painting, but
also the artists? shared ideological and aesthetic roots, in particular Ukrainian folk epic poems, which
are inherent to both their satiric talent and the unity of their philosophical-religious views. Refsа46.
Figsа11.
Keywords: Repin, Gogol, Ukraine, painting, literature, illustrations, Russian culture, psychology
of art, creative identification.
????, ???????????? ?а???????? ??????, ??????? ???????? ??????????.
?????? ?а??????????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????? ???????? XIXа?., ?. ?. ??????? ?а????? ??????????????? ????? л?????????????? ????? ?????? ?????? ???????? XIXа?. 70?80-? ????╗ ???????? ???? ????????
?? ??? ????, ??? ?а??? ????? ?а?????? л???????????? ????????? ?а??????????????
?????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ???? ???????????? ???????╗ [1, c. 98]1.
??? ?????? ?а ???????? ?а ???? ????? ?????????????? ?? ?????????? ?????
XIXа?. ??? ????? ??а??????? ??????-???????????? ?????? ????? ???????????????
???????????? ???? ?а??????????? ??? ?а??????????, ??? ? ?а????????. ?. ?. ?????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????? ?а?????????? л??????????? ??????????╗.
?а???? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ???????????? л???????????? ????????╗ ????????????? ????????? ??????, ??????????? ??????????? ???? ????? ????????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????????????. ???? ?????????? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????? ?а?????????????? ????????????? ????????? ????? ????????????
????????????.
????????? ????? ????????? ????? ???? ????????? ? ?а?????????? ?. ?. ??????. ?а???, ??? ??????? ?а??????????? ????? ???? ??????? ??????????, ??????????????? ??? ??? ????????????, ??? ?а ?????????????? ?????? ?а ??????? ?а ????????. ?а ??? ?? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ?а ??????????? ???
?????????. ?? ???? ????? ??? ?????????????????? ????? ????? ?????????? ????
?? ?? ?? ????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ????????
XIXа?. ?а?? ??????? ??а??? ??? ?а????????? ??????????. ????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ?а????????? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????. ?????????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ?а?????? ??????? ?. ?. ?????????
(1874, ???). ????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ???????
??????????: ?? ??????? ???????? ?. ?. ????????, ?. ?. ??????????, ?. ?. ????????, ?. ?. ????, ?. ?. ???????, ?. ?. ?????????, ?. ?. ??????? ?а?. ?. ????????. ?а????
?ал???????╗ ?а?????? ??а?. ????? ?а????????????? ????? ????????? ??????? ???????????: ??????? ???????? ?а????????? ???????????, ??????? ?????????? ?а?????? ???????????, ?????? ?????????? ?а?????? ???????. ?? ???????? ?? ????????
????? ???????? ?а??? ??????????.
? ?????? ????????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?а ???????????? ??????????
????????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ?а?????????, ?????? ?а????????, ??????
?а???????? [11?14]. ??????????? ???? ????? ????? ????????-?????????????? ??1
????????, ??????????????? ????? ?????????? ?а ?????????, ??????????? ?????. ?а ????
???????? ?? ??? ?????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ????????????? [2?10].
??????? ?????. ???. 15. ????????????????. 2016. ???. 3
5
??????, ????????? ?а??? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??????????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ?а?????????.
?????? ?а???????? ????? ??????, ??? ?. ?. ??????, ?а?????????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ????????????2. ?а ??? ?? ????? ?. ?. ??????, ??? ????? ?а ?????????
????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?. ?. ??????. ?? ????????? ?????? ?????????, ??????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ???? ????????? ???????
????????? ??? ?????: л???????, ?????? ?? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ?а????? ????????? ???? ???????????. ???? ?а ????? ????????? ???????? ? ????????, ??? ????
?а??? ????╗[18, ?. 229].
? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????-????????????. C?????? ????????
???? ??? ???????? ?а??????? ?. ?. ?????? л??????? ????????????╗, ???????????? 1870-?
?????: л????????╗, л???????? ?а??????╗, л???????? ?? ??????? ??????╗, л????????,
??????? ?? ???????╗, л????????. ?а????????╗а? ?ал????????╗1896а?.3
???????? ???????? ????????а? ???? ??а????? ?????????????? ??????????
?а??????? ??????????, ?а????? ??????, ??? ??????? ?????????????? ??? ???????4.
?????, ??? ?а??????, ??????? ?а??????? 19-?????? ??????. ???????????? ?а??????????? ???????????, ?? ???????? ?????????? ???? ??????????? ?а???, ??? ???????
?а????????????? ?????? ???????? ????????.
????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ?? ???? ??? ?????????? л???????? ???????╗ (?. ?. ????). ??????? ????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ????????,
??????????? ???????? ??????? ?а?????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????????? ????????????. ?? ???????? ???, ??? ??? ?????? ?? ?????, ?а??? ????? л??????????? ??????????
???? ?????????╗, ????????? ?????-??????? ?а?????????, ?а?? ?????? ??????????
??????????:
??? ?? ??а????, ??? ?? ?????-?????? ???? ????? ??, ??? ?????-?????, ?? ?????????? ?????? ???? ?? ???. ???? ?а???? ?? ??? ?? ??а?????? ??????, ?а??? ??, ??? ? ?а????, ???
? ?а???????; ???? ?? ?? ??????, ?а?? ???, ??????, ?а?? ???????. ? ????????? ??? ??? ?????
?????????, ?????? ?????????? ??? ??? ????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ????????, ? ?а?????
????? ? ?????????? ????????? ????? ????, ? ?????-?????? ???? ??? ???????, ?а ??????
??? ?????? ?????????? ???????????.. ?? ????? ? ?? ???? ???? ??? ?? ?????? ?????????
???????-????????????, ??? ???????????, ??? ??? ?????? ?????-??????? ??? ?? ????????
?????, ?????? ? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? [19, ?. 206].
?? ???? ????????????? ????????, ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????
?а ????? ?????, ???????????? ?????? ???????? ?а ????????? ????: ?а ??? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????????. ?а?????? ??????? ??, ???????????
2
??????????? ???????????? ??? ?????? ?????????????? ?а????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ???? [15?17]. ????????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ? ?а???????????? ??????? л??????????? ???????????????╗ л????? ?????? ?а??????? ??????????????? ????????? ?I?а????╗ [16, ?. 837?
891]. ?а????? ?. ?. ?????????? л????? ?а?????????╗ ??????????? ????? ???????? ????????? ??????
л???????????? ??????╗, л???????????? ????????╗ ?ал?????╗ [17, ?. 101?108].
3 ?????? ??а??? ????????? ?а???, ??????????????? ?????? (????????, ???????), ?а?????????
???????? л?????????╗, ??????????.
4 ??????? ??????? ?. ?. ?????? ???? ?????????? ?? ?????? ????? л????????╗ (1835) ?а ????????????? л?????? ??а??????? ????????????╗ ?а????????? ?а?????? ?????? ?ал??????? ??????????╗
?ал?????????╗. ????????????? ??????? ?????? ???????? л??????? ???????????? ?????????╗, ???
????? ????????? ?? ??????? ?ал??????? ??????????╗ ?ал?????????╗а? ?????????, ?а?????? ???????а? ????? ?????????. ?а???????? ?????? ?????-???????? ??? ??????? ?????????? [19].
6
??????? ?????. ???. 15. ????????????????. 2016. ???. 3
??????????, ?? ???????????: л???, ? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ???????. ????! ??? ???
?????? ?? ????!.. ??? ? ?????? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ?????╗ [19, ?. 214].
л??????? ????????????╗а? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????, ?????????????? ?а ?????????? ??????????? ???????. ??????? ????????? ????????
??????? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????, ?а?? ???? ????????. ?????,
??????????? ??? ????? ???????, ?????????? ????? ???? ??????? ?а????? ?????а?
?? ?а???????? ??????????, ?? ?а????????? ?????????? ???????????. ????????????? ???????? ??????? ?а???? ???????? ?????? ?а????????? ?? ????????. ??? ?????
????????????? ??????? ??? ????????????, ??а??????? ????????? ????????, ?????????? ?а?????? ??????. ??? ??????? ?а?????????? ?????????: л????? ?? ??? ???
?????????╗ (???????? ?? ??????? ??????), л???? ??! ??? ??????????╗ (???????? ?а??????), л??????? ?????? ????? ?? ???????╗5. ?????, ????????? ???????
?а???? ???????, ????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ?а????????? ???????.
???. 1. ????????. ?а????????. ??????, ????????. ???, ??????
5
????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????, ??? ??? ?а??????? ?. ?. ?????? ??? ?????? ?????.
??????? ?????. ???. 15. ????????????????. 2016. ???. 3
7
??? ??????? ?а???????? л? ????????╗ (???.а1). ?а???????? ?а?????????, ?а????????? ???????, ???????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????? ?а????????????? ????????:
л???????, ??????????? ?а??????, ????? ?а???????? ?? ??-?? ?а???????? ?????, ??
?????? ?? ????? ?а??????, ?????????? ??? ?????; ??а???, ?? ????????╗ [19, ?. 193].
?? ???? ?????????????????, ?????????, ????????? ????????. ??????? ???????
????????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ????, ??а???? ????????
?????? ???????????? ?????.
??? ??????? ?а???????? л??????? ?????? ????? ?? ???????╗. ??????, ?????
???????? ???????? ?????? ?а ?????, ????? ?????????: л?????????, ??? ??? ????
?????!.. ??????! ??-????, ??????!╗ [19, ?. 207]. ??? ???? ????? ?????? ???????????
??????? ?????????. ?? ????????? ?? ????, ?а?????????? ??????, ?а??????, ????????????? ?? ??????. ???????????? ????????????? ????? ?а??????, ?????????? ???????????? ?а ???? ?????. ??????????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????
????????? ?а ???? ??????? ??????? ????????????? ???? ?а ?????? ?????????????
???????????? ?а?? ????? ?????? ?. ?. ??????????:
???????? л??????? ????????????╗. ???? ????????? ???????, ??? ????????, ??????????? ????? ?????????, ??? ??????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?а?????????, ??????
??????, ?????? ?????????, ??? ??????????, ?а??????? ????? ?????? ??????, ????? ??????
?????????, ??? ??????????? ??????? ???????, ?????????? ?а??????????? ?????, ???????????? ?? ????? ?????? ?а??????????, ????????? ????? ????????: ?? ??? ????????
??? ?????????, ??а??? ??? ???? ????????? ???????; ??? ???? ??? ???????????, ????????
???? ?а?????? ?а?????????? ??????????? [20, ?. 26].
?????? ??? ??????????? ????????, ?????? ?????, ???????? ????? 1870а?. ?а?????????, ???? ????? ???????? ?а???????? ?????????? ?. ?. ????????? ?а?. ?. ????????. ?????? ?? ????? ??а???????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? л?????????╗. ?а?????? ????? ???????? ??? ?а??????????.
??????, ????? ??????? ?? ?????, ?а ?????????-???? ????????????? ???????? ?????????, ????? ?? ???? ????????? ??????????????? ?????, ???????????
??а ?????? ???????????. ????? ??? ???? ?а ???????????????? ?????? ?а ???????
??????? л??????? ?? ?????╗. ?? ????????????? ?????????????, ?????? ??????
???????????? ??????????? ???????, ?а??????? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ????????????????? ????????6.
??????, ????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?а??? ?? 1870а?. ?? ???????? ????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ??? ??????-????????????? ???????? ?? ????? ??????????? ?а???????? ?. ?. ??????. ????????, ?????? ????? ?? ?а????????
?а????? л??????? ????????????╗ ?а?????? ??? ?????? ???????????. ??, ??? ???
??????? ????? ???????? л?????? ?? ?????? ???? ????????╗, ???????? ?????? л??????????? ???????╗ ?а????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????. ? ?а???? ??????
?????, ??? ?а??????, ???????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ?????????, ??????? ?????????, ???????? ?? ??????????? ????????? ??????7.
6 ???????????? ?. ?. ?????? ?????: л???? ????? ?а ??????, ??? ?????? ?а ??????? ?????????
?а???????, ???????????? ?????? ?а????? ?????? ?а????????? ????????: ??? ???? ????? ???????,
??? ???? ??????? ?а?????? ????????? ?а??????????????? ??????? ????? ????? ?????????? ????????, ???????????? ??? ??????????? ?а???????? ?? ????╗ [21].
7 ????????? ??.: [22, ?. 21?23].
8
??????? ?????. ???. 15. ????????????????. 2016. ???. 3
????? ???????? ???, ?а1892а?., ????? ????? ?????????? ?а?????? ??????? ??????
л??????????? ???????╗. ??? ??????????????? ??????? л?????????????? ???????
??????╗ ?? ??????? ?????????? ????????, ????? ??????? ?????? ?а??????? [8] (???.а2).
???. 2. ??????? ?а???????. ????? ??? ?????????? ?а?????????????? ?????????? ?а??????? л?????╗ (1892. ? 45).
??????, ????????. л??????╗, ?????-?????????
?? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ?а??????? ????? ??? ??????????? ?а????????. ?????????? ?? ??? ????? ???? ?? ????????, ?? ????? ?????? ?????????????
?а ??????. ???, ?????????? ?а ?????? ???????? ???????? ????????? ?. ???????
л??????? ??????????╗, ??????? ?? ????? ?а??????? ??????, ????? ????? ?. ?. ??????? 8а ????? 1874а ?.: л?? ???? ???????? ?а ???????????? ??? ?а ???? ???????. ???
????? ?????? ??????? ??????╗ [24, ?. 90]. ?? ??????? ?????? ?а??????? ??? л?????╗
?ал????????? ????╗ ?? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ???????????
?а???????? ??а?????????????? ?????: л? ??? ????? ?????? ?а?????; ?? ?????? ????? ???, ?а??? ?????? ??а??????╗,а? ????? ?? ????????? ?. ?. ???????? [25, ?. 16].
??????? ?????. ???. 15. ????????????????. 2016. ???. 3
9
? ????????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????????. ????? ???
???????????? ????????? ?? ???????, ?????????? ?а????? л???????╗ (?????????)
?а????????? ?? л??????? ?????╗. ?а???????????????? ?а???? ?????????? ??????
?????? ????? ?а?????? ????????: л??? ?????? ?????????╗. ?? ??????? ??????????? ??????, ????? ??? ?????? ?а??????? ????? ????????? ?а????????? ????? ??
????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ???? ????? ???????. ??? ?????? ?????????а ?
????? ??????? ?????? л???????? ?????╗. ?а ?????? ?. ?. ??????????? ?? 31а ????
1911а?. ???????? ?????: л??????? ???? ??????????, ??? ??? ? ??????? ??????????
?а?????????? ??????: 1-?) ??? ?????? ?????????а? ?? ??????. 2-?) ???? ????, ??
???????? ?а??????? (??? ???? ???? ?? ????? ???? ????????)╗ [26, ?. 186].
??? ??????? ??????? ???? ???????????? ?а 1832а ?. ?а ???????? л?????? ?? ?????? ???? ????????╗ ?а????????????? л????????? ????╗, ?????? ?а???????????
????????. ????????? ???? ??а??????? ??????????? ??????, ???????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?ал???????? ?????╗, ????? ?????? ????
??????. ????????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ???? ??? ????????????? ??????? ???
?????? ????? ??????????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????? 1860-? ?????.
????? ?? ?а?????? ????? ???????? ?а??? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??
?а?????????? ???????. ?? ?????? ?? ?а?????????? ???????? ?а?????????. ?а??????? ???? ??а???? ????????? ????? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ??????а? ???????
????????? ?????????????8.
???? ?? ?? ?????? ???? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ????? ????? л?????? ??????╗. ????? ?? ???????? ????? л??????????╗, ????? ??????????? ??????? ??
?????? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ?????????, ??а????????? ??????? ???????
?? ??? ?????????? ??????? [27]. ????????? ???? ????????? ?а ???, ??? ?????????
л?????? ??????╗, ??? ?а???????? л??????????╗, ?? ???????? ????????, ??? ??? ??
????? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????? ?? ???, ? ?ал??????????╗
?а?? ??? ???? ???? ??????????? ???????? ??? ?а??????? (???.а3).
??????? л????? ??????╗ ??????? ???? ?????????? ?а ???????? л????????╗
?а1835а?. ?????????????? ???????? (??????) ????????? ?а1839?1842а??. ?а?????????? ????????? ????? ??????? ??????????, ?????? ?????? ???? ????????? ??????????.
????????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ??????? ????? ???????. ?а??????,
??? ? ?а??????, ?? ?????????????? ???? л??????????╗ ?? ????????????? ?????????
????? ?????? ?????? ???????9. ?а???????а? ???? ???????? ?????????? ???????
?? ???????, ?? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ????, ??? ????? ?????????? ?а?????
???????????? ??????. ?? ??? ??????????, ??? ???????? ?а ???????? ??? ????????
????? ???????? ???? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ?????? ?а??????????????? ????????. ????????? ?а???????? ????????? ????????????? ???????????, ??? ????????
???????????? ???????? ?????????, ???????? ?????????? ?????. ??????? ?? ???????? ?. ?. ???????????? ??? ?????? ??????? л??????????? ???????╗а? ????????
?????????? ???????????? ?????а? л???╗, ?????? ?а???????? ?????? 6а????? 1834а?.
????? ???: л??? ?? ???????? ??????? ????????? ??? ????, ?а???????? ??????? ???????????, ???????????? ??????╗. ?????? ?????, ??? ?????? ???? ????? ??????? ???
8
??????? ??? ?????? ???????? ?а????? ??????? ?????????: ????????. ??????? ??? ??????????? ??, ?а ?????????? ????? (1861?1942), ?????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ??. 1875.
?????, ?????. ???? ??. ?. ?. ???????, ????? ?????? ?????????, ??????.
9 ????????? ??????? ??????, ??? ???????? ??????? ??? ???????? ????? ?????? ???.
10
??????? ?????. ???. 15. ????????????????. 2016. ???. 3
???. 3. ????????? ????? ?????? ????????? ???????. ??????? ??????????? ???????
(1880?1891) ??а???????? ???, ?????-?????????. ?????, ?????. ??????????? ??????????????
?????. ?а????? ??а?????? ??????? ???????? ?. ?. ??????
л????? ?а?????????, ?????? ???? ????? ????????╗, ?????? ??????????: л???? ??
??? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ????????? ?????, ? ?? ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ???, ??????
??? ?? ????????? ?? ?а?? ???? ??????? ?а?????????╗ [28, ?. 321]. ?а?????? л? ?????????????? ??????╗ ?????? ???? ?????????????? ??????, ????????????? ????? ?????? ??????: л???????, ????????????, ?? ?????? ?а?????, ?а???????? ?????????.
??? ????, ????, ??????, ?????а? ??? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ???????. ???
????? ???????? ??? ???? ???? ?????, ??????? ?????╗ [29, ?. 80].
??? ?а??????, ????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????, ?? ???????? ??????????? ?а??????????? ?а?????????????. ??? ?а??????, ????? ????????? ????? ???????????? ????????????? ?а??????????? ????? ?а??????? ??????? ?????. ????? ????,
?????? ?а??????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?? ??????????? ?????, ?????????? ?????? ???????????, ??? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????. ?? ????????????? ?????? ?????? ???? ?????????, л????? ?????? ???? ???? ????? ?????
?а?????????? ??-??????????, ?а?????? ?? ???? ????????, ??а?????-???????, ?а??????????? ?а????. ??? ?? ????? ???? ??????? ??????????, ??????? ????? ????????. ??
??? ????? ?????????? ???? ??????: ??????? ????? ?а?????? ?????? ?????? ??????а?
??? ?????? ?? ????, ?? ????, ?? ???????. ?????? ?????? ?а??????? ?а??????? ?а??????? ??????? ??? ????? ???????, ?а????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ??????╗ [27].
??? ???????????? ?????????, ????? ???????? ??????? ???, ????????, ?а??????????? ?????????????: л??????? ??? ??? ?????? ?????, ??? ??? ??????! ??????????
?????!.. ????? ?? ???? ????? ?? ?????????? ??? ??????? ???????, ????????? ?а??????????? ?????. ???. 15. ????????????????. 2016. ???. 3
11
????! ?? ??? ????? ????????? ???????? ????????, ?????? ?? ???????????╗,а? ????? ????? ?а1880а?. ?а?????? ????? ?????? ??? ???????? л????????? ????? ??????
????????? ???????╗ [24, ?. 279].
? ????? л??????????╗ ???????? ?а?????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????-?????????? ?????? ?????? ?а???? ?а?????, ?????????, ??????????? ???????
?а???????????? ??????, ????? л? ????? ??????????? ??????????╗, ??????????????
??????? ??? ???? ????? ??????????? ????. ????????? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ??????????. ??а ?
???????????? ????????? ????????????????? ???? ?а??????????? ???????, ?а??????? ?????? ??? ?????????? л???????? ?????╗ ????? ??????.
?? ????????????? ??????? ?????? ?. ?. ???????, ??????? ??? ????????
?????? ????????? л???????????? ?????????╗ ?а л???????????╗ ?а ??????????
л???????╗, ???? ???????? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? л?????? ??????╗ ?ал???????╗
?. ?. ???????? [30, ?. 285].
????? ????????? ??? ?????? ?? ??????????? ?ал?????? ??????╗. ?а1890а?. ?? ???
?????? ??????? л?????? ?а????????╗ (???). ?????, ?????? 1901а?., ????????????
????? ?????????? ????????? л?????? ??????╗ ?а????????????? ??????. ??? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?. ???????????, ???????? ???? ???????? ???
?????? ?????????? ??????. ????? ??????? ??????? ??????? л??????????? ?а?????
????????????? ???????????? ??????╗ ?а?????? ?а??? ????????, ??? ????????? ????????? ??? ?????? ??? ???????? ?? ??? ????. ?????? ??? ?а?? ???? ????????????.
?? ??? ????? ???? ???????????? 1903а?. ???????? ??????, ???????????? л??????
?????? ?????? ?а????????? ?а????╗.
? ?????? ??????? л????? ??????╗ ?????? ?а ????????? ??? ????????? ?а ????? ????? (л?????╗, 1927а ?.) (???.а 4). 30а ?????? 1926а ?. ????? ????? ??а л???????╗
?а????????????? ?????? ??????? ????? ????????? ?. ?. ???????????:
??? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???, ??? ? ????? ?????? ?? ?????????! <?> ???????? ?? ????????, ? ????? ?? ??????? ?????: ????, ??? ???? ?а??????????а? ???????
???: ?????, ????? ?а?. ?.а? ?????? [26, ?. 381].
л?????╗а? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ??а??????? ???????????
???? ?а ???????????? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????.
?а??? ?? ????? ???????? ???????? ????? ??????: л????? ?? ???? ????? ?? ?????????? ??? ??????? ???????, ?????????, ????????! ?? ??? ????? ????????? ????????
????????╗,а? ??? ????????????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????
?????? ?. ?. ??????10. ????? ?? ????? ???????? ?а??????? ????? ??????? ??????????
?????? ?а??????, ??, ????? ?? ???????, ???????? ??????????? л?????? ??????╗, ?????? ??? ??????? ?а????????? ?а????11.
10
????? ????? ??????? 19а ??????? 1889а ?.: л? ?????? ??, ? ?????? ??? ??????????, ??? ? ?
?а???????????? ???? ????. ? ?а??????? ???????, ? ?а?????????? ?????????, ???????? ?а??????????
???????, ??????????? ???? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ???????, ??????????; ????? ????? ?а??????????????? ?????, ??????? <?> ? ???? ????????? ???? ?????????
???? ????????, ???? ???????? ?????????? ????. ?????? ???? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?? ????????? ???? ?а???????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????? ????????? ???? ???????????? ?а???????? ????????????╗ [26, ?. 42]. ?. ?. ?????? ????????? л??????????╗ ?а???????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????.
11 ???????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ?а?????? л????? ??????? ?а?????????? ???????? ?. ?. ?????? (? ??????? ?а???? ?а???????? ?????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ?. ?. ??????)╗ [31].
12
??????? ?????. ???. 15. ????????????????. 2016. ???. 3
???. 4. ?????а? ?????? ??????????. 1926?1930. ?????, ?????. ??????? ????????. ?? 1948а?. ????????????? ?. ?. ???????
л? ??????? ?????? ???? ?????? ???????? ?? ????? ?????? ?, ??????? ??????
???????? ?а?????????? ?? ???????, ?????????? ??? ???????????? ?? ?????а? ???
?????? <?> ?????? ??а?????????? ??? ?? ???? ??????.а? ??!╗а? ??? ?? ??????, ???
??????? ??а???????????? ?????? ?. ?. ?????? ?. ?. ??????????? [26, ?. 381].
????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????а ? ?????????
?????????? ??????. ??????? ???????, ????? ?? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????????. ??????? ??? ???????? ?а??? ??????? ??? ???? ?а?????. ????? ?????????
??????????? ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ???????????????? ?????? ?. ?. ????????,
??? ?а?????? 1895а?. ???? ??????? ??????????? л????? ???? ????????? ?а??????
?????????????╗.
????? ?? ??????? ?? ???????, ??????? ???? ???? ????????? ????? ??????
(???.а5), ??? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????:
???? ???????? ??????? ?а ???????? ?????? ?????? ?а ???? ????????? ?????? ??
?????? ??????? ????? ? ???? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ????? ????????? ????? ?а??? ????????? ????? ?? ?????╗ [32, ?. 219].
?????? ??????? ???????? ????? ?????? ?а???? ???????????, ?, ?????? ?а?????? ??????, ??? ???? ???????? ?а??????????? ????????????? ????????? ???? ??????????: л???, ?????? ??????????! ?? ????? ?????╗а? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ?????. ?????, ??? ? ?а?????? ?ал?????????╗, ?????? ????? ?а???? ??????????? ?? ??????: л??????-?, ?? ????? ????╗.
? 1880-? ???? ???????? ????????? ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ?. ?. ??????, ?. ?. ???????-?????? ?а?. ?. ???????. ?? ????????????? ?????????????, ???????-?????? ??? ???????????? ??????. ?? ?? ?????? ?????, ?а???????? л??????? ????????????╗ ?а????? ?а???????а? ?а????? ??????????
??????? ?????. ???. 15. ????????????????. 2016. ???. 3
13
???. 5. ???? ???????? ???????????. ??????????? ??????? ????? ??????? ???????????????? ?????? ?. ?. ????????. 1894а?.
???. 6. ?. ?. ???????-?????? ?а???? ?????????. ?????????? 1880-? ?????
14
??????? ?????. ???. 15. ????????????????. 2016. ???. 3
?????? ?а????? ???????. ????? ?а??? ?????? ?????????? ?????. ?? ?????? ???????,
??? ??????? ??? ????????, ?????? л????????╗ ???? ???????? ?????: л?????????????╗ (???.а 6). л?????????????, ??????????? ?а ???????╗ ???? ????????-???????
?ал???????? ????????????╗ ????????? ?. ?. ???????. ?? ??????? ??????????? ?а??????? ?????????? ???????, ????????? ?? ????? ??????. ?. ?. ????? ??????? ???????
????????-??????? ?а???? ????????? ?а1882а?. (л???????? ???? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????. ????? ?? ??????? ????? ?? ??????????╗) [19, ?. 209] (???.а7).
???. 7. ????????. ?. ?. ???????-?????? ?а???? ?????????, ????? ??????? ?. ?. ?????? л??????? ????????????╗.
1882. ???????. ???????? ????? ???????? ?????????
??????? ???? ????????? ?????? л????????╗ ?? ?????????? ?а ?????????????. ?а ???? ????? л?????????╗ ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а ??? ??
???? ?а?????????? ????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ????????? л???????? ???
?а??????? ????????╗, ???????? ?. ?. ?????????, ?. ?. ??????????, ?. ?. ???????????, ?. ?. ??????????. ?а??? ???? ???????? ?? ????????? ??? ?????? ?а????? ?????????????????? ????? л??????? ???????╗.
?????? ?. ?. ???????-?????? ??????, ??? ??????? ?а??? ?????а? ??? л??????????? ????????╗. ???????, ????? ????? ????? ??? ????? ?а????? ?????????. ?? ??????? ?? ????????? ?а?????? ????, ??????????? ??а?????????? ???????, ???????
??????? ?????. ???. 15. ????????????????. 2016. ???. 3
15
???????? ?????? ????, ??а???? ?????? ???? ???????? ????????????? ??????, ???
?а ?????????? (л????????? ?????? ????╗,а ? ??????? ???-?? ?????). ???????????
????? ???? ?а??????????? ????? ??а?????????, ???????????? ????????-??????
??????, ?а?? ??????а? ????????? ??????, ??????????? ??а?????-?? ??????. ????????? ???????? ???? ?????????: ????????, ????????, ?а???????????? ???????,
????? ?????????? ??????? ??????, ????????? ????? ?? ??????? ???????????? ????. ???????????-????????????? ???????, л?????????????╗ ?? ???????
???????? ?????-?? ?????, ???????, ????? ????????? ????? ??, ??? ??? ?? ????
??????. ?????? ?а?????? ???????????? ?????, ?а??? ?????????? ????? ?????????
?????????????, ???? ???????????, ?а??? ??? л?????????╗ ?а????, ??????? ?а??????
?????? ?????????????, ??а?? ?????????? ????????????? ???????.
?? ????????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ????? ???? ?а ??????, ????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ???????????? ?? ??????????? ?а?? ????????? ?а????? ??????? ?????. ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?а???????? ?а??????? ????????
???а? ????????. ??????, ?. ???? ???????? ?????? л???????╗ ??? л?????? ?????
???????? ?а??????? ?????????╗. л????? ??????? ?? ??????, ????? ??? ??????..╗12
? ???? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??? ????, ??? ??? л??? ?????╗ ????? ??????????? ????? ?????????????. ??а? ?????? ???????:
??? 2000а?????? 43а?????.
??????????? ???? ???? ???? ??????????? ?????????! ? ??????? ???? ??????. ??
?????????. ???? ?????? ?. ?????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ?. ?????????, ???? ?????
??? ????? ??????? ????????. ? ?? ???????, ??? ? ??? ?????? ?а?????????? ????, ??? ?
?????????? ????????? [19, ?. 207].
????? ????????? ?????? ???? ??????а ? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???????
?а?????? ?????????! ??? ????? ?????? ???, ?????? ???????, ?а?????? ???????????? ????? ?а???, ??? ?? ????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ??????, ???
????? ?? ????????? ???????? ??? ????? ?а??????????? ???. ?? ?????? ??????????
?а????????.
? ?????????????? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ?а???? ????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????, ????????? ??
?? ?????? ????????, ??????? ?а???????? ??????????????? ?????????: л? ??? ?????
????? ?а???, ??? ?? ?? ????? ???? ?????а? ??? ????????????, ?? ?а??? ?? ????????? ???? ??? ?????╗ [34, ?. 274].
???????, ?а ???? ???????????? ??? ????????? ?????? ??????, ??????????.
???????? ??????? ??? ??????? ????????????? ????????а? ?????? ?а?????? ????
???????????? ??????????. ?????????? ????????? л??????? ???????╗ ?. ???????, л?????? ? 6╗ ?. ??????, л??????? ?а?????????╗ ?. ?????????? ?????? ?????
??а????????? л?????? ? 6╗ ?????????, ??? л?? ???????? ??? ? ????? ?? ???? ??????
?????? ?????? ?????? ????????, ?? ?а??? ???????????╗ [35, ?. 110].
?????? ?? ???????? ??????????????? ????? ????? ????????-??????? ?ал???????? ????????????╗. ?. ?. ??????, ????????? ?а??????????? ?а????? ??а????? ??????
?? ???? ?. ?. ????????-???????, ?а??? ?? ????? ?а?а????????? ???????: л? ?? ?????
?????????? ???????? ?????? ?а?????????а?. ????????-???????. ??? ?????? ???????12
л??????? ?????, ??? ?????? ????? ????????, ?а??????? ?????????. ????? ??????? ?? ??????? ????? ??? ?????, ??? ????? ??????, ??????? ?а???? ???????? ????╗. ???. ??: [33].
16
??????? ?????. ???. 15. ????????????????. 2016. ???. 3
???? ?а??????. ????? ??? ????? ??? ???? ????? ??????? (?а???? ????????) ?? ?????,
??????? ?????? ??????? ????????а? ?а??? ????? ????????, ?а????? ?????????
????????!╗ [36].
?????? ??? ?????????? ????, ??????????? ??????????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ??????. ???? ????????????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ?? ?????????? ???????????? ????????.
??????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????? ????????????? ??????????, ????????? ??? ???????? ?? ???????? ?????????. ???????? ???? ????????? ???????,
???????? ????????? ????? ?????????, ??????????????? ?????????; ???????????
?? ???????????? ???????, ??????? ?????????-??????????: л?? ????? ???????
?????? ?????????????!╗ [19, ?. 209].
????????? ???????? ???????????? ???? ??? ???????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????????:
??? ?????????? ????????, ?????????? ???????? ??????, ???????????? ??? ??ал??????? ????????????╗. ????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ??????, ????? ?? (??? ?????????
?а????????) ?????????? ???? ?????????? ???? ?а?????????????? ?????????. <?> ?????
???? ???????????, ???????????? ?????? ????? ?, ??? ???????? ?а ????, ???? ???????????а? ??????? ?а?????? ???????? [37, ????. 1503?1504].
??????? ??????? ?. ?. ?????? л????????╗ ????????? ?а???????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ?????????. ?а1883а?. ?а???????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????
????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ?а??????.
?. ?. ????????? ??? ?а?????? ???? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????. ?? ???
???????????? ????? ???????, ??? ?а??????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?а????? ?.-??????13,
?а?. ?. ????????, ?а???????? ????????? ?. ?. ?????????. 11а????? ?????????????
???????? ?. ?. ??????, ?? ???? ?а?????????????? ?????? ?а??????????, ?????? ??????? л????????╗ ?. ?. ?????????. ????? 13а ????? ?. ?. ????????? ?? ????????
???????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?а?????? ?? ???. ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ????????? 14а ????? ?. ?. ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???? ??????? ??????
л?????????╗: л? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ??? ??? ????? ??????????, ? ??? ?????
?а?????? ?? ???? ????????╗ [38, ?. 62?65].
?????? ???????? ??????? ?а ????????? л?????╗, ??? ??????????? ?. ?. ?????????. ?? ?????? ???, ???????? ????? ??????, ?а ??????? ?????? ????? ???????
?????? ?? ???????, ??а????????? ??? ??????????? ?а????????? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ??????? [38, ?. 66].
? ?????? ?а?. ?. ?????????? ?. ?. ?????? ????????, ??? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ??? ???????: л??? ???? ??????????????, ?а????? ?????, ????? ??? ?? ????
??????????? ?????????!.. ??? ????????, ??????????????? ?????????, ? ????? ?????????????? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ???? ????? ?????????? ?????, ?а??? ?? ??? ??
chef d?oeuvre╗ [39, ?. 112]. л????? ??????? ?????????????, ????????????! ????????
???? ??????????? ??????????╗ [36].
? ????? 1882а ?. ????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????. ?а 1896а ?. ?????????? ????? ??????? ????? л??????? ????????????╗.
?а???? ?????? (л????????╗ 1896, ??????? ????????, ?????) ????? ??????? ??? ????
??? ???? ????? ?а?????????? ?????? ???????? ????????а? ?????-???????????????,
13
????? ???-??????а? ??????? ????? ???????? (1839?1885), ???????? ??????? ?а????????????.
??????? ?????. ???. 15. ????????????????. 2016. ???. 3
17
???????????. ?а???? ??????? ??????????? ?????, ??????? ??????????, ??? ?????????? ???????? ???????????, ??а??? ?? ??????? ??????? ?а???????.
???? ?????????? ????????? л????????╗ ??? ?????? ???????? ???????
?а 1883а ?., ?? ??????????? ????? 1870а ?. ?а ??????? ?????? ??????? ???? ????????
?????? ?а1913а?. ?а?????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???? ???????? ?????? ?ал???????? ????????????╗.
??? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????. ??? ???????? ?а?????? ?а????????? ???????, ????????????, ?????? ????, ?а??????, ????? ?? ???????????? л??????? ?????? ?а????????? ??╗. ???? ?? ????????, ????????, ?а???? ?????? ??????
????????? ?????? ????? ???? ????????? ???? ?????????, ??????? ?? ????????? ?? ??????? ????????? [40, ?. 8].
??????????? ?????? ????? ?? ?????????? ????? ??????, ???????????? ?а?????????? ?. ?. ??????. ?а?????????, ???????? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ?. ??????????? ??? ?????? л????????╗.
? 1880а ?. ?а ?????? ?? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?. ?. ??????? л?????? ?а ???????
????????? ?а????╗, ? ?а1888а?.а? ?а?????? л?????? ??? ??????? ?????╗, ???????
?????? ???????? ?? ???????? ??????? ??????. ??????, ??? ?????, ??? ?а??????, ??????? ?????? ?а1909?19011а??. ??? ???????? ?????? л???????????? ??????╗ (???)
?а???????? л?????? ?а???? ??????╗, ?????????? ?? 38-? ?а39-? ??????????? ????????? (1910?1911а??.).
? ?????? ?а????? ??????? ?. ?. ?????????? ?? 20а??????? 1894а?. ??а??????? ??
???????????? ??? ?? ?????????????? ???????:
????? ???????? ???? ?? ??? ??????????? ??а???????, ??? ????? ????? ????. ???
??? ????????????, ??? ????? ??? ?????????! <?> ???, ??? ???? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ????? ???? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ??? ?????
???????, ???? ?? ???????? ?? ??????????????, ????????? ?а?????? <?> ????? ??? ??????????????, ??????, ??а????? ???????? ?а??????????? ?????? [41, ?. 49?51].
?????? ?. ?. ?????? ????? ????????? ?? ???. ?????? ??????? ??? ???????
?а1878а?. ??????? ?? ????????? ?а??????????, ?? ?????? ????????. ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ???? ????????? л??????????, ?????????? ??????
????????? ???????╗. ?ал???????????? ????????╗ (1906?1918) ???????? ????????
?????? ???????? ???????? ?а ????? ?а ????????? ????????, ????????? ??? ?а л??????? ????╗ (???.а8). ???????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ????, ??????? ??????????? ??????, ????? ?а ????? ??????? ?а ????????? ??????, ???????? ????????.
???? ??а????? ?? ???????а? ??????? ?а??????? ????? ?а???????а? ????? ????
?????????? ????????. ??? ?????????? ????????, ????????????? ?????????? ?????
????? ?????? ?????? л?????? ??????╗.
?????? ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????? л???????????? ????????╗.
?а????? ??а?????? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ????????? ????? ?????: л? ??????, ???
????????????? ????????? ?? ???? ??? ?????? <?> ?? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ???????, ????????????╗ [42, ?. 301].
?. ?. ????????? ?а1907а?., ??????????? ?а????? ?а???? ????? ?????? ?????????
?????? ?а?????????? ?а??????????, ?????? ?? ?????? ????????????? ?????????
?????? ???????? ????? ?а????????:
?? ?? ???? ???? ???????? ????? ??????? ????? ???????????, ????? ??????? ????? ??????? (????? ?а???????)? ?????????? ???????? л???????????╗, ?????????? ?????????,
18
??????? ?????. ???. 15. ????????????????. 2016. ???. 3
???. 8. ???????????? ????????. 1908?1919а ??.
?????, ?????. ??????? ????????
?????? ?????????, ???? ??, ???? ?????, ??????????????? ????????, ???? ?????????,а?
?а???? ?а??? ???? ?????, ??????, ????????? ????? ???? ?????, ?а????? ????????? ??? ?????
??? ????????? ??????????а ? ????????????, ???????? ?????????, ???? ?а ????????, ???
??????????? ??? ?????????? ????????, ??? ???????, ??? ???????: ?? ??????? ? ???-??
?а????, ??? ?????? ????????? ????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ???????, ??????, ??????????, ?????????,а? ?а????????? ????? ????????????? (??? ????? ????????, ??? ???
???????? ??? ????????), ??????? ???? ?а??? ?????? ????? ???????, ??? ?? ??????? ???!14
??????????? ????? ?а ?????????????? ??????, ??????????? ??????? ?????
???? ???????, ??????? ?. ?. ??, ???????? ?? ?ал???????╗ ?а??????, ?а?????? 1906а?.:
??? ???? ???? ?????????? (?? ?????????). <? > ???? ??????, ???????? ????? ???
?????? ????? ????????, ????? ????????????? ?????, ?????? ????? ?????а? ??? ???? ???????? ????? ??? ?? ?????, ?? ??????, ??????, ???????????, ?а?????? ????????, ?????????????? ? ????? ??? ???????, ??? ??? ???? ?а?????????????? ???????, ??? ???????? ???????? ?????????, ??????? ????????? ??? ???????? ?а????????? ?? ???????? [41, ?. 75?76].
????? ?????? ???????? ??: л? ?????? ??????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ????
??????????? ????? ???????, ?а?????? ??а??? ??????? ?????? ????? ???? ?????????? ????????╗ [41, ?. 76].
14
?????? ??а?????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ?а?????? ?а????????? ?????? л????╗ [43].
??????? ?????. ???. 15. ????????????????. 2016. ???. 3
19
????? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ?????, ???? ????????? ?а??? ??????
?а??????????? ?????? л?????? ??????? ??? ????╗, ??????? ????? ?а??????????
?????? ???????? ?а????? 1909а?.:
??????а? ????? ????? ?а????? ??????? ????? ???????? ??????? ????? ?????. ?а??????
??? ??? ??????????????а? ???????? ?? ??? ????? ??? ???????. <?> ??????????? ?????????? ????? ????? ?????? ?а???? ? ?а??????? ??? ??????????, ??? ???? ?? ????????????. ????? ?а????????????. ??? ?????? ?а??????? ??????, ??? ????? ????? ?а??????????
??? ?? ????? ???????????. ?а???? ???? ????, ????? ???????? ?а???????? ??? ???????????
?? ???? ??????? ?????? ??????, ????????, ???????????, ???????? ?а??? ??????? ????? ???? ??????? ?а?????????, ?а??????? ???????? ???????. ??? ????? ???? [44].
? ????????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ????? ?а???????? ?? ???? л?????╗,
???????????, ??? ?? ??????, ?а??????? ???? ?а??????. ???? ???, ?а??????????????
??????? ?а?????? ??????? ?????, ???????? ????????? ????????, ??????? ??????????? ?а??????????? ?? ????. ?. ?. ??????????? ?ал??????? ??????? ?????????╗ ???????? ??? ??????????? л????????╗, ?а????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ??????
????? ?? ??????? [20, ?. 551].
? ???? ??а???? ???? ???????? ??????? ?????? л???????╗ ????? ??????? л??????, ????????? ?а?????? ?????? ??? ???????? ????╗. ??????????? ??????????
1910а?. ?????? ?????????? ?а?????????? ?а?????? (???. 9). ?? ??? ????? ???? ?а????
???????, ??? ???????? ????????? ?. ?. ???????? (???????? ?а????????? ?????????
????????? ???????). ?а1909а?. ????? ?????????? ?? ???? ?????? ?а???????????????? ?????? ?а ?. ?. ???????????-??????: л???? ?а ???? ??? ?а ??????, ?????????
???? ???????,а? ???? ?????╗ [26, ?. 254?255]. ????????????? ?а????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ???? ????????? ???? ?????? л?????? ?????╗
?а????? ?? ????? ?ал???????????? ??????╗. ?????, ??????? ???? ????????????,
???????????? ????????? ?а ?????? ?????????: л?????? ?????? ? ???? ??????? ?????????, ???? ?? ??????? ??????? ?а??? ??????. ?а???? ????? ???????? ??????? ????
???????????, ????? ??? ??????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ???╗ [41, ?. 42].
?а??????????? ???????? ??????? ???? л??????? ???╗, ?????????? ????????? ??
???? ???????? ???????, ?????? ?а??????, ?????? ????? ?????? л???????? ????????
???????╗ ?а?? ???????? ????? ???????? ??????????? ????????, ??????? ?? ??????
????????? ?а???? ??????. ????????? ????????? ?. ??????? ?а????? ?I?а?. ?????
?? ????:
??? ?????? ?а ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????, ???? ?? ????? ???? ?????????
?а???? ????????? ????? ?а???????, ??????? ?? ?????? ????????????, ?? ?а???? ????? ????????? ??????? ??? ????? ?а??????????? ?????? ?а????????. ????? ???? ?а???? ??? ??
??? ???????, ??????? ???? ??? ?????? ????????, ?????? ??? ???????????? ???????, л???????????? ?а??????????????╗, ??а??????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ?а???????? л??????? ?а????????╗, ??? ??? ?а?????????????? ????? ????????? ?????? [45, ?. 19].
? 1911а?. ????? ???????? ????????? ??????? л????╗ ?. ?. ????????? ???????????? ?????? ??а????? ??????, ?????????????? ??????????? ????????а? ????????
???????? ??????? ???? л??????? ???╗,а? л?????? ?а???? ??????╗ (???.а10).
?? ?????????? ???? ????? ?????????? ????? ????? ???????? ??????? ?? ????
л?? ????? ???????╗а ? ?. ?. ???????, ?. ?. ??????, ?. ?. ???????? ?а ?????? ?????????? ?????????. ???????????? ????????????? ??? ??????????? ?????, ??????
??, ??????, ?а??????? ???????. ????? ????????? ??? ????????? ???????:
20
??????? ?????. ???. 15. ????????????????. 2016. ???. 3
???. 9. ?. ?. ?????, ?. ?. ???????-????????, ?. ?. ????????? ?а ?. ?. ?????????
?а?????? ?????????? л???????╗. ???? ?????? ?. ?. ???????? 20а?????? 1910а?. ?????????? ?. ?????. ??? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ?. ?. ?????????а? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? л???????????? ??????╗
???. 10. ?????? ?а???? ??????. ???????? ??????? л????╗, 1911а?.
??????? ?????. ???. 15. ????????????????. 2016. ???. 3
21
???. 11. ?????? ?а ???? (?? ????? ??????? ?. ?. ?????? л???? ?????
??????????╗), 1926. ?????, ?????. ??????????????? ??????????????
?????
? ??????? ?? ????????? ?а????, ??? ??????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??? ?? ?????
??????а? ???????. ????? ?? ?????-?????? ?????????? ?????????! ? ??? ?? ?????? ?????? ?а?????? ?а??????? ??????а? ??? ????? ????. ? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ???????
??а????? ???????, ??????, ?????????? ?а?????? [38, ?. 97].
? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?? ?????????? ?а ?????? ?????? 1925а ?. л??????
?а????╗ (???.а11). ???? ??а????? ?????????????? ????? (????? л??????╗, ??? ?????? ????? ??????? ?????) ???????? ??????? ?? ????? л???? ????? ??????????╗
?. ?. ??????.
??????????, ????????? ?????? ?а???????????-????, ????????? л???????? ??????? ?а???╗. ?????? ?а???? ?????????? ??????? ?а???????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????. ?????????? ????????? ?????? ?а ???????????????? ??????? ?а???? ??????. ??????? ?. ?. ????????-???????? (1914) ??а???????? ???????????? ??????????????? ?????, ??????? ?. ?. ?????????-?????????
(1915, ???????????? ?????, ?????????), ??????? ????? ???????? (1916). ?????????? ?а1925а?. л??????╗а? ????????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????? ????????????? ????? ?а????????? ??????. ?а?????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?. ?. ??????
?????? ???????? ?? ???? ????????? ??????? ??????, ??????? ?а??????? ?????????
?? ????? ????? ????? ??????????? ???????. ?ал???????╗ ??????????? ???? ????????? ?????? ?а???????????? ???????? ??????????. ???? ??а??????? ?????????а?
????? ????????а? ??????? ???????? ????????? ??????????? ?ал???????? ????????????╗ ?. ?. ?????? ??????? ??????? ?а1913а?.
?. ?. ????????? ?а ????? л????? ?а ??????╗ ?????: л???? ?????? ????? ??????
?а??????????, ?а???????? ?????? ?????????╗ [46, ?. 6]. ?? ????????? ????????
22
??????? ?????. ???. 15. ????????????????. 2016. ???. 3
?а ?????? ???????????????? ?????? ?а ?????? ???????? ?? ??????????, ??а ?????
???????? ??????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????. ??? ????????
?а?????? ??? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ????? ?????. ?а??????? ?????????????? ??????? ?????? ????? ????????? ????? ?????????????, ??? л?????
??????????? ?а????? ??????? ????????а? ??????????????????а? ????? ?????????????? ????????? ?? ??? ??????????????, ?? ?????? ?а???????????????? ?????
?а??????????? ??? ?? ?????????? 60?70-?а??. XIXа?.╗ [11, ?. 7].
??? ????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ????????, ??? ?а?? ?????, ????? ???????
?а???????? ?а?????? ????? XIXа?. ???????????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ?а?????????? ?? ?????? ????????????, ?? ?а??????, ??? ???? ?????, ????? ?а??????? ?????????????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ?????? ????????-?????????????? ?а?????
??????????. ?????????? ??? ???????????? ?. ?. ?????? ?а???????????? ?????????
?. ?. ?????? ????????? ?? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????????, ?? ?а?? ?? ????? ???????
?а???????????? ?????. ??? ???? ??а???????????????, ???????? ??????? ?а??????
?а?????? ?а??????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????, ???????? ?? ?????????
???? л????????а? ????????╗.
??????????
1. ??????? ?. ?. ?????????????? ????? ?????? ?????? ???????? XIXа?. 70?80-? ????. ?.: ?????, 1977. 223а?.
2. ????????? ?. ?. ??????????? ?а?????. ?.: ?????????, 1962. 315а?.
3. ????? ?. ?. ?????????? ?????????. ?.: ????????? , 1972. 440а?.
4. ??????? ?. ?. ??????? ?????????? ?а??????????????? ?????????. ?.: ?????, 1972. 25а?.
5. ?????? ?. ?., ??????????? ?. ?., ????????? ?. ?. ?а??. ?????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?а???????????????? ?????????. ????; ??????: ???? ?????, 1975. 171а?.
6. ?????????? ?а????????: ??. ????. ??????. ?.: ?????, 1982. 288а?.
7. ??????? ?????????? ?а??????????????? ????????? XVIIIа? ?????? XX ????: ??. ????. ??????.
?.: ?????, 1982. 174а?.
8. ????????? ?. ?., ???????? ?. ?. ?а??. ?????????? ?а??????? ????????: ? 3-? ?. ???.: ???????,
2010. ?. 2. 362а?.
9. Praz M. Mnemosyne. The parallel between literature and the visual arts. London: Princeton University Press; Oxford University Press, 1975. 261а?.
10. Burwick F. Romantic imagination literature and art in England and Germany. Pennsylvania: University Park; The Pennsylvania state university press, 1996. 454а?.
11. ??????? ?. ?. ????? ?а??????. ?.: ??????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ????, 1926.
18а?. (??????? ?а?????? ?????????. ???. 7).
12. ???????????? ?. ?. ????? ?а???????. ?.; ?.: ?????????, 1944. 108а?.
13. ???????????? ?. ?. ????? ?а????????. ?.; ?.: ?? ????, 1945. 76а?.
14. ?. ?. ??????? ?а??????????????? ?????????: ??. ?????? /а??? ???. ?. ?. ???????. ?.: ??????????????? ?????????, 1981. 222а?.
15. ?????????? ?. ?. ???? ???????? ?????. ?.: ?????????, 1982. 480а?.
16. ???????? ?. ?., ??????? ?. ?. ????? ?????? ?а??????? ??????????????? ????????? XIXа????:
??????. ?????????. ??????. ?.: ??а????, 1952. 892а?.
17. ????????? ?. ?. ????? ?ал???????╗. ?.: ????????, 1977. 207а?.
18. ????? ?. ?., ????????? ?. ?. ?????????. 1906?1929. ?.: ????? ???????????? ?????????,
2006. 352а?.
19. ?????? ?. ?. ?????? ???????? ?????????: ? 14а?. ?.; ?.: ?? ????, 1938. ?. 3. 728а?.
20. ?????? ?а??????? ???????. ????????? /а????. ?. ?. ???????. ?.: ??????? ??, 2008. 714а?.
21. ?????? ?. ?. ???? ???????? ????? //а?????. ???., 1875. ? 3. ?. 28.
22. ?????????? ?. ?. ?????????? ?а??????????? ?????? ?. ?. ?????? ?а???????? ?. ?. ??????
л?????? ?? ?????? ???? ????????╗: ??????? ???????? ?а 200-????? ?? ??? ???????? ?. ?. ??????.
???.: ????? ?. ?. ??????, 2009. 200а?.
??????? ?????. ???. 15. ????????????????. 2016. ???. 3
23
23. ?????????????? ??????? ?. ?. ??????: ??????. ???.: ???. ??????????, 1892. (??????????
?????????? ?а??????? л?????╗). 8а?.
24. ????? ?. ?. ?а?????? ?. ?. ?????????. ?.; ?.: ?????????, 1948. ?. 1. 263а?.
25. ????? ?. ?. ?????? ?а?????????? ?а?????????????? ????????. ?.: ?????????, 1952. 408а?.
26. ????? ?. ?. ????????? ?????? ?а???? ?????. 1867?1930. ?.: ?????????, 1969. ?. 2. 463а?.
27. ?? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ?. ?. ?????? ???? ??????? //а ????. ???., 1914. ? 29.
?. 571?577.
28. ?????? ?. ?. ?????? ???????? ?????????: ? 14а?. ?.; ?.: ?? ????, 1940. ?. 10. 540а?.
29. ?????? ?. ?. ?????? ???????? ?????????: ? 14а?. ?.; ?.: ?? ????, 1952. ?. 8. 816а?.
30. ??????? ?. ?. ??? ???? ?а??????? //а?????. ?????????????? ??????????: ? 2а?. ?.; ?.: ????? ???????? ???? ????, 1949. ?. 2. 479а?.
31. ?????????? ?. ?. ????? ??????? ?а?????????? ???????? ?. ?. ?????? (? ??????? ?а????
?а ???????? ?????????? ??????? ?а ?????????? ?. ?. ??????) //а ????????? ?????? 2009?2013. ???.:
??????, 2014. ?. 22?24.
32. ?????? ?. ?. ?????? ???????? ?????????: ? 14а?. ?.; ?.: ?? ????, 1937. ?. 2. 764а?.
33. ???? ?. ?. ????????а??????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????: ? 4а?. ?.: ??????? ????, 1978.
?. 2. 708а?.
34. ??????? ?. ?. ??? ?????? ??????????. ??????? 1974?1994. ?.: ???????, 2002. 384аc.
35. ????? ?. ?. ?????? ? 6а//а????? ?. ?. ?????? ???????? ????????? ?а?????: ? 30а?. ?.: ?????, 1974?1982. ?. 8. 528аc.
36. ??????а?. ?. ??????????? ?ал???????? ????????????╗ //а?????? ?. ?. ???????? ?????????: ? 3а?. ???., 1894. ?. 3.
37. ?????? ?. ?. ??????? ?а??????????? ???????? //а?????????????? ???????. 1а?????? 1883а?.
38. ????? ?. ?. ????????? ?а?. ?. ???????????. ?.; ?.: ?????????, 1946. 225аc.
39. ????????? ?. ?. ?????????? ?а?. ?. ???????. 1874?1897. ?.; ?.: ?????????, 1949. 284а?.
40. ??????????? ?. ?. ?????-???????????. ?.: ???. ?-?? ?. ?????????, 1913. 31аc.
41. ????? ?а??????. ?.: ???????? ?????, 1969. 435аc.
42. ?????? ?. ?. ?. ?. ????? ?а??????? ?????????????? ???????? ????? XIXа? ?????? XX ????.
?.: ???????? ?????, 1989. 478а?.
43. ????????? ?. ?. ?. ?. ????? //а????. 10.07.1907. ? 237.
44. ????? ?. ?. ?????? //а????? ?????? ??? ????. ?????? ??????. ???., 1909. ? 5.
45. ??????? ?. ?. ??????????? ?????????? ?????? ?а ???????? ??? ?????? ??? ????????
????????????: ????????? ??????. ?.: ???. ??????, 1901. 39аc.
46. ????????? ?. ?. ????? ?а??????. ?.; ?.: ???-??, 1966. 243а?.
??? ???????????: ?????????? ?. ?. ???????????? ????? ?. ?. ?????? ?а ??????????? ?а ?????????? ????????????? ?. ?. ??????. ?а ??????? ?а ??????????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ????? XIXа? ?????? XX ???? //а??????? ?????-?????????????? ????????????.
?????а15. ????????????????. 2016. ???.а3. ?.а4?26. DOI: 10.21638/11701/spbu15.2016.301
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Publ., 1989, 478аp. (In Russian)
43. Chukovskii K. I. I. E. Repin [I. E. Repin]. Rech' [Speech]. 10.07.1907, no.а237. (In Russian)
44. Repin I. E. Gogol' [Gogol]. Novyi zhurnal dlia vsekh. Pamiati Gogolia [New magazine for everyone.
Memory of Gogol]. St. Petersburg, 1909, no.а5. (In Russian)
45. Alferov A. A. Osobennosti tvorchestva Gogolia iаznachen?e ego poez?i dlia russkago samosoznan?ia:
publichnaia lekts?ia [Features of Gogol and the value of his poetry for Russian self-consciousness: a public lecture]. Moscow, Izd. Sytina, 1901, 39аp. (In Russian)
46. Al'fonsov V. N. Slova iа kraski [Word and Paint]. Moscow, Leningrad, Izd-vo, 1966, 243а p. (In
Russian)
For citation: Andrushchenko L. I. Nikolai Gogol?s literary characters in the Ilya Repin?s graphic and
pictorial works. To the question about morphological problem at the Russian artistic culture in the late
XIXа? beginning XX century. Vestnik of Saint Petersburg University. Seriesа15. Arts, 2016, issueа3, pp.а4?26.
DOI: 10.21638/11701/spbu15.2016.301
?????? ????????? ?а???????? 20а??????? 2015а?.
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?:
?????????? ??????? ????????а? ??????????; andrjka@yandex.ru
Andrushchenko Lyudmila I. ? applicant for a degree; andrjka@yandex.ru
26
??????? ?????. ???. 15. ????????????????. 2016. ???. 3
???
????? ???????? ??? ???? ???? ?????, ??????? ?????╗ [29, ?. 80].
??? ?а??????, ????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????, ?? ???????? ??????????? ?а??????????? ?а?????????????. ??? ?а??????, ????? ????????? ????? ???????????? ????????????? ?а??????????? ????? ?а??????? ??????? ?????. ????? ????,
?????? ?а??????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?? ??????????? ?????, ?????????? ?????? ???????????, ??? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????. ?? ????????????? ?????? ?????? ???? ?????????, л????? ?????? ???? ???? ????? ?????
?а?????????? ??-??????????, ?а?????? ?? ???? ????????, ??а?????-???????, ?а??????????? ?а????. ??? ?? ????? ???? ??????? ??????????, ??????? ????? ????????. ??
??? ????? ?????????? ???? ??????: ??????? ????? ?а?????? ?????? ?????? ??????а?
??? ?????? ?? ????, ?? ????, ?? ???????. ?????? ?????? ?а??????? ?а??????? ?а??????? ??????? ??? ????? ???????, ?а????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ??????╗ [27].
??? ???????????? ?????????, ????? ???????? ??????? ???, ????????, ?а??????????? ?????????????: л??????? ??? ??? ?????? ?????, ??? ??? ??????! ??????????
?????!.. ????? ?? ???? ????? ?? ?????????? ??? ??????? ???????, ????????? ?а??????????? ?????. ???. 15. ????????????????. 2016. ???. 3
11
????! ?? ??? ????? ????????? ???????? ????????, ?????? ?? ???????????╗,а? ????? ????? ?а1880а?. ?а?????? ????? ?????? ??? ???????? л????????? ????? ??????
????????? ???????╗ [24, ?. 279].
? ????? л??????????╗ ???????? ?а?????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????????-?????????? ?????? ?????? ?а???? ?а?????, ?????????, ??????????? ???????
?а???????????? ??????, ????? л? ????? ??????????? ??????????╗, ??????????????
??????? ??? ???? ????? ??????????? ????. ????????? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ??????????. ??а ?
???????????? ????????? ????????????????? ???? ?а??????????? ???????, ?а??????? ?????? ??? ?????????? л???????? ?????╗ ????? ??????.
?? ????????????? ??????? ?????? ?. ?. ???????, ??????? ??? ????????
?????? ????????? л???????????? ?????????╗ ?а л???????????╗ ?а ??????????
л???????╗, ???? ???????? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? л?????? ??????╗ ?ал???????╗
?. ?. ???????? [30, ?. 285].
????? ????????? ??? ?????? ?? ??????????? ?ал?????? ??????╗. ?а1890а?. ?? ???
?????? ??????? л?????? ?а????????╗ (???). ?????, ?????? 1901а?., ????????????
????? ?????????? ????????? л?????? ??????╗ ?а????????????? ??????. ??? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?. ???????????, ???????? ???? ???????? ???
?????? ?????????? ??????. ????? ??????? ??????? ??????? л??????????? ?а?????
????????????? ???????????? ??????╗ ?а?????? ?а??? ????????, ??? ????????? ????????? ??? ?????? ??? ???????? ?? ??? ????. ?????? ??? ?а?? ???? ????????????.
?? ??? ????? ???? ???????????? 1903а?. ???????? ??????, ???????????? л??????
?????? ?????? ?а????????? ?а????╗.
? ?????? ??????? л????? ??????╗ ?????? ?а ????????? ??? ????????? ?а ????? ????? (л?????╗, 1927а ?.) (???.а 4). 30а ?????? 1926а ?. ????? ????? ??а л???????╗
?а????????????? ?????? ??????? ????? ????????? ?. ?. ???????????:
??? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???, ??? ? ????? ?????? ?? ?????????! <?> ???????? ?? ????????, ? ????? ?? ??????? ?????: ????, ??? ???? ?а??????????а? ???????
???: ?????, ????? ?а?. ?.а? ?????? [26, ?. 381].
л?????╗а? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ??а??????? ???????????
???? ?а ???????????? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????.
?а??? ?? ????? ???????? ???????? ????? ??????: л????? ?? ???? ????? ?? ?????????? ??? ??????? ???????, ?????????, ????????! ?? ??? ????? ????????? ????????
????????╗,а? ??? ????????????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????
?????? ?. ?. ??????10. ????? ?? ????? ???????? ?а??????? ????? ??????? ??????????
?????? ?а??????, ??, ????? ?? ???????, ???????? ??????????? л?????? ??????╗, ?????? ??? ??????? ?а????????? ?а????11.
10
????? ????? ??????? 19а ??????? 1889а ?.: л? ?????? ??, ? ?????? ??? ??????????, ??? ? ?
?а???????????? ???? ????. ? ?а??????? ???????, ? ?а?????????? ?????????, ???????? ?а??????????
???????, ??????????? ???? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ???????, ??????????; ????? ????? ?а??????????????? ?????, ??????? <?> ? ???? ????????? ???? ?????????
???? ????????, ???? ???????? ?????????? ????. ?????? ???? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?? ????????? ???? ?а???????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????? ????????? ???? ???????????? ?а???????? ????????????╗ [26, ?. 42]. ?. ?. ?????? ????????? л??????????╗ ?а???????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????.
11 ???????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ?а?????? л????? ??????? ?а?????????? ???????? ?. ?. ?????? (? ??????? ?а???? ?а???????? ?????????? ??????? ?а?????????? ?. ?. ??????)╗ [31].
12
??????? ?????. ???. 15. ????????????????. 2016. ???. 3
???. 4. ?????а? ?????? ??????????. 1926?1930. ?????, ?????. ??????? ????????. ?? 1948а?. ????????????? ?. ?. ???????
л? ??????? ?????? ???? ?????? ???????? ?? ????? ?????? ?, ??????? ??????
???????? ?а?????????? ?? ???????, ?????????? ??? ???????????? ?? ?????а? ???
?????? <?> ?????? ??а?????????? ??? ?? ???? ??????.а? ??!╗а? ??? ?? ??????, ???
??????? ??а???????????? ?????? ?. ?. ?????? ?. ?. ??????????? [26, ?. 381].
????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????а ? ?????????
?????????? ??????. ??????? ???????, ????? ?? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????????. ??????? ??? ???????? ?а??? ??????? ??? ???? ?а?????. ????? ?????????
??????????? ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ???????????????? ?????? ?. ?. ????????,
??? ?а?????? 1895а?. ???? ??????? ??????????? л????? ???? ????????? ?а??????
?????????????╗.
????? ?? ??????? ?? ???????, ??????? ???? ???? ????????? ????? ??????
(???.а5), ??? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????:
???? ???????? ??????? ?а ???????? ?????? ?????? ?а ???? ????????? ?????? ??
?????? ??????? ????? ? ???? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ????? ????????? ????? ?а??? ????????? ????? ?? ?????╗ [32, ?. 219].
?????? ??????? ???????? ????? ?????? ?а???? ???????????, ?, ?????? ?а?????? ??????, ??? ???? ???????? ?а??????????? ????????????? ????????? ???? ??????????: л???, ?????? ??????????! ?? ????? ?????╗а? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ?????. ?????, ??? ? ?а?????? ?ал?????????╗, ?????? ????? ?а???? ??????????? ?? ??????: л??????-?, ?? ????? ????╗.
? 1880-? ???? ???????? ????????? ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ?. ?. ??????, ?. ?. ???????-?????? ?а?. ?. ???????. ?? ????????????? ?????????????, ???????-?????? ??? ???????????? ??????. ?? ?? ?????? ?????, ?а???????? л??????? ????????????╗ ?а????? ?а???????а? ?а????? ??????????
??????? ?????. ???. 15. ????????????????. 2016. ???. 3
13
???. 5. ???? ???????? ???????????. ??????????? ??????? ????? ??????? ???????????????? ?????? ?. ?. ????????. 1894а?.
???. 6. ?. ?. ???????-?????? ?а???? ?????????. ?????????? 1880-? ?????
14
??????? ?????. ???. 15. ????????????????. 2016. ???. 3
?????? ?а????? ???????. ????? ?а??? ?????? ?????????? ?????. ?? ?????? ???????,
??? ??????? ??? ????????, ?????? л????????╗ ???? ???????? ?????: л?????????????╗ (???.а 6). л?????????????, ??????????? ?а ???????╗ ???? ????????-???????
?ал???????? ????????????╗ ????????? ?. ?. ???????. ?? ??????? ??????????? ?а??????? ?????????? ???????, ????????? ?? ????? ??????. ?. ?. ????? ??????? ???????
????????-??????? ?а???? ????????? ?а1882а?. (л???????? ???? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????. ????? ?? ??????? ????? ?? ??????????╗) [19, ?. 209] (???.а7).
???. 7. ????????. ?. ?. ???????-?????? ?а???? ?????????, ????? ??????? ?. ?. ?????? л??????? ????????????╗.
1882. ???????. ???????? ????? ???????? ?????????
??????? ???? ????????? ?????? л????????╗ ?? ?????????? ?а ?????????????. ?а ???? ????? л?????????╗ ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?а ??? ??
???? ?а?????????? ????????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ????????? л???????? ???
?а??????? ????????╗, ???????? ?. ?. ?????????, ?. ?. ??????????, ?. ?. ???????????, ?. ?. ??????????. ?а??? ???? ???????? ?? ????????? ??? ?????? ?а????? ?????????????????? ????? л??????? ???????╗.
?????? ?. ?. ???????-?????? ??????, ??? ??????? ?а??? ?????а? ??? л??????????? ????????╗. ???????, ????? ????? ????? ??? ????? ?а????? ?????????. ?? ??????? ?? ????????? ?а?????? ????, ??????????? ??а?????????? ???????, ???????
??????? ?????. ???. 15. ????????????????. 2016. ???. 3
15
???????? ?????? ????, ??а???? ?????? ???? ???????? ????????????? ??????, ???
?а ?????????? (л????????? ?????? ????╗,а ? ??????? ???-?? ?????). ???????????
????? ???? ?а??????????? ????? ??а?????????, ???????????? ????????-??????
??????, ?а?? ??????а? ????????? ??????, ??????????? ??а?????-?? ??????. ????????? ???????? ???? ?????????: ????????, ????????, ?а???????????? ???????,
????? ?????????? ??????? ??????, ????????? ????? ?? ??????? ???????????? ????. ???????????-????????????? ???????, л?????????????╗ ?? ???????
???????? ?????-?? ?????, ???????, ????? ????????? ????? ??, ??? ??? ?? ????
??????. ?????? ?а?????? ???????????? ?????, ?а??? ?????????? ????? ?????????
?????????????, ???? ???????????, ?а??? ??? л?????????╗ ?а????, ??????? ?а??????
?????? ?????????????, ??а?? ?????????? ????????????? ???????.
?? ????????? ?????? ???????? ????????? ????? ???? ?а ??????, ????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ???????????? ?? ??????????? ?а?? ????????? ?а????? ??????? ?????. ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?а???????? ?а??????? ????????
???а? ????????. ??????, ?. ???? ???????? ?????? л???????╗ ??? л?????? ?????
???????? ?а??????? ?????????╗. л????? ??????? ?? ??????, ????? ??? ??????..╗12
? ???? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??? ????, ??? ??? л??? ?????╗ ????? ??????????? ????? ?????????????. ??а? ?????? ???????:
??? 2000а?????? 43а?????.
??????????? ???? ???? ???? ??????????? ?????????! ? ??????? ???? ??????. ??
?????????. ???? ?????? ?. ?????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ?. ?????????, ???? ?????
??? ????? ??????? ????????. ? ?? ???????, ??? ? ??? ?????? ?а?????????? ????, ??? ?
?????????? ????????? [19, ?. 207].
????? ????????? ?????? ???? ??????а ? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???????
?а?????? ?????????! ??? ????? ?????? ???, ?????? ???????, ?а?????? ???????????? ????? ?а???, ??? ?? ????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ??????, ???
????? ?? ????????? ???????? ??? ????? ?а??????????? ???. ?? ?????? ??????????
?а????????.
? ?????????????? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ?а???? ????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????, ????????? ??
?? ?????? ????????, ??????? ?а???????? ??????????????? ?????????: л? ??? ?????
????? ?а???, ??? ?? ?? ????? ???? ?????а? ??? ????????????, ?? ?а??? ?? ????????? ???? ??? ?????╗ [34, ?. 274].
???????, ?а ???? ???????????? ??? ????????? ?????? ??????, ??????????.
???????? ??????? ??? ??????? ????????????? ????????а? ?????? ?а?????? ????
???????????? ??????????. ?????????? ????????? л??????? ???????╗ ?. ???????, л?????? ? 6╗ ?. ??????, л??????? ?а?????????╗ ?. ?????????? ?????? ?????
??а????????? л?????? ? 6╗ ?????????, ??? л?? ???????? ??? ? ????? ?? ???? ??????
?????? ?????? ?????? ????????, ?? ?а??? ???????????╗ [35, ?. 110].
?????? ?? ???????? ??????????????? ????? ????? ????????-??????? ?ал???????? ????????????╗. ?. ?. ??????, ????????? ?а??????????? ?а????? ??а????? ??????
?? ???? ?. ?. ????????-???????, ?а??? ?? ????? ?а?а????????? ???????: л? ?? ?????
?????????? ???????? ?????? ?а?????????а?. ????????-???????. ??? ?????? ???????12
л??????? ?????, ??? ?????? ????? ????????, ?а??????? ?????????. ????? ??????? ?? ??????? ????? ??? ?????, ??? ????? ??????, ??????? ?а???? ???????? ????╗. ???. ??: [33].
16
??????? ?????. ???. 15. ????????????????. 2016. ???. 3
???? ?а??????. ????? ??? ????? ??? ???? ????? ??????? (?а???? ????????) ?? ?????,
??????? ?????? ??????? ????????а? ?а??? ????? ????????, ?а????? ?????????
????????!╗ [36].
?????? ??? ?????????? ????, ??????????? ??????????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ??? ????????? ???????????? ??????. ???? ????????????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ?? ?????????? ???????????? ????????.
??????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????? ????????????? ??????????, ????????? ??? ???????? ?? ???????? ?????????. ???????? ???? ????????? ???????,
???????? ????????? ????? ?????????, ??????????????? ?????????; ???????????
?? ???????????? ???????, ??????? ?????????-??????????: л?? ????? ???????
?????? ?????????????!╗ [19, ?. 209].
????????? ???????? ???????????? ???? ??? ???????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ?????????????:
??? ?????????? ????????, ?????????? ???????? ??????, ???????????? ??? ??ал??????? ????????????╗. ????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ??????, ????? ?? (??? ?????????
?а????????) ?????????? ???? ?????????? ???? ?а?????????????? ?????????. <?> ?????
???? ???????????, ???????????? ?????? ????? ?, ??? ???????? ?а ????, ???? ???????????а? ??????? ?а?????? ???????? [37, ????. 1503?1504].
??????? ??????? ?. ?. ?????? л????????╗ ????????? ?а???????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ?????????. ?а1883а?. ?а???????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????
????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ?а??????.
?. ?. ????????? ??? ?а?????? ???? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????. ?? ???
???????????? ????? ???????, ??? ?а??????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?а????? ?.-??????13,
?а?. ?. ????????, ?а???????? ????????? ?. ?. ?????????. 11а????? ?????????????
???????? ?. ?. ??????, ?? ???? ?а?????????????? ?????? ?а??????????, ?????? ??????? л????????╗ ?. ?. ?????????. ????? 13а ????? ?. ?. ????????? ?? ????????
???????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?а?????? ?? ???. ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ????????? 14а ????? ?. ?. ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???? ??????? ??????
л?????????╗: л? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ??? ??? ????? ??????????, ? ??? ?????
?а?????? ?? ???? ????????╗ [38, ?. 62?65].
?????? ???????? ??????? ?а ????????? л?????╗, ??? ??????????? ?. ?. ?????????. ?? ?????? ???, ???????? ????? ??????, ?а ??????? ?????? ????? ???????
?????? ?? ???????, ??а????????? ??? ??????????? ?а????????? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ??????? [38, ?. 66].
? ?????? ?а?. ?. ?????????? ?. ?. ?????? ????????, ??? ??????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ??? ???????: л??? ???? ??????????????, ?а????? ?????, ????? ??? ?? ????
??????????? ?????????!.. ??? ????????, ??????????????? ?????????, ? ????? ?????????????? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ???? ????? ?????????? ?????, ?а??? ?? ??? ??
chef d?oeuvre╗ [39, ?. 112]. л????? ??????? ?????????????, ????????????! ????????
???? ??????????? ??????????╗ [36].
? ????? 1882а ?. ????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????. ?а 1896а ?. ?????????? ????? ??????? ????? л??????? ????????????╗.
?а???? ?????? (л????????╗ 1896, ??????? ????????, ?????) ????? ??????? ??? ????
??? ???? ????? ?а?????????? ?????? ???????? ????????а? ?????-???????????????,
13
????? ???-??????а? ??????? ????? ???????? (1839?1885), ???????? ??????? ?а????????????.
??????? ?????. ???. 15. ????????????????. 2016. ???. 3
17
???????????. ?а???? ??????? ??????????? ?????, ??????? ??????????, ??? ?????????? ???????? ???????????, ??а??? ?? ??????? ??????? ?а???????.
???? ?????????? ????????? л????????╗ ??? ?????? ???????? ???????
?а 1883а ?., ?? ??????????? ????? 1870а ?. ?а ??????? ?????? ??????? ???? ????????
?????? ?а1913а?. ?а?????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ???? ???????? ?????? ?ал???????? ????????????╗.
??? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????. ??? ???????? ?а?????? ?а????????? ???????, ????????????, ?????? ????, ?а??????, ????? ?? ???????????? л??????? ?????? ?а????????? ??╗. ???? ?? ????????, ????????, ?а???? ?????? ??????
????????? ?????? ????? ???? ????????? ???? ?????????, ??????? ?? ????????? ?? ??????? ????????? [40, ?. 8].
??????????? ?????? ????? ?? ?????????? ????? ??????, ???????????? ?а?????????? ?. ?. ??????. ?а?????????, ???????? ???????????? ?????? ?????? ?. ??????????? ??? ?????? л????????╗.
? 1880а ?. ?а ?????? ?? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?. ?. ??????? л?????? ?а ???????
????????? ?а????╗, ? ?а1888а?.а? ?а?????? л?????? ??? ??????? ?????╗, ???????
?????? ???????? ?? ???????? ??????? ??????. ??????, ??? ?????, ??? ?а??????, ??????? ?????? ?а1909?19011а??. ??? ???????? ?????? л???????????? ??????╗ (???)
?а???????? л?????? ?а???? ??????╗, ?????????? ?? 38-? ?а39-? ??????????? ????????? (1910?1911а??.).
? ?????? ?а????? ??????? ?. ?. ?????????? ?? 20а??????? 1894а?. ??а??????? ??
???????????? ??? ?? ?????????????? ???????:
????? ???????? ???? ?? ??? ??????????? ??а???????, ??? ????? ????? ????. ???
??? ????????????, ??? ????? ??? ?????????! <?> ???, ??? ???? ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ????? ???? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ??? ?????
???????, ???? ?? ???????? ?? ??????????????, ????????? ?а?????? <?> ????? ??? ??????????????, ??????, ??а????? ???????? ?а??????????? ?????? [41, ?. 49?51].
?????? ?. ?. ?????? ????? ????????? ?? ???. ?????? ??????? ??? ???????
?а1878а?. ??????? ?? ????????? ?а??????????, ?? ?????? ????????. ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ???? ????????? л??????????, ?????????? ??????
????????? ???????╗. ?ал???????????? ????????╗ (1906?1918) ???????? ????????
?????? ???????? ???????? ?а ????? ?а ????????? ????????, ????????? ??? ?а л??????? ????╗ (???.а8). ???????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ????, ??????? ??????????? ??????, ????? ?а ????? ??????? ?а ????????? ??????, ???????? ????????.
???? ??а????? ?? ???????а? ??????? ?а??????? ????? ?а???????а? ????? ????
?????????? ????????. ??? ?????????? ????????, ????????????? ?????????? ?????
????? ?????? ?????? л?????? ??????╗.
?????? ??????? ???????
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