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Оптимизация целевой функции и адаптация «Человеческого элемента» в навигационных и промысловых диалоговых системах..pdf

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ISSN 2073-1574. Вестник АГТУ. Сер.: Морская техника и технология. 2016. ? 3
???: [656.61.052:681.518]:519.816
?. ?. ????, ?. ?. ?????, ?. ?. ?????????
ОПТИМИЗАЦИЯ ЦЕЛЕВОЙ ФУНКЦИИ И АДАПТАЦИЯ
«ЧЕЛОВЕЧЕСКОГО ЭЛЕМЕНТА» В НАВИГАЦИОННЫХ
И ПРОМЫСЛОВЫХ ДИАЛОГОВЫХ СИСТЕМАХ
????????? ?? ??????????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ??????, ?????????? ?????????-??????????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ? ????????-?????????, ????????????? ???? ???????? ??? ?????? ???????????? (???????????) ???????, ?????????
???????????? ?????????? ????? ???????????? (???????????) ???????. ? ????? ????????
????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????????????????? ????????, ?? ??????
???????? ???????? ???????? ?? ??? ???? ???????, ??????????, ? ??? ????? ??????, ???????????? ?????. ?????????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????, ??????????? ???????, ??????? ??????? ? ??????????????? ???????????, ????????? ???????? ?????? ???????????? (???????????) ??????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????, ?????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ?????????? ?????. ??????????, ??? ????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?? ???????? ?????????-???????????????? ??????????????? ???????????, ??? ? ?? ????????????, ?????????????????, ?????, ??????????????? ???????????? ?????????, ??????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ???????. ?????? ??????? ?????????
????, ???????????? ???????, ? ?????? ???????????? (???????????) ???????, ???????
?????? ???? ????????????? ? ???????????? ?? ?????? ???? ? ?????? ? ???????? ????????
??????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ??????????????? ????. ????????? ??????????? ? ??? ?????, ???????????? ? ???????? ??????? ?????????-???????????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ? ????????-?????????, ???????????? ???????? ? ???????????????? ??????.
???????? ?????: ?????????? ???????, ???????? ???????, ?????????? ???????, ?????????????, ????????-???????? ?????????.
????????
? ????????? ????? ? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ???????, ??????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????????? ?? ??????? ????? ????????? ?????????, ?????????? ?? ????????? ???????. ????? ??????? ??????????
? ???? ?????????????? ????????, ?????????? ??????????????? ?????????-???????????????
?????????????? ????????????, ? ????????-?????????, ????????????? ???? ???????? ??? ??????
???????????? (???????????) ???????. ??????????? ??????? ???????, ??? ????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ????????, ??????????????? ????????? ????????, ? ?? ?????? ????? ??????? ???????? ??????????????? ?? ??? ??? ???? ???????, ???????, ? ??? ????? ??????, ???????? ???????? ?????. ???????????, ????? ?????? ????????????, ??? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ? ???????? ???????????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ???????, ?????
?? ???????? ?? ???? ???????? ?????????? ???????. ?????????? ????? ??????? ??? ?????????
?? ???????, ?. ?. ????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ??????, ??? ??? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ?? ??????? [1].
???????? ???????? ???? ???????? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
?????? ???????. ??? ???????, ????? ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????????, ???????????
?????????????? ????????, ??????????????? ????????? ???????, ?????? ?? ???????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ???????? ???????, ?. ?. ?? ???????????? ?????????, ??? ?? ??????
???????? ???????, ????? ??? ????????. ???? ?? ???? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ???????????? ??? ?????? ????????????? ???????, ???????? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ?????. ??????
?????????? ??????? ?????? ? ??????????, ??? ???????? ???????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ???? ??????? ???????????? [2].
??????? ?? ?????? ????? ? ???????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ? ????????
?? ??? ??????, ?????? ?????? ???? ???????????, ????? ??????? ??????? ????? ?????? ? ??????????????, ??????? ????????? ?? ??? ?????? ?????, ??? ????? ???????? ?????? ???????,
????? ???????? ?????? ? ???????????? ? ??? ???????? ????????????. ? ???? ??? ????? ??????
?????????????? ?????? ???????? ???????, ??????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ???????
? ????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????. ?????????? ???? ?? ????????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ? ?????????? ???????? [3].
18
Судостроение, судоремонт и эксплуатация флота
?????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ? ??????????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ???????
????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ???????, ??????? ????????? X. ???????????, ??? ??? ?????? ?????????????? ?????????? x ? X ?????????? ??????? (???. 1) ???? ??????????? ????, ???????????? ??????? (???), ???????? ????????????
?????????? ? ???????????? ????????? ???????.
??????? ???????
???????
(????????)
?????????? ???????
???????
???. 1. ????? ?????????? ???????
?????, ? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ? ???, ????? ????
?????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ?? ???????? ? ??????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ???? ???????, ??????? ??? ????????. ??? ????? ???? ????????? ?????? ???????? ???
??? ???? ????????????? ????????? ???????? ??? ????? ??????????? ???????????. ???? ?????????
?? ?????????? ????????, ?? ????? ???????, ??? ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ??????????
??????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? S(x), ??????? ? ????????? ??? ??????? ? ????????? ???.
????? ??? [4] ? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ????????
S1 = S ( x1 ) ? S2 = S ( x 2 ) , ?????????? ???? ????????? ??????????? x1 , x 2 ? X , ? ???????? ?? ???
??????. ???? ??????? ????????????, ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ???? ?????, ???????????, ??? ????????, ??? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ????????
????????????? W = F ( x ) , ???? ??? ?????????? ????????? ????? ???? ? ??????????. ??????????? ?????, ??? ?????????? ????????? ????? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ???? F(x)
?? ????????? ??????????? X ? E N , ??? E N ? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? N. ??????? ????????? ??????? ??????? x ? X . ??? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????
?????, ???????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ? ??? ?????????????? ???????????? (???. 2).
???. 2. ??????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ???????
19
ISSN 2073-1574. Вестник АГТУ. Сер.: Морская техника и технология. 2016. ? 3
???? ?? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ????????????? W = F ( x ) ???? ????????, ??
???????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?? ??????. ??? ????? ???? ??
?????????? ????????? ? ????? ?0 ???????? ??????? F(x)
grad F ( x ) = {dF / dx1 , dF / dx2 , ..., dF / d x N }
? ??????? ? ???????????? EN ??? ? ??????????? ????? ??????? (??? ???????? ????? ????????????, ??? ?0 ???????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? X).
???? ? ????? ?0 ???????? grad F ( x 0 ) ? 0 ? ??? ? ?????????? ???, ?? ????? ?????????? ???????
x * = x 0 + ?(grad F ( x ) / | grad F ( x ) | )
???????????????? ?0 ? ???? ???????? F(x). ? ??????????? ??????? ??????? F(x) ??????????,
? ???, ??? ? ??? ????? ?????, ??? ???? ??, ??? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ???
? ????????? ??? ?????? ????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ???????????, ??????????????? ?????????? ???????? S.
????? ???????, ??????????? ????????? ??????? F ? ????? ?0 ????? ??????????, ??????? ??????, ? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ???, ????? ????????? ???????? ???????? F. ??????
?????? ???????, ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????? grad F. ???????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ??? ???????? ?? ????? ????????, ????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??? ????????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ?? ?????????????. ??? ????? ????? ?????????
????????? ???????. ?????????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????? x 0 = {x 01 , x 02 , ..., x 0 N } ???????
??????????????? ??????? ? 0k = {?10 , ?20 , ..., ?k0 , ?k0+1 , ..., ? N0 }, ( k = 1, 2 , ..., N ), ?????????????
? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ?0. ???????????, ??? ??? ?????????? ??? N
????? ??????? ?????? ? ??????? ?? ?????????????. ??? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ????:
>
F ( x k ) ? F ( x 0 ) = 0, ??? k = 1, 2, ..., N ;
<
>
F ( x j ) ? F ( x i ) = U , ??? i, j = 1, 2, ..., N , j > i.
>
????? ??????????? ????? (??????????? ??? ?????????) ? ?????? ????? ????????? ???????
?? ????, ??? ??? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????????????.
???? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ????, ?? ?????????? ???????
grad F ????? ??????????? ????? ????????? ???????? ?????????:
?F / ?xk = g k = ( F ( x k ) ? F ( x 0 )) / ?xk .
????? ??????? ?????????? ???? ? ??????? ????? ?0 ??????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? gk
??????? g = grad F :
>
>
g k = 0 k = 1, 2, ..., N ; ?x j g j ? ?xi gi = 0, ...; i, j = 1, 2, ..., N ;
<
j > i.
<
????? ???????, ??????? ???????????? ??? ????????? ? ??????? ????? ?0 ?????????
???????????? ????? ?, ???????? ??????????? ???????? ??????? F. ??????? ?????? ? ????? ?0
????????? ???????????, ???????????? ????????? ????????
h = {h1 , h2 , ..., hN
} ???
n
| h |2 = ? hk 2 = 1 .
k =1
20
Судостроение, судоремонт и эксплуатация флота
??????? ? ???? ??????????? ??? ? ???????? (??????) ?. ???? ??????? F(?) ???????
?????????? ???????????????? ? ????? ?0, ?? ?????????? ? ???? ????? ????? ????? ???:
N
N
k =1
k ?1
?F = F ( x 0 + ?h ) ? F ( x 0 ) = ?? hk ( ?F / ?xk ) + 0(? x = x0 ) = ? ? hk g k + 0(?)
???, ??????????? ????????? ????? ???????? ???????, ??? ?, ????????? ???????:
N
?F = ? hk g k ,
k =1
??? g = {g1 , g 2 , ..., g N }? K .
?????? ??????????? ? ???, ????? ????? ????? ??????????? h, ?? ??????? ?????????? ?F
????????? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ????????. ???? ?? ??? ???????? ?????? g, ?? ???????
??????????? h ????????? ?? ? ???????????? ????? ??????? ??? ?0 ? X. ?????? ?????? g ??????????, ? ???????? ???? ????????? ????????, ??????? ?? ????? ?????????. ?????????????, g ???????? ?????????????? ????????, ? ?????????? ???????????? ? ?????????, ????? ??????????
??????? ?????????? ??????? ? ???????? ????????????????. ????????, ??? ? ? ???? ?????? ??????? ??????????????? ????????? ???????????????? ??????????. ? ???????????? ? ???? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????? h ????? ???????????? ?????????
N
min
k =1
? hk g k = min
g?K
( h, g ) ,
N
??? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ? ?????? ??? ??????????????, ? min
k =1
? hk g k ?
????????? ???????????? ???????? h ? g, ???????????? ????? (h, g).
??????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????, ????????, ????? ??????????? h0, ??
??????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????????:
min ( h 0 , g ) = max
g?K
h
min ( h, g ) ,
g ?K
??? h ?????????? ???? ????? ???????? |h| = 1.
???????? ??????? ???? ??????, ?????????? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????????
???????, ????? ????????? ????????? ???????:
? ??? ?????? ? ??? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? x0;
? ??? ?????? ? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????
??????? x0 ( k = 1, 2, ..., N ) ? ????????????? ????????? ????????
k
( S ( x ) , ..., S ( x ) , ... S ( x )) ,
1
0
k
0
N
0
??????????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ??????????????? ???????;
? ??? ?????? ? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????, ????????????? ??
? ???????????? ?? ????? ???????? ???????????? ? ?????? ?? ? ?????????? ???????;
? ??? ????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ??????, ?????? ?????????? ??????? x1= x0 + ?h0 ? ????? ??????? ??????????????? ??????? x1k ??? ( k = 1, 2, ..., N ) ,
( )
? ????? ????????????? ??????????????? ?? ???????? S ( x11 ) , ..., S x1 ;
N
? ??? ????? ? ??? ??????????? ????? ???????????? ????????, ????????????? ?? ? ?. ?.
????????? ??????? ? ??????????????? ????? ???????????? ?? ??? ???, ???? ??? ?? ????????? ??????, ?????? ??? ????? ????????? ?? ?????? ????????. ???, ????? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ?????????, ??? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ???, ??? ?? ????????? ???? ???
??????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ??????? ???????????? ???. ?????????? ????? ???????
????????????? ????, ??? ????????? ??????? ? ????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? F(t). ????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ???, ?? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ???????????
??? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????. ????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????????
??????? ?? ?????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ???. 3. ? ????? ?????? ????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????
? ?? ??????????? ????????????, ?? ????? ?? ????????????, ?????????????????, ?????, ??????????????? ???????????? ??? [5, 6].
21
ISSN 2073-1574. Вестник АГТУ. Сер.: Морская техника и технология. 2016. ? 3
???. 3. ??????????? ?????? ??? ????????? ??????? ? ?????? ???????
?? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?????
???????? ????????? ??? ? ?????????? ???????
??? ????????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????-???????? ????????? ??????? ??????
????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????? ???????????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????????, ?? ?????? ???, ??????? x** ????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????????????? ???????,
xi* ? X , ? ???????????? ??????????????? ???????, x*i +1 ? X , ? ?????? ?????????? It, ?????????? ?? ???. ????????? ??????? ?????? ??????? x**, ? ?????? ???? ???????????? ?????????, ????? ??????????? ??? ?????????????????? ??????? ?????????:
I i ?1
Ii
I N ?1
I1
I2
x1* , F1* ??
? x2* , F2* ??
? , ..., ???
xi* , Fi * ??
? , ..., ???
? x N* , FN*
(1)
??? x N* = x** , Fi * = F * ( xi * ) ??? ( i = 1, ..., N ) .
? ???????? ?????? ??????? x** ?????????? ??????????? ??? ???? ?????????: ??-??????,
????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ? ??????? ???????????? ???, ????????, ????????? ??? ? ???????? ??????. ????????? ??????? ???? ??????? ? ?????? ??????????, ?????????? ?? ??? [4]. ???? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????, ??? ????????
??????????????? ???????????, ?????????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????
??????? (??. ???. 1).
????????-???????? ????????? ?????????????????? ??????????? ????? ????????????
?? ??? ??????: ??????????? ? ????????????. ? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ???????????
?????????? ??? ????????????? ???????? xi * ??
? xi**+1 ????? ??????????? ? ????? ?????? ???????, ? ???????????? ?????????? ? ? ?????????? ??????? (??? ???? ??????? ????????????
???????? ?????? ??? ????).
? ?????????? (???????????) ?????? ?????????? Ii, ?????????? ?? i-? ????, ?????????
??????? ????????? ??? ???????? (1): x *i +1 = L ( xi* , I i ) , ?. ?. ?????????? ??????? x*i +1 , ???????
? ?????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?i(?) ???????? ????????????? ???????????
???, ?????????????? ? ?????????? Ii. ???????? L ???????????? ???????????? ? ???????
????????? ?????? ???????????:
?i ( X ) ??
? extr ? x *i +1 .
22
(2)
Судостроение, судоремонт и эксплуатация флота
?????????? ?i(?) ? ??????? D ?????????? ????????? X ?? i-? ???????? ?????????? ??
?????? ?????????? Ii:
?i ( X ) = f ? ( I i ); Di ( X ) = f D ( I i ) ,
? ????????? f? ? fD ???????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????????????? ???????????. ???????, ??? ?????????? ?i(?) ????? ???? ?????????, ?? ?????, ??? ?????? (2) ?????? ????? ???????? ?????? (1). ??????? ? ????????? ????????-???????? ?????????? (????????????) ? ??????
(2) ???????? ? ???????? ???. ????????? ??? ? ?????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ????????????
?????????? ???????? ??????????????
Fi * ??
? Fi*+1 , ( i = 1, ..., N ) ,
(3)
? ?????????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ????? ?????? ????????????? ? ????????????? ?? ??????????????. ????????? ????? ??????????? ? ???, ??? ???, ??? ???????, ?? ???????? ??????????? ????? ?????? ????????????? ? ??? ? ???? ?????????? ?????????????, ???
? ?????????? ? ???????????????????? ???????? ??????. ??????????, ??????????? ??? ??????? ???? ??????, ?????????? ? ?????????? «???? ? ??????» ??? ? ??? ???????? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???? (3). ????????? ??????????? ? ??? ????? ?????????? ? ???????? ???????
? ???????????? ????? ????????? ??? ? ??????.
??????????
??????? ???????? ???????? ? ????????????? ?????? ??? ? ???? ????????. ?????? ? ?????????? ??????, ?????????? ???????, ??? ? ????????? ???????? ?????? ??? ??????????.
?????? ??????? ??????? ????? ?????????????????? ???????????? ??????? ? ???? (1). ???
?? ?????? ??????????? ? ???? ? ???????????, ?? ? ???????? ?? ???? ????, ??? ????? ???????
??????????, ??????????? ?????????? ???? ???. ??????? (1) ????? ???? ???????????? ????????, ? ? ???????? ????????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ???? ?????????? ??????????, ???
??????? ????? ????????? ??? ???????????: ???? ??? ???? ????????? ?????????? ??????? x*i
? ?????????, ? ?????? ? ???????? ?????????? ? ???????? ??????? ????????. ??????? ?????
??????? ????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????: ????????????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ???????, ??? ???? ?????????? ??????????????? ???? ?????? ? ?????.
?????? ??????????
1. ???????????? ?. ?., ?????????? ?. ?., ??????????? ?. ?. ??????????????-??????????? ?????????, ?????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ????? / ??? ???. ???. ?. ?. ??????????. ????????: ????? ????, 2008. 212 ?.
2. ???????? ?. ?., ????????? ?. ?., ??????? ?. ?. ???????????? ??????????? ????? ? ????????????-??????????? ?????????? / ??? ???. ???. ?. ?. ??????????. ????????: ???-?? ????, 2009. 175 ?.
3. ?????? ?. ?., ????????? ?. ?., ??????????? ?. ?. ??????????? ???????????????? ??????
? ?????????? ???????????? / ??? ???. ???. ?. ?. ??????????. ????????: ???-?? ????, 2011. 166 ?.
4. ??????? ?. ?. ? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ????? ? ????? ?????????? ? «????????????? ????????» // ?????. ??????. ???. ????. ??-??. 2015. ?. 18. ? 1. ?. 41?47.
5. ??????? ?. ?. ?????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ????? // ?????. ??????. ???. ????. ??-??. 2015. ?. 18. ? 4. ?. 589?594.
6. ????????? ?. ?., ?????? ?. ?., ????? ?. ?. ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ? ??????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ??? / ??? ???. ???. ?. ?. ??????????. ????????: ???-?? ????, 2013. 186 ?.
?????? ????????? ? ???????? 07.06.2016
23
ISSN 2073-1574. Вестник АГТУ. Сер.: Морская техника и технология. 2016. ? 3
ИНФОРМАЦИЯ ОБ АВТОРАХ
Зива Ирма Игоревна ? Россия, 183036, Мурманск; Мурманский государственный технический университет; аспирант кафедры ?ксплуатации водного транспорта, судовождения; germina-85@mail.ru.
Ершов Владимир Александрович ? Россия, 183036, Мурманск; Мурманский государственный технический университет; аспирант кафедры эксплуатации водного транспорта, судовождения; vladimershov@yandex.ru.
Меньшиков Вячеслав Иванович ? Россия, 183036, Мурманск; Мурманский государст-
венный технический университет; д-р техн. наук, профессор кафедры cудовождения;
kseniamgtu@rambler.ru.
I. I. Ziva, V. A. Ershov, V. I. Menshikov
OPTIMIZATION OF THE OBJECTIVE FUNCTION AND ADAPTATION
OF THE "HUMAN ELEMENT" IN THE NAVIGATION
AND FISHERY DIALOG SYSTEMS
Abstract. The introduction of expert systems on the modern transport and fishing vessels, including problem-oriented mathematical software and human operator, using the complex to search for the
rational (optimal) solutions, enables lookup of rational (optimal) decisions. In such systems, the mode
of the dialogue is the process of analyzing a sequence of situations, on the basis of which the operator
chooses a solution, which, from his point of view, meets the set goals. The model of the mechanism
of search of extremum of the objective function by the decision maker with a guaranteed result is presented, the algorithm of choosing rational (optimal) solutions for the management of ship technical
means ensuring the achievement of the decision maker's goals is designed. It is stated that the success
of choosing rational (optimal) solutions depends on the quality of problem-oriented mathematical
software and the skills, knowledge, experience and psychophysical abilities of decision makers included in the expert system. The paper describes the process of adaptation of decision-makers
to choosing rational (optimal) solutions, which should be compromise and educated with the method
of "trial and error" trying to improve the solution at each algorithmic step. The realization of compromise and its forms, developed in the process of dialogue between problem-oriented mathematical
software and human operator, ensure the movement to the guaranteed success.
Key words: expert system, decision-making, dialogue systems, efficiency, human-machine
procedure.
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Судостроение, судоремонт и эксплуатация флота
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The article submitted to the editors 07.06.2016
INFORMATION ABOUT THE AUTHORS
Ziva Irma Igorevna ? Russia, 183036, Murmansk; Murmansk State Technical University;
Postgraduate Student of the Department of Water Transport Operation and Navigation;
germina-85@mail.ru.
Ershov Vladimir Aleksandrovich ? Russia, 183036, Murmansk; Murmansk State Technical
University; Postgraduate Student of the Department of Water Transport Operation and Navigation; vladimershov@yandex.ru.
Menshikov Vyacheslav Ivanovich ? Russia, 183036, Murmansk; Murmansk State Technical University; Doctor of Technical Science, Professor of Department of Navigation; kseniamgtu@rambler.ru.
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