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network 2

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1
leqcia.2. gadamcemi garemo informaciis gadamcemi garemo ewodeba kavSiris xazs (an kavSiris arxs), romlis meSveobiTac komp
iuterebi awarmoeben informaciis gacvlas urTierT
Soris. Ukompiuteruli qs
e
lebis (gansakuTrebiT lokaluri qselebis) umetes SemTxvevaSi gamoiyeneba kabeluri kavSiris xazebi, Tumca arsebobs ukabelo qselebic, romlebic ufro farTod gamoiyenebian gansakuTrebiT portatul kompiuterebSi.
Llok
a
lur qselebSi informacia ufro metad mimdevrobiTi
kodis saSualebiT gadaecema, anu bitobiT. AaseTi gadacema nelia da Tan rTuli vidre paraleluri kodis SemTxvevaSi. Tumca gaTvaliswinebul
unda
iqna
s, rom ufro swrafi paraleluri gadacemis Sem
T
xvevaSi (erTdroulad ramodenime kabelis meSv
eobiT) izrdeba SemaerTebe
li kabe
lebis ricxvi, rom
e
lic tolia paraleluri kodis Tanrigebis raodenobisa (mag. 8
-
Tanrigiani kodis SemTxvevaSi 8
-
jer). A
a
bonentebs Soris mniSvnelovnad did manZilebze kabelis Rirebuleba utoldeba kompiuterisas da rig SemTxvevebS
i aRemateba
mas
. amasTanave e
rTi kabelis gayvana ufro advili
a
vidre 8
-
is, 16
-
is da 32
-
is. Aam SemTxvevSi advilia dazianeb
e
beis moZebna da kabelis remonti.
Ggarda amisa did manZilebze gadacema kabelis nebismieri tipis SemTxvevaSi moiTxovs gadamcem da mimReb
mxareebze specialur
aparatur
as, radganac aucilebelia mZlavri signalis f
ormireba gadamcem mxares da sus
ti signalis deteqtireba mimReb mxares. mimdevrobiTi gadacemis dros amisaTvis aucilebelia mx
olod erTi gadamcemi da erTi mimR
ebi. mxolod paraleluris SemTxvevaSi moTxovnili gadamcemisa da mimRebis ricxvi i
z
rdeba paraleluri kodis Tanrigianobis Sesabamisad. Amis gamo ufro xSirad gamoiyeneba mimdevrobiTi
gadacema. Ggarda amisa para
leluri gadacemisas Zalian mniSvnelovania, rom calkeuli ka
belebis sigrZeebi erTmaneTis to
l
i
unda iyos
. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi sxvadasxva sigrZis kabelebSi signalis gavlisas mimReb gamosasvlelze miviRebT droiT wanacvlebas, romelmac SeiZleba gamoiwvios qselis muSaobis Seferxeba an mwyobridan gamoiyvano
s. Mmag. 100 mb/wm gadacemis siC
qaris SemTxvevaSi da bi
tis xangrZlivobiT –
10 nwm droiTi wanacvleba ar unda aRematebodes 5
-
10nwm
-
s. wanacvlebi
s a
se
T
sididebs gvaZlevs kabelebi sigrZiT 1
-
2m. xolo 1000 metri sigrZis kabelis SemTxvevSi Seadgens 0.1
-
0,2%
-
s.
Uunda aRiniSnos, rom zogierT maRalsiCqarian lokalu
r qselebSi gamoiyeneba paralelur
i
gadacema 2
-
4 kabelSi. rac saSualebas iZleva gamoyenebul iqnas ufro iafi kabelebi ufro 2
dabali gamtarunaruanobiT. magram kab
e
lis dasaSvebi sigrZe ar
aRemateba asobiT metrs. Mam SemTxvevis magaliTs warmoadgens
Fast Ethernet q
selis 100BASE
-
T4 segmenti.
Kkabalebis sam
ZiriTadi jgufs ganasxvaveben:
·
eleqtruli (spilenZis) kabelebi mavTulebis xveuli wyvilis bazaze, romlebic iyofa ekranirebuli
(shielded twisted pair, STP) da araekranirebuli (unshielded twisted pair, UTP);
·
eleqtrul
i (spilenZis) koaqsialuri kabelebi
(coaxial cable);
·
optikurboWkovani kabelebi
(fiber optic).
TiToeul kabels
gaaCnia, rogorc upiratesobebi aseve naklovanebebi. Aase rom maTi arCevisas gasaTvaliswinebelia amosasxneli amocanis, aseve konkretuli qselis da gam
oyenebuli topologiis Taviseburebebi.
Kkabelebis Semdegi ZiriTadi parametrebi, romlebic principialurad mniSvnelovania lokaluri qselebisaTvis, warmoadgens:
·
kabelis gamtarunarianoba (kabelSi gamavali signalebis sixSiruli diapazoni) da signalis mileva kabelSi.
E
e
s ori parametric erTmaneTTan mWidrodaa dakavSirebuli, radganac signalis sixSiris zrdasTan erTad izrdeba milevac. Uunda SeirCes iseTi kabeli, romelsac mocemuli sixSiris SemT
xvevaSi misaRebi milevis sididiT
an unda SeirCes iseTi sixSire, romlis drosac mil
evis sidide iqneba misaRebi. Mmileva izomeba decibelebSi, romelic proporciulia kabelis sigrZis. ·
Dkabelis dabrkolebebisadmi mdgradoba da informaciis gadacemis dacva. Ees ori erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli faqtori uCvenebs Tu rogor urTierTqmedebs kabeli garemo
mcvel garemoSi, anu rogor reagirebs garegan dabrkolebebze
, da ramdenadaa SesaZlebeli ismi
nebodes kabelSi gamavali informacia.
·
kabelSi signalis gavrceleba da misi uku parametric –
signalis dayovneba kabelis sigrZis erT
metrze. Aam parametrs principialuri mn
iSvneloba aq
vs
qselis sigrZis S
erCevisas. signalis gavrcelebis siCqaris tipiuri sidideebia –
0.6
-
dan 0.80
-
mde vakuumSi sinaTlis gavrcelebis siCqarisa. Sesabamisad dayovnebis tipiuri sidideebia –
4
-
dan 5nwm/m.
3
·
eleqtruli kabelebisaTvis Zalian mniSvnelovania talRuri winaaRmdegobis sidide kabelSi. talRuri winaaRmdegoba mniSvnelovania gaTval
iswinebul iqnas kabelis boloebze
signalis arekvlis aRmosafxvrelad. talRuri winaaRmdegoba damokidebulia gamtarebis ganlagebasa da formaze, kabelis damzadebis teqnologiaze da d
ielektrikis masalaze. talRuri winaaRmdegobis tipiuri mniSvnelobebia –
50
-
dan 150 omi
-
mde.
amJamad gamoiyeneba kabelis Semdegi standartebi:
·
EIA/TIA 568 (Commercial Building Telecommunications Cabling Standard) –
amerikuli
;
·
ISO/IEC IS 11801 (Generic cabling for customer premises) –
saerTasoriso
;
·
CENELEC EN 50173 (Generic cabling systems) –
evropuli
.
e
s standartebi aRweren erTi da igive sakabelo sistemebs, magram gansxvavdebian terminologiiT da parametrebis normebiT. Mmocmul kursSi ganvixilavT EIA/TIA 568 standa
rt
s.
k
oaqsialuri kabelebi
lokaluri qselebSi
Tavdapirvelad koaqsialuri kabeli gamoiyeneboda. is, rogorc monacemTa gadacemis garemo upiratesad Ethernet da ARCnet qselebSi gamoiyeneba. Gganasxvaveben “wvril” da “msxvil” koaqsialur kabelebs.
“msxvili Ethernet”
, rogorc wesi, gamoiyeneba Semdegnairad. Mmisi Cadeba xdeba Senobis perimetris gaswvriv da mis boloebze yendeba 50
-
omiani terminatorebi. “msxvili” koaqsialuri kabelis dasaSvebi maqsimaluri sigrZe Seadgens 500 metrs. EerTi aseTi kabeliT SeiZleba ufro meti f
arTobis momsaxureba, vidre “wvrili” kabeliT, romlis dasaSvebi maqsimaluri sigrZe Seadgens 185 metrs. garkveuli TvalsazrisiT “msxvili” koaqsialuri kabeli –
es sivrceSi gavrcelebuli Ethernet
-
koncentratoria, magram mTlianad pasiuri da ar moiTxovs kvebas. "
msx
vili
Ethernet
" amoReulia xmarebidan da amJamad arsad ar gamoiyeneba. “wvrili Ethernet
” ufro farTodaa gavrcelebuli vidre "
msxvili
Ethernet ". gamoyenebis principi igivea, magram
moqnilobis gamo is pirdapir uerTdeba qselur platas. Kkabelis SesaerTeblad ga
moiyeneba BNC
(
bayonet
nut
connector
) koneqtorebi, romlebic uyendeba uSualod kabels da T
-
koneqtorebi, signalis misayvanad kabelidan plataze. BNC
-
is tipis koneqtorebi aris ori saxis: mosaWeri da dasaSleli.
4
Т
-
koneqtori
koneqtoris dasamontaJeblad gamoiyeneba an specialuri instrumenti mosaWerad, an sarCilavi xelsawyo.
kabelebi xveuli wyvilis bazazeN
A
xveuli wyvili (
UTP
/
STP, araekranirebuli/ekranirebuli xveuli wyvili) dgesdgeobiT gadamcemi garemos yvelaze ga
vrcelebuli saxeebia signalis gadasacemad lokalur qselebSi. UTP
/
STP kabelebi gam
oiyeneba Ethernet
, Token
Ring
da
ARCnet qselebSi. isini gansxvavdebian kategoriebis mixedviT (gamtarunarianobaze damokidebulebiT) da gamtarebis tipebiT (moqnilebi an erTwveriani
). me
-
5 kategoriis kabelS
i, rogorc wesi, aris 8 wveri, daxveuli wyvil
-
wyvilad (e.i. oTxi wyvili).
UTP kabeli
sturqurirebuli kabeluri sistema
, r
omelic
agebuli
a
me
-
5 kategoriis xveuli wyvilis bazaze Zalian mosaxerxebelia gamosayeneblad. misi idea mdgomareobs SemdegSi.
yovel samuSao adgilze yendeba araumcires ori (rekomendebulia sami) oTxwyviliani RJ
-
45
rozeti. yoveli maTgani me
-
5 kategoriis calkeul
i kabeliT uerTdeba an kross an patC
-
panels, 5
romlebic ganlagebulia saserveroebSi. am saserveroebSi Tavmoyrilia kabelebi yvela samuSao adgilidan, agreTve satelefono xazebi, gamoyofili xazebi globalur qselTan SesaerTeblad. amave saserveroebSi, bunebrivia, mon
taJdeba serverebi, agreTve saofise avtomaturi satelefono sadgurebi, signalizaciis sistemebi da sakomunikacio mowyobilobebi.
2 portiani rozeti patC
-
pan
eli, anu SeerTebebis paneli, warmoadgens RJ
-
45
tipis rozetebis jgufs. sakomunikacio karadebSi –
rekebSi (rack
)
montaJdeba
Semdegi mowyobilobebi: komutatorebi (
Switch
), serverebi, uwyveti kvebis blokebi (
UPS
-
uninterruptible power sup
ply
), marSrutizatorebi (
Router
). panelis meore mxares uerTdeba kabelebi.
patC
-
paneli
RJ
-
45
-
rvakontaqtiani koneqtoria, romelic gamoiyeneba ka
belebis SesaerTeblad Ethernet
-
is qselur platebTan.
6
me
-
5 kategoriis kabelze RJ
-
45
koneqtori montaJdeba specialuri mowyobilobis meSveobiT, romelsac ewodeba koneqtoris mosa
Weri instrumenti
romlis drosac daculia gamtarebis wverebis ferTa markireba. arsebobs ori yvelaze gavrcelebuli standarti am wverebis daswyvileblad:
T
568
A da
T
568
B
kontaqtis nomeri
ferebi T568B
-
is mixedviT
Straight
-
Through
ferebi T568A
-
is mixedviT
Cross
-
over
1
Te
Tri
-
narinjisferi
TeTri
-
mwvane
2
narinjisferi
mwvane
3
TeTri
-
mwvane
TeTri
-
narinjisferi
4
lurji
lurji
7
5
TeTri
-
lurji
TeTri
-
lurji
6
mwvane
narinjisferi
7
TeTri
-
yavisferi
TeTri
-
yavisferi
8
yavisferi
yavisferi
optikur
-
boWkovani kabeli optikur
-
boWkovan
i kabeli –
yvelaze maRalsiCqariani garemoa signalebis gadasacemad, rogorc lokalur qselebSi, aseve telefoniaSi. lokalur qselebSi isini gamoiyeneba ATM
da
FDDI protokolebTan samuSaod.
optikuri boWko, misi saxelwodebidan gamomdinare, signalebs gadascems sinaT
lis gamosxivebis impulsebis meSveobiT. sina
Tlis wyarod gamoiyeneba naxevargamtari lazerebi da agr
eTve sinaTlis diodebi. optikuri boWko iyofa erTmodian da mravalmodian kategoriebad. erTmodiani boWko Zalian Txelia, misi diametri Seadgens 10 mikrons. ris wya
lobiTac sinaTlis impulsi boWkoSi gavlisas Zalian iSviaTad airekleba mis Sida zedapirze, rac uzrunvelyofs mcire milevas. Sesabamisad erTmodiani boWko uzrunvelyofs ufro Sor manZilze gadacemas da ar saWiroebs damatebiT mowyobilobas. Teoriuli gamtarunarianoba erTmodiani boWkosi Sedgens 10gbit/wm. mravalmodiani boWko ufro didi diametrisaa –
50 an 62.5 mikronis toli. am tipis op
tikuri boWko ufro xSirad gamoiy
eneba kompiuterul qselebSi. ufro didi mileva am saxis boWkoSi aixsneba sinaTlis ufro maRali dispersiiT, r
is gamoc misi gamtarunarianoba ufro dabalia da Seadgens 2.5gbit/wm. optikuri kabelis SesaerTeblad aqtiur mowyobilobasTan gamoiyeneba specialuri koneqtorebi. yvelaze gavrcelebulia FC, MIC (FDDI), LC,
ST, MT
-
RJ da SC koneqtorebi. 8
optikur
-
p
oWkovani kabelis SemaerTeblebis montaJi Zalian sapasuximgeblo operaciaa, romelic moiTxovs gamocdilebasa da specialur codnas. saxlis pirobebSi es SeuZlebelia da am SemTxvevaSi jobia mza kabelis yidva Tavisi koneqtorebiT.
Автор
v.aslanishvili
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