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leqcia 1. Llokaluri qselis gansazRvra da maTi topologia
1.
1.Llokaluri qselebi
s
(LAN)
gansazRvra
meTodebisa da saSualebebis erToblioba
s
, romlebic gamoiyeneba kompiuterebisa da maTTan dakavSir
ebuli mowyobilobebis gasaerTianeblad, warmoadgens kompiuterul qsels
. geografiuli ganawilebis TvalsazrisiT arsebobs lokaluri (LAN)
da globaluri (WAN)
qselebi. qselSi CarTul TiToeul manqanas gaaCnia Tavisi misamarTi da saxeli. lokaluri kompiuteruli
qseli ar
is satelefono
qselis unikaluri analogi.
termini “lokaluri qseli”
-
s
(LAN, Local Area Network) qveS igulisxmeba mcire anu lokaluri zomis qseli, romlic aerTianebs axlo manZilze myof kompiuterebs. Tumca es gansazRvreba ar marTldeba Tanamedrove lokaluri qseleb
is SemTxvevaSi, radganac zogierTi lokaluri qselebi aerTianeben ramodenime aTeul kompiuters. Mmokled, rogorc wesi, lokaluri qseli aerTianebs kompiuterebis ricxvs dawyebul
i oridan ramodenime aTeulamde. magram Tanamedrove lok
a
luri qselebis SesaZleblobebi gaci
lebiT metia: abonentebis ricxvi xSir SemTxvevaSi aRwevs aTass. lokaluri qselebi gamoirCeva konfiguraciis ubraloebiT
a
da monacemTa gadacemis didi siCqariT. funqcionirebs SemosazRvrul teritoriaze. metwilad lokalur qselebs gamoiyeneben cifruli informaciis gadacemisas, Tumca zogierTi meTodi gavrcelebulia sityvieri, teqsturi da videoinformaciis gada
sacemad
.
lokaluri qselebis gamoyeneba daiwyes 70
-
iani wlebidan. Mmisi maxasiaTeblebia: ·
qselis sigrZe; ·
gamoyenebuli mowyobilobebi; ·
informaciis monacemTa siCqare;
·
qselis topologia; ·
fizikuri garemo, romelic gamoiyeneba informaciis gadacemisaTvis;
·
ga
moyenebuli oqmebi (protokolebi)
;
lokaluri qselis sigrZe SeiZleba iyos ram
o
denime metridan ramdenime (daaxloebiT 10 an meti) kilometramde. monacemTa gadacemis siCqare S
eiZleba iyos ram
o
denime milioni biti wamSi. 2
Ggadacemis garemod SeiZl
eba gamoyeneul iqna
s rogorc koaqsialuri kabeli, aseve araekranirebuli xveuli wyvili (
UTP
), ekra
nirebuli
xveuli wyvili (
S
TP
),
optikur
-
boWkovani
kabeli
(
Fiber
-
O
ptic C
able
)
, eleqtromagnituri talRa. MmaSasadame, lokaluri qselis ZiriTadi ganmasxvavebeli niSani nebismieri sxva saxis qselebisagan –
es qselSi informaciis gadacemis maRali siCqarea. G
garda amisa, principialurad aucilebelia gadacemis Secdomebis simcire, romelic SeiZleba gamowveuli i
yos rogorc Sida, aseve gare faqtorebiT. radganac informaciis swraf gadacemas azri ara aq
vs
Tu is damaxinjebulia,
radgan
saWiro iqneba misi xelaxali gadacema. amitomac lokaluri qselebi iyeneben maRali xarisxis kavSiris arxebs, romlebic gamoirCevian dabrkole
bebisadmi maRali mdgradobiT. Aaseve lokaluri qselis mniSvnelovani maxasiaTebelia
didi datvirTviT muSaoba, anu gacvlis maRali intensivoba (
anu rogorc amboben didi trafiki
). Tu qselSi gamoyenebuli informaciis gacvlis marTvis meqanizmi naklebad efeqturia, m
aSin kompiuterebs mouw
e
vT xangrZlivad cda Tavisi rigisa informacis gadacemaze. Mradgan, miuxedavad imisa, rom informacia gadaicema Zalian maRali siCqariT da Secdomebis gareSe, momxmareblisTvis qselis aseTi dayovneba miuRebelia. Mmas ar ainteresebs am dayov
nebis gamowvevi mizezi.
Ginformaciis gacvlis marTvis meqanizmis warmatebuli muSaoba garantirebulia mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, roca winaswar gansazRvrulia Tu ramdeni kompiuteri (anu, rogorc amboben, abonenti, kvanZi) unda iyos mierTebuli qselTan. Ddabolos, qse
li SeiZleba vuwodoT monacemTa gadacemis iseT sistemas, romelic uzrunvelyofs ramodenime aTeuli kompiuteris
gaerTianebas da aramc da aramc orisa, rogorc standartuli portebis kavSiris SemTxvevaSi.
Aamrigad, lokaluri qselis ganmasxvavebeli niSnebia:
·
informacii
s gadacemis maRali siC
qare, maRali gamtarunarianoba. misaRebi siCqare –
araunakless 10 mb/wm.
·
monacemTa gadacemis Secdomebis mcire raodenoba (anu, rac igivea maRali xarisxis kavSiris arxebi). ·
monacemTa gadacemis Secdomebis dasaSvebi albaToba unda Seadgend
es 10
-
8
–
10
-
12
.
·
efeqturi, maRali siswrafis gacvlis marTvis meqanizmi qselSi.
3
·
qselSi SesaerTbeeli kompiuterebis winaswar gansazRvruli ricxvi.
Aam gansazRvrebidan gamomdinare, naTlad Cans globaluri qselebis gansxvaveba lokalurisagan, romlebic, upirveles yo
vlisa moicaven abonentebis ganusazRvrel ricxvs. Ggarda amisa, isini ar iyeneben marali xarisxis kavSiris arxebs da gadacemis siC
qarec sakmaod dabalia. xolo swrafi gacvlis marTvis meqanizmis garantia SeuZlebelia. Gglobalur qselebSi mniSvnelovani yuradReba e
Tmoba ara kavSiris xarisxs, aramed mis arsebobas.
Aaranaklebi yuradReba eTmoba kompiuteruli qselebis kidev erT klass –
saqalaqo anu regionalur qselebs
(
MAN, Metropolitan Area Network), romlebic TavianTi maxasiaTeblebis mixedviT uaxlovdebian globalur qsel
eb
s, Tumca xandaxan muSaobis pri
ncipiT ki lokalaur qselebs. mag. kavSiris maRalxarisxiani arxebi da gadacemis
maRali siCqare. PprincipSi saqalaqo
qseli SeiZleba warmoadgendes lokalur qsels.
Llokalur qselSi SeiZleba gad
a
ices sxvadasxva tipis cifruli informaci
a: monacemebi, gamosaxulebebi, satelefono saubrebi, eleqtronuli werilebi da sxva. TumcaRa gamosaxulebebis gadacemis amocana, gansakuTrebiT feradi dinamiuri gamosaxulebebisa, moiTxovs qselis swrafqmedebas. Zalian xSirad lokaluri qselebi gamoiyeneba iseTi r
esursebis gasanawileblad (erTdroulad gamosayeneblad), rogoricaa diskuri sivrce, printerebi da gasvla globalur qselSi, magram es mxolod umniSvnelo nawilia im SesaZleblobebisa, romlebsac warmoadgenen lokaluri qselebis saSualebebi. mag. isini iZlevian monacem
Ta gacvlis saSualebas sxvadasxva tipis kompiuterebs Soris. Qqselis srulfasovani abonentebi (kvanZebi) SeiZleba iyos sxva mowyobilobebic, rogoricaa: printerebi, ploterebi da skanerebi. lokaluri qselebi agreTve saSualebas iZlevian organizebul iqnas paralelur
i gamoTvlebis sistema yvela kompiuterze erTdroulad, rac ufro aCqarebs rTuli matematikuri amocanebis amoxsnas. maTi meSveobiT SeiZleba teqnologiuri sistemis an gamosakvlevi mowyobilobis muSaobis marTva ramodenime kompiuteridan erTdroulad.
Mmagram qselebs ga
aCniaT agreTve arsebiTi naklovanebebi, romlebic aucileblad unda aRiniSnos
:
·
qseli moiTxovs damatebiT
, xandaxan sakmaod mniSvnelovan
materialur danaxarjebs qselur mowyobilobebze, programul uzrunveyofaze, kabelebis gayvanaze, personalis momzadebaze.
4
·
qseli moi
Txovs qselis kvalificiur administrators
, romelic gaakontrolebs qselis muSaobas, Seasrulebs mis modernizacias, marTavs resursebisadmi wvdomas, aRmofxvris gaumarTaobebs, uzrunvelyofs informaciis dacvas da rezervul kopirebas. Ddidi qselebisaTvis ki saWir
o iqn
eba administratorebis mT
eli brigada. ·
Q
lokaluri qseli zRudavs qselSi CarTuli kompiuteris gadaadgilebas, radganc am dros saWiro iqneba SemaerTebeli kabelebis gadawyoba.
·
Q
lokaluri qseli warmoadgens umSvenieres garemos kompiuteruli virusebis gasavrceleblad, a
mitomac maTgan dacvis sakiTxebs saWiroa didi yuradRema daeTmos. radgan am SemTxvevaSi sakmarisia erTi kompiuteris inficireba, rom dainficirdes yvela sxva kompiuterebic.
·
Q
lokaluri qseli zrdis informaciis arasanqcinirebuli wvdomis saSiSroebas, misi moparvis an ganadgurebis mizniT. informaciis dacva moiTxovs teqnikuri da organizaciuli RonisZiebebis mtel rig kompleqss.
Qqselis mniSvnelovani cnebebia: ·
abonenti
·
serveri
·
klienti
Aabonenti (kvanZi, hosti, sadguri) –
es mowyobilobaa, romlic CarTulia qselSi da aqti
urad monawileobs informaciis gacvlaSi. xSir SemTxveveb
Si abonenti (kvanZi) SeiZleba iy
os kompiuteri, agreTve qseluri printeri da sxva periferiuli mowyobilobebi, romlebic pirdapir arian SeerTebuli qselTan. serveri
ewodeba qselis abonents (kvanZs), romelic Tavis resursebs sTavazobs sxva abonents, xolo TviTon ki ar iyenebs maT resursebs. maSasadame is emsaxureba qsels. serveri qselSi SeiZleba iyos ramodenime
.
ar aris aucilebeli s
e
rveri iyos yvelaze mZlavri kompiuteri. gamoyofili (dedicated) serveri –
es servr
ia, romelic dakavebulia mxolod qseluri amocanebiT. xolo Tu serveri gamoyofili ar aris mas SeuZlia Seasrulos sxva amocanebic. serveris sfecifiuri tipia qseluri printeri.
K
klienti
ewodeba qselis abonents, romelic iyenebs qselis resursebs, xolo Tavisas ar sTa
vazobs, anu qseli emsaxureba mas, is ki iyenebs mas. kompiuteri
-
klienti ase uwodeben muSa sadgurs. principSi yoveli kompiuteri SeiZleba iyos, rogorc klienti, aseve serveri.
5
serveris da klientis qveS igulismeba ara TviT kompiuterebi, aramed maTze momuSave p
rogramuli danarTebi. DdanarTi, romelic gascems Tavis resursebs qselSi, warmoadgens servers, xolo romelic mxolod iyenebs am resursebs –
klients. 1.2. lok
aluri qselis topologia
Llokaluri qselis topologiis (agebis, konfiguraciis, struqturis) qveS igulisxm
eba kompiuterebis fizikuri ganlageba urTierT Soris da maTi SeerTebis meTodi kavSiris xazebiT. cneba topologia miekuTvneba, upirveles yovlisa, lokalur qselebs, sadac kavSirebis struqturis gansazRvra sirTules ar warmoadgens. globalur qselbSi ki kavSirebis st
ruqtura da
farulia momxmareblebisgan da ar
aris mniSvnelovani, radganac yoveli kavSiris seansi iwarmoeba sakuTari gziT.
topologia gansazRvravs moTxovnilebebs aparaturi
sadmi, gamoyenebuli kabelis tipisadmi
, gacvlis marTvis meTodeb
i
s
admi, muSaobis saimedoobis
a da qselis gafarToebis SesaZleblobeb
i
s
admi
. arsebobs qselis Semdegi
topologi
ebi
: ·
saltis
·
varskvlavis
·
wris
·
xisebri
·
badisebri
saltis (bus) topologiis SemTxvevaSi
kompiuterebi paraleluradaa mierTebuli erT
aderT
kavSiris arxTan.
informacia TiToeuli maTgan
idan erTdroulad gadaecema sxva danarCenebs. N
nax.1.
2.
1. saltis topologia
6
varskvlavis
(star)
topologia
–
centralur kompiuters uerTdeba yvela danarC
eni periferiuli kompiuterebi, amasTanave TiToeuli maTgani iyenebs calkeul kavSiris xazs. informacia p
eriferiuli kompiuteridan gadaecema mxolod ce
ntralurs, xolo centraluridan erTs
an ramodenime periferiuls. N
nax.1.2.
2.
varskvlavis topologia
wris (ring) –
kompiuterebi TanamimdevrobiT erTdebian wreSi. MmonacemTa gadacema wreSi xdeba mxolod erTi mimarT
ulebiT. y
oveli kompiuteri informacias gadascems mxolod erT kompiuters
anu
mis Semdgoms
,
xolo Rebulobs informacias win mdgomisagan. 7
N
nax.1.
2.
3. wris topologia
QSeiZleba gamovyoT Semdegi mniSvnelovani faqtorebi, romlebic zemoqmedeben qselis fizikur muS
aobisunarianobaze da uSualod arian damokidebuli topologiis cnebasTan:
·
KqselSi CarTuli kompiuterebis (abonentebis) gamarTuloba. zogierT SemTxvevebSi abonentis gatexvas SeuZlia mTeli qselis blokireba gamoiwvios. zogjer ki abonentis gaumarTaoba ar moqmedebs q
selis muSaobaze mTlianad, xels ar uSlis danarCen abonentebs gacvalon informacia.
·
QqselSi CarTuli qseluri mowyobilobebis anu teqnikuri saSualebebis (adapterebis, transiverebis, koncentratorebis da a.S.) gamarTuloba. QerT
-
erTi abonentis qseluri mowyobilobis mwyobridan gamosvlam SeiZleba imoqmedos mTel qselze an SeiZleba dairRves gacvlis procedura mxolod erT abonentTan.
·
Qqselis kabelis gamarTuloba. Qqselis kabelis dazianebisas (mag. meqanikuri zemoqmedebebis Sedegad) SeiZleba dairRves informaciis gacvlis proce
si mTel qselSi an romelime nawilSi. eleqtruli kabalebisTvis ki kritikulia mokle CarTva TviT kabelSi.
·
KSezRuduli kabelis sigrZe, dakavSirebuli masSi gavrcelebuli signalis mileviT. r
ogorc cnobilia, nebismier garemoSi gavrceleb
isas signali sustdeba (miileva)
da rac met manZils gadis
signali miT ufro metad miileva (nax. 1.4.). amisaTvis aucilebelia kabelis sigrZe ar unda aRematebodes mis zRvrul sidides
, romlis gazrdisas signalis milevis sidide miuRebelia (
radganac am SemTxvevaSi mimRebi abonenti ver aRiqvams da
sustebul signals).
8
1.
2.
4. signalis mileva qselSi gavrcelebisas
1.2
.
1.
saltis topologia
s
altis topologia (bus topology) gvTavazobs kompiuterebis qseluri aparaturis identurobas, agreTve abonentebis Tana
sworobas qselSi wvdomisas. salti
s topologiis Sem
TxvevaSi kompiuterebi informacias gadascemen erTmaneTis monacvleobiT, radganac kavSiris xazi am SemTxvevaSia erTaderTia. Tu ramodenime kompiuteri gadascems informacia
s
erTdroulad, is ganicdis damaxinjebas gadafarvis Sedegad (konfliqts, kolizias). saltis to
pologiis SemTxvevaSi informacia gadaecema naxevraddupleqsur (half duplex) reJimSi (
anu orive mimarTulebiT, magram TanmimdevrobiT da ara erTdroulad).
saltis topologiaSi ar arsebobs mkveTrad gamoyofili centraluri abonenti, romlis meSveobiT gadaecema mTeli in
formacia, rac zrdis mis saimedoobas. (radg
anac centris mty
unebis SemTxvevaSi funqcionirebas wyvets mTeli sistema). saltis topologiis SemTxvevaSi axali abonentebis damateba sakmaod martiv
ia, rac qselis muSaobis drosac S
eiZleba. Uumetes semTxvevaSi saltis to
pologia iyenebs kabelebis nakleb ricxvs, vidre sxva topologiebi.
ramdenadac centraluri abonenti ar arsebobs
,
SesaZlo konfliqtebis aRmofxvra uwevs yoveli abonentis qselur mowyobilobas. Aaqedan gamomdinare, saltis topologiis SemTxvevaSi gamoiyeneb
a ufro rTul
i qseluri mowyobilobebi
. Mmagram am topologiis farTod gamoyenebis gamo (upirveles yovlisa popularuli qselis Ethernet
-
is mier) qseluri aparaturis Rirebuleba sakmaod gaiafda
.
9
mTavari upiratesoba saltis topologiisa mdgomareobs imaSi, rom qselis nebismieri ko
mpiuteris mtyunebis dros mwyobrSi myof danarCen manqanebs Seu
Z
liaT gaagrZelon informaci
is gacvla.
erTi SexedviT Cans, rom kabelis gawyvetisas vRebulo
bT or muSa saltes (nax.1.2.1.1
.). Tumca unda aRiniSnos, rom eleqtruli signalebis gavrcelebis Taviseburebebi
s gamo grZel kavSiris xazebSi aucilebelia saltis boloebze specialuri SeTanxmebadi mowyobilobebis mierTeba, rogorc naCvenebia nax.
1.2.1.1
.
–
ze marTku
Txedis saxiT. t
erminatorebis mierTebis gareSe signali airekleba xazis bolos da ganicdis iseT damaxinjebas, r
om
lis drosac
qselTan kavSiri SeuZlebeblia. K
k
abelis gawyvetisa Tu daziane
bis SemTxvevaSi irRveva kavSiri
s
arxis Tanxmobadoba da informaciis gacvla wydeba im kompiuterebs Soris, romlebic gamarTulad muSaoben da CarTulni darCnen qselSi. Nnax. 1.2
.1
.
1.
qselis kabelis gawyveta saltis topologiis
SemTxvevaSi Qnebismieri abonentis qseluri aparaturis mwyobridan gamosvlam saltis topologiis SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba mwyobridan gamoiyvanos m
Teli qseli. amasTanave aseTi mty
unebis lokalizeba Zalian rTulia, r
adganac yvela abonenti CarTulia paralelurad da imis gageba Tu romeli gamovida mwyobridan SeuZlebeblia.
s
altis to
pologiis SemTxvevaSi sainformac
io signalebi qselSi gavlisas sustdeba da maTi aRdgena SeuZlebelia, rac zRudavs kavSiris xazis sigrZes. romlis dro
sac yoveli abonenti iRebs sxvadasxva donis signalebs imaze damokidebule
biT T
u ra manZilze imyofeba gadamcemi abonentidan. ris gamoc qselis aparaturis mimReb kvanZebs waeyeneba damatebiTi moTxovnebi.
10
Tu miviRebT, rom kabelSi signali sustdeba misaReb zRvrul
donemde L
zR
, maSin saltes mTliani sigrZe ar unda aRematebodes L
zR
sidides. A
a
m TvalsazrisiT salte uzrunvelyofs nakleb sigrZes vidre sxva sabazo topologiebi.
Qqselis sigrZis gasazrdelad saltis topologiis SemTxvevaSi xSirad gamoiyeneba ramodenime segmenti (
qselis nawilebi, yoveli maTgani romelTagan warmoadgens saltes), romlebic SeerTebulni arian erTmaneTTan signalebis specialuri gamaZliereblebisa da aRmdgenebis –
repiterebisa anu gammeoreblebis saSualebiT. nax.
1.2.1
.
.2
.
-
ze mocemulia ori segmentis SeerTeba, am SemTxvevaSi zRvruli sigrZe izrdeba 2
L
zR
-
mde. r
adganac yoveli segmenti S
eiZleba iyos L
zR
sigrZis
. M
m
agram qselis sigrZis aseTi gazrda usasrulod SeuZlebelia. SezRudvebi sigrZeze dakavSirebulia signalebis gavrcelebis siCqaresTan. Nnax. 1.2.1
.
.2
segmen
tebis SeerTeba repiteris meSveobiT saltis qselis SemTxvevaSi
1.2
.
2.
varskvlavis topologia
11
varskvlavi –
erTaderT
i topologiaa naTlad gamoyofili centriT, romelsac uer
Tdeba sxva danarCeni abonent
eb
i. i
nformaciis gacvla mimdinareobs mxolod centraluri kompi
uteris meSveobiT, romelzec modis didi datvirTva, amitom is muSaobs mxolod qsel
ze
. c
entraluri
kompiuteris qseluri aparatura S
esabamisad ufro
rTulia vidre periferiulebisa. a
m SemTxvevaSi centraluri kompiuteri yvelaze mZlavria, radganac mas eniWeba gacvlis ma
rTvis yvela funqcia. qselSi SeuZlebelia ra
i
me konfliqti, radganac marTva mTlianad centralizebulia.
Aam topologiis mdgradobaze Tu vimsjelebT, periferiuli kompiuterebis an maTi qseluri mowyobilobebis mwyobridan gamosvla a
ranairad ar reagirebs qselis muS
aobaz
e, magram centraluri kompiuteris mwyobridan gamosvla wyvets qselis funqcionirebas. amasTan dakavSirebiT saWiroa Sesabamisi zomebis miReba centraluri kompiuteris da m
isi qseluri mowyobilobis saimed
obis asamaRleblad. Qkabelis gawyveta an misi mokle CarTva v
arskvlavis topologiis SemTxvevaSi arRvevs gacvlis process mxolod erT kompiuterTan, xolo dan
arC
enebi Cveulebriv agrZeleben muSaobas.
s
altisagan gansxvavebiT varskvlavis topologiaSi kavSiris xazSi mdebareobs mxolod ori abonenti: centraluri da periferiuli. Uu
fro xSir SemTxvevebSi maT SesaerTeblad gamoiyeneba ori kavSiris xazi, yoveli romelTagan gadascems informacia
s
mxolod erTi mimarTulebiT, anu yovel
i
kavSiris xazs aqvs erTi mimR
ebi da erTi gadamcemi. Ggadacemis am saxeobas ewodeba we
rtili
-
wertili
. Yyovelive
es amartivebs qselur aparaturas saltis topologiasTan SedarebiT da ar aris saWiro damatebiT gare terminatorebis mierTeba.
kavSiris arxS
i signalis milevis problemac varskvlavis topologiis SemTxvevaSic advilad gvardeba, vidre saltis topologiis SemTxvevaSi, r
adganc yoveli mimRebi Rebulobs erTi da igive donis signals. Qqselis zRvruli sigrZe am SemTxvevaSi
orjer metia (anu
2
L
zR
-
is toli
a
), radganac yoveli kabelis sigrZe, SemaerTebeli periferiuli mowyobilobisa centralurTan tolia L
zR
-
is.
varskvlavis topologiis ser
iozuli naklovanebaa abonentebis mkacrad gansazRvruli raodenoba. Cveulebriv centraluri abonenti emsaxureba 8
-
16 periferiul abonents. Aam sazRvrebSi axali abonentebis CarTva qselSi Zalian martivia, magram am farglebs gareT ukve SeuZlebelia. v
arskvlavis topol
ogiaSi dasaSvebia erTi periferiuli mowyobilobis nacvlad 12
centralu
ris SeerTeba (ris Sedegadac miiR
eba ramodenime varskvlavis erTmaneTTan SeerTebuli topologia).
N
nax.1.2.2
-
ze gamosaxuls ewodeba aqt
iuri anu WeSmariti varskvlavi. a
rsebobs agreTve topologia e.w.
pasiuri varskvlavis, romelic mxolod garegnulad gavs varskvlavs (
nax.
1.2.2.1.)
,
romelic amJam
a
d ufro gavrcelebulia vidre aq
tiuri varskvlavi. i
s gamoiyeneba sakmaod popularul qselSi rogoricaa Ethernet.
Nnax. 1.
2
.2
.
1.
pasiuri varskvlavis topologia da mi
si eqvivalenturi sqema
Mmocemuli topologiis SemTxvevaSi centrSi moTavsebulia ara kompiuteri, aramed specialuri mowyobiloba –
habi
(hub),
romelic asruleb
s
igive funqcias rasac repiteri, anu aRadgens mosul signalebs da agzavnis sxva kavSiris arxebSi.
SeiZl
eba gamoiyos Sualeduri topologia aqtiur da pasiur varskvlavs Soris. Aam SemTxvevaSi koncentratori gardaqmnis S
emomaval
signalebs da marT
avs gacvlis process, magram TviT
on am procesSi ar monawileobs. varskvlavis didi damsaxurebaa (rogorc aqtiuris
,
aseve pa
siuris) yvela SeerTebis wertili Tavmoyrilia erT adgilas. rac aadvilebs qselis muSaobis kontrols, gaumarTaobebis aRmofxvras ama Tu im abonentis kavSiris gawyvetiT centrTan (rac SeuZlebelia saltis 13
topologiis SemTxvevaSi), agreTve gaaCnia imis saSualeba
, rom
SezRudos ucxo piri
s SemoRweva qselis resursebSi. periferiu
l abonentTan SeiZleba mierTebul
iyos an erTi (romlis meSveobiTac informacia gadaecema orive mimarTulebiT) an ori kabeli (TiToeuli kabeli gadascems erTi mimarTulebi
T ori Semxvedri mimarTulebidan).
uk
anasknelma ufro farTo gamoyeneba hpova.
varskvlavis yvela topologiis (rogorc aqtiuris aseve pasiuris) saerTo naklovanebaa ufro didi raodenobis kabelis gamoye
neba, vidre sxva topologiebSi. r
ac arsebiTad aisaxeba qselis Rirebulebaze da mniSvnelovnad arTulebs
kabelis gayvanas.
1.2
.
3.
wris topologia wre –
es topologiaa, romelSic yoveli kompiuteri uerTdeba danarCen ors kavSiris xazebiT: erTisgan iRebs inf
ormacias, meores ki gadascems. yoveli kavSiris xazSi erTi mimRebia da erTi gadamcemi (kavSiri wertili
-
wertili). Eam SemTxvevaSi ar aris saWiro gare terminatorebis gamoyeneba.
wris mniSvnelovani Tavisebureba mdgomareobs imaSi, rom yoveli kompiuteri axdens masTan Semomavali signalis retranslirebas (aRdgenas, gaZlierebas) anu gamodis repiteris rolSi. signali
s mileva ar aris mniSvnelovani mTel wreSi, aramed mxolod wris mezobel kompiuterebs Soris. Tu kabelis zRvruli sigrZe, roca
milevis sidide gansazRvrulia
, L
zR
–
is tolia, maSin wris jamuri sigrZe Seadgens NL
zR
–
s, sadac
N
–
kompiuterebis ricxvia wreSi. qselis
mTliani sigrZe ki Seadgens
NL
zR
/2, radganac wre ormagdeba. praqtikaSi wriuli qselebis sigrZe aRwevs aTeulobiT kilometrs (mag. FDDI
qselSi). Aam TvalsazrisiT wris topologia arsebiTad aremateba sxva topologiebs.
mkveTrad gamoyofili abonenti wris topologiaS
i ar aris, yvela k
ompiuteri Tanabari uflebebiT
sargeblobs. U
Tu
mca Zalian xSirad wreSi gamoiyofa specialuri abonenti, romelic marTavs gacvlis process da akontrolebs. aseTi abonentis arseboba ki amcirebs qselis saimedoobas, radganac misi mwyobridan gamosvla iwvevs mTeli gacvlis procesis paralizebas. 14
Mmkacrad rom vTqvaT
,
wreSi kompiuterebi ar arian sruliad Tanabaruflebianebi (saltis topologiisagan gansxvavebiT). radganac erTerTi kompiuterebidan informacias iRebs kompiuterisgan, romelic gadascems informacias m
ocemul momentSi, ufro adre, xolo sxvebi ufro gvian. Aam Taviseburebis gamo SemuSavd
a gacvlis marTvis meTodebi, romlebic specialurad arian gaTvlilni wris topologiisTvis. Aam meTodebis mixedviT informaciis gadacemis ufleba eZleva rigiT
Semdgom kompiuters. a
xali abonentis CarTva xdeba Zalian martivad, mag
ram am SemTxvevaSi saWiro
a qselis muSaobis Sewyveta SeerT
ebis momentSi. i
se
ve
, rogorc saltis SemTxvevaSi abonentebis ricxvi am SemTxvevaSic SeiZleba iyos sakmaod didi (aTasi da meti).
w
ris topologia gamoirCev
a maRali mdgradobiT gadatvirTvebisadmi, uzrunvelyofs gam
arTul muSaobas informaciis did nakadebTan, radganac saltisgan gansxvavebiT masSi ar
aris konfliqtebi da ar arsebobs centraluri abonenti (varskvlavis
topologiisgan
gansxvavebiT), romlesac SeiZleba gadi
tvirTos didi nakadi
s
S
emTxvevaSi.
Onax.1.2.3
.
1
ori wrisgan Semdgari qseli
wreSi
signali
mimdevrobiT gaivlis qselis yvela kompiuters da amitom erTerTi maTganis (an misi qseluri ap
araturis) mwyobridan gamosvlis S
emTxvevaSi irRveva qselis muSaoba mT
lianobaSi. Ees wriuli topologiis arsebiTi naklovanebaa.
Aaseve kabelis gawyveta an misi mokle CarTva aferxebs qselis muSaobas. Aam ganxililuli sami topologiidan wris topologia yvelaze metad reagirebs kabelis dazianebaze da amitomac masSi gahyavT paraleluri
kavSiris xazebi, romelTagan erTerTi sarezervoa.
15
iSviaT SemTxvevebSi wris topologia igeba or paralelur wriul kavSiris arxebze, romlebic gadascemen informacias sawinaaRmdego mimarTulebiT (
nax.1.2.3.1)
aseTi gadawyvetilebis mizania qselSi informaciis gadace
mis siCq
aris gazrda (
idealSi –
orjer). erTi kabelis dazianebis SemTxvevaSi qsels SeuZlia muSaoba gaarZelos meore kabeliT (Tumca am SemTxvevaSi zRvruli siCqare mcirdeba). 1.2.4.xisebri topologia
xisebri qseluri topologia
(tree)
SeiZleba ganvixiloT
,
rog
orc ramodenime varskvlavis kombinacia.
r
ogorc varskvlavis SemTxvevaSi xe SeiZleba iyos, rogorc aqtiuri anu WeSmariti (nax.
1.2.4.1)
da pasiuri (nax.
1.2.4.2
).
aqtiuri xis SemTxvevaSi ramodenime kavSiris arxis SeerTebis centrebSi ganlagebulia centraluri komp
iuterebi, xolo pasiuris SemTxvevaSi ki habebi (
Hub
).
Nnax. 1.2.4.1 aqtiuri xis
topologia
16
Nnax. 1.2.4.2 pasiuri xis topologia. H –
habi
1.2.5. badisebri topologiaUUU
badisebri
topologia (mesh
topology
)
, romlis drosac kompiuterebi erTmaneTs uerTde
ba ara erTi, aramed ramdenime kavSiris xaziT (
nax. 1.2.4.5
.
)
Nnax. 1.2.5.1
. baduri topologia: sruli (a) da nawilobrivi (b)
sruli baduri topologiis SemTxvevaSi yoveli kompiuteri pirdapir kavSirSia danarCenebTan. Aam SemTxveva
Si kompiuterebis ricxvis gaz
rdiT
izrdeba kavSiris xazebic. Ggarda 17
amisa, konfiguraciaSi nebismieri cvlileba moiTxovs cvlilebebis Setanas yvela
kompiuteris qselur aparaturaSi., amitomac srulma badurma topologiam ver hpova farTo gavrceleba.
Nnawilobrivi baduri topologiis SemTxvevaSi ki
pirdapiri kavSiri arsebobs mx
olod yvelaze aqtiur kompiuterebT
an, romlebic gadascemen informaciis maqsimalur moculobas. DdanarCeni kompiuterebi erTdebian Sualeduri kvanZebis meSveobiT. Bbaduri topologia saSualebas iZleva airCes marSruti informaciis gadasac
emad abonentidan abonentamde gaumarTavi ubnebis avliT. erTis mxriv, es zrdis qselis sai
medoobas, magram meores mxriv iwvevs
qseluri aparaturis sirtules
, romelic irCevs marSruts.
sakmaod xSirad gamoiyeneba
kombinirebuli topologiebi maT S
oris yvelaze gavrcel
ebulia varskvlavur
-
saltisebri (star
-
bus)
(
nax. 1.2.5.2
)
da varskvlavur
-
wriuli (star
-
ring)
(
nax. 1.2.5.3
)
.
Nnax. 1.2.5.2
topologia
“
varskvlav
i
-
salte”
18
Nnax. 1.2.5.3
varskvlavur
-
wriuli topologia
varskvlavur
-
wriuli (star
-
bus)
topologiaSi gamoiyeneba
saltisa da pasiuri varskvlavis topologiebis kombinacia. Ffaqtiurad iqmneba fizikuri
saltis topologia, romelSic CarTulia qselis yvela kompiuteri. Mmocemul topologiaSi gamoiyeneba agreTve habebi, romlebic mierTebulia erTmaneTTan da qmnian e.w. magistralur, sayrden saltes. Y
y
ovel habs
uerTdeba calkeuli kompiuterebi an salturi segmentebi. Sedeg
ad vRebulobT varskvlavur
-
saltur
xe
s
. A
a
mri
gad, momxmarebels SeuZlia Tavisu
flad moaxdinos saltis
da
varskvlav
is
topologiebis kombinireba, agreT
ve advlad Secvalos qselSi C
arTuli kompiuterebis ricxvi. informaciis gavrcelebis TvalsazrisiT mocemuli topologia klasikuri saltis topologiis tolfasia.
varskvlavur
-
wriuli (star
-
ring) topologiis SemTxvevaSi wreSi erTiandebian ara kompiuterebi, aramed specialuri habebi (
nax.
1.2.4.4
–
ze g
amosaxulia marTkuTxedebis saxiT), romlebsac Tavis mxriv uerTdeba kompiuterebi varskvlaviseburi ormagi kavSiris xazebis meSveobiT. sinamdvileSi kompiuterebi erTvebian daxu
rul wreSi, radganac habebSi kavS
iris xazebi qmnian daxurul wres (rogorc naCvenebia nax
.
1.2.4.4
ze). M
m
ocemuli topologia saSualebas iZleva kombinirebul iqnas varskvlav
is
da saltis
topologiebi. m
ag, habebi saSualeba iZleva erT adgilze moeqces qselis kabelebis CarTvis yvela wertili. informac
i
is
gavrcelebi
s mixedviT mocemuli topologia to
lfasia klasikuri wris
topologiis
.
19
1.2.6
. topologiis cnebis
mravalmniSvnelovneba
…… qselis topologia miuTiTebs a
ra mxolod kompiuterebis fizikur
ganlagebaze, aramed rac ufro mniSvnelovania
,
maT Soris kavSiris xasiaTze, informaciis, signalebis gadacemis Tav
iseburebebze. saxeldobr kavSiris xasiaTi gansazRvravs qselis mdgradunarianobis xarisxs, qseluri apar
aturis sirTules, gacvlis
ufro Sesafer
is
meTods, gadacemis s
aSulaebebis (kavSiris arxebis) SesaZlebebl tipebs, qselis dasaS
veb sigrZes da a.S.
qselis top
ologiis qveS igulisxmeba sruliad sxvadasxva cnebebi, romlebic exeba qseluri arqiteqturis sxvadasxva doneebs:
·
fizikuri topologia (kompiuterebis geografiuli gan
lagebisa da kabelebis sqema). am SemTxvevaSi pasiuri varskvlavi ar gansxvavdeba aqtiurisagan da am
itomac mas uwodeben ubralod va
r
skvlavs.
·
logikuri topologia (kavSirebis struqtura, signalebis gavrcelebis xasiTi qselSi). ·
g
acvlis marTvis topologia (q
s
elis mocvis principi da Tanmimdevroba calkeul kompiuterebs Soris).
·
sainformacio topologia (qselSi gadacem
uli sainformacio nakadebis mimarTuleba
Автор
v.aslanishvili
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