Штат Техаскод для вставкиСкачать
Aвтор: Задорожный Александр Примечание:от автора: Дополнительно есть 3 файла: govoru.txt (упрощенный сжатый вариант для рассказа реферата) thesis.txt (тезисы) texas_ru.txt (перевод полного текста) 1998г., в АКЛ на выпускном, с ним я учавствовал в ко
Stretching 1,244 km (773 mi) from east to west and 1,289 km (801 mi) from north to south, Texas, the Lone Star State, occupies almost 7.5 percent of the total U.S. land area--a region as large as all of New England, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, andnois combi- ned. By 1994 Texas had grown to become the second most populous U.S. state, moving ahead of New York and following California. It derives its name from the Spanish and Indian words tejas and tec- has, meaning "friends" or "allies." Texas shows the influence of both the Indians and the Spa- nish, French, and other European explorers and missionaries. In 1820, Moses and Stephen F. Austin started the Anglo-American colo- nization that culminated in the organization of a provisional go- vern ment at San Felipe on Nov. 3, 1835, and in independence from Mexico on Mar. 2, 1836. After almost ten years as an independent republic, Texas became a U.S. state on Dec. 29, 1845. The modern economic development of Texas started in January 1901 with the eruption of an oil well drilled at Spindletop, near Beaumont. The rapid discovery of oil in other parts of the state led to a boom that has never really stopped. The economy of Tex as has become highly diversified, and its population has more than qu- intupled during the 20th century. LAND AND RESOURCES Topography and Soils Four major physiographic subdivisions of North America are found in Texas: the Gulf Coastal Plain in the east and southeast, the North Central Plains running north to southeastward in the cen- ter of the state, the Great High Plains in the northwest, and t he Trans-Pecos Mountains to the extreme west and southwest. The topog- raphy of Texas rises gradually from east to west, reaching its hig- hest point in Guadalupe Peak (2,667 m/8,749 ft) in the Trans-Pecos. The Gulf Coastal Plain, extending about 80 to 100 km (50 to 60 mi) inland from the Gulf of Mexico, from sea level to an altitu- de of about 150 m (500 ft), has a rolling to hilly surface. Its western part consists of a fertile belt of land of irregular wid th known as the Blackland Prairie. Inland from the Coastal Plain, the North Central Plains of Texas are the southern extension of the GREAT PLAINS, and they re- ach southwestward across the entire state to the Rio Grande river. The plains' southern portion is known as the Edwards Plateau. T he border of the North Central Plains on the west is the Staked Plain, or Llano Estacado in Spanish. It consists of a flat-topped table- land with an elevation of about 1,200 m (4,000 ft). Lying between Mexico and New Mexico, the barren Trans-Pecos region in southwes- tern Texas alternates between rolling hills in the Pecos River val- ley and the isolated high ridges of the Guadalupe and Davis mounta- ins. Texas is divided into 14 land resource areas that have simi- lar or related soils, vegetation, topography, and climate. The so- ils vary greatly in depth from one region to another and show dif- ferent physical properties; all need fertilizing, however, and so me need irrigating to make them productive. Rivers and Lakes Texas has two sources of water: aquifers, found under more than half the state, and streams with their reservoirs. Water from the former has traditionally been an essential source of municipal supplies; because of falling water tables, however, cities mo re and more must now depend on surface reservoirs. The state's 3,700 streams have a combined length of approxi- mately 130,000 km (80,000 mi). Among the major rivers are the RIO GRANDE, which drops about 3,650 m (12,000 ft) from source to mouth and constitutes the border with Mexico; the RED RIVER, which p art- ly separates Texas from Oklahoma and Arkansas; the COLORADO RIVER of Texas (965 km/600 mi), which is the longest river entirely wit- hin the state; and the Sabine, which forms the southern half of the boundary between Texas and Louisiana. Other rivers i nclude the PE- COS and the Devils, both tributaries of the Rio Grande; the Nueces; and the Guadalupe. Texas has relatively few natural lakes but hundreds of arti- ficial ones. These were developed to provide hydroelectricity, to store water, or to irrigate farmland. Among the largest are Lake Texoma (partly in Oklahoma) on the Red River, the Falcon and Ami stad reservoirs on the Rio Grande, Sam Rayburn Reservoir on the An- gelina River in eastern Texas, Lake Texarkana on the Sulphur River, Toledo Bend Reservoir on the Sabine, Lake Travis on the Colorado, and Lake Livingston on the Trinity River north of Hous ton. Climate The climates of Texas range from the hot subhumid found in the Rio Grande valley to the cold semiarid of the northern part of the Panhandle, and from the warm humid in the east to the arid of the Trans-Pecos. Rainfall varies from 1,400 mm (55 in) in the east to less than 250 mm (10 in) in the west. The average number of days with some precipitation ranges from 44 in El Paso to 110 in Hous- ton. Drought can be a serious problem, especially in the Great High Plains, where an average of seven droughts occur in a 10-year peri- od. Temperatures, too, vary greatly, ranging from 49 degrees C (120 degrees F) to - 31 degrees C ( - 23 degrees F). Each year about 100 tornadoes occur, most frequently in the Red River valley. Vegetation and Animal Life The dense pine forests of eastern Texas contrast with the de- serts of the western part of the state, and the grassy plains of the north contrast with the semiarid brushes of southern Texas. Eastern Texas vegetation is characterized by dense pine forests a nd a variety of hardwoods, including oak, hickory, ash, and magno- lia. The central region is dominated by oak, elm, and pecan, as well as, on the Edwards Plateau, by cedar and mesquite. Shrubs of the grasslands of the lower altitudes of the west include a cacia, mesquite, and mimosa; the Trans-Pecos Mountains have pine, fir, and spruce. The Rio Grande valley is mostly covered by brush, mesquite, cedar, post oak, and in places a dense growth of prickly pear. In the southwest are found cactus, agave, and yu cca. Texas is the temporary home every year for many migratory birds. Aransas Wildlife Refuge, for example, on the Gulf above Cor- pus Christi, provides the winter quarters for the almost extinct whooping crane. The state's indigenous animals include the mule a nd white-tailed deer, black bear, mountain lion, antelope, and big- horn, but the American bison, or buffalo, is found only in zoos and on a few ranches. Among the smaller mammals are the muskrat, racco- on, opossum, jackrabbit, fox, mink, coyote, and armadi llo. Resources Minerals represent a very significant part of the state's na- tural wealth. The known petroleum deposits of Texas--about 8 billi- on barrels--make up approximately one-third of the known U.S. supp- ly. The Texas Panhandle is one of the world's great natural-ga s reservoirs. Mineral fuels generally account for over 90 percent of the value of all minerals produced in the state, although Texas is also a leading producer of natural graphite, magnesium, sulfur, and cement and has considerable reserves of lignite (l ow-grade coal). Uranium was discovered in 1954 in the Coastal Plain, and additional deposits have been found in various other parts of the state. The state's great variety of soils must also be considered as a resour- ce. PEOPLE Although surpassed in population only by California, Texas is still considerably less crowded than the nation as a whole; the hu- ge area of Texas means that the state's population density is less than that of the nation as a whole. Yet the state's populat ion has increased significantly in recent decades, more than doubling bet- ween 1940 and 1980 and increasing by 19.4 percent in the decade from 1980 to 1990 (well above the 1980-90 national average of 9.8 percent). The increases have resulted in part throu gh in-migrati- on, although there was also some out-migration during the 1980s. Texas' two extensive metropolitan areas are the DALLAS-FORT WORTH and the HOUSTON-Galveston-Brazoria consolidated metropolitan sta- tistical areas. Together they constitute about 45 percent of the state's population. In addition there are 23 metropolitan statisti- cal areas (mainly single-city metropolitan regions) that together with the consolidated areas account for more than 80 percent of the population. Racially, Texas is made up of whites, who constitute about 75 percent of the population; blacks, about 12 percent; and other nonwhites, about 13 percent. Hispanics account for 25.5 percent of the population. European settlers during the 19th and early 20 th centuries included Germans, Swedes, and Czechs. Counties and Cities Texas has 254 counties ranging in population from 107 (Loving County, 1990) to 2,818,199 (Harris, 1990), and in size from Rock- wall's 386 sq km (149 sq mi) to Brewster's 16,035 sq km (6,191 sq mi), nearly equal to the combined areas of Connecticut and Rho de Island. Major cities include the capital, AUSTIN; the state's lar- gest city, Houston; and Dallas and Fort Worth, only about 50 km (30 mi) apart. SAN ANTONIO is a fast- growing shipping center for oil and agricultural products; other important commercia l centers are ABILENE, AMARILLO, BEAUMONT, BROWNSVILLE, CORPUS CHRISTI, EL PASO, GALVESTON, LAREDO, LUBBOCK, MIDLAND, PORT ARTHUR, WACO, and WICHITA FALLS. Education In 1839, Texas president Mirabeau B. LAMAR set aside land in each county for public schools and for a state university. Today the enrollment in Texas public schools exceeds 3 million, and hig- her education in the state includes about 100 public institutio ns (see TEXAS, STATE UNIVERSITIES OF). Additional thousands of elemen- tary and secondary students attend private schools, and Texas has several dozen private institutions of higher education (including BAYLOR, RICE, and Southern Methodist universities). Culture and Historical Sites Texas has several hundred public libraries--the largest being those in Dallas and Houston; the libraries of the University of Te- xas at Austin have the state's largest collections. There are more than 300 museums (up from only 82 in 1964), and there are 3 major symphony orchestras--in Dallas, Houston, and San Antonio. Among the outstanding museums are the Dallas and Fort Worth museums of fine arts, the Marion Koogler McNay Art Museum and Witte Museum in San Antonio, the Museum of Fine Arts and the Contemporary Arts Museum in Houston, and the Amon Carter Museum in Fort Worth. Well-known symphony orchestras are also in Amarillo , Fort Worth, and Austin. There are ballet companies in Austin and Houston, and the Alley Theatre in Houston has a national reputation. The Dallas Opera and the Houston Grand Opera are the state' s major opera com- panies. The ALAMO in San Antonio is the most famous historical site; others are San Antonio Missions National Historic Park, San Jacinto monument east of Houston, Fort Davis National Historic Site, and the Lyndon Baines Johnson Presidential Library--part of the Univer- sity of Texas in Austin. Communications The first newspaper in Texas, the Gaceta de Texas (Texas Ga- zette), was published in Spanish in 1813 at Nacogdoches. Among the oldest English newspapers are the Galveston Daily News (1842) and the Dallas Morning News (1885). There are numerous other morni ng and evening dailies, and Texas is well supplied with radio stati- ons, both AM and FM, as well as with television stations. ECONOMIC ACTIVITY For decades oil influenced every aspect of the economic de- velopment of Texas. This included the tax structure, since a high percentage of the state's tax revenues was derived from oil and gas. This changed in the mid-1980s when oil prices collapsed devas tatingly, greatly diminishing tax revenues and adversely affecting not only oil-related industries but also many others, such as real estate and banking. Slow economic recovery began in 1987, however, helped by the industrial diversification that had alr eady begun in Texas and that was now intensified. The service industries, notably retail and wholesale trade, contribute well over half of the gross state product of Texas. Agriculture Texas is a leading agricultural state, frequently ranking third (after California and Iowa) in gross farm income. Agricultu- ral statistics in Texas have been affected by modern technology, which increases productivity: in consequence, the number of person s living on farms has markedly decreased in recent decades. Another trend has been a decline in the total number of farms and ranches. The largest share of agricultural income is derived from beef cattle; Texas leads the nation in the number of beef cattle, which usually exceed 13 million head. Cotton is the leading crop and the state's second most valuable farm product. Texas is also a leader in national production of grain sorghum, watermelons, cabbages, and spinach. Wheat, corn, and other grains are also important. There is good farmland located in most parts of the state, some of it made more productive by use of irrigation and of dry-farming techniques (used in the Panhandle, for example, for wheat production). Forestry and Fishing Production of timber--more softwoods than hardwoods--repre- sents a small share of the gross state product of Texas, but ship- ments of lumber and wood products and of paper and allied products are worth many times that share. As for fishing, shrimp accounts for most of Texas's total commercial catch. Other species caught include crabs, oysters, flounder, and red snapper. Mining Texas is among the nation's most important producers of mine- rals. It leads the nation in the production of natural gas and ura- nium and is second, after Alaska, in crude petroleum production. Texas in recent years has supplied about one-third of the U.S. pro- duction of natural gas and about 25 percent of the U.S. production of oil. A foremost state in nonfuel minerals, Texas is an important producer of magnesium, sulfur, sand and gravel, stone, talc, sodi- um, and cement. The eastern part of the state has l ignite coal mi- nes. Iron is also mined. Manufacturing Before World War II, manufacturing in Texas centered on pro- cessing the raw materials, notably petroleum and agricultural pro- ducts, available in the state. The decades since the war have seen an emphasis on diversification in manufacturing, however, as we ll as significant industrial expansion. In recent years, state leaders have attempted to attract more high-tech industries to Texas. Manufactures include a wide range of petroleum and coal pro- ducts, machinery, chemicals, and food products. Other broad catego- ries of Texan manufactures include electrical equipment, including high-tech; fabricated metals; printed materials; and transport ati- on equipment. Specific manufactures include such diverse items as wristwatches, radios, cosmetics and drugs, leather goods, aircraft and aircraft parts, computers, soft drinks, pipes and pipe fit- tings, and synthetic rubber. A large number of the appro ximately 15 percent of the labor force employed in manufacturing in Texas work in the Dallas-Fort Worth and Houston metropolitan areas. Tourism Texas attracts millions of out-of-state visitors annually; its tourist-related businesses compete with those of California and Florida for the U.S. travel market. Many visitors explore Dallas, San Antonio, Houston, Fort Worth, El Paso, Austin, and other citi- es. Sites of special interest range from Nacogdoches in East Texas, one of the state's oldest cities, to the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center near Houston. Texas's two national parks, BIG BEND and Gua- dalupe Mountains, are also popular, as are the numer ous and varied state recreation areas. Hunting and fishing are popular pastimes for visitors and Texans alike, as are professional and college sports events. Transportation and Foreign Trade As befits its hugeness, Texas ranks first nationally in total highway and railroad mileage. It also has the most airports (about 1,600). There are 13 major ports along the Gulf of Mexico, with Ho- uston the busiest (and ranking among the most active of all U.S. ports). The year 1988 commemorated the 135th anniversary of the first railroad operation in Texas; railway mileage reached its peak in 1922 (approximately 27,500 km/17,000 mi), but the volume of rail freight increased again after World War II. Texas is a major U.S. exporter of manufactured goods, inclu- ding chemicals and allied products. Also exported are agricultural products--especially cotton and food grains. Texas is habitually the nation's leading exporter of sulfur, and its exports of iro n and steel scrap rank high. Other exports include natural gas and fishery products, especially shrimp. Energy Texas consumes more energy than any other state--much of the natural gas and oil produced in the state never leave its borders. About 85 percent of the energy consumed in Texas comes from petro- leum and natural gas. GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS The present Texas constitution was adopted on Feb. 15, 1876, but has been amended many times. The chief executive is the gover- nor, who since 1975 serves for 4 years. Legislative authority is exercised by the senate, with 31 members elected for 4-year ter ms, and the house of representatives, with 150 members elected for 2-year terms. The legislature meets biennially in odd-numbered years. The highest courts of Texas include the nine-member supreme court and the nine-member court of criminal appeals. Judg es of the two courts are elected to 6- year overlapping terms. The Texas sta- te delegation to the U.S. House of Representatives gained three ad- ditional seats following the 1990 census. In 1978 the state elected its first Republican governor (Wil- liam P. Clements, Jr.) since 1870, and Republican John Tower served in the U.S. Senate from 1961 until his retirement in 1985. Despite the popularity of some individual Republicans, including Ro nald Reagan, Democrats have dominated state-level politics since Recons- truction; competition occurs chiefly between the Democratic party's liberal and conservative wings. Many Texans, such as former U.S. House Speaker Sam RAYBURN, have played influential roles in natio- nal affairs. Henry Cisneros attracted national attention after he became (1981) the first Mexican-American mayor of a major U.S. city (San Antonio). In a 1993 special election, Republican Kay Hutchison became Texas's first woman senator. HISTORY Evidence of a meeting in eastern Texas between Middle Ameri- can prehistoric cultures and temple MOUND BUILDERS from the eastern part of what is now the United States has been discovered in an In- dian mound on the Neches River, and many tribal groups-- incl uding the APACHE, CADDO, and Comanche--inhabited what is now Texas. Conquest and Colonization Early European explorers in the area were the Spaniards Alon- so Alvarez de Pineda (1519), Alvar Nunez CABEZA DE VACA (1528), and Francisco CORONADO (1541). Other Spanish expeditions followed du- ring the next century, and in 1682, Ysleta, near El Paso, beca me the first European settlement in Texas. Three years later Robert Cavelier, sieur de LA SALLE, brought the second flag (French) to Texas. He landed at the head of Lavaca Bay and established Fort Sa- int Louis. La Salle was killed by one of his own men in 1687, and his fort was destroyed by disease and the Indians. About 1714, however, the Spanish felt threatened by another Frenchman, the explorer and trader Louis Juchereau de Saint Denis. Although he claimed t hat his intention was simply to establish trade, he was arrested and sent to Mexico City. The Spanish then redoubled their efforts to settle Texas, and by the middle of the 18th century they had moun- ted more than 100 expeditions to the area. The cowboy of the American West, a dashing figure in popular novels and films, was in reality a poorly paid laborer engaged in difficult and usually monotonous work. During the years after the Civil War the range cattle industry developed first in Texas and, beginning in the 1870s, in the Southwest and on the northern Great Plains. Although some of the young men who worked on these ranches were from the northeastern states, probably a majority came from the South, and many had fought in the Civil War. Not all cowboys were whites; about a third were African-Americans or Mexican-Ameri- cans. For their techniques and equipment, cowboys drew on both the Spanish traditions of northern Mexico and southern Texas and those of the Gulf coastal states. The work year centered on two events, the roundup and the long drive. Roundups were held in the spring and often also in the fall. After cowboys had herded cattle to a central location, they branded newborn calves, castrated and dehorned older animals, and, in the spring, chose the cattle to be taken to market. From 1865 to 1880 at least 3.5 million cattle were driven in herds of between 1,500 and 3,000 from southern Texas to cattle towns on rail lines in Kansas, Nebraska, and Wyoming. The route most frequently used was the CHISHOLM TRAIL, which went to Abilene, Kans. Working up to 20 hours a day, cowboys drove the animals from one watering place to the next, guarding against predators, straying cattle, and stam- pedes at night. For his hard and dirty work the typical cowboy ear- ned between $25 and $40 a month. By about 1890 the cattle ranges had been fenced in and the extension of the railroads had eliminated the need for long cattle drives. Thus the era of the old-fashioned cowboy came to an end. At this point, although far removed from the drab truth, dime novels and works such as The Virginian (1902) of Owen WISTER began presen- ting to a nostalgic public the stalwart, romantic cowboy hero. American Interest in Texas The sale (1803) of Louisiana to the United States increased interest in Texas from the east. Augustus Magee, a U.S. army offi- cer in Louisiana, befriended the Mexican patriot Bernardo Gutier- rez, who had been fighting for his country's independence from Sp ain. They led an expedition into Texas and captured Nacogdoches, Goliad, and San Antonio before Magee died mysteriously in Goliad. In 1819, Dr. James Long of Natchez, Miss., led another expe- dition to Texas, hoping to make the region an independent state. He captured Nacogdoches, but his forces were soon defeated. A year la- ter, Moses Austin visited San Antonio and sought permission t o settle Americans in Texas. Upon returning to Missouri, his dying request was that his son, Stephen AUSTIN, carry out his plans, which the Spanish had approved. In 1821 the white population of Texas was 7,000, with Goliad, San Antonio, and Nacogdoches the only towns of any size. During this period Mexico secured its independence from Spain, and, in 1823, Stephen Austin went to Mexico City to seek confirmation of his father's grant. A new law required that agents introduce at le- ast 200 families of colonists, so Austin made an agreement with the Mexican governor to settle 300 American families. Colonization was so successful, however, that by 1836 the population of Texas was 50,000. Revolution and Republic Differences in language, culture, and religion soon led to difficulties between the new Anglo-American settlers and the Mexi- can government. Because of the great distance between Texas and Me- xico City, cultural and commercial ties grew stronger with the U nited States, and some settlers hoped that U.S. boundaries would be extended to include Texas. In 1830 the Mexican congress enacted a law to limit immigra- tion to Texas. But this only increased dissatisfaction, for neither the Mexican national constitution nor the constitution of 1827 for the state of Coahuila-Texas granted rights that AngloAmerica ns considered inalienable, such as trial by jury and the right of ba- il. Most settlers also found unacceptable the requirement that they become Roman Catholics because most of them were Protestants. War broke out between the American settlers and the Mexican government in 1835, and the Texans won the first battle at Gonzales on Oct. 2, 1835. The same year the Texans captured San Antonio af- ter a devastating siege; a provisional government was set up on Mar. 2, 1836, and Sam HOUSTON was named commander in chief of the Texas armies, Stephen Austin having gone to Washington to solicit aid. In February and March 1836 one of the most heroic battles in history occurred at the Alamo. The besieged Texas forces commanded by William B. TRAVIS had been reduced to 157. He appealed for help, and about 30 additional men from Gonzales broke through th e lines of the Mexican general, Antonio SANTA ANNA. The 187 defenders, com- manded by Travis, James BOWIE, and Davy CROCKETT, then held the Alamo for another five days before it fell. March also saw a mas- sacre at Goliad, in which the outnumbered Texans, ha ving surrende- red after a battle on Coleto Creek, returned to Goliad only to be killed on the orders of Santa Anna. Despite reverses, the Texans declared their independence in a great spirit of resistance, and on Mar. 2, 1836, David Burnet was named provisional president. Thinking the war was over, Santa Anna moved eastward with his army. Sam Houston's troops-- half t he num- ber of the Mexicans--occupied a position at the junction of the San Jacinto River and Buffalo Bayou, opposite Santa Anna's camp. On the afternoon of April 21 the Texans attacked while Santa Anna was ha- ving his siesta. Their battle cry was "Remember the Alamo; Remember Goliad." Santa Anna fled but was taken the next day and held priso- ner for six months. (See TEXAS REVOLUTION.) Statehood and the Mexican War The Texas republic, whose independence had been recognized by the United States, Great Britain, France, Holland, and Belgium, was soon struggling with Indian wars, raids by Mexican forces, and fi- nancial problems. In September 1836, Texans voted for annex ation by the United States; approval by the U.S. Congress was delayed un- til 1845, however, because of the northern states' opposition to the extension of slavery. On Dec. 29, 1845, the U.S. Congress ac- cepted the Texas state constitution, and Texas became the 28th state, with legal slavery. The MEXICAN WAR between the United States and Mexico followed within a few months of Texas' entry into the union. The U.S. victo- ry in that war established the Rio Grande as the border between Me- xico and the United States. Texas, however, claimed all the terri- tory from the mouth of the Rio Grande to its source in southern Co- lorado, a claim vigorously opposed by those who wished to exclude slavery from the territories newly acquired from Mexico. In 1850, as part of the COMPROMISE OF 1850 , Texas relinquis hed its claim to half of what today is New Mexico and portions of Colorado, Wyo- ming, Oklahoma, and Kansas in exchange for $10 million. Texas withdrew from the Union on Feb. 1, 1861. Little figh- ting took place on Texas soil during the Civil War, the most impor- tant engagements being the capture and recapture of Galveston, the principal port. A battle took place at Palmito Ranch near Brown sville, after General Lee had already surrendered at Appomattox. Military rule following the Civil War was short-lived, but the state was inundated with CARPETBAGGERS. On Mar. 30, 1870, Texas was readmitted to the Union after ratifying the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments to the U.S. Constitution. Following the Civil W ar cattle ranching became increasingly important to the economy, and vast herds were driven to the railroad in Kansas over the CHISHOLM TRAIL. Modern Era When the 20th century began, about 3 million people lived in Texas, and agriculture dominated the economy. Then in 1901, Spind- letop, the state's first great oil gusher, was discovered. Soon oil was found in virtually every part of the state, and the grea t east Texas oil field, discovered in 1930, helped lessen the impact of the Depression. Racial segregation was a continuing issue throughout most of the 1950s and '60s, but by 1966, Texas ranked first among southern states in integrating its schools. The poll tax was abolished by court action in 1966. Another court decision led to redistric ting the Texas legislature to conform to the Supreme Court policy of one person, one vote. Politically prominent Texans in the 1960s, '70s, '80s, and '90s included two U.S. presidents, Lyndon B. JOHNSON and George BUSH, Congresswoman Barbara JORDAN, Governor Ann RICHARDS, and U.S. Treasury Secretary Lloyd BENTSEN, a former Texas senator and a vi- ce-presidential candidate in 1988. In 1987 the Texas legislature approved a landmark $5.7 billion tax increase. In 1993, Waco, Tex., received worldwide attention as a standoff near there between fede- ral authorities and members of the Branch Davidian re ligious cult resulted in violent confrontation and many casualties.